ARAMCO CONST.SAFETY MANUEL

Document Sample
ARAMCO CONST.SAFETY MANUEL Powered By Docstoc
					SAUDI ARAMCO CONSTRUCTION SAFETY MANUAL
                                   PREFACE
                              Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
                                 February, 1993


The purpose of the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual (CSM) is to prevent
injury, loss of life, and damage to assets. This is the fourth revision of the CSM.
Since its 1974 introduction, the Construction Safety Manual has provided safety
criteria for all construction work performed by Saudi Aramco and its contractors.

Many of the requirements in this manual detail the need for Saudi Aramco services
or equipment. Where references indicate that certain equipment (fall protection,
safety shoes, etc.) should be provided or services rendered (bio-monitoring, etc.), the
intent is that contractors must provide equivalent equipment or services (as
approved by Saudi Aramco) from their own resources.

The construction industry functions in a dynamically changing work environment in
which updating of equipment and standards is a continuous process resulting from
changes in operating variables, regulatory requirements, and safety practices.
Although this manual has been updated to reflect the latest Saudi Aramco and
construction industry practices, as time goes on there may be a need to consider new
procedures, standards, or operating conditions. Such new developments, including
potential conflicts with existing provisions, should be referred to the Loss
Prevention Department for resolution. The Loss Prevention Department will issue
interim revisions or updates where appropriate.

Good loss prevention is an integral part of good project management. For our
projects and maintenance programs to proceed safely, all Saudi Aramco and
contractor personnel involved in construction activities, whether management or
line employees, need to understand and follow the provisions in this Manual. Only
with the active commitment of everyone can we ensure that Saudi Aramco
maintains the safest possible work environment.



                                                  A. G. AL-GHANIM,
                                                  Senior Vice President,
                                                  Engineering       and        Project
                                                  Management



                                                  __________________________________
February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Table of Contents   Page i
I. Administration ....................................................................................... 1
          1.0 SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION POLICY AND PROGRAM ........................ 2
                 1.1   Loss Prevention Policy Implementation ...................................................... 2
                       1.1.1   Compliance With Construction Requirements .................................. 2
                       1.1.2   Operating Standards and Instructions ................................................ 2
                       1.1.3   Personal Protection ........................................................................... 2
                       1.1.4   Inspection ......................................................................................... 2
                       1.1.5   Education and Training ..................................................................... 3
                       1.1.6   Motivation and Recognition .............................................................. 3
                       1.1.7   Job Placement ................................................................................... 3
                       1.1.8   Response to Accidental Occurrences ................................................ 3
                       1.1.9   Contractor Safety .............................................................................. 3
                       1.1.10 Off-The-Job Safety............................................................................ 3
                       1.1.11 Traffic Safety .................................................................................... 3
                       1.1.12 Accountability ................................................................................... 4
                       1.1.13 Compliance Reviews ......................................................................... 4
                 1.2   Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Requirements For Contractors ............... 4
                       1.2.1   Non-Compliance ............................................................................... 4
                       1.2.2   Assistance.......................................................................................... 4
                       1.2.3   Standards and Instructions ................................................................ 5
                 1.3   Contractor's Loss Prevention Program ....................................................... 5
                       1.3.1   Written Program................................................................................ 5
                       1.3.2   Hazard Identification Plan................................................................. 6
                       1.3.3   Safety Supervisor .............................................................................. 6
                       1.3.4   Safety Discussion .............................................................................. 6

          2.0 SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION DEPARTMENT SERVICES ...................... 7
                 2.1   Loss Prevention Program ............................................................................. 7
                 2.2   Program Management Services ................................................................... 8
                 2.3   Program Maintenance Services.................................................................... 9

          3.0 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, ANALYSIS AND REPORTING ............................... 10
                 3.1  Reports Required by Saudi Aramco ............................................................ 10
                 3.2  Accident Investigation ................................................................................... 11
                      3.2.1   Responsibilities for Investigation ...................................................... 11
                              3.2.1.1 Supervisor/Safety
                              Representative...............................11
                              3.2.1.2 Project Manager.....................11
                 3.3  Cases to be Investigated ................................................................................ 12
                 3.4  Accident Investigation Guidelines ................................................................ 12
                 3.5  Accident Analysis ........................................................................................ 12
                      3.5.1   Classification ..................................................................................... 12

          4.0 RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SAFETY ............................................................................... 16
                 4.1   Contractor Senior Management .................................................................. 16
                 4.2   Design Engineer ............................................................................................. 16
                 4.3   Contractor's Safety Officer .......................................................................... 16
                 4.4   Construction Manager/Superintendent ....................................................... 17
                 4.5   Site Safety Supervisor ................................................................................... 18
                 4.6   Equipment Manager/Supervisor .................................................................. 18
                 4.7   Engineer/Supervisor ...................................................................................... 18




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                              Page ii
                      4.8          Foreman ......................................................................................................... 18
                      4.9          Worker ........................................................................................................... 19

          5.0 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ........................................................................................ 20
                5.1  Action to be Taken ........................................................................................ 20
                5.2  Contact After Office Hours .......................................................................... 20
                5.3  Help in an Emergency ................................................................................... 20

          6.0 SAFETY TRAINING ......................................................................................................... 22
                 6.1   Safety Training for Supervisors ................................................................... 22
                 6.2   Safety Training for Workmen ...................................................................... 22
                       6.2.1   Integrated Practices ........................................................................... 22
                       6.2.2   Specialized Training ......................................................................... 22
                       6.2.3   Use of Persuasion .............................................................................. 23
                       6.2.4   Course Requirements ........................................................................ 23
                 6.3   Scope of Training .......................................................................................... 24
                       6.3.1   Safety Training Topics For Supervisors ............................................ 25
                       6.3.2   Induction Safety Topics For Workmen ............................................. 27

          7.0 SITE PLANNING AND HOUSEKEEPING .................................................................... 28
                 7.1   Initial Planning .............................................................................................. 28
                       7.1.1    Hazard Identification Plan................................................................. 28
                       7.1.2    Loss Prevention Program .................................................................. 29
                       7.1.3    Protection of Employees and Equipment .......................................... 29
                       7.1.4    Transportation ................................................................................... 29
                       7.1.5    Lifting Equipment ............................................................................. 29
                       7.1.6    Demolition ........................................................................................ 29
                       7.1.7    Excavations ....................................................................................... 29
                       7.1.8    Scaffolding ........................................................................................ 29
                 7.2   Site Layout ..................................................................................................... 30
                       7.2.1    Site Accommodation ......................................................................... 30
                       7.2.2    Adequate Access Roads .................................................................... 30
                       7.2.3    Project Sign ....................................................................................... 30
                       7.2.4    Safe Means of Access and Egress ..................................................... 31
                       7.2.5    Parking Facilities............................................................................... 31
                       7.2.6    Drainage ............................................................................................ 31
                       7.2.7    Vehicle / Heavy Equipment Paths On Site Vs Pedestrian
                                Paths .................................................................................................. 31
                       7.2.8    Sand .................................................................................................. 31
                       7.2.9    Fire Prevention .................................................................................. 31
                       7.2.10 Site Illumination ................................................................................ 31
                 7.3   Storage Areas ................................................................................................. 31
                 7.4   Welfare Facilities ........................................................................................... 32
                 7.5   Good Housekeeping ....................................................................................... 33
                 7.6   Construction Sites and Materials Storage Yards ....................................... 33

          8.0 FIRST AID .......................................................................................................................... 36
                 8.1     Provision of First Aid Facilities .................................................................... 36
                 8.2     First Aid Attendants ...................................................................................... 37
                 8.3     First Aid Facilities At Work Site .................................................................. 38
                 8.4     Labor And Workmen Law ........................................................................... 40

          9.0 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT .................................................................... 42
                 9.1  Head Protection ............................................................................................. 43




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                             Page iii
                      9.2         Eye and Face Protection ............................................................................... 43
                                  9.2.1   Eye Protection from Impact .............................................................. 44
                                  9.2.2   Eye Protection from Radiant Energies .............................................. 44
                                  9.2.3   Face Protection.................................................................................. 44
                      9.3         Hand Protection............................................................................................. 44
                      9.4         Foot Protection .............................................................................................. 44
                      9.5         Hearing Protection ........................................................................................ 45
                                  9.5.1   Ear Plugs ........................................................................................... 45
                                  9.5.2   Ear Muffs .......................................................................................... 45
                      9.6         Fall Restraining/Arresting Devices .............................................................. 45

          10.0 BREATHING APPARATUS ............................................................................................. 52
                  10.1 Selection of Equipment ................................................................................. 52
                       10.1.1 Requirements For Use ....................................................................... 53
                       10.1.2 Misuse ............................................................................................... 53
                       10.1.3 Hazardous Substances ....................................................................... 54
                       10.1.4 Contaminants..................................................................................... 54
                  10.2 Respiratory Protective Devices .................................................................... 54
                       10.2.1 Air Purifying Respirators .................................................................. 54
                                10.2.1.1 Gas Masks...........................54
                                10.2.1.2 Chemical Cartridge Respirators......55
                                10.2.1.3 Particulate Filter Respirators
                                (Dust Respirators)...........................55
                       10.2.2 Supplied Air Respirators ................................................................... 55
                                10.2.2.1 Air Line Respirators................55
                                10.2.2.2 Abrasive Blasting Respirators.......56
                                10.2.2.3 Air Supplied Suits..................56
                       10.2.3 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) ................................... 56
                  10.3 Training .......................................................................................................... 57
                  10.4 Safety Precautions ......................................................................................... 57
                       10.4.1 Air Compressors................................................................................ 57

          11.0 FIRE PREVENTION ......................................................................................................... 60
                  11.1  Before the Job Starts ..................................................................................... 60
                  11.2  Layout............................................................................................................. 61
                  11.3  Equipment Protection ................................................................................... 61
                  11.4  Control of Ignition Sources .......................................................................... 62
                  11.5  Flammable Liquids ........................................................................................ 62
                        11.5.1 Storage .............................................................................................. 62
                        11.5.2 Handling of Flammable Liquids ........................................................ 63
                        11.5.3 Ventilation......................................................................................... 63
                  11.6  Combustible Materials .................................................................................. 63
                  11.7  Housekeeping ................................................................................................. 63
                  11.8  Emergency Equipment .................................................................................. 63
                        11.8.1 Water-Type Fire Extinguisher ........................................................... 64
                        11.8.2 Carbon Dioxide Type Extinguisher ................................................... 64
                        11.8.3 Dry Chemical Type Extinguisher ...................................................... 64
                        11.8.4 Pressurized Water ............................................................................. 64
                  11.9  Reporting a Fire ............................................................................................ 65
                  11.10 End-of-Shift Checks ...................................................................................... 65

          12.0 RADIO COMMUNICATIONS ......................................................................................... 67
                  12.1 Equipment ...................................................................................................... 68
                       12.1.1 Remote Control Unit ......................................................................... 68




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                         Page iv
                      12.2        Safe Operation ............................................................................................... 68
                      12.3        Radio Phrases ................................................................................................ 68
                      12.4        Phonetic Alphabet ......................................................................................... 69
                      12.5        International Communications Union Agreement ...................................... 70
                                  12.5.1 Monitoring of Circuits....................................................................... 71
                                  12.5.2 Secrecy Act ....................................................................................... 71
                                  12.5.3 Penalties ............................................................................................ 71
                      12.6        Message Priorities for Company Operations .............................................. 71
                      12.7        Distress Messages .......................................................................................... 73
                                  12.7.1 MAYDAY ......................................................................................... 73
                                  12.7.2 Urgency Signal .................................................................................. 74
                                  12.7.3 Priority Traffic .................................................................................. 75

          13.0 TRANSPORTATION ....................................................................................................... 76
                 13.1  Driver Requirements ..................................................................................... 76
                 13.2  Driver's Responsibilities ............................................................................... 76
                 13.3  Motor Vehicle Regulations: Saudi Arab Government and Saudi
                       Aramco ........................................................................................................... 78
                 13.4  Vehicle Condition .......................................................................................... 78
                 13.5  Driver Training ............................................................................................. 80
                 13.6  Enforcement of Safe Driving Practices ........................................................ 80
                 13.7  Action Taken After a Saudi Aramco Motor Vehicle Accident .................. 81
                       13.7.1 Emergencies ...................................................................................... 81
                       13.7.2 Remain at Scene ................................................................................ 81
                 13.8  Passenger Seating and Seat Belts ................................................................. 82
                 13.9  Desert Driving ................................................................................................ 82
                       13.9.1 Stay With Vehicle ............................................................................. 82
                       13.9.2 Sand Tires ......................................................................................... 82
                 13.10 Vehicle Admittance to Restricted Areas ...................................................... 83
                 13.11 Operation of Motor Vehicles Within Saudi Aramco Communities .......... 83
                       13.11.1 Seat Belts .......................................................................................... 83
                       13.11.2 Traffic Regulations............................................................................ 83

          14.0 AIRCRAFT OPERATION .............................................................................................. 84
                 14.1  General Operating Responsibilities ............................................................. 84
                       14.1.1 Captain/Pilot ..................................................................................... 84
                       14.1.2 Camp Supervisors ............................................................................. 84
                 14.2  Passenger Briefing/Instructions, General (All Aircraft Types) ................. 85
                 14.3  Transportation of Dangerous Goods ........................................................... 86
                 14.4  Hours of Operation for Single-Engine Helicopters .................................... 86
                 14.5  General Precautions for Helicopters............................................................ 86
                       14.5.1 Life Vests .......................................................................................... 86




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                         Page v
II. General And Civil ................................................................................ 87
          1.0 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM ............................................................................................... 88
                1.1   Definitions ...................................................................................................... 88
                      1.1.1    Restricted Areas ................................................................................ 88
                      1.1.2    Issuer (Operation Supervisors) .......................................................... 89
                      1.1.3    Receiver (Authorized Craftsmen)...................................................... 89
                      1.1.4    Work Permit ...................................................................................... 89
                1.2   Issuance and Approval .................................................................................. 89
                      1.2.1    Power Distribution Department Clearances ...................................... 90
                1.3   Precautions..................................................................................................... 90
                      1.3.1    Checklist............................................................................................ 90
                      1.3.2    Clear Area ......................................................................................... 90
                      1.3.3    Work Stoppage.................................................................................. 90
                1.4   Handling of Issued Work Permit ................................................................. 90
                1.5   Closing Out and Filing the Permit ............................................................... 91
                1.6   Certification ................................................................................................... 91
                1.7   12 Rules on Work Permit Procedure ........................................................... 91
                1.8   Hold Tags and Multiple Lockouts ................................................................ 91

          2.0 EXCAVATIONS, TRENCHING AND SHORING ......................................................... 96
                 2.1  Before Work Starts ....................................................................................... 99
                 2.2  Work Permit .................................................................................................. 99
                      2.2.1    Excavation near Saudi Telephone Cables ......................................... 99
                 2.3  Underground Obstructions........................................................................... 100
                 2.4  General Precautions ...................................................................................... 100
                      2.4.1    Shoring Protective Systems ............................................................... 100
                      2.4.2    Personnel Protection ......................................................................... 100
                      2.4.3    Inspection .......................................................................................... 101
                      2.4.4    Clearance........................................................................................... 101
                      2.4.5    Mechanical Excavator ....................................................................... 101
                      2.4.6    Walkways .......................................................................................... 101
                 2.5  Access and Egress .......................................................................................... 101
                 2.6  Hazardous Atmospheres and Materials ...................................................... 101
                      2.6.1    Ventilation101
                               2.6.1.1 Hazardous Atmospheres...............102
                               2.6.1.2 Emergency Rescue Equipment..........102
                      2.6.2    Exhaust Gases ................................................................................... 103
                      2.6.3    Organic Lead ..................................................................................... 103
                 2.7  Edge Protection, Markers and Fixed Lighting ........................................... 103
                 2.8  Roads, Streets, and Sidewalks ...................................................................... 103
                 2.9  Backfilling ...................................................................................................... 103
                 2.10 Borrow Pits .................................................................................................... 103

          3.0 DEMOLITION .................................................................................................................... 124
                3.1   Before Work Starts ....................................................................................... 125
                      3.1.1       Responsible Supervisor ..................................................................... 125
                      3.1.2       Original Drawings ............................................................................. 125
                      3.1.3       Disconnections .................................................................................. 125
                      3.1.4       Adjacent Structures and Public Areas ............................................... 125
                      3.1.5       Barricades/Signs................................................................................ 125
                3.2   Method of Demolition ................................................................................... 125




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                     Page vi
                                 3.2.1    Demolition of Equipment Containing PCB: Polychlorinated
                                          Biphenyl (ASKAREL) ...................................................................... 126
                                 3.2.2    Demolition Of Buildings With Asbestos / Insulation
                                          Materials ........................................................................................... 126
                     3.3         Stability During Demolition .......................................................................... 126
                     3.4         Working Place Clearance ............................................................................. 126
                                 3.4.1    Access ............................................................................................... 126
                                 3.4.2    Glass Removal .................................................................................. 126
                     3.5         Structural Steel Removal .............................................................................. 127
                     3.6         Tanks, Vessels and Pipe Work (Explosion Prevention) .............................. 127
                                 3.6.1    Welding and Hot Cutting .................................................................. 127
                                 3.6.2    Cold Cutting ...................................................................................... 127
                                 3.6.3    Steaming and Ventilation .................................................................. 127
                                 3.6.4    Residue Cleaning .............................................................................. 127
                     3.7         Protective Clothing and Equipment............................................................. 127
                     3.8         Mechanical Equipment Guards.................................................................... 128

          4.0 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBERS .................................................................................. 129
                 4.1   Types of Asbestos........................................................................................... 129
                 4.2   Health Risks ................................................................................................... 129
                 4.3   Before Work Starts ....................................................................................... 130
                       4.3.1   Air Sampling ..................................................................................... 130
                       4.3.2   Job Details130
                       4.3.3   Chest X-rays ...................................................................................... 130
                 4.4   Storage and Transportation ......................................................................... 130
                 4.5   Work Area ..................................................................................................... 131
                 4.6   Handling and Use .......................................................................................... 131
                       4.6.1   Wetting/Ventilation ........................................................................... 131
                       4.6.2   Cutting............................................................................................... 131
                       4.6.3   Protective Equipment ........................................................................ 131
                 4.7   Protective Clothing ........................................................................................ 132
                       4.7.1   Types ................................................................................................. 132
                       4.7.2   Contamination ................................................................................... 132
                       4.7.3   Review .............................................................................................. 132
                 4.8   Respiratory Equipment ................................................................................. 132
                       4.8.1   Type .................................................................................................. 132
                       4.8.2   Use .................................................................................................... 132
                       4.8.3   Care ................................................................................................... 133
                 4.9   Washing and Changing Facilities................................................................. 133
                 4.10  Disposal of Waste Asbestos Materials/Clothing.......................................... 133
                 4.11  Cleanliness of Work Areas and Equipment ................................................ 133

          5.0 WELDING, CUTTING, AND BRAZING ........................................................................ 134
                5.1    Gas Welding: Oxy-Acetylene Equipment and Use .................................... 134
                       5.1.1    Gases ................................................................................................. 134
                       5.1.2    Color Coding of Cylinders ................................................................ 135
                       5.1.3    Storage Of Cylinders ........................................................................ 135
                       5.1.4    Handling of Cylinders ....................................................................... 136
                       5.1.5    Inspecting Equipment ........................................................................ 137
                       5.1.6    Faults ................................................................................................. 139
                       5.1.7    Fuel Gas and Oxygen Manifolds ....................................................... 140
                5.2    Electric Arc Welding ..................................................................................... 140
                       5.2.1    Voltage .............................................................................................. 140
                       5.2.2    Welding Connections ........................................................................ 141




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                       Page vii
                      5.3         Protective Measures ...................................................................................... 142
                      5.4         Welding and Cutting: Tanks, Vessels and Drums ..................................... 144
                      5.5         Confined Spaces............................................................................................. 144
                      5.6         Personnel Protection ..................................................................................... 145
                      5.7         Health Hazards .............................................................................................. 145
                                  5.7.1   Radiant Energy .................................................................................. 145
                                  5.7.2   Respiratory Effects ............................................................................ 146

          6.0 EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS .............................................................................................. 148

          7.0 PILING OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 149
                 7.1   Before Work Starts ....................................................................................... 149
                       7.1.1    Cranes ............................................................................................... 150
                       7.1.2    Pile Gates .......................................................................................... 150
                       7.1.3    Inspection .......................................................................................... 150
                       7.1.4    Wedges.............................................................................................. 150
                       7.1.5    Timber Block .................................................................................... 150
                       7.1.6    Ground Support ................................................................................. 151
                 7.2   Driving Piles ................................................................................................... 151
                       7.2.1    Pitching ............................................................................................. 151
                       7.2.2    Driving .............................................................................................. 151
                 7.3   Pile Extraction ............................................................................................... 151
                 7.4   General Precautions ...................................................................................... 152

          8.0 ROADWORKS ................................................................................................................... 153
                8.1  General ........................................................................................................... 153
                8.2  Street and Road Construction, Excavations, and Maintenance
                     Traffic Controls ............................................................................................. 154

          9.0 WORKING PLACES, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDING ............................................ 155
                9.1   Working Places, General .............................................................................. 156
                      9.1.1   Falls ................................................................................................... 156
                      9.1.2   Access and Egress ............................................................................. 156
                      9.1.3   Lighting ............................................................................................. 156
                      9.1.4   Prevention of Falls ............................................................................ 156
                      9.1.5   Ramps ............................................................................................... 156
                      9.1.6   Falling Material ................................................................................. 157
                      9.1.7   Hot Surfaces ...................................................................................... 157
                      9.1.8   Slipping and Tripping ....................................................................... 157
                      9.1.9   Roof Work ........................................................................................ 157
                      9.1.10 Insecure Structures ............................................................................ 157
                      9.1.11 Work Over Water .............................................................................. 158
                9.2   Ladders and Stepladders .............................................................................. 158
                      9.2.1   Selection ............................................................................................ 158
                      9.2.2   Condition........................................................................................... 159
                      9.2.3   Position ............................................................................................. 159
                      9.2.4   Use .................................................................................................... 160
                      9.2.5   Stepladders ........................................................................................ 162
                      9.2.6   General .............................................................................................. 162
                9.3   Scaffolding Components ............................................................................... 163
                9.4   Requirements Common to All Scaffolding .................................................. 168
                      9.4.1   Foundations ....................................................................................... 168
                      9.4.2   Posts .................................................................................................. 168
                      9.4.3   Runners ............................................................................................. 169




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                     Page viii
                                9.4.4    Bearers .............................................................................................. 169
                                9.4.5    Board Bearers ................................................................................... 169
                                9.4.6    Bracing .............................................................................................. 170
                                9.4.7    Ties.................................................................................................... 170
                                9.4.8    Platform Units ................................................................................... 171
                                9.4.9    Guardrail Systems and Toeboards ..................................................... 172
                                9.4.10   Access ............................................................................................... 172
                                9.4.11   Scaffold Ladders ............................................................................... 172
                                         9.4.11.1 Portable Straight and Extension
                                         Ladders 173
                                         9.4.11.2 Vertical Ladder.....................173
                                9.4.12 Workmanship .................................................................................... 174
                                9.4.13 Inspections ........................................................................................ 174
                     9.5        Fabricated Tubular Frame and System Scaffolding .................................. 174
                     9.6        Tube and Coupler Scaffolds ......................................................................... 176
                                9.6.1    Independent Tied Scaffold ................................................................ 176
                                9.6.2    Light Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds............................................ 176
                                         9.6.2.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions......176
                                         9.6.2.2 Platform............................177
                                         9.6.2.3 Limitations.........................177
                                9.6.3. Medium Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffold ........................................ 177
                                         9.6.3.1 Design, Loading, and Dimensions.....177
                                         9.6.3.2 Platform............................177
                                         9.6.3.3 Limitations.........................178
                                         9.6.3.4 Bearers.............................178
                                9.6.4    Heavy Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds .......................................... 178
                                         9.6.4.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions......178
                                         9.6.4.2 Platform............................178
                                         9.6.4.3 Limitations.........................178
                                         9.6.4.4 Bearers.............................179
                     9.7        Free-Standing Tower Scaffolds .................................................................... 179
                                9.7.1    General Requirements ....................................................................... 179
                                9.7.2    Design, Loading and Dimensions ...................................................... 179
                                9.7.3    Runners and Bearers ......................................................................... 179
                                9.7.4    Bracing .............................................................................................. 179
                                9.7.5    Ties.................................................................................................... 179
                                9.7.6    Platform............................................................................................. 180
                                9.7.7    Access ............................................................................................... 180
                                9.7.8    Limitations ........................................................................................ 180
                     9.8        Mobile Tower Scaffolds ................................................................................ 180
                                9.8.1    Foundations ....................................................................................... 180
                                9.8.2    Operation........................................................................................... 181
                                9.8.3    Limitations ........................................................................................ 181
                     9.9        Scaffolds for Tanks and Vessels ................................................................... 181
                                9.9.1    Bracket Scaffolds .............................................................................. 181
                     9.10       Special Scaffolds ............................................................................................ 182
                     9.11       Scaffold Terminology .................................................................................... 182

          10.0 HAND TOOLS AND POWER TOOLS .......................................................................... 193
                 10.1 Hand Tools, General ..................................................................................... 194
                      10.1.1 Quality............................................................................................... 194
                      10.1.2 Cleanliness ........................................................................................ 194
                      10.1.3 Repair and Storage ............................................................................ 194
                      10.1.4 Selection ............................................................................................ 194
                      10.1.5 Electrical Risks ................................................................................. 194




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                        Page ix
                     10.2       Individual Hand Tools, Precautions ............................................................ 194
                                10.2.1 Screwdrivers...................................................................................... 194
                                10.2.2 Hammer ............................................................................................. 195
                                10.2.3 Chisels ............................................................................................... 195
                                10.2.4 Picks and Shovels.............................................................................. 195
                                10.2.5 Spanners and Wrenches .................................................................... 195
                                10.2.6 Pipe Wrenches .................................................................................. 195
                                10.2.7 Pliers ................................................................................................. 196
                                10.2.8 Jacks .................................................................................................. 196
                                10.2.9 Hacksaws .......................................................................................... 196
                                10.2.10 Hand saws ......................................................................................... 196
                     10.3       Power Tools, General .................................................................................... 196
                                10.3.1 Quality............................................................................................... 196
                                10.3.2 Repair and Storage ............................................................................ 197
                     10.4       Pneumatic Tools ............................................................................................ 197
                                10.4.1 General .............................................................................................. 197
                                10.4.2 Individual Tools, Precautions............................................................ 198
                                         10.4.2.1 Jack Hammer and Concrete
                                         Breakers 198
                                         10.4.2.2 Rock Drill..........................198
                                         10.4.2.3 Grinding Machine....................198
                     10.5       Cartridge Operated Tools............................................................................. 203
                                10.5.1 General .............................................................................................. 203
                                10.5.2 Storage .............................................................................................. 203
                                10.5.3 Selection and Training of Personnel ................................................. 203
                                10.5.4 Personal Protective Equipment ......................................................... 204
                                10.5.5 Issue and Returns .............................................................................. 204
                                10.5.6 Work Permits .................................................................................... 204
                                10.5.7 Use .................................................................................................... 204
                                10.5.8 Maintenance and Repair .................................................................... 206
                     10.6       Electrically Operated Tools .......................................................................... 207
                                10.6.1 General .............................................................................................. 207
                                10.6.2 Maintenance and Storage .................................................................. 208
                                10.6.3 Personal Protective Equipment ......................................................... 208
                                10.6.4 Individual Tools, Precautions............................................................ 209
                                         10.6.4.1 Grinders............................209
                                         10.6.4.2 Drills..............................209
                                         10.6.4.3 Saws................................209
                                         10.6.4.4 Radial Saws.........................210

          11.0 PAINTS AND COATINGS .............................................................................................. 220
                 11.1  Flammability Hazards of Coating Materials .............................................. 220
                       11.1.1 Flammable Materials ......................................................................... 220
                       11.1.2 Flash Point (Definition) ..................................................................... 220
                       11.1.3 Flammable (Explosive) Limits (Definition) ...................................... 220
                       11.1.4 Fire Precautions................................................................................. 221
                 11.2  Health Hazards Associated With Paints ...................................................... 221
                       11.2.1 Toxic Materials ................................................................................. 221
                       11.2.2 Dermatitic Materials.......................................................................... 222
                       11.2.3 Prevention of Health Hazards ........................................................... 222
                 11.3  Ventilation in Confined Spaces .................................................................... 222
                 11.4  Surface Preparation ...................................................................................... 223
                       11.4.1 Abrasive Blast Cleaning .................................................................... 224
                       11.4.2 Hydroblast and Steam Cleaning ........................................................ 224




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                       Page x
                                  11.4.3 Hand and Power Tool Cleaning ........................................................ 224
                                  11.4.4 Chemical Cleaning ............................................................................ 225
                                  11.4.5 General Safety in Surface Preparation .............................................. 225
                      11.5        Personal Protective Equipment .................................................................... 226
                      11.6        Paint Application ........................................................................................... 228
                                  11.6.1 Paint Materials .................................................................................. 228
                                  11.6.2 General Safety In Paint Application .................................................. 228
                      11.7        Scaffolding and Ladders ............................................................................... 229
                      11.8        Tarring Operations ....................................................................................... 229
                      11.9        General Safety for Paints and Coatings ...................................................... 229

          12.0 CONCRETE, CONCRETE FORMS, AND SHORING ................................................ 232
                 12.1 General ........................................................................................................... 232
                 12.2 Reinforcing Steel ........................................................................................... 232
                 12.3 Bulk Concrete Handling ............................................................................... 232
                 12.4 Concrete Placement ....................................................................................... 232
                      12.4.1 Concrete Mixers ................................................................................ 232
                      12.4.2 Guardrails .......................................................................................... 232
                      12.4.3 Bull Floats ......................................................................................... 232
                      12.4.4 Powered Concrete Trowels ............................................................... 233
                      12.4.5 Concrete Buggies .............................................................................. 233
                      12.4.6 Pumpcrete Systems ........................................................................... 233
                      12.4.7 Concrete Buckets .............................................................................. 233
                      12.4.8 Discharging on Slope ........................................................................ 233
                      12.4.9 Back-Up Man, Truck Spotter ............................................................ 233
                      12.4.10 Pneumatic Hose ................................................................................. 233
                 12.5 Vertical Shoring............................................................................................. 233
                      12.5.1 General Requirements ....................................................................... 233
                      12.5.2 Tubular Welded Frame Shoring ........................................................ 234
                 12.6 Forms and Shoring ........................................................................................ 234
                      12.6.1 General Provisions ............................................................................ 234
                      12.6.2 Vertical Slip Forms ........................................................................... 235
                      12.6.3 Tube and Coupler Shoring ................................................................ 235
                      12.6.4 Single Post Shores ............................................................................. 236




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                       Page xi
III. Mechanical Equipment And Materials ............................................ 237
          1.0 CRANES AND LIFTING EQUIPMENT ......................................................................... 238
                 1.1   Competent Person ......................................................................................... 239
                 1.2   Saudi Aramco Crane Operations (General Requirements) ....................... 239
                 1.3   Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Qualifications ........................................... 240
                 1.4   Special Crane Operating Procedures .......................................................... 240
                 1.5   Effect of Wind Speeds on Crane Operations .............................................. 240
                 1.6   Overhead Power Lines .................................................................................. 240

          2.0 SLINGS AND LIFTING GEAR (RIGGING) ................................................................... 245
                 2.1.  Safe Working Load (SWL) ........................................................................... 245
                 2.2.  Chain Slings ................................................................................................... 246
                       2.2.1    Grades ............................................................................................... 246
                       2.2.2    Repairs .............................................................................................. 246
                 2.3   Wire Rope Slings ........................................................................................... 246
                 2.4   Synthetic Webbing Slings ............................................................................. 247
                       2.4.1    Removal from Service ....................................................................... 247
                       2.4.2    Repaired Slings ................................................................................. 247
                 2.5   Synthetic and Natural Fiber Rope Slings .................................................... 248
                 2.6   Care of Slings ................................................................................................. 249
                 2.7   Hooks .............................................................................................................. 249
                 2.8   Spreader Bars ................................................................................................ 250
                 2.9   Eyebolts And Safety Hoist Rings.................................................................. 250
                 2.10  Shackles .......................................................................................................... 251
                 2.11  Rigger ............................................................................................................. 251

          3.0 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ......................................................................................... 257
                3.1   Operators ....................................................................................................... 258
                      3.1.1   Qualifications .................................................................................... 258
                      3.1.2   Licensing Requirements .................................................................... 258
                3.2   Machinery Guards ........................................................................................ 259
                      3.2.1   Multi-Piece Tire Rims and Locking Rings ........................................ 259
                3.3   General Requirements .................................................................................. 259
                3.4   Compressors................................................................................................... 260
                3.5   Concrete Mixers and Batching Plants ......................................................... 261
                3.6   Dumpers and Dump Trucks ......................................................................... 262
                3.7   Excavators ...................................................................................................... 263
                3.8   Fork Lift Trucks ............................................................................................ 264
                3.9   Generators...................................................................................................... 265
                3.10  Graders, Dozers, Scrapers, Loaders And Miniloaders .............................. 266
                3.11  Woodworking Machinery ............................................................................. 266

          4.0 MATERIALS HANDLING................................................................................................ 268
                4.1   Planning ......................................................................................................... 268
                4.2   Machine Transport ....................................................................................... 269
                      4.2.1    Dumpers ............................................................................................ 269
                      4.2.2    Tractors and Trailers ......................................................................... 270
                      4.2.3    Conveyor Belts and Monorails .......................................................... 270
                      4.2.4    Concrete Pumps ................................................................................ 270
                4.3   Site Stores ....................................................................................................... 270
                4.4   Manual Handling........................................................................................... 271




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                   Page xii
IV. Electrical And Radiation .................................................................... 275
          1.0 ELECTRICITY ................................................................................................................... 276
                 1.1   Voltage ............................................................................................................ 277
                 1.2   Temporary Installations ............................................................................... 277
                 1.3   Hand Tools and Lighting .............................................................................. 278
                 1.4   Work on Live Equipment ............................................................................. 279
                 1.5   Overhead and Underground Cables ............................................................ 280
                 1.6   Overhead Power Transmission and Distribution ....................................... 281
                       1.6.1      Initial Inspections, Tests, or Determinations ..................................... 281
                       1.6.2      De-energizing Lines and Equipment ................................................. 282
                       1.6.3      Emergency Procedures and First Aid ................................................ 282
                       1.6.4      Night Work ....................................................................................... 282
                       1.6.5      Work Near/Over Water ..................................................................... 282
                       1.6.6      Hydraulic Fluids ................................................................................ 283
                       1.6.7      Live-Line Tools (Hot Sticks) ............................................................ 283
                       1.6.8      Material Handling ............................................................................. 283
                                  1.6.8.1 Unloading...........................283
                                  1.6.8.2 Pole Hauling........................283
                                  1.6.8.3 Storage.............................283
                                  1.6.8.4 Framing.............................283
                                  1.6.8.5 Attaching the Load..................284
                       1.6.9      Grounding for Protection of Workers ............................................... 284
                                  1.6.9.1 Isolation and Voltage Testing.......284
                                  1.6.9.2 Applying and Removing Grounds.......284
                                  1.6.9.3 Grounding Distance..................284
                                  1.6.9.4 Removal of Grounds for Testing
                                  Purposes 284
                                  1.6.9.5 Grounding Electrode.................284
                                  1.6.9.6 Grounding Cables And Clamps.........285
                       1.6.10 Overhead Lines ................................................................................. 285
                                  1.6.10.1 Metal Tower Construction............285
                                  1.6.10.2 Stringing/Removing De-energized
                                  Conductors...................................287
                                  1.6.10.3 Stringing Adjacent to Energized
                                  Lines 288
                       1.6.11 Underground Lines............................................................................ 289
                                  1.6.11.1 Work in Manholes....................290
                                  1.6.11.2 Trenching and Excavating............290
                       1.6.12 Construction in Energized Substations .............................................. 291
                                  1.6.12.1 Barricades and Barriers.............291
                                  1.6.12.2 Control Panels......................291
                                  1.6.12.3 Mechanized Equipment................291
                                  1.6.12.4 Substation Fences...................291
                 1.7   Electric Shock ................................................................................................ 292

          2.0 IONIZING RADIATION ................................................................................................... 295
                 2.1    Methods of Protection Against Radiation ................................................... 295
                        2.1.1    Distance............................................................................................. 295
                        2.1.2    Time .................................................................................................. 295
                        2.1.3    Shielding ........................................................................................... 296
                 2.2    Classification of Personnel and Exposure Limits ....................................... 296
                        2.2.1    Radiation Workers ............................................................................ 296
                        2.2.2    Non-Radiation Workers .................................................................... 296




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                   Page xiii
                               2.2.3   Exposure Limits ................................................................................ 296
                     2.3       Responsibilities for Safe Handling ............................................................... 297
                               2.3.1   Contractor ......................................................................................... 297
                               2.3.2   Competent Person ............................................................................. 297
                               2.3.3. Radiographer ..................................................................................... 297
                     2.4       Shipping and Transportation ....................................................................... 298
                     2.5       Storage Areas ................................................................................................. 298




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                    Page xiv
V. Chemicals And Operations .................................................................. 300
          1.0 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES ................................................................................ 301
                 1.1   General ........................................................................................................... 301
                 1.2   Storage............................................................................................................ 302
                 1.3   Handling of Cylinders ................................................................................... 302
                 1.4   Leakage .......................................................................................................... 303
                 1.5   Transportation ............................................................................................... 304
                 1.6   Operation ....................................................................................................... 304
                 1.7   Action in Case of Fire .................................................................................... 305
                 1.8   Bulk Installations ........................................................................................... 306
                 1.9   First Aid ......................................................................................................... 306

          2.0 PLANT OPERATIONS ...................................................................................................... 307
                 2.1   Additional Information On Saudi Aramco Instructions and
                       Standards ....................................................................................................... 307
                       2.1.1   General Instruction Manual ............................................................... 308
                       2.1.2   Producing Instruction Manual ........................................................... 308
                       2.1.3   Refinery Instruction Manual.............................................................. 308
                       2.1.4   Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards ............................................... 308
                 2.2   Work Permit System ..................................................................................... 308
                 2.3   Operation of Plant Equipment ..................................................................... 308
                 2.4   Shutdown and Maintenance in Plant Operations ....................................... 309
                 2.5   Commissioning ............................................................................................... 309
                 2.6   Emergency Procedures: Saudi Aramco Disaster Plan .............................. 309
                       2.6.1   Gas Release Emergency Procedures ................................................. 310

          3.0 PRESSURE TESTING ....................................................................................................... 311
                 3.1   Preparation .................................................................................................... 312
                       3.1.1   SAES-A-004 (Pressure Testing) ....................................................... 312
                       3.1.2   Supports ............................................................................................ 312
                       3.1.3   Vents and Drains ............................................................................... 313
                       3.1.4   Valves ............................................................................................... 313
                       3.1.5   Pipings And Joints............................................................................. 313
                       3.1.6   Vacuums............................................................................................ 313
                 3.2   General Requirements .................................................................................. 313
                 3.3   Test Liquid ..................................................................................................... 314

          4.0 CHEMICALS ...................................................................................................................... 316
                 4.1  Hazard Identification System ....................................................................... 317
                 4.2  Health Hazards .............................................................................................. 318
                      4.2.1        Inhalation Pathway Hazard ............................................................... 318
                      4.2.2        Skin Hazards ..................................................................................... 319
                      4.2.3        Hazards of Swallowing Chemicals .................................................... 319
                 4.3  Emergency Treatment ................................................................................... 319
                      4.3.1        Artificial Respiration ......................................................................... 319
                      4.3.2        First Aid ............................................................................................ 319
                      4.3.3        Showers and Eyewash Fountains....................................................... 319
                 4.4  Fire Hazards .................................................................................................. 321
                 4.5  Reactivity Hazards ........................................................................................ 321
                 4.6  Transportation, Storage and Disposal ......................................................... 321
                      4.6.1        Transportation ................................................................................... 321




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                      Page xv
                               4.6.2  Storage .............................................................................................. 322
                               4.6.3  Containers ......................................................................................... 322
                               4.6.4  Disposal............................................................................................. 322
                     4.7       Work on Equipment Which Has Contained Tetraethyl Lead
                               (Organic Lead Compounds) ......................................................................... 324
                               4.7.1  Introduction ....................................................................................... 324
                               4.7.2  Precautions ........................................................................................ 325




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                   Page xvi
VI. Marine .................................................................................................. 329
          1.0 COFFERDAMS .................................................................................................................. 330
                1.1   Design ............................................................................................................. 330
                1.2   Before Work Starts ....................................................................................... 330
                1.3   Construction .................................................................................................. 330
                1.4   Potential Hazards .......................................................................................... 331
                      1.4.1     Structural Collapse ............................................................................ 331
                      1.4.2     Overhead Loads ................................................................................ 331
                      1.4.3     Dislodgment of Struts and Wales ...................................................... 331
                1.5   Inspection ....................................................................................................... 331
                1.6   Leaks............................................................................................................... 332

          2.0 MARINE OPERATIONS................................................................................................... 333
                2.1   Other Publications......................................................................................... 333
                2.2   General ........................................................................................................... 334
                2.3   Behavior on Floating Craft ........................................................................... 334
                2.4   Preparation for Transportation by Sea ....................................................... 334
                2.5   Tide and Sea Effects ...................................................................................... 335
                2.6   Care of Tools and Equipment....................................................................... 335
                2.7   Housekeeping ................................................................................................. 335

          3.0 DIVING OPERATIONS ................................................................................................... 337
                 3.1   Employment of Qualified Divers .................................................................. 337
                 3.2   Diving Equipment .......................................................................................... 338
                       3.2.1   Compressors ...................................................................................... 338
                       3.2.2   Reserve Air Supply ........................................................................... 339
                       3.2.3   Bail-Out Equipment .......................................................................... 339
                       3.2.4   Maintenance ...................................................................................... 339
                 3.3   Safeguards ...................................................................................................... 340
                 3.4   Physical Fitness .............................................................................................. 344
                 3.5   Medical Diving Emergencies: Procedures and Responsibilities ............... 345
                       3.5.1   Sports Divers ..................................................................................... 345
                       3.5.2   Commercial Divers ........................................................................... 345
                       3.5.3   Coordinator, Diving Emergencies ..................................................... 345
                       3.5.4   Diving Medical Team ....................................................................... 345
                       3.5.5   Marine Department ........................................................................... 346
                 3.6   Personnel Transfer at Sea ............................................................................. 346




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                 Page xvii
Appendix A.................................................................................................. 349
          INDEX TO APPENDIX A......................................................................................................... 350

          A.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONTRACTOR'S SAFETY
          COMPETITION SITE REGISTRATION FORM ................................................................. 351

          A.2 CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION, RULES OF COMPETITION ............... 352

          A.3 Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements .................................. 357
                 1.      Compliance With Safety Rules - Schedule 'D' ........................................... 357
                 2.      Deviations From Safety Rules ...................................................................... 357
                 3.      Failure To Comply ........................................................................................ 357
                 4.      Saudi Aramco Assistance .............................................................................. 357
                 5.      Loss Prevention Program ............................................................................. 358
                 6.      Work Permits ................................................................................................. 358
                 7.      Welding And Cutting Equipment ................................................................ 358
                 8.      Personal Protective Equipment .................................................................... 358
                 9.      Tools And Portable Power Tools.................................................................. 358
                 10.     Cartridge Operated Tools............................................................................. 359
                 11.     Ladders........................................................................................................... 359
                 12.     Scaffolding ..................................................................................................... 359
                 13.     Electrical Installations And Equipment ...................................................... 359
                 14.     Cranes And Rigging Equipment .................................................................. 359
                 15.     Mechanical Equipment ................................................................................. 359
                 16.     Saudi Aramco Plant Operations .................................................................. 360
                 17.     Transportation ............................................................................................... 360
                 18.     Injury And Damage Reporting .................................................................... 360
                 19.     Excavations .................................................................................................... 361
                 20.     Work Over Or Adjacent To Water ............................................................. 361
                 21.     Fire Prevention .............................................................................................. 361
                 22.     Formwork ...................................................................................................... 361
                 23.     Ionizing Radiation ......................................................................................... 361
                 24.     First-Aid Facilities ......................................................................................... 361
                 25.     Handling, Transportation And Disposal Of Hazardous Materials
                         And Waste ...................................................................................................... 362
                 26.     Explosives ....................................................................................................... 363
                 27.     Sandblasting ................................................................................................... 363

          A.4 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN (HIP) .................................................................... 364
                HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN: ...................................................................... 365
                       I.    Conduct Hazards Identification Review. ........................................... 365
                       II.   List Potential Hazards ....................................................................... 365
                       III.  Hazard Classification ........................................................................ 365
                       IV.   Corrective Action .............................................................................. 366




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                 Page xviii
Appendix B: Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response .................. 368
          B.1 SEARCH AND RESCUE PROCEDURES ....................................................................... 369

          B.2 EMERGENCY/DISASTER PLANNING AND RESPONSE .......................................... 370
                B.2.1 General Provisions ........................................................................................ 371
                B.2.2 Definitions ...................................................................................................... 371
                B.2.3 Plan Development Action Items ................................................................... 377




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                               Page xix
Appendix C: Fire Safety Checklist For Evaluating Construction
Materials Store Yard ................................................................................. 397
          C.1 Fire Safety Checklist For Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard ................... 398




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                   Page xx
Appendix D: Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook ........................... 402
          D.1 Crane Safety Handbook ..................................................................................................... 403




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                Page xxi
Appendix E: Suggestion Form ................................................................. 404




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                      Page xxii
Appendix F: Distribution Form ............................................................... 406




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                      Page xxiii
Appendix G: Sanitary Code ..................................................................... 408
          Implementing The Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code - GI 151.006 .............................................. 409




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                         Page xxiv
Appendix H: General Instructions Master Index .................................. 410
          General Instructions (GI) Master Index .................................................................................. 411




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                          Page xxv
Appendix I: List Of Figures ..................................................................... 415
          List Of Figures ........................................................................................................................... 416




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                          Page xxvi
Appendix J: List Of Tables ...................................................................... 419
          List Of Tables ............................................................................................................................. 420




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                          Page xxvii
Appendix K: Forms ................................................................................... 421
          Preliminary Accident Report .................................................................................................... 423

          Contractor Monthly Safety Report .......................................................................................... 424

          Injury Summary ......................................................................................................................... 425

          Lift Plan For Cranes .................................................................................................................. 426

          Wire Rope Sling Inspection Log ............................................................................................... 427

          Cartridge/Tool Issuance Control .............................................................................................. 428

          Emergency Reporting Instructions........................................................................................... 429

          Project Management And Contractor's Safety Competition Site Registration
          Form ............................................................................................................................................ 430




February 1993 - Table Of Contents                                                                                                             Page xxviii
I. Administration




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: I. Administration   Page 1
1.0       SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION POLICY AND
          PROGRAM
Saudi Aramco is committed to prevention of accidents to minimize loss of life or bodily injury to its
employees and damage to its physical assets.

In fulfilling this commitment, which is as essential and equally important as production objectives, Saudi
Aramco will provide and maintain a safe and healthful work environment and protect the public against
foreseeable hazards resulting from operations.

Loss in production and property resulting from accidental occurrences can be minimized through good
management. Loss prevention is one aspect of this loss control philosophy and is the direct responsibility
of line management.

All management functions, including business line and associated management, will comply with Saudi
Arab Government and Company loss prevention requirements applicable to the design, operation,
maintenance and construction of facilities and/or equipment. When conformity with any of these
requirements is not practicable or cost effective, an amendment to such a requirement will be considered.
Reviews for compliance with this policy will be performed on a selective basis.

1.1           Loss Prevention Policy Implementation

              1.1.1      Compliance With Construction Requirements

                         The application of the best petroleum industry loss control practices minimizes risk
                         to personnel and property. The design, construction, modification, operation and
                         maintenance of facilities and equipment and construction as practiced by Saudi
                         Aramco and/or contractors, will meet Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco
                         safety requirements as covered in this manual and in relevant General Instructions,
                         including the Company's Engineering Standards. When conformity with any of
                         these requirements is impractical or not cost effective, a waiver will be sought from
                         the Chief Engineer.

              1.1.2      Operating Standards and Instructions

                         Risks that cannot be eliminated through design are controlled by operating
                         standards and instructions. Compliance with safety standards and instructions will
                         be consistently enforced for both Saudi Aramco operations personnel and
                         contractors alike.

              1.1.3      Personal Protection

                         Personal protective equipment, periodic environmental monitoring and bio-
                         surveillance will be used to help to protect all employees against exposure to safety
                         and health hazards (e.g., radiation, H2S, etc.) which cannot be eliminated.

              1.1.4      Inspection

                         Inspections to detect and correct unsafe practices and conditions will be conducted
                         periodically by Saudi Aramco and/or contractor.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Policy And Program             Page 2
              1.1.5      Education and Training

                         All employees shall be provided with ongoing safety education and training as well
                         as helping to develop those skills that are required to perform, supervise and
                         manage assigned tasks without mishap.

              1.1.6      Motivation and Recognition

                         Good communications, a viable suggestion system and the recognition of good
                         safety performance, encourages employee participation in loss prevention
                         programs.

              1.1.7      Job Placement

                         Employees must only be assigned tasks that are consistent with their physical
                         capacities and job skills; this enable employees to work without endangering
                         themselves or others.

              1.1.8      Response to Accidental Occurrences

                         Site specific effective emergency response plans must be established as per the
                         guidelines of Appendix B.2 of this manual. These should include measures to
                         contain or control an emergency or disaster when an accident occurs to minimize
                         the loss of resources, a reporting and investigation system to determine the cause
                         of the accident, and the adoption of corrective actions to avoid a recurrence.

              1.1.9      Contractor Safety

                         Saudi Aramco proponent departments will monitor all construction activity to
                         ensure that services are performed in conformity with Saudi Aramco loss
                         prevention policies, principles and practices and do not imperil any person or
                         property. Proponents will register each contractor employing 50 or more persons
                         in the Saudi Aramco Contractor Safety Competition. (See Appendix A - Figures
                         A.1, A.2 and A.3.)

              1.1.10     Off-The-Job Safety

                         Off-the-job safety training (e.g. seat belt use) shall be vigorously practiced to
                         provide the means for all employees to protect themselves and their families from
                         harm during off-duty hours.

              1.1.11     Traffic Safety

                         Operators of Company vehicles must receive defensive driving training and driver
                         evaluations and be in possession of a current Saudi Arab government driver's
                         license. A vehicle operator will be held accountable for the vehicle assigned to
                         him and he must ensure that it is always operated in a safe and lawful manner.

              1.1.12     Accountability

                         All employees shall be held accountable for personal and functional safety
                         performance. An important factor in an employee's overall job performance
                         evaluation will be how well the employee meets his safety responsibilities.




February 1993 - 1.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Policy And Program                                  Page 3
              1.1.13     Compliance Reviews

                         On a selective basis, compliance reviews will be conducted by teams that include
                         people with related expertise to determine compliance with this policy. In order to
                         ensure the credibility and effectiveness of the review, the team members must be
                         detached from the operation being reviewed.

1.2           Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Requirements For Contractors

              Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention requirements for contractors are contained in Schedule 'D' of
              contracts (See Appendix A - Figure A.4). The safe practices specified in Schedule 'D' shall
              be followed by all contractors during the performance of all work under each contract with
              Saudi Aramco.

              The requirements in Schedule 'D' are the minimum acceptable to Saudi Aramco. Any
              deviation from the requirements of Schedule 'D' must be signed in writing by the Company
              representative. The contractor shall also take any additional measures which the Company
              representative may determine to be reasonable and necessary to protect against the injury (or
              death) of any person, or damage (or loss) of any property during the contractor's performance
              of the work under the contract.

              1.2.1      Non-Compliance

                         The Company representative will notify the contractor, in writing, of any violation
                         of the requirements of Schedule 'D' and provide corrective action to rectify the
                         situation. After receipt of such notice, the contractor shall immediately take
                         corrective action. Such notices when delivered to the contractor's representative at
                         the site of the work shall be deemed sufficient notice to the contractor under
                         Schedule 'D'. If the contractor fails to take corrective action promptly, the
                         company representative may issue an order stopping all or part of the work until
                         satisfactory corrective action has been taken. The contractor will not be eligible to
                         use any part of the lost time incurred as a result of such stop orders as the subject
                         of a claim for extension of time, additional costs or damages. Compliance with the
                         provisions of Schedule 'D' by subcontractors shall be the responsibility of the
                         contractor.

              1.2.2      Assistance

                         The contractor may request advice on establishing feasible and effective safety
                         practices for the job. The company representative will assist the contractor's
                         representative by providing guidance on good safety practices, pointing out unsafe
                         conditions, and applying his experience and judgment in helping to improve the
                         contractor's overall job safety.

              1.2.3      Standards and Instructions

                         All work and equipment must conform to Saudi Aramco Standards and General
                         Instructions. Where no standard or instruction is available to cover a particular
                         item, the contractor shall request that Saudi Aramco specify the standard of work
                         or equipment required. The term, "Approved Standards" in Schedule 'D' refers to
                         standards which are approved by Saudi Aramco.




February 1993 - 1.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Policy And Program                                     Page 4
1.3           Contractor's Loss Prevention Program

              The contractor shall develop and implement a loss prevention program that will conform
              with Saudi Aramco loss prevention policies and procedures.

              1.3.1      Written Program

                         Prior to the commencement of contractual activity, the contractor shall submit a
                         written job-specific loss prevention program to the Saudi Aramco company
                         representative. The latter is required to forward a copy of the program to the Loss
                         Prevention Department. The Contractor's written loss prevention program shall
                         address the following:

                         1.    Title page (B.I./J.O.)
                         2.    Project title and brief scope of work
                         3.    Organization chart
                         4.    Vicinity map and key plan
                         5.    Hazard identification plan
                         6.    Traffic plan
                         7.    Safety polity and assignment of responsibilities
                                Prime and sub contractors
                         8.    Desert driving
                                Search and rescue procedures
                         9.    Safety inspections
                         10.   Safety reports and records
                         11.   Contractor camp sanitation and safety
                         12.   Work permit
                         13.   Welding and cutting equipment
                         14.   Personal protective equipment
                         15.   Tools and portable power tools
                         16.   Ladders
                         17.   Cartridge operated tools
                         18.   Electrical installation and equipment
                         19.   Scaffolding
                         20.   Cranes and rigging equipment
                         21.   Mechanical equipment
                         22.   Transportation
                         23.   Saudi Aramco plant operations
                         24.   Injury and damage reporting
                         25.   Excavation
                         26.   Fire prevention
                         27.   Form work
                         28.   First-aid facilities
                                Medical evacuation procedures
                         29.   Dust control
                         30.   Job site inspections
                         31.   General safety rules
                         32.   Emergency evacuation procedures
                         33.   Hazardous material and waste management
                         34.   Security procedures
                         35.   Ionizing radiation
                         36.   Demobilization plan




February 1993 - 1.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Policy And Program                                   Page 5
                         37.   Work over or adjacent to water
                         38.   Explosives
                         39.   Abrasive blasting & painting/coating
                         40.   Lock out and tag system

              1.3.2      Hazard Identification Plan

                         As part of the Contractor Loss Prevention Program, the contractor shall develop a
                         detailed Hazard Identification Plan based on the initial hazard identification data
                         supplied by Saudi Aramco Project Management Team.

                         Prior to the start of construction, the contractor shall conduct a hazard
                         identification tour with the Company representative and the Saudi Aramco Loss
                         Prevention representative. Once this has been completed, the contractor will
                         prepare and submit a Hazard Identification Plan. (See Appendix A - Figures A.3
                         and A.4.)

              1.3.3      Safety Supervisor

                         The contractor shall designate one or more full-time safety supervisor(s) to
                         coordinate and monitor the loss prevention program. The names and addresses of
                         the Saudi Aramco approved safety supervisors shall be included with the written
                         program.

              1.3.4      Safety Discussion

                         The contractor shall ensure that every craft and crew supervisor holds a weekly
                         ten-minute safety meeting with his men to discuss hazards on the job, and review
                         and update procedures to prevent accidents. These weekly meetings shall be
                         documented and such documentation shall be maintained and made available for
                         review at the Contractor's on-site office.




February 1993 - 1.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Policy And Program                                   Page 6
2.0       SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION DEPARTMENT
          SERVICES
A full complement of loss prevention services is provided by the area Loss Prevention divisions.

The area divisions are in turn provided support from the central Planning and Technical Services
Division consisting of Technical Services Unit, Support Services Unit and a Planning and Program
Group.

2.1           Loss Prevention Program

              Loss Prevention superintendents ensure that a range of loss prevention engineering services
              are provided to organizations within their assigned areas through such activities as:

              2.1.1

                         Directing the review of new plant design in the assigned area of operation to
                         ensure conformity of facilities to loss prevention engineering standards.

              2.1.2

                         Providing input to the Board of Engineers in the development of Saudi Aramco
                         Engineering Standards.

              2.1.3

                         Managing major safety reviews and incident investigations with Saudi Arab
                         Government officials, US. Companies, and local area management.

              2.1.4

                         Administering safety-related training programs for local area operations
                         management and personnel in an effort to enhance the safety awareness of
                         operations personnel and proper acceptance of responsibilities.

              2.1.5

                         Serving on special committees and task forces such as the Radiation Protection
                         Committee, and providing personnel to develop or assist in the development of
                         General Instructions, position papers and standards.

              2.1.6

                         Directing in-depth program reviews of area operations involving procedures and
                         facilities with follow-up on implementation of recommendations resulting from
                         these reviews.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department Services       Page 7
              2.1.7

                         Interfacing with Government Affairs to provide input on safety related issues to
                         non-Saudi Aramco projects and providing monitoring of these projects to assure
                         conformity.

2.2           Program Management Services

              Superintendents and their subordinates provide department heads with program management
              services such as:

              2.2.1

                         Assisting with the development of formal loss prevention programs; ensuring
                         consistency with Company and business line policies, principles and practices; and
                         providing consultative services in their implementation.

              2.2.2

                         Monitoring and evaluating loss prevention systems through the Compliance
                         Review Program.

              2.2.3

                         Providing project review, waiver and other technical consulting services;
                         recommending revisions to Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards; and developing
                         new hazard control standards as required.

              2.2.4

                         Analyzing, interpreting and reporting accident statistical data.

              2.2.5

                         Initiating and administering safety management training.

              2.2.6

                         Coordinating response to government concerns about fire and safety issues.

              2.2.7

                         Serving on special accident investigation committees.




February 1993 - 2.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department Services                                  Page 8
2.3           Program Maintenance Services

              Superintendents and their subordinates provide program maintenance services such as:

              2.3.1

                         Providing technical interpretation of standards, procedures, principles and
                         practices; and consulting services in their application from a loss prevention
                         standpoint.

              2.3.2

                         Conducting loss prevention policy, program and procedural surveys and
                         inspections.

              2.3.3

                         Identifying and assessing processes, operations and other risks (or hazards) and
                         recommending solutions.

              2.3.4

                         Initiating and administering supervisory and highly specialized safety training
                         beyond the capability of operating management or training specialists.

              2.3.5

                         Administering work permit and certain other safe work procedures.

              2.3.6

                         Acting as Saudi Aramco's representative to the Saudi Arab Government on local
                         safety issues.

              2.3.7

                         Advising on proper selection and use of personal protective equipment and
                         evaluating its effectiveness.

              2.3.8

                         Monitoring and providing input on other activities as required to ensure proper
                         response to accidental occurrences, including the development of containment and
                         mitigation methods for liquid chemical spills or vapor releases, conducting
                         accident investigations and recommending corrective measures.




February 1993 - 2.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department Services                                 Page 9
3.0       ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, ANALYSIS AND
          REPORTING
Much is learned through experience. A thorough investigation and analysis of an accident can help to
prevent future accidents. To learn by experience, however, means that a system for the retrieval of
information must be set up and statistical records must be kept of injury, death and property damage.
With such a system operational, information can be collated and analyzed to show accident patterns. The
contractor can then emphasize those areas in which safety education and training is needed most.

The contractor is responsible for reporting accidents to Saudi Aramco and in some cases to the Saudi
Arab Government as required. This section covers these reporting requirements and the principles
behind accident investigation and analysis.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 6.001             Notification Requirements for Incidents (Including Fires)

GI 6.003             Guide for Committees Investigating Major Incidents or Engineering Reviews of Other
                     Incidents

GI 6.029             Reporting and Recording Of Motor Vehicle Accidents

GI 7.026             Lifting/Elevating and Mobile Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures

3.1           Reports Required by Saudi Aramco

              Reports are required by Saudi Aramco as per Schedule 'D' of the contract.

              Contractor shall ensure that an immediate report is made to the Company Representative in
              the case of all:

                  Fatal injuries
                  Injuries requiring medical attention which result in lost time
                  Damage over SR 10,000 to contractor's plant or equipment
                  Damage, in any amount, to Saudi Aramco's equipment or property
                  Fires
                  Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI 7.026)

              For accidents involving Contractor employee fatalities, serious injury to two or more
              Contractor employees, or damage to Saudi Aramco equipment or property, a preliminary
              written report shall be submitted within 24 hours followed by a detailed written report
              submitted within three days to the Company Representative. In addition, Saudi Aramco may
              convene an engineering review or investigation committee in accordance with the
              requirements of GI 6.001 and GI 6.003 (see Figure I.1).




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Accident Investigation, Analysis And Reporting       Page 10
              Contractor shall maintain, in a format approved by the Company Representative, a current
              record showing all:

                  Work injuries
                  Fires
                  Incidents of property damage over SR 10,000
                  Motor vehicle accident
                  Incidents involving damage to Saudi Aramco equipment and property
                  Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI 7.026)

              The record shall be available for inspection at all times and shall be submitted to Saudi
              Aramco on request. (See Figure I.2.)

              A final written report shall be prepared and submitted to the Company as per the provisions
              of GI 6.003. In the case of serious accidents, however, a detailed account of the
              circumstances, witnesses' statements and descriptive photographs are required.

              In addition to the reports required above, the contractor must keep a record of all injuries and
              damages on a form approved by the Company (Figure I.2). A copy of this record shall be
              sent to the proponent department and to the contractor's project management. Monthly
              summary reports are required in addition to the individual reports.

3.2           Accident Investigation

              The point of an accident investigation is to prevent recurrence of similar accidents; to
              determine facts rather than to find faults.

              The main reasons for conducting an accident investigation are:

              1.      To find the causes so that similar accidents may be prevented;
              2.      To determine the point at which "unplanned" events took over from the "planned"
                      sequence of events;
              3.      To recommend what corrective action should be taken.

              3.2.1       Responsibilities for Investigation

                          3.2.1.1       Supervisor/Safety Representative

                                        The supervisor and/or safety representative shall carry out an
                                        immediate investigation of any accident which occurs within his area
                                        of responsibility. The preliminary accident report must be completed
                                        and submitted within 24 hours to the Saudi Aramco Company
                                        representative with a copy to the Loss Prevention Department. A final
                                        report on the incident shall be submitted within three days detailing
                                        any additional information and corrective action needed.

                          3.2.1.2       Project Manager

                                        The project manager shall review all accident reports to ensure that all
                                        the necessary corrective action has been taken and that he has
                                        addressed any items that may require action on his part.




February 1993 - 3.0 Accident Investigation, Analysis And Reporting                                       Page 11
3.3           Cases to be Investigated

              Incidents that result in property damage or serious injuries to personnel and hospitalization of
              two or more employees must be fully investigated and reported. Unless the real cause is
              known, the hazard cannot be controlled in the future. The near-miss incident is equally
              important from the point of view of prevention and should also be thoroughly investigated.

3.4           Accident Investigation Guidelines

              The scene of an accident must be left undisturbed until Government Affairs, Industrial
              Security, the Loss Prevention Department and the safety supervisor have conducted their
              investigation. In some cases the accident site must be rendered safe so as not to contribute to
              further accidents. However precautions shall be taken to keep the accident scene intact as
              much as is possible, to assist local police in their investigation. The investigation should
              include, but not be limited to the following:

              1.      Questioning the man in charge and finding out what was planned.
              2.      Finding out the injured man's job or the normal configuration and function of the
                      damaged equipment or plant.
              3.      Questioning the injured man as soon as possible.
              4.      Questioning the witnesses separately as to what they actually saw, not what they think
                      happened.
              5.      Studying the equipment or plant layout and noting any signs of misuse.
              6.      Finding the explanation of any irregularities.
              7.      From the information obtained, establishing the reason why the "unplanned" events
                      took over from those that were "planned".
              8.      Recommending items of corrective action and methods of implementing them to
                      prevent the recurrence of the incident.
              9.      Making a scaled drawing of the accident scene and supplement that with supporting
                      photographs.

3.5           Accident Analysis

              3.5.1       Classification

                          Contractors can use nine main classifications to analyze industrial accidents.
                          Every contractor should go through the following classifications and their
                          breakdowns to determine which of these (if any) apply to the incidents in which
                          they were involved. These records help to illustrate accident trends. In turn, this
                          helps the Loss Prevention Department (Saudi Aramco) evaluate their safety
                          program and modify or upgrade it as needed. This information is supplemental to
                          the findings and reporting requirements of the preceding "Accident Investigation"
                          sections.




February 1993 - 3.0 Accident Investigation, Analysis And Reporting                                     Page 12
                          The nine classifications with their individual breakdowns are:

1. Falls (Of Persons from Heights)                             5. Equipment
   To the ground or another level                                 Moving Parts
   From scaffolding                                               Equipment in motion
   From ladders                                                   Hot surfaces
   Into holes, trenches, etc.
   Into water

1a. Falls (Of Persons on the Level)                            6. Hand Tools
    To the ground                                                 Cartridge hammers
    Against objects                                               Power tools
                                                                  Non-power tools

2. Handling Objects                                            7. Transportation
   From lifting                                                    Road
   From pulling or pushing                                         Site
   Handling materials
   Electric shock

3. Striking Against Objects                                    8. Lifting Appliances
   Protruding nails                                               Cranes
   Scaffold tubes and fittings                                    Hoists and winches
   Stepping or kneeling on objects                                Pull-lifts, pulleys, wheels, etc.
                                                                  Piling frames
                                                                  A-frames
                                                                  Excavations

4. Struck by Objects                                           9. Hazardous Atmospheres
   Falling objects                                                 Hydrogen Sulfide
   Foreign bodies in eyes                                          Others
   Flying objects




February 1993 - 3.0 Accident Investigation, Analysis And Reporting                                    Page 13
FIGURE I.1: PRELIMINARY ACCIDENT REPORT
Detailed Report Required Within 3 Days                        Control No_________________

Accident Location:                       Date Of Accident:                  Time Of Accident:

Company:                                 Personnel Injured:                 Badge Number:


Type Of Injuries:                                             Property Damage And Estimated
                                                              Cost Damage:




Description Of Accident:




Witness Statement(s)




What Caused The Accident:




What Corrective Action Has Been Taken




Signed:_______________________________________________________________Badge
No:________________________

Date Of Report:________________________________________________

Name (Printed):_____________________________________________________________________

Company:___________________________________________________                   Job
Title:_________________________________




February 1993 - 3.0 Accident Investigation, Analysis And Reporting                              Page 14
FIGURE I.2: CONTRACTOR MONTHLY SAFETY REPORT

PROJECT TITLE:___________________________________              LOCATION:_________________________________


CONTRACTOR:_______________________________________________________________________________________


BUDGET ITEM No:._______________________________________ CONTRACT No.:________________JOB No:_______




     1. Work Injuries:


     2. Fires:


     3. Incidents Or Property Damage (Over SR 10,000):


     4. Motor Vehicle Accidents:


     5. Incidents Involving Damage To Saudi Aramco Equipment:


     6. Crane, Heavy Equipment & Manlift Accidents:


     7. Safety Meeting:


                                              (A) Topics Discussed:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
                                                  (B) Attendance:




                                                 (C) Instructor(s):




Prepared By:_____________________________ Contractor Safety Officer:_____________________________________

Signed By:____________________________________ Saudi Aramco Representative:____________________________

                                                                       Date:___________________________




February 1993 - 3.0 Accident Investigation, Analysis And Reporting                                          Page 15
4.0       RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SAFETY
The Saudi Aramco proponent must ensure the company's safety and accident prevention policies are
clearly understood by all employees and contractor personnel. The duties and responsibilities of
employees, supervisors, and management must be stated in writing by the company's management. All
employees should satisfactorily discharge the responsibilities of their job, and be aware that their safety
record will be taken into account during performance appraisals.

The main responsibilities of various members of a construction team are cited in the following:

4.1           Contractor Senior Management

              1.  Initiate the company's policy for the control of injury, damage and fire.
              2.  Administer the policy himself or appoint a senior member of staff to do so.
              3.  Know the requirements of Schedule 'D' and the relevant parts of Saudi Arab
                  Government Workmen's Regulations, and ensure they are observed by his company.
              4. Ensure that all supervisors are qualified and that they receive adequate and appropriate
                  training.
              5. Make sure that in tendering, at planning stages and throughout the contract, allowance
                  is made for suitable and sufficient equipment to enable the jobs to be done with
                  minimum risk.
              6. Coordinate safety activities between Saudi Aramco, subcontractors and any other
                  individual contractors who may be working on the same site.
              7. Institute proper system for investigation, reporting and estimating the cost of injury,
                  property damage and fire loss. Initiate analysis to discover accident trends and promote
                  action to prevent recurrence.
              8. Reprimand any supervisor for failing to discharge satisfactorily the responsibility
                  allocated to him.
              9. Set a personal example.
              10. Ensure that a formal Hazard Identification Plan is prepared in order to identify and
                  correct hazards which may be encountered during construction. (See Appendix A.4.)

4.2           Design Engineer

              Design for safety, taking into consideration those risks that might arise during construction or
              in the operation of plant or equipment. Follow established process hazard analysis
              techniques to evaluate and correct hazards during the design process.

4.3           Contractor's Safety Officer

              1.     Advise management on the following:

                                 Ways to prevent injury to personnel, damage to plant and/or equipment and
                                  fires.
                                 Ways to improve existing work methods.
                                 Legal and contractual requirements affecting safety, health and welfare.
                                 Provision and use of protective clothing and equipment.
                                 Potential hazards on site before work starts and on the safety organization
                                  and fire precautions required.
                                 Changes in safety requirements.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Responsibilities For Safety                                Page 16
               2.    Carry out site surveys to see that only safe work methods are in operation, that health
                     and safety requirements are being observed, and welfare and first aid facilities are
                     adequate and properly maintained.
               3.    Determine the cause of any accident (or dangerous occurrence), and recommend means
                     of preventing recurrence of such an incident.
               4.    Supervise the recording and analysis of information on injuries, damage and production
                     loss. Assess accident trends and review overall safety performance.
               5.    Assist with training employees at all levels.
               6.    Take part in discussions on injury, damage and loss control.
               7.    Keep up-to-date with recommended codes of practice and safety literature. Circulate
                     information applicable to each level of employees.
               8.    Foster within the company an understanding that injury prevention and damage control
                     are an integral part of business and operational efficiency.
               9.    Attend job progress meetings where safety is an item on the agenda. Report on job
                     safety performance.

4.4            Construction Manager/Superintendent

               1.    Understand the company's safety policy and the responsibility allocated to each grade
                     of supervision.
               2.    Know the requirements of Schedule 'D' and relevant Saudi Arab Government
                     Workmen's Regulations, and ensure that they are observed.
               3.    Ensure that tenders adequately allow for sound working methods and reasonable
                     welfare facilities.
               4.    Determine the following at the planning stage:

                                 The most appropriate order and method of performing the job.
                                 Allocation of responsibilities for Saudi Aramco, sub-contractors, and other
                                  contractors.
                                 Storage areas, access, etc.
                                 Any hazards identified under the hazard identification procedure described in
                                  Appendix A.4.
                                 Facilities for welfare, first aid and sanitation.
                                 Work permit procedures and requirements.
                                 Basic precautions for dealing with fire hazards.

               5.    Provide written instructions to establish work methods, explain the sequence of
                     operations, outline potential hazards at each stage, and indicate precautions to be
                     adopted.
               6.    Check over work methods and precautions with supervision before work starts.
               7.    Create safety awareness by promoting safety meetings, presentations, open forum
                     discussions and by implementing safety training.
               8.    Set a personal example on site by wearing appropriate protective clothing and
                     equipment at all times.
               9.    Ensure that all accidents are reported to Saudi Aramco in accordance with Section 3.




February 1993 - 4.0 Responsibilities For Safety                                                          Page 17
4.5            Site Safety Supervisor
               (If different from contractor's safety officer)

               1.    Understand the requirements of Schedule 'D' and the company's loss prevention policy.
               2.    Inspect the work site daily to report and correct unsafe methods and conditions.
               3.    Keep a permanent record of all injuries, fires, motor vehicle accidents (MVAs),
                     property damage and crane/heavy equipment accidents which have occurred at the site.
               4.    Keep a record of every weekly safety meeting on site complete with subject discussed
                     and a list of attendees.
               5.    Set a personal example.

4.6            Equipment Manager/Supervisor

               1.    Ensure that all equipment purchased or hired is safe, is guarded and equipped with
                     safety devices and has been subjected to all necessary tests.
               2.    Make certain that operators and attendants are employed only on equipment for which
                     they have been thoroughly trained.
               3.    Check that periodic tests, inspections and maintenance are carried out when due.
               4.    Attend promptly to all equipment defects and advise site management of the need for
                     any dangerous equipment to be taken out of service until properly repaired.

4.7            Engineer/Supervisor

               1.    Organize sites so that work is carried out to the required standard with minimum risk to
                     men, equipment and materials.
               2.    Know the requirements of Schedule 'D'.
               3.    Be familiar with work permit procedures.
               4.    Give precise instructions on responsibilities for correct work methods.
               5.    Plan and provide for good housekeeping.
               6.    Coordinate with sub-contractors and other contractors on site to avoid any confusion
                     about areas of responsibility.
               7     Position equipment effectively and ensure that electricity supply is installed, used and
                     maintained correctly.
               8.    Check that equipment and tools (both power and hand tools) are maintained in good
                     operating condition.
               9.    Make sure that all men know how to obtain and administer first aid properly and
                     efficiently to all injured persons. They should also know how to summon assistance in
                     case of emergency and nominate others to act in your absence.
               11.   Make sure that suitable personal protective equipment is available and that it is used.
               12.   Release supervisors and men when necessary for safety and fire training.
               13.   Cooperate with the safety engineer and the fire department, by acting on their
                     recommendations.
               14.   Set a personal example.

4.8            Foreman

               1.    Be familiar with those parts of Schedule 'D' applicable to the work on which
                     subordinate workers are engaged.
               2.    Incorporate safety procedures in routine tasks and see that they are obeyed.
               3.    Conduct weekly safety meetings with subordinates.




February 1993 - 4.0 Responsibilities For Safety                                                       Page 18
               4.    Conduct daily work site inspections to identify and correct any existing unsafe
                     conditions. Document and coordinate the safety inspection activities and findings with
                     the job site safety supervisor.
               5.    Correct unsafe acts, such as horseplay or the taking of unnecessary risks.
               6.    Ensure that new employees are properly instructed in precautions to be taken before
                     they are allowed to start work.
               7.    Commend men who, by action or initiative, eliminate hazards.
               8.    Report accidents, unsafe conditions and defects in equipment to immediate superiors.
               9.    Set a personal example.

4.9            Worker

               1.    Use the correct tools and equipment for the job. Use protective clothing and equipment
                     provided.
               2.    Do nothing to endanger self or work mates.
               3.    Keep tools in good condition.
               4.    Refrain from horseplay and abuse of safety devices, equipment and welfare facilities.
               5.    Report any accidents, near misses or hazardous conditions to immediate supervisor.
               6.    Read the Company safety rules and take note of special safety precautions in restricted
                     areas.
               7.    Obey all posted warning signs.

                           .




February 1993 - 4.0 Responsibilities For Safety                                                      Page 19
5.0       EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Saudi Aramco departments and organizations have established disaster and emergency response plans
that are documented in general instructions (GIs), department operating instruction manuals (OIMs),
terminal instruction manuals (TIMs), and refinery instruction manuals (RIMs), etc. All managers and
supervisors are expected to become familiar with the emergency procedures of the plants and areas in
which any of their staff are working. Construction site-specific written emergency procedures shall be
prepared by the Contractor and submitted as part of the Contractor's loss prevention program plan.
Details of the written procedures may be obtained from the Saudi Aramco representative, operating
supervisor, or loss prevention engineer.

General guidelines for preparing emergency response plans can be found in the following Saudi Aramco
Loss Prevention Department publication:

                      Guidelines For Preparing Emergency Response Plans, October 1989

5.1           Action to be Taken

              In an emergency, or on hearing the "Stop Work Alarm", every supervisor shall ensure the
              following:

              1.      All work is stopped at once.
              2.      All equipment is shut down.
              3.      All men are evacuated to a pre-determined assembly point.
              4.      A roll call is taken and every man is accounted for.
              5.      No one is permitted to return to work until notification has been received from
                      operations or from the company representative that it is safe to do so.

              Refer to the specific procedures established in each Company operating area.

5.2           Contact After Office Hours

              The contractor's supervisor shall give his home address and telephone number (and that of
              his replacement) to the company representative so that he may be contacted after hours in
              case of emergency involving the contractor's job or equipment. These telephone numbers are
              to be kept current and posted at the job-site.

5.3           Help in an Emergency

              5.3.1

                          In the event of an emergency situation (serious personal injury, fire, critical
                          damage to operating equipment, etc.) help may be obtained by contacting the
                          nearest Saudi Aramco Main Gate or Security Control Center. This may be done:

                          1.      By telephone: Dial the emergency telephone number 110.
                          2.      By radio: Radio an operations group that has a telephone in the Saudi
                                  Aramco system and ask them to dial 110 when the Main Gate or Security
                                  Control Center cannot be contacted directly.




February 1993 - Construction Safety - Emergency Procedures                                          Page 20
                         3.      By messenger: Send a messenger to the nearest telephone, radio, or Saudi
                                 Aramco Main Gate or Security Control Center.

              5.3.2

                         When transmitting a message by telephone, radio, or messenger, ensure that you
                         clearly identify yourself by giving:

                                Your exact location
                                Nature of emergency
                                Service required and repeat the message
                                Your name
                                Your badge number

                         Stay on the telephone until you are told to hang up. If possible, post a lookout to
                         direct the ambulance, fire truck or helicopter to the right location.




February 1993 - 5.0 Emergency Procedures                                                             Page 21
6.0       SAFETY TRAINING
Good safety training is important to employees who are learning a new trade but it is also necessary to
keep supervisors and skilled operators up-to-date with current safety technology and practices. Safe
working practices are learned when employees understand how an accident was caused. Measures can
then be taken to prevent a recurrence. People who are trained to do their jobs correctly can also be
expected to do them safely.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Schedule 'D':

              Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Loss Prevention Program

6.1           Safety Training for Supervisors

              6.1.1

                          The immediate job of preventing accidents falls upon the supervisor not because it
                          has been arbitrarily assigned to him, but because accident prevention and
                          production control are closely associated supervisory functions.

                          The most direct way to develop the desired attitudes and to impart the necessary
                          information about safety to supervisors is to give them safety training.

              6.1.2

                          The course for supervisors should include legal requirements, company and
                          administrative policies and safety aspects of the work likely to be undertaken by
                          the supervisors. An outline of such a course is given in 6.3.1 of this section.

6.2           Safety Training for Workmen

              Accident prevention training for workmen should incorporate the items listed in 6.3.2.

              6.2.1       Integrated Practices

                          Safe working practices must be integrated into training for specific skills.

                          It is expected that those who have attended recognized training establishments will
                          have received the necessary safety instructions.

              6.2.2       Specialized Training

                          Before their training is complete, new employees and new entrants to industry are
                          more susceptible to accidents. Contractor's must provide safety orientation and
                          training for new employees.

                          Induction training should teach new workers to identify common on-site hazards
                          and how to guard against them. It should also cover the main requirements of the
                          company's accident prevention policy and instruct newcomers specifically in those




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - Safety Training                                             Page 22
                          areas which affect them personally (e.g., if it is company policy that safety helmets
                          and protective footwear should always be worn, then this should be made clear and
                          they should be told how and where to obtain them).

                          Suitable induction courses together with job training containing an integrated
                          safety content will go a long way towards achieving safe working conditions. Site
                          supervision, however, must ensure that correct job methods are being utilized and
                          workmen are periodically reminded to be aware of hazards in the work place.

              6.2.3       Use of Persuasion

                          The training providing skill and information should be supplemented by the
                          techniques of persuasion. Persuasion has an important function and should not be
                          overlooked in any comprehensive program. It is commonly applied by the use of
                          posters which graphically indicate bad habits, pin-point the advantages of a safe
                          working environment and give detailed information, advice, or instruction on
                          special safety points to remember.

                          Posters can be useful provided that:

                                 They are designed with due regard for the industry and its type of operation.
                                 They are displayed where workmen spend some time when not working and
                                  specific posters are displayed where most appropriate (e.g., ladder hazards
                                  in ladder storeroom).
                                 They are mounted on properly designed and maintained bulletin boards.
                                 They are changed at frequent intervals.
                                 Only a few posters are displayed simultaneously.

                          Posters can stimulate thought on accident prevention, but they are no substitute for
                          organized training. The most effective posters are those that help to reinforce
                          safety training.

              6.2.4       Course Requirements

                          An induction safety course for workmen should be aimed at specific hazards which
                          they could encounter at a specific job site. A suggested outline of such a course is
                          given in 6.3.2.

6.3           Scope of Training

              Safety training needs to be ongoing if it is to accomplish optimum results. The program
              material and presentation should cover the safety subject and be interesting enough to hold
              the trainee's attention. A limited training effort, such as an occasional safety meeting, may
              prompt supervisors to do a better job for a short time, but interest starts to lag unless an
              effective safety training program is in place.

              Good job safety instruction not only produces more skilled workers, but also impresses upon
              them the high value that the employer places on job safety. Frequent follow-ups and
              attention by the supervisor to correct work practices also help to create understanding and to
              eliminate resentment, which is a source of some undesirable work attitudes. (See 6.3.1.)




February 1993 - 6.0 Safety Training                                                                     Page 23
              6.3.1       Safety Training Topics For Supervisors

1. The Law and Safety                                 2. Policy and Administration
Statutory requirement                                 Effect of incentive on accident prevention
Appropriate regulations
Duties of employer and employee                       Human relations
Schedule 'D' (Contractual Safety Requirements)        Consultation
                                                      Safety Officer: duties, aims, objectives

3. Safety and the Supervisor                          4. Principles of Accident Prevention
Safety and efficient production go together           Attitudes of management, supervision               and
                                                      operations
Accidents affect morale and public relations          Methods of achieving safe operations
                                                      Accident and injury causes

5. Site Inspection                                    6. Human Behavior
The role of management                                Motivating agencies
Hazard Identification Procedure                       Individual behavior
Records results                                       Environmental effects
Follow-up procedures                                  Techniques of persuasion
Feedback

7. Site Tidiness                                      8. Health
Site organization                                     Medical examination
Relationship of site housekeeping to accident         Hazard to health on site
occurrence
Site access                                           Sanitation and welfare
Equipment storage                                     Protective clothing
Material stacking                                     First Aid/CPR
Materials handling

9. Personal Protective Equipment                      10. Electricity
Eye, face, hands, feet and legs                       Appreciation of electrical hazards
Respiratory protective equipment                      Power tools
Protection against ionizing radiation                 Arc welding
                                                      Low voltage system
                                                      Lighting and power system on sites
                                                      Grounding/Ground fault circuit             interrupters
                                                      (GFCIs)



11. Oxygen and Acetylene Equipment                    12. Equipment
Cylinder storage and maintenance                      Accidents related to moving parts of machinery
Condition and maintenance of valves, regulators,      Appreciation of principles of guarding
and gauges
Condition and maintenance of hoses and fittings       Importance of regular maintenance
Pressures




February 1993 - 6.0 Safety Training                                                                   Page 24
13. Transportation                                  14. Excavations
Transport to and from site                          Method of shoring
Hazard connected with site transport                Precautions while shoring
Competent drivers                                   Precautions at edge of excavations
Dumpers                                             Removal of shoring
Tipping trucks                                      Sheet steel piling
Movement near excavations

15. Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding        16. Cranes and other Lifting Machines
Hazards connected with the use of ladders           Licensing, certification and training required for
                                                    operation of cranes
Maintenance and inspection                          Slinging methods
Type of scaffold                                    Signaling
Overloading                                         Access to crane(s)
Work on roofs                                       Maintenance and examination
Fragile material                                    Ground conditions
Openings in walls and floors                        Hazards and accident prevention methods
                                                    connected with the use of different types of
                                                    cranes/heavy equipment
Use of safety belts and nets                        Crane Lift Plan for all lifts

17. Lifting Tackle                                   18. Fire Prevention and Control
Slings - single and multi-legged                     Principle causes determining fire
Safe working loads (SWLs)                            Understanding fire chemistry
Safety hooks and eyebolts                            Fire fighting equipment
Cause of failure                                     Fire fighting training
Maintenance and examination

19. Communications
Effective methods of communication (particular interest to non-English speaking workers)
Method and preparation of reports
Safety committees
Safety meeting




February 1993 - 6.0 Safety Training                                                             Page 25
              6.3.2       Induction Safety Topics For Workmen

                          1.          Hazard Identification Procedure

                                      Hazards on site:
                                       Machinery
                                       Transport
                                       Flammables on site (hydrocarbon)
                                       Fire
                                       Falls
                                       Electricity
                                       Site housekeeping
                                       Handling materials

                          2.          Precautions Against the Above Hazards

                                         Simple precautions that can be taken by workmen on site.

                          3.          Personal Protective Equipment

                                         What is available
                                         How to obtain it
                                         Correct use and care

                          4.          Health

                                         Site welfare facilities
                                         Potential health hazards
                                         First Aid/CPR

                          5.          Duties of the Company

                                         Brief outline of the responsibilities of the Company by law
                                         Details of Company's accident prevention policy
                                         Saudi Aramco Safety and Loss Prevention Requirements For
                                          Contractors (Schedule 'D')
                                         Saudi Arab Labor Law

                          6.          Employee's Duties

                                         Brief outline of responsibilities of employee under law
                                         Explanation of how new employees fit into the Company's plan
                                          for accident prevention.




February 1993 - 6.0 Safety Training                                                                  Page 26
7.0       SITE PLANNING AND HOUSEKEEPING
This section outlines the procedure to be followed prior to and during a contract. It cannot claim to cover
every type of contract that is likely to occur, but it does provide a detailed logical process to serve as a
guide in deciding upon a plan of action.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco Standards:

GI 1021.000           Street And Road Closure And Excavations, Reinstatement And Traffic Controls

SAES-P-123            Lighting; Illumination Requirements

SAES-B-007C           Portable, Mobile and Auxiliary Fire-Fighting Equipment

Appendix C:           Typical Construction Materials Store Yard.
                      Fire Safety Checklist for Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard

Schedule 'D':

                  Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements
          (See Appendix A)

National Fire Protection Association:

NFPA 80-A             Protection of Buildings from Exterior Fire Exposures

NFPA 231 - Appendix 'C'

                       Protection of Outdoor Storage

7.1           Initial Planning

              Prior to the start of any contract, an analysis is made by the contractor to ensure that
              construction will be conducted in a safe manner. Similarly, accident prevention is analyzed,
              both at the planning stage and throughout the contract, so that the contractor will be able to
              eliminate or reduce accidents. Accident prevention is a real factor in the economic success
              of all contracts.

              Among other factors that must be considered at the initial planning stage are: results of a
              Hazard Identification Plan, loss prevention program, protection of employees and equipment,
              transportation, lifting equipment, excavation, scaffolding and work in restricted areas
              requiring work permits.

              7.1.1       Hazard Identification Plan

                          The contractor shall conduct a Hazard Identification tour with the Company and
                          Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention representatives to identify potential hazards prior
                          to construction start-up.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Site Planning And Housekeeping                           Page 27
              7.1.2      Loss Prevention Program

                         A loss prevention program required in Schedule 'D' for specific job-related
                         activities part of proposed construction work will be developed and coordinated by
                         the contractor's safety supervisor. Part of this program will be a ten-minute safety
                         discussion with the workmen, at least once a week, on the hazards at the site and
                         the procedures to be followed to prevent personal injury and minimize property
                         damage.

              7.1.3      Protection of Employees and Equipment

                         Schedule 'D' details the requirements to be followed by the contractor to reduce
                         losses. It places the responsibility for the protection of men and equipment on the
                         contractor and outlines general minimum acceptable standards.

              7.1.4      Transportation

                         The contractor must provide transportation to and from the site for his employees.

                         Saudi Aramco requires that employees must be transported only in the passenger
                         compartment of vehicles. (See Section I.13.) The provision of buses for larger
                         sites will have to be considered. Inspection and maintenance of vehicles and the
                         selection and training of drivers are other major considerations.

              7.1.5      Lifting Equipment

                         Cranes, hoists and lifting equipment should be considered well ahead of actual
                         requirements both from the point of view of economical use and the safety of
                         personnel and equipment. Lift plans shall be submitted as required. (See Section
                         III.1 and III.2.)

              7.1.6      Demolition

                         Some contracts in existing plant areas may require demolition before new work can
                         begin. Only minor demolition should be done by construction personnel.
                         Specialist contractors should be employed for the demolition of larger structures.
                         (See Section II.3.)

              7.1.7      Excavations

                         Timber for shoring, steel sheet piles, etc. should be present on site prior to starting
                         excavation work. All excavation work will be closely supervised by experienced
                         staff. (See Section II.2.)

              7.1.8      Scaffolding
                         For all work carried out above ground level where no permanent work place is
                         available, temporary work places in the form of scaffolding must be provided. An
                         adequate supply of scaffold material must be on site. There must be sufficient
                         experienced men capable of erecting and dismantling the scaffolding properly.
                         Ladders, built to an acceptable standard, must be supplied and readily available for
                         access to elevated work areas. (See Section II.9.)




February 1993 - 7.0 Site Planning And Housekeeping                                                       Page 28
7.2           Site Layout

              The site layout must be planned before any work is started. This will assist in making the job
              easier and more efficient, thus increasing productivity and profit.

              Items to be considered under site layout include the following:

              7.2.1      Site Accommodation

                         This includes shacks, storage huts, compounds, racking areas, lock-up boxes,
                         office buildings, etc.

              7.2.2      Adequate Access Roads

                         To be kept clear and unobstructed at all times.

              7.2.3      Project Sign

                         Erect project sign at the main entrance to the construction site and other sites, i.e.,
                         office, laydown yard, fabrication yard, etc., as designated by the Company
                         representative.

                         The sign shall be a minimum of four feet in height, and eight feet in width. The
                         printing on the sign shall be black and white and shall be in both Arabic and
                         English. The Arabic text will be above, or to the right of the English text.

                         The sign shall list:

                                PROJECT MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION
                                PROJECT TITLE
                                BUDGET ITEM NUMBER (BI NO.)
                                PRIME CONTRACTOR NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE
                                 NUMBER
                                HOUR EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS FOR COMPANY
                                 REPRESENTATIVE AND CONTRACTOR

                         The sign shall be erected within two weeks after the contractor has started work on
                         site. Contractor shall also erect and maintain sufficient signs on or near the site to
                         direct delivery vehicles and visitors to the work site.

                         Example of Job Site Sign:

                         SAUDI ARAMCO/CENTRAL AREA PROJECTS
                         SAUDI ARAMCO BUILT GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS
                         BOYS SECONDARY - DAMMAM    BI (2510) (ERC. 1990)
                         CONTRACTOR:
                         NAME
                         PO. BOX
                         LOCATION
                         TELEPHONE NUMBER
                         SAUDI ARAMCO REPRESENTATIVE
                         TEL. - OFFICE/TEL. - HOME




February 1993 - 7.0 Site Planning And Housekeeping                                                       Page 29
              7.2.4      Safe Means of Access and Egress

                         To be provided on site wherever employees are likely to go; these must be kept
                         clear and unobstructed at all times.

              7.2.5      Parking Facilities

                         To be provided in clearly defined areas on site.

              7.2.6      Drainage

                         The site should have good drainage and be graded in such a way that water does
                         not pool up during construction.

              7.2.7      Vehicle / Heavy Equipment Paths On Site Vs Pedestrian Paths

                         Pathways for workmen must be clearly marked and distinct from vehicular travel
                         routes on site.

              7.2.8      Sand

                         In sand dune areas that might lie adjacent to or around a construction site,
                         consideration should be given to the movement or build up of sand.

              7.2.9      Fire Prevention

                         Suitable fire extinguishers must be readily available on site. The area around fire
                         extinguishers or hydrants must be kept clear so that they are readily accessible in
                         case of emergency. They must be regularly inspected and maintained. Site
                         personnel must be trained in the use of fire fighting equipment. (See Section I.11).

              7.2.10     Site Illumination

                         Adequate lighting must be provided in all areas of the job site in accordance with
                         SAES-P-123.

                         The National Electric Code and National Fire Protection Association standards
                         should be consulted for specific areas. Grounding requirements will be per NFPA.
                         In hazardous areas (e.g., tank farms and indoor fuel areas), NFPA 30, 37, 58 and
                         70 will be enforced.

7.3           Storage Areas

              Note: See Appendix C. Fire Protection Checklist for Evaluating Construction Materials
              Store Yard; and Figure III.13 (Typical Construction Materials Store Yard).

              7.3.1

                         Storage areas must be adequate for all material and equipment to be stored.




February 1993 - 7.0 Site Planning And Housekeeping                                                     Page 30
              7.3.2

                         They should not be within 15 meters (50 feet) of permanent or temporary
                         structures.

              7.3.3

                         Storage areas should be clearly marked.

              7.3.4

                         They should have directional signs to facilitate speedy delivery.

7.4           Welfare Facilities

              Adequate welfare facilities must be provided. The following are minimum requirements:

              7.4.1

                         Canteen or eating area adequate for total work force must be provided. This area
                         shall be clean of refuse and meet Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements.

              7.4.2

                         Rest area must be provided.

              7.4.3

                         Adequate toilet and washing facilities must be provided. Toilets shall be provided
                         in places where they may be easily accessible at the rate of one toilet for every
                         fifteen workmen or less. These shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.

              7.4.4

                         An adequate supply of drinking water must be available. Common drinking cups
                         or dips are prohibited.

              7.4.5

                         First aid facilities must be supplied and arrangements made for medical care and
                         for emergency situations.

              7.4.6

                         Where necessary, safe smoking areas must be provided, with the concurrence of
                         the responsible area Loss Prevention office.

7.5           Good Housekeeping

              The required standard of housekeeping must be established on site and all personnel
              informed of this standard. Trash, debris and refuse should be collected daily. All employees
              shall clean their respective work areas daily before quitting.




February 1993 - 7.0 Site Planning And Housekeeping                                                  Page 31
              Covered containers, drums, etc., should be provided at various, clearly marked locations
              throughout the work site. The containers should be emptied daily at approved rubbish
              dumps.

7.6           Construction Sites and Materials Storage Yards
              (See Appendix C)

              7.6.1

                         The contractor's engineer shall establish the perimeter of the site by agreement with
                         the proponent department. He may consult the Loss Prevention Department for
                         assistance.

              7.6.2

                         The perimeter fence for construction sites and materials storage yards shall be
                         properly grounded and of sound construction and design appropriate for the
                         intended protection of the area.        The Saudi Aramco Industrial Security
                         organization should be consulted for details.

              7.6.3

                         The fence shall be frequently inspected by a representative of the contractor's
                         engineer.

              7.6.4

                         Any access paths through the proposed site shall be rerouted outside the perimeter.
                         Loss Prevention Department is to be consulted on any such rerouting.

              7.6.5

                         Where a fence crosses existing roads, red and white, blue and white, or black and
                         reflective yellow (or white) flags shall be fastened to the fence. If access is
                         blocked, a dead-end sign will be erected on the approach to the fence with the
                         distance of the obstruction marked below the sign. However, if there is a
                         temporary by-pass, a "DIVERSION AHEAD" sign shall be erected on the
                         approach to the fence and diversion arrows showing the route shall be displayed on
                         the fence in black and yellow (or white) reflective material.

              7.6.6

                         A suitable number of soundly constructed access gates shall be provided. The
                         number of access gates will be kept to a minimum on main thoroughfares (See
                         NFPA 231 Appendix 'C'). A minimum of two fifteen-foot wide gates are
                         required.

              7.6.7

                         Standard Saudi Arab Government stop signs will be fixed to the inside of the
                         vehicle access gates.




February 1993 - 7.0 Site Planning And Housekeeping                                                     Page 32
              7.6.8

                         Temporary signs should be erected to route traffic in the safest manner to, from,
                         and within the site. Temporary signs shall not be placed on public highways and
                         roads (reference Saudi Arab Government traffic regulations).

              7.6.9

                         While not in use all power driven construction equipment must have the ignition
                         locked and key removed. If there is no lock for the cab and access can be readily
                         made into the engine compartment, then the machine must be made immobile by
                         disconnecting the battery or by any other means especially if the equipment is left
                         outside the perimeter. This must be carried out before leaving the equipment
                         unattended.

              7.6.10

                         Crane booms, bulldozer blades, and front end loader buckets on all construction
                         equipment should be lowered when the equipment is left overnight. For a crane
                         boom where this is not possible, the boom will be locked off in such a manner that
                         it cannot be dropped or blown over by the wind.

              7.6.11

                         Job site electrical power must be de-energized at night unless required for specific
                         lighting facilities or used by a night watchman.

              7.6.12

                         The project will provide its own barricades. Barricades will only be supplied by
                         the area Industrial Security Departments on a short term emergency basis.

              7.6.13

                         Any excavation or obstruction of any kind likely to create a hazard to vehicular
                         traffic at night will be adequately lit and a sign posted. (See GI 1021.000.)

              7.6.14

                         If large pools of water are formed which cannot be adequately drained, these shall
                         be separately fenced or barricaded if they constitute a safety hazard.




February 1993 - 7.0 Site Planning And Housekeeping                                                    Page 33
              7.6.15

                         There shall be no indiscriminate dumping of excavation spoil or building materials.
                         Fire hydrants, manholes and electrical conduits will be kept clear at all times. The
                         contractor's engineer shall designate sites for dumping.

              7.6.16

                         All manhole covers will be replaced or the manhole properly barricaded.

              7.6.17

                         Guy ropes will be clearly marked day and night as will any rope used as a
                         barricade.

              7.6.18

                         Refuse must be disposed of at a job site approved for such purposes and the
                         contractor must have permission to use the site. Approved disposal sites can be
                         those of Saudi Aramco or local municipalities. It is forbidden for contractors to
                         dump refuse in any unauthorized area.

              7.6.19

                         Clock stations can be requested from Industrial Security provided sufficient notice
                         is given to ensure their availability.

              7.6.20

                         The Saudi Aramco Project Representative shall notify the Loss Prevention
                         Department representative and also the area Industrial Security Department about
                         the time and place for the pre-construction meeting and also the first weekly site
                         meeting which these departments should plan to attend.

              7.6.21

                         It is the responsibility of the Company representative to initiate road closure
                         requirements on work activity to ensure that all construction/maintenance adheres
                         to the conditions of GI 1021.000 (See Appendix D) and that a notice of intent is
                         placed in the company "Highlights and Notices" publication before work start-up.




February 1993 - 7.0 Site Planning And Housekeeping                                                    Page 34
8.0       FIRST AID
First aid is the immediate help that is provided at the site to an injured or seriously ill person before
professional medical help can be obtained.

It is the responsibility of all contractors to ensure that proper first aid is available to their employees on
all job sites.

Provisions shall be made prior to start-up of the project for prompt medical attention in case of medical
emergencies.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 1321.015           Request for Air Medical Evacuation

GI 150.002            First Aid / CPR Training and First Aid Kits - Remote Areas

Schedule 'D':

                           Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements -

                           Injury and Damage Reporting
                           First Aid Facilities

8.1           Provision of First Aid Facilities

              Every contractor shall provide first aid facilities on all sites for his employees. The first aid
              facility shall be kept in a sanitary condition at all times. Minimum requirements shall include
              the following: a telephone; desk; hot and cold water; wash basin; examining table; air
              conditioning; adequate lighting; and dust tight medical supply cabinet.

              8.1.1

                           First aid supplies shall be kept readily available in a cabinet designated for those
                           supplies only. (See 8.3 for a recommended list of cabinet contents.)

              8.1.2

                           This cabinet shall be placed under the charge of a first aid attendant, who shall
                           ensure the cabinet is well stocked at all times.

              8.1.3

                           A suitable type of stretcher must be available on all sites.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - First Aid                                                  Page 35
              8.1.4

                           Contractors shall post notices indicating the following:

                           1.      The name of the person who is in charge of the first aid cabinet.
                           2.      The hospital to which any injured person who requires hospital treatment is
                                   to be sent.
                           3.      The telephone number of the doctor or first aid attendant employed by the
                                   contractor.
                           4.      The emergency telephone number to be called for assistance.

              8.1.5

                           Contractors on pipeline and power line work or who are working in remote areas
                           shall ensure that one vehicle is equipped with a well-stocked first aid kit for each
                           crew, and that at least one man in every crew is trained in first aid. The vehicle
                           shall be marked to indicate that it carries a first aid kit. (See GI 150.002. First
                           Aid Training and First Aid Kits - Remote Areas.)

              8.1.6

                           A site register shall be maintained by all contractors listing all injuries treated.
                           (See Figure I.3 Example.)

8.2           First Aid Attendants

              8.2.1

                           When more than 50 persons are employed within a radius of 15 kilometers, first
                           aid facilities run by a nurse familiar with first aid cardiopulmonary resuscitation
                           (CPR) requirements and exclusively assigned to medical duties.

              8.2.2

                           Those persons in charge of first aid supplies on smaller sites with less than 50
                           workers should be trained in first aid procedures.

              8.2.3

                           The contractor shall provide, or make arrangements to provide, a dedicated
                           emergency vehicle (ambulance), properly supplied and marked, to transport
                           injured personnel to the nearest designated health care facility.

                           Each ambulance shall be equipped, as a minimum, with the following supplies:

                               Stretcher and blankets
                               Portable oxygen
                               Splints for bone fractures
                               Bandages/rubber tourniquet
                               Sterile wash water




February 1993 - 8.0 First Aid                                                                           Page 36
              8.2.4        Medical Evacuation Capabilities

                           Saudi Aramco has the ability to provide air medical evacuations (Medevac) for
                           both onshore and offshore medical emergencies with helicopters or fixed wing
                           aircraft. The procedures to initiate a Medevac are covered in GI 1321.015 and
                           shall be incorporated in the Contractor's Loss Prevention Program plan.

8.3           First Aid Facilities At Work Site
              (Originally Published in Umm al-Qura, No. 2534 July 26, 1974)
              Decision No. 404 Based on Articles 245 of Labor Law

              Article I

              An employer who employs less than fifty workmen shall provide at the work site a first aid
              cabinet containing bandages, medicines, and disinfectants as follows:

                           1.    A sufficient number of not less than 12 sterile, small-size finger dressings.
                           2.    A sufficient number of not less than 6 sterile medium-size hand dressings.
                           3.    A sufficient number of not less than 6 sterile large-size hand dressings.
                           4.    A sufficient supply of absorbent cotton wool for packing and firming up
                                 splints. Such supply shall not be less than 200 grams of cotton wool in
                                 small 25-gram packages and two 500-gram packages.
                           5.    A sufficient number of not less than 12 gauze bandages 7 cm. in width.
                           6.    A sufficient number of not less than 12 gauze bandages 11 cm. in width.
                           7.    Not less than 4 yards of adhesive tape in rolls, 1 cm. in width.
                           8.    Not less than 100 grams of Mercurochrome in aqueous solution.
                           9.    Two 10-gram shakers of sulfa powder for sterilization of wounds.
                           10.   100 grams of aromatic ammonia solution in a glass bottle with a glass
                                 stopper.
                           11.   A medium-sized Thomas' thigh splint, a wooden posterior leg splint, a
                                 wooden elbow splint, a wooden Carr splint for the forearm, a wooden palm
                                 splint, and other types of ready-to-use splints.
                           12.   A minimum of 6 triangle bandages.
                           13.   A minimum of safety pins.
                           14.   Ointment for burns containing a disinfectant and an analgesic.
                           15.   A minimum of ten 70 x 70 bandages for burns.
                           16.   A pair of scissors with blunt ends.
                           17.   A sufficient number of stretchers for moving injured persons.

              If work is carried out in scattered locations which are more than 300 meters apart, a separate
              cabinet shall be provided for every group consisting of more than ten workmen.

              Article II

              The employer shall assign one or more persons to be responsible for administering first aid to
              the injured at all times during working hours, provided that the person-in-charge shall be one
              of the establishment's employees who will either be trained in first-aid procedures in
              accordance with a program to be agreed upon with the Saudi Red Crescent Society, or who
              holds a certificate from a hospital attesting that he has practiced first-aid and is qualified to
              administer it.




February 1993 - 8.0 First Aid                                                                            Page 37
              Article III

              An employer who employs 50 or more laborers shall provide at the work site a first aid room
              which meets the following standards:

                           (a)   It shall meet all sanitary specifications.
                           (b)   It shall be conveniently located and readily accessible to injured persons and
                                 stretcher-bearers.
                           (c)   Where quick means of transporting for the injured are not available, the said
                                 room shall not be more than 300 meters from the farthest work site.
                           (d)   An adequate number of stretchers shall be available for moving the injured
                                 to the first aid room.
                           (e)   First aid materials and supplies shall be no less than those specified under
                                 Article I, provided that they are in proportion to the number of workmen.
                           (f)   A licensed nurse shall be on duty at all times during working hours under
                                 the supervision of a physician.

              Article IV

              Supplies of any item in the first aid cabinets and rooms shall be replenished whenever they
              fall below the levels specified herein.

              Article V

              The first aid cabinet shall be of hard wood or sheet metal, measuring 85 cm. in length, 45 cm.
              in width, and 30 cm. in depth. They shall be painted white and shall be provided with one
              lock and more than one key. The cabinets shall bear the Red Crescent insignia and the words
              "First Aid Cabinet". All first aid cabinets shall be conveniently located in clean place above
              floor level and shall always be ready for use and easily accessible at all times. Signs shall be
              posted in conspicuous places at the various work sites to indicate the location of the cabinet
              and the name of the workmen in charge of first aid.

              Article VI

              An employer who employs less than fifty workmen shall assign an appropriate number of his
              workmen to receive first aid training in accordance with Article II.

              Article VII

              The Director General of the Department of Labor Inspection shall be charged with
              implementing this decision. He is authorized to increase the contents of the first aid cabinets
              or rooms in those industries and trades requiring such an increase, to stipulate special first
              aid procedures to implement the above articles, to determine the placing (if he deems it
              necessary) of first aid cabinets for any group comprising less than ten workmen, and to fix
              the number of stretchers and the number of workmen to be trained.




February 1993 - 8.0 First Aid                                                                           Page 38
8.4           Labor And Workmen Law

                                     Saudi Labor And Workmen Law
                                               Chapter 7
                                      Protection An Social Services
                                        Labor And Workmen Law
                                              Articles 134-6

              Article 134

              The employer shall provide first-aid services for the workmen in accordance with the
              standards to be determined by the Minister of Labor in collaboration with the Minister of
              Health. If the number of his workmen in a single location or town, or within a radius of
              fifteen kilometers, exceeds fifty, he shall employ a nurse who shall be familiar with first-aid
              services and shall be exclusively assigned to rendering such services; the employer shall
              assign a physician to examine and treat the workmen at the place to be provided by the
              employer for this purpose, and the employer shall provide them with the medicines necessary
              for their treatment. The aforementioned services shall be free of charge whether during work
              hours or otherwise. If in the cases mentioned above, the number of workmen exceeds a
              hundred, the employer shall, in addition, provide them with all other means of treatment in
              cases requiring treatment by specialists, or performance of surgical other operations. In case
              operations are performed, as well as in cases of incurable diseases, the expenses shall be
              taken from the Social Insurance Funds.             The costs of treatment, medicines and
              hospitalizations in government or charitable hospitals, as well as the party who will assume
              such costs, shall be determined pursuant to the decision to be made by the Minister of Labor
              in agreement with the Minister of Health, or to the rules laid down in the Social Insurance
              Law.

              However, if the number of workmen is less than fifty, the employer must provide the
              workmen with a medical aid cabinet which shall be maintained in a good condition and shall
              contain the bandages, medicines, and antiseptics to be determined by the Minister of Labor in
              agreement with the Minister of Health, in order to provide the workmen with first aid.

              Article 135

              Every employer who employs more than fifty workmen shall inform the appropriate Labor
              Office of the name of the physician who he has selected to treat his workmen. In case he
              employs more than an hundred workmen, he shall inform the Office of the names of the
              physicians and specialists whom he has selected to treat his workmen, and of the names of
              the hospitals which he has designated for that purpose. In both cases, he must notify the
              appropriate Labor Office of the minimum number of days fixed for the examination of
              workmen, provided that this minimum shall not be less than three times a week.

              Article 136

              Every employer shall prepare for each workman a medical file showing the result of the
              medical examination performed on the workman upon his employment, a description of the
              cases of his illness, the stages of his treatment, and the periods of his absence from work,
              provided that mention shall be made in the file of the kinds of ordinary and occupational
              diseases and labor injuries.




February 1993 - 8.0 First Aid                                                                         Page 39
FIGURE I.3: INJURY SUMMARY


Injury Summary                                                                (Page ___of___)
Project:__________________________________Project           No.:________________________Month                                           &
Year:____________________
Contractor:__________________________________File No.:_________________________

   Injur          Name Of      Badge    Craft    Date Of     Carry    Days    Nature Of Injury And   Brief Description Of Accident State
   y No.          Injured      Number           Accident      Over    Lost   Part Of Body Affected          What, Where, How, Why
                                                            Yes/No    This
                                                                     Month




    Total Lost Time Injuries                          Total Days                        Total Man-hours Worked This
          This Month:                                   Lost:                                     Month:

Report Prepared By:________________________________
Signature:_________________________________
Title And Telephone:__________________________________________________________________




February 1993 - First Aid                                                                                                         Page 40
9.0       PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
When a hazardous situation is recognized, steps should be taken to eliminate the hazard by engineering
controls.     Should     it    prove    impractical    to    eliminate    the    hazard,   thì¥Á G
                ¿                              Jl




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - Personal Protective Equipment                     Page 41
  bjbjŽ ÙŽ Ù                                                           ÊÚ     ì³   ì³        ®:         ›-
                                                    ÿÿ                      ÿÿ                     ÿÿ
                      ]           ,                  ,             ,        ,                 ,          ,
    ,                                  °:                °:            °:               °:        ÐC    ä ì¥Á G
                     ¿                                        Jl




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                                                            Page 42
  bjbjŽ ÙŽ Ù                                                  ÊÚ     ì³    ì³   ®:           ›-
                                                    ÿÿ             ÿÿ                   ÿÿ
                      ]             ,                ,   ,

                ,               ,               ,

                           °:             °:             °:

  °:          ÐC       ä al Flotation Devices For Work Over, On Or Near Water

GI 7.027            Personnel Work Platform Operations

GI 8.002            Prescription Safety Glasses

GI 8.003            Breathing Apparatus

GI 8.005            Protective (Safety) Footwear

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards:

SAES-A-105          Noise

SAES-H-102          Safety Requirements For Painting

Schedule 'D':

                    Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements

OSHA:

Code Of Federal Regulations 1910, 1915 and 1926

ASTM D120.E1-87

                    Standard Specifications For Rubber Insulating Gloves

ANSI Z 41-83        Personnel Protection - Protective Footwear

ANSI Z 87.1-89 Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection

ANSI Z 89.1-86 Personnel Protection - Protective Headgear For Industrial Workers - Requirements

9.1           Head Protection

              Safety hats or helmets are rigid headgear made of materials designed to protect the head from
              impact, flying particles, electric shock, etc. Each helmet consists of a shell, a suspension
              cradle, and a chin strap.




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                                                   Page 43
              9.1.1

                          Employees working in areas where there is danger of head injury from impact;
                          from falling or flying objects; or from electrical shock and burns, shall be protected
                          by protective helmets as per ANSI referenced standards or equivalent.

              9.1.2

                          The suspension cradle gives a helmet its impact distribution qualities. It is
                          therefore essential that it be properly adjusted to the wearer's head so there is a gap
                          of at least one and a half inches between the top of the suspension cradle and the
                          helmet shell.

              9.1.3

                          Ancillary equipment such as ear muffs, welders shields, etc. can be obtained to fit
                          on helmet shells. Holes should not be drilled into helmet to facilitate use of such
                          equipment as this can seriously impair both the mechanical strength and the
                          electrical resistance of the helmet.

              9.1.4

                          Safety hats or helmets shall not be painted.

              9.1.5

                          The complete helmet should be cleaned regularly with soap and water. Helmets
                          should be scrapped following any penetration, high impact, or subjection to
                          extreme heat.

              9.1.6

                          A safety helmet should be worn by all persons at all times when on a construction
                          job site; in an operating plant area; or whenever there are overhead hazards. Metal
                          hard hats do not afford proper impact or electrical protection and, therefore, are
                          prohibited from all Saudi Aramco work areas.

9.2           Eye and Face Protection

              Protection of the eyes and face from injury by physical or chemical agents or light radiation,
              is of prime importance in an industrial environment. The type of protection selected will
              depend on the hazard, but it should be borne in mind that all eye protection and most face
              protection devices must be considered as optical instruments. They must be selected, fitted,
              and used with regard to both the type of hazard and the optical condition of the user. (See
              Figures I.9 and I.9A.) The wearing of contact lenses is not recommended in areas where eye
              protection is required.

              9.2.1       Eye Protection from Impact

                          Factors to be considered in selecting impact resistant eye protection include the
                          degree of protection required and the comfort provided as required by ANSI or
                          equivalent requirements. Four basic types of protection are:




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                                                         Page 44
                          1.     Spectacles used for protection against frontal impact. When fitted with side
                                 shields, they afford limited protection against side impact and should not be
                                 worn while driving if they interfere with peripheral vision.
                          2.     Flexible fitting goggles. A flexible frame surrounding the lens gives
                                 protection against flying objects.
                          3.     Cushion fitting goggles. A rigid plastic frame surrounding the lens and a
                                 separate cushioned fitting surface on the facing contact area gives protection
                                 against flying objects.
                          4.     Chipping goggles. Separate rigid plastic eyecups with lens. Designed in
                                 two shapes, one for individuals who do not wear spectacles and one to fit
                                 over prescription spectacles.
                          5.     Chemical goggles.

              9.2.2       Eye Protection from Radiant Energies

                          In addition to damage from physical and chemical agents, the eyes are vulnerable
                          to the effects of radiant energy such as that produced during welding. Visible and
                          non-visible bands of the light spectrum can produce harmful effects upon the eyes
                          and special attention must be paid to the selection of eye protection from these
                          hazards.

              9.2.3       Face Protection

                          Face shields protect the face and neck from flying particles, sprays of hazardous
                          liquids, splashes of molten metal, and hot solutions. Where required, safety
                          spectacles and chemical goggles shall be worn under the face shield.

9.3           Hand Protection

              The kind of gloves used depends primarily upon the material or equipment being handled
              and can be resistant against one or more of the following: heat, acid, caustic, slipping, wear,
              fire, oil, sharp edges, general wear and tear, cold, etc. (See Figure I.5.). Gloves should not
              be used near moving machinery as they can be caught and trap the hand before it can be
              withdrawn from the glove.

9.4           Foot Protection

              Foot protection used must be manufactured to the referenced ANSI standard Z41-83 (or its
              equivalent). Safety footwear is available in many styles, with special soles to resist oil,
              abrasion, heat, and other abuses to which the footwear may be subjected. Comfort is
              particularly important for the wearer, so safety footwear must fit properly.

              Approved safety footwear are sturdy work shoes with leather uppers and/or leather
              composition with steel toe caps. Soles and heels are "non"-slip type. Fashion type safety
              "toe" shoes with canvas, nylon and/or other soft composition uppers or soles are not
              considered safety shoes and are not approved by Saudi Aramco.

9.5           Hearing Protection

              Increasing attention is being paid to the problem of excessive noise in industry. Noise can be
              defined as "any unwanted sound". The intensity of noise is commonly expressed in terms of




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                                                       Page 45
              decibels (dBA) and measured by a sound level meter. Medical authorities state that
              continual exposure to noise levels above 90 dBA for an eight hour day, five day work week
              may endanger a person's hearing. The safe period of exposure to a noise level is inversely
              proportional to the level of the noise. (See reference SAES-A-105, Noise.)

              Hearing loss will result from over-exposure to excessive noise levels. Only after engineering
              and mechanical methods of reducing noise levels have been explored, should consideration
              be given to providing hearing protection to individual workmen.

              Exposure to impulsive or impact noise shall not exceed the requirements of SAES-A-105,
              Noise.

              Whenever it is infeasible to reduce the noise levels or duration of exposure to within the
              limits of SAES-A-105, hearing protection devices shall be provided and used. There are two
              types of hearing protection available, the plug type and the cup (or muff) type. The proper
              individual fitting of both types of hearing protection is critical as any sound leakage can
              seriously impair efficiency of these devices.

              9.5.1       Ear Plugs

                          Ear plugs are placed into the canal of the outer ear. Materials used for these plugs
                          are rubber, plastic, wax, foam or Swedish wool. Disposable types are preferred as
                          they give good protection and are very sanitary.

              9.5.2       Ear Muffs

                          Ear muffs cover the external ear to provide an acoustic barrier. The effectiveness
                          of ear muffs varies considerably due to differences in manufacturer, size, shape,
                          seal material, shell mass, and type of suspension. Head size and shape can also
                          affect their performance. Liquid or grease filled cushions between the shell and
                          the head are more effective than plastic or foam-filled types, but they would
                          present material leakage problems.

                          The use of hearing protection devices shall be properly evaluated to ensure that the
                          selected devices give the necessary noise attenuation and protection.

9.6           Fall Restraining/Arresting Devices

              There are several types of fall restraining devices used throughout the construction industry.
              The two most commonly used ones are the full body safety harness and the safety belt.
              Harnesses are used for above ground work, where fall restraining and arresting protection is
              required. Safety belts are used to restrain the wearer at his place of work. Safety belts
              should not be used as part of the fall arrest system. (See Figure I.6.)

              9.6.1

                          Full body harnesses are required when working in areas with no guard rails at
                          heights above 1.82 meters (6 feet) or for potential falls of six feet or greater.
                          Exceptions shall require the review and concurrence of the Loss Prevention
                          Department.




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                                                      Page 46
              9.6.2

                          Special attention should be given to achieve a snug fit of the safety harness as it is
                          easy for a man to slip through sound but badly adjusted equipment and fall.

              9.6.3

                          No fall restraining or arresting device is any stronger than the point of attachment.
                          Therefore, all users should be carefully instructed in the importance of a firm
                          anchorage.

              9.6.4

                          Fall restraining/arresting devices must be stored in clean and dry conditions away
                          from sunlight, and must be thoroughly inspected both on issue and at the start of
                          each shift.

              9.6.5

                          Fall protection devices shall be capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of
                          2450 kilograms (5400 pounds). (Refer to OSHA 29 CFR 1910.66, Appendix C -
                          1991.)

                          The maximum length of standard lanyards shall be limited to provide for a fall of
                          no greater than 1.82 meters (6 feet) except in the case of mechanical fall arresting
                          devices which have been reviewed and received concurrence by the Loss
                          Prevention Department. The lanyard shall have a minimum breaking strength of
                          2,450 kilograms (5,400 pounds).

                          All fall arresting/restraining devices and hardware shall be manufactured to ANSI
                          or equivalent standards and fully described in the Hazard Identification Plan (HIP),
                          including type, model and manufacturer.

              9.6.6

                          During all operations conducted from a personnel platform (man basket) at any
                          height above ground level, fall protection devices (lanyards) shall be secured to an
                          anchorage point or a structural member located on the basket which can support a
                          minimum dead weight of 2,450 kilograms (5,400 pounds).




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                                                        Page 47
TABLE I.1: BASIC PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

The table below is a list of basic personal protective equipment. Many job classifications may require
additional personal protective equipment depending on the work location, type of job, local hazards,
conditions, etc. The Loss Prevention or Industrial Hygiene office in your area should be contacted for
further details.


Typical Job Classifications                                  Basic Personal Protective Equipment To
                                                             Be Worn (see key below)
Abrasive blast cleaner                                       See Section II.11, Table II.7
Boiler maker                                                 1, 8, 9, 10D, 15B
Carpenter                                                    1, 8, 9, 10C, 15A
Electrician                                                  1, 2, 8, 9, 10B, 15A, or B
Iron worker - structural                                     1, 8, 9, 10D, 12/13, & 14 A/B, 15A
Lineman                                                      1, 8, 9, 10C, 12/13 & 14 A/B, 15A
Mason                                                        1, 8, 9, 10C/A, 15A
Material Control Man                                         1, 8, 9, 10C, 15A
Mechanic/Machinist                                           1, 8, 9, 10C/A, 15A
Painter                                                      See Section II.11, Table II.7
Pipe fitter                                                  1, 8, 9, 10 C/D, 15A
Plumber                                                      1, 8, 9, 10C, 15A
Rigger                                                       1, 8, 9, 10C, 15A
Roof worker                                                  1, 8, 9, 10C, 12/13 & 14 A/B, 15A
Scaffold erector                                             1, 8, 9, 10C, 13 & 14 A/B, 15A
Sheet metal worker                                           1, 8, 9, 10 C/D, 15A
Welder                                                       1A &B, 4, 8, 9, 10D,/E, 15B

                                    Key To Personal Protective Equipment

1. Safety glasses with side shields (1A=Clear, 1B=Shaded)
2. Face shield
3. Goggles, safety impact (3A=Clear, 3B=Shaded)
4. Welding hood and skull guard (Lens shaded to suit work)
5. Respirable air fed hood with filter
6. Respirator, chemical cartridge
7. Respirator dust
8. Safety hat helmet
9. Safety foot wear (9A=shoes, 9B=boots)
10. Gloves. (10A= Rubber coated, 10B= Rubber molded, 10C = General purpose, 10D= Leather, 10E=Heat resistant)
11. Ear protection (11A=Ear plugs, 11B=Ear muffs)
12. Standard safety belt
13. Full body harness
14. Lanyard 1.82m (6FD). (14A=Standard, 14B=Shock Absorbing)
15. One piece coverall (15A=Standard, 15B=Fire Resistant)

Notes: All personal protective equipment shall meet ANSI/OSHA or their equivalent requirements. Any
worker 1.82 m above ground without the protection of a guard rail system, or in a confined space, shall
wear a full body harness and standard lanyard. Respiratory protection shall be used anytime workers
could inhale air contaminants exceeding permissible exposure limits (PEL), and when an oxygen
deficient atmosphere could be encountered. Breathing quality air shall be supplied to the worker through
the use of an air fed hood or self contained breathing apparatus.




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                                                               Page 48
FIGURE I.4: PROTECTIVE GOGGLES, SPECTACLES, FACE SHIELDS AND HELMETS




A. Typical safety glasses/side shields              B. Safety glasses/side shields (others)              C. Face shields




D. Weld goggles (cup)                    E. Weld goggles (chip)                               F. Weld goggles (soft)




G. Typical safety goggles   H. Safety goggles (others)                                        I. Welding helmet
TYPICAL EYE PROTECTION APPLICATIONS

           Operation                                 Hazards                                   Protection
       Acetylene-welding,                 Sparks, molten metal, harmful                         D, E, F
         cutting burning                      rays, flying particles
       Electric arc welding               Sparks, molten metal, intense                              I
                                              rays, flying particles
        Chemical handling                   Splash, acid burns, fumes                       G, H (Severe +C)
             Chipping                            Flying particles                            A, B, C, E, F, G
        Furnace operations                  Glare, heat, molten metal                            D, E, F
         Grinding (light)                        Flying particles                               A, B, C, G
         Grinding (heavy)                        Flying particles                               C, D, E, G
            Laboratory                   Chemical splash, glass breakage                    G, H (A or B +C)
            Machining                            Flying particles                               A, B, C, G
          Molten metals                     Heat, glare, sparks, splash                  D, E (A or B tinted + C)
          Spot welding                       Flying particles, sparks                           A, B, C, G




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                                                                  Page 49
FIGURE I.4A: PROTECTION AGAINST RADIANT ENERGY

              Protection against radiant energy requires the selection and use of the proper shades of
              welding filter lens or plate.

              The table below shall be used as a guide for the selection of the proper shade numbers of
              filter lenses or plates used in welding. Shades more dense than those listed may be used to
              suit the individual's needs.



FILTER LENS SHADE NUMBERS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIANT ENERGY

                 Welding Operation                                Comfort Shade number

 Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-,                              10
         5/32-inch diameter electrodes
  Gas-tungsten arc welding and gas-metal arc                                 11
welding (nonferrous) 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch
              diameter electrodes
  Gas-tungsten arc welding and gas-metal arc                                 12
 welding (ferrous) 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch
              diameter electrodes
Shielded metal-arc welding 3/16-, 7/32-, 1/4-inch                            12
              diameter electrodes
   Shielded metal-arc welding 5/16-, 3/8-inch                                14
              diameter electrodes
           Atomic hydrogen welding                                          10-14
              Carbon-arc welding                                              14
                    Soldering                                                  2
                 Torch brazing                                              3 or 4
     Light oxy fuel gas cutting, up to 1 inch                               3 or 4
 Medium oxy fuel gas cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches                            4 or 5
    Heavy oxy fuel gas cutting, over 6 inches                               5 or 6
       Gas welding (light), up to 1/8-inch                                  4 or 5
  Gas welding (medium), 1/8-inch to 1/2 inch                                5 or 6
       Gas welding (heavy), over 1/2-inch                                   6 or 8
             Air-carbon arc cutting                                           12




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                                                 Page 50
FIGURE I.5: SPECIALIZED HAND PROTECTORS




                                                      Heat Resistant Gloves
These gloves are made from materials that provide insulation to hot or cold objects. The purpose of this material is to give the user
                    enough time to perform his task or to stop handling the object before his hand is injured.




            Rubber Molded Gloves                                                          Rubber Coated Gloves
    These gloves are made from materials that                         Similar to the rubber molded glove in performance. These
    are resistant to penetration by many chemicals.                   gloves also have an inner lining that improves wear ability.




                                                                                      (A & B) Leather Gloves

                                                                                   These gloves are used to protect the wearer from
                                                                           abrasions. They also provide some resistance to hot/cold
                                                                             surfaces, but minimal protection from most chemicals.

                                                                                      (C) Welding Glove

                                                                             Generally made from leather, these gloves provide the
                                                                          user with protection from hot sparks/slag during welding.
                                                                                            They also provide some heat resistance.




A                      B                      C




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                                                                            Page 51
FIGURE I.6: TYPICAL SELF-POWERED PLATFORM FOR BUILDING MAINTENANCE




February 1993 - 9.0 Personal Protective Equipment                    Page 52
10.0 BREATHING APPARATUS
Where industrial processes create hazardous atmospheric contaminants, the first consideration should
always be the application of engineering measures to control the contaminants. In those cases where
engineering control measures are not possible, affected personnel must be supplied with personal
respiratory protective equipment.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 6.021             Safety Requirements For Abrasive Blast Cleaning

GI 8.003             Air Supplied Breathing Apparatus

TM-3                 Technical Memorandum And Attachment - Oil By-Products Protection Program (Saudi
                     Aramco Medical Services Organization, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia)

Schedule 'D':

                     Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Personal Protective
                     Equipment

American National Standards:

ANSI Z88.2. - 1980

                     Practices for Respiratory Protection

US. Bureau of Mines:

                     Respiratory Protection (See 30 CFR Part II)

10.1          Selection of Equipment
              A wide variety of respiratory protective equipment is available. As each type is suitable for
              certain applications, it is necessary to develop an orderly method for determining the
              appropriate device to be employed.

              Persons should not be assigned tasks requiring the use of respirators unless it has been
              predetermined by medical examination that the worker is physically able to perform the work
              and use the breathing apparatus properly.

              Each user must receive instructions on the proper use and limitations of the device, as well as
              demonstrations and practice in how to fit and wear it. Personnel shall not be placed in a
              hazardous environment for which the respirator is not designed, such as a location where
              there is a lack of sufficient oxygen.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - Breathing Apparatus                                      Page 53
              Consider the following factors when selecting a suitable respiratory protective device:

              1     The nature of the hazardous operation or process.
              2     The type of air contaminant, including its physical properties, chemical properties,
                    physiological effects on the body, and its concentration.
              3     The period of tiì¥Á G                ¿                          Jl




February 1993 - 10.0 Breathing Apparatus                                                                Page 54
                       bjbjŽ ÙŽ Ù
                                            ÊÚ     ì³   ì³       ®:     ›-
                                                                  ÿÿ             ÿÿ
                      ÿÿ
                                    ]       ,                ,     ,         ,             ,
                       ,
                  ,                              °:       °:           °:             °:
                                           ÐC     ä ì¥Á G              ¿
              l




February 1993 - 10.0 Breathing Apparatus                                                       Page 55
                         bjbjŽ ÙŽ Ù                                                     ÊÚ

              ³    ì³     ®:               ›-
                                                                   ÿÿ                   ÿÿ                  ÿÿ
                                                     ]         ,             ,      ,             ,              ,
                               ,                ,                              °:           °:         °:
                    °:                          ÐC       ä zards for which it was not designed.

              10.1.1      Requirements For Use

                          As with all personal protective equipment, respirators only work if you use them
                          correctly. For face mask respirators, always make sure that the mask fits properly,
                          that there is a tight seal and no air leakage. Proper fit is important to prevent
                          contaminants from leaking in. Beards, dentures and facial bone structure can
                          affect the fit of the respirator. Be sure to wear the right respirator for the hazard.
                          Always keep the respirator clean and well-maintained. Never alter or modify the
                          respiratory equipment. Finally, follow manufacturer's specifications for proper
                          cartridge use and established safety procedures. Do not hesitate to consult your
                          supervisor if there are any questions concerning your personal respiratory
                          protection.

              10.1.2      Misuse

                          Workers sometimes consider respiratory equipment a nuisance, not realizing that
                          failure to wear it may endanger their lives. This attitude can be changed by
                          education and training. However, as the risk of injury or death is very real when
                          safety precautions are ignored, any worker refusing to wear the necessary
                          respiratory equipment will not be allowed to work without it.

                          Common misuses of respiratory protection equipment include:

                          a.       Using air-purifying (chemical cartridge type) respirators when toxic levels
                                   are above the respirator-rated capacity.
                          b.       Using air-purifying (chemical cartridge type) respirators in oxygen deficient
                                   atmospheres.
                          c.       Using incorrect cartridges or filters for the type contaminant and the
                                   concentration encountered.
                          d.       Using defective or improperly inspected equipment.
                          e.       Using equipment without having received adequate on training on it.




February 1993 - 10.0 Breathing Apparatus                                                                    Page 56
              10.1.3     Hazardous Substances

                         Protection is required against those hazardous substances which can be inhaled
                         into the respiratory system, ingested via the digestive tract and absorbed into the
                         skin causing systemic injury to the human body. Hazardous substances which can
                         enter the body through the respiratory system, the digestive tract and the skin
                         include, but are not limited to, the following:

                                Asbestos
                                Creosol (cresylic acid)
                                Hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid)
                                Tetraethyl lead and its compounds
                                Mercury and its compounds
                                Nitroglycerine
                                Organic phosphate insecticides
                                Solvents

              10.1.4     Contaminants

                         Air supplied to respiratory equipment must be free from contaminants. (See GI
                         8.003.) Respirable air shall be controlled to the following conditions at all times:

                         1       Oxygen, not less than 19-23% vol.
                         2       Carbon monoxide, not more than 10 parts per million (ppm)
                         3       Carbon dioxide, not more than 0.10% vol.
                         4       Oil mist, not more than 5 mg/m3 @ NTP
                         5       Water vapor, not more than 0.76 mg/l
                         6       Particulates, none

                         The above standards are based on Compressed Air Gas Association (Table No. 1)
                         and referred to as Grade 'D' breathing air. Respirable air quality must meet this
                         standard, at a minimum.

                         The air delivered to the user must be less than 100oF (38oC) and supplied at 6
                         standard cubic feet per minute (6 SCFM). Air cooling devices (e.g. vortex tubes)
                         may be necessary.

10.2          Respiratory Protective Devices

              Respiratory protective devices can be classified as follows:

              1     Air purifying respirators
              2     Supplied air respirators
              3     Self-contained breathing devices

              10.2.1     Air Purifying Respirators

                         10.2.1.1      Gas Masks

                                       The gas mask type of respirator consists of a face piece and filter. No
                                       one chemical agent has been found that will remove all gaseous
                                       contaminants, so the canister must be carefully chosen to fit the




February 1993 - 10.0 Breathing Apparatus                                                               Page 57
                                       specific need. A canister designed for a specific gas will give longer
                                       protection than a canister designed for a multitude of gases and
                                       vapors. Canister gas masks with full face pieces are effective against
                                       higher concentrations of contaminants. However, they do not provide
                                       protection against oxygen deficiency.

                         10.2.1.2      Chemical Cartridge Respirators
                                       Chemical cartridge respirators consist of a face piece (usually half
                                       mask) connected directly to one or two small containers of
                                       filters/chemicals. The chemicals used are similar to those found in gas
                                       mask canisters, but cartridge respirators are for use only in
                                       atmospheres not immediately dangerous to life or health. An area
                                       where the chemical cartridge respirator works very well is in spray
                                       painting. It is critical that the cartridge be matched to the specific
                                       application.

                         10.2.1.3      Particulate Filter Respirators (Dust Respirators)

                                       A particulate filter respirator protects against the inhalation of
                                       nonvolatile particles. The major items to be considered are:

                                       1   The resistance to breathing offered by the filtering element;
                                       2   the adaptation of the face piece to faces of various sizes and
                                           shapes;
                                       3   the fineness of the particles to be filtered out, and their toxicity.

              10.2.2     Supplied Air Respirators

                         A supplied air respirator permits the user to breathe respirable air while working in
                         a hazardous atmosphere. Important advantages are simplicity of design, usage
                         under diverse conditions, and good protection (when properly selected, adequately
                         supplied with respirable air, and used for the purposes for which they were
                         designed and approved).

                         10.2.2.1      Air Line Respirators

                                       The air line respirator (see Figure I.8) is suitable for respiratory
                                       protection in atmospheres not immediately hazardous to life.
                                       Equipping the respirator with a small cylinder of compressed air to
                                       provide an emergency air supply qualifies the respirator for use in
                                       immediately hazardous atmospheres. It is particularly suited to some
                                       types of jobs because it is light and may be worn for long periods of
                                       time without appreciable discomfort. For example, it is often used for
                                       spray painting, insecticide spraying, welding, metalizing and
                                       prolonged production work in hazardous areas.

                                       There are two basic types of air line respirators:

                                       1   the continuous flow,
                                       2   the pressure demand flow.




February 1993 - 10.0 Breathing Apparatus                                                                 Page 58
                                       The continuous flow respirator may be assembled to a half mask, full
                                       face piece, or hood, whereas the demand flow type must always be
                                       used with a tight-fitting face piece.

                                       1   In the continuous air line respirator, a set amount of air is
                                           continuously fed to the face piece. The amount is regulated by an
                                           air control valve of special inlet design which is not susceptible to
                                           accidental changes of the setting even when jarred. A slight
                                           positive pressure on the inside of the mask is always maintained
                                           to prevent inward leakage of the contaminated outside
                                           atmospheric air.

                                       2   The pressure demand flow air line respirators are normally used
                                           when air must be conserved, as may be the case when the supply
                                           is from a cylinder of compressed air. They contain a regulator at
                                           the lower end of the breathing tube. This permits air to flow
                                           under slight preset positive pressure to the face piece only when
                                           the wearer breathes.

                         10.2.2.2      Abrasive Blasting Respirators

                                       Abrasive blasting respirators are used to protect personnel engaged in
                                       sand or other abrasive blasting operations.

                                       The requirements for this type of respirator are the same as those for
                                       an air line respirator of the continuous flow type with the addition that
                                       mechanical protection from abrasive particles is needed for the head
                                       and neck.

                         10.2.2.3      Air Supplied Suits

                                       The most extreme condition requiring respiratory equipment is rescue
                                       or emergency repair work done in atmospheres which are extremely
                                       corrosive to the skin and mucus membranes, in addition to being
                                       acutely poisonous and immediately hazardous to life.

                                       For these conditions, full suits of impervious clothing with respirable
                                       air supplies are available. This equipment must be used only by well-
                                       trained and qualified personnel. Consideration must be given for the
                                       clearance of safety equipment through manholes and other
                                       accessways. (See Figure I.9.)

              10.2.3     Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)

                         When entry into a hazardous atmosphere is necessary, self contained breathing
                         apparatus shall be used. This equipment typically consists of a high pressure
                         cylinder of air, a cylinder valve, a regulator, a face piece and tube with an
                         exhalation valve. The need to have the mask properly fitted before use is
                         important. A person who wears glasses or who has a beard cannot wear this type
                         of breathing apparatus as a proper seal cannot be obtained between the mask and
                         face.




February 1993 - 10.0 Breathing Apparatus                                                                 Page 59
                         SCBAs must be used in lieu of airline respirators when the distance from the
                         source of fresh air supplied via the air line hose is greater than 91 meters (300 ft)
                         per ANSI Z88.2-1980. However, an exception from this requirement is made in an
                         emergency situation where use of such equipment is necessary to escape from a
                         hazardous condition.

10.3          Training

              In many cases, respirators are used in emergency situations where there is heightened
              physical demands on the body, due to stress and excitement. Under such conditions, it is
              essential that the potential users have been thoroughly trained and are medically fit (per TM -
              3 or equivalent) to cope with the increased level of physical activity and stress. The local
              Loss Prevention Division and the Industrial Hygiene Unit will assist contractors in the
              selection and use of respiratory protective equipment.

10.4          Safety Precautions

              When air supplied respirators are used, the following safety precautions are required:

              1     Breathing air compressors shall have:
                         Pressure Relief Valve
                         High temperature alarm
                         Periodic carbon monoxide (CO) testing to ensure it meets the CGA Grade 'D'
                          limit
                         Breathing air tested to meet requirements. (See section 10.1.4.)
              2     Proper training of employees in the use of this equipment.
              3     Fit testing of mask/hood prior to each use.
              4     Employees determined by a medical evaluation to be physically fit to use equipment.
              5     Proper cleaning and inspection program for equipment.
              6     Written standard operating procedures for using the equipment.
              7     A rescue man with a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCAB) is required when
                    equipment is used in immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) atmospheres.
              8     Life lines shall always be attached to the safety belt worn by employees using a
                    respirator.

              10.4.1     Air Compressors

                                Air compressors shall operate at 245oF and 150 psig maximum. (See
                                 manufacturers' specifications.)
                                Intake air filters to compressors and outlet filters to operator mask/hood are
                                 required.
                                Air supplied respirator's maximum intake temperature and pressure are
                                 140oF (60oC) and 125 psig respectively. Filter outlet temperature to
                                 operator's mask/hood is 100oF maximum. The air.supply rate is 6 CFM for
                                 hoods without vortex tube and 25 CFM for hoods with vortex tube.




February 1993 - 10.0 Breathing Apparatus                                                                Page 60
FIGURE I.7: RESPIRATORY PROTECTION




Self Contained Breathing Apparatus               Airline Respirator
                (SCBA)




                                           Chemical Cartridge
                                              Respirator




Airline Hood With A Full Face Piece                              Gas Mask Used In HC
                                                                        Atmospheres




February 1993 - 10.0 Breathing Apparatus                                               Page 61
FIGURE I.8: CLEARANCE CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY EQUIPMENT




                                               Deck-mounted hatch dimension. As angle X
                                                    increases, depth of hatch must increase




February 1993 - 10.0 Breathing Apparatus                                            Page 62
11.0 FIRE PREVENTION
This section covers measures to prevent fires and protect against all their possible harmful effects, in
order to avoid injury to personnel and loss of time and materials.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100             Work Permit System

GI 2.711             Fire and Safety Watch

GI 1781.001-1        Inspection/Maintenance - Fire Protection Equipment

GI 1787.000-1        Fire Reports

Abqaiq Plants Operations Instruction Manual:

No. 2.102            Fire Fighting Dispatching Procedure

Refinery Instruction Manual:

No. 1.806            Fire Watch

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards:

SAES-B-7A            Fire Water System and Design

SAES-B-7C            Portable, Mobile, and Auxiliary Fire Fighting Equipment

Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code

Schedule 'D':

                     Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Fire Extinguishers

National Safety Council Accident Prevention Manual for Industrial Operations

NFPA:
                     National Fire Codes
                     NFPA 231-Appendix C, Protection of Outdoor Storage.
                     "Fire Safety Checklist for Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard"

11.1          Before the Job Starts
              Construction within a petroleum industry complex requires careful planning since plants and
              support facilities being constructed are frequently next to those already in operation. An
              accident at a construction site can have serious effects on a nearby oil or gas facility and
              vice-versa, because of a large amount of fuel present at both locations. The factors which
              must be considered before the job starts include site preparation, work permit schedules,
              types of work permits required and type/quantity of equipment required on-site.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - Fire Prevention                                       Page 63
              As part of this process, the contractor must take into account the potential hazards that can be
              encountered on site; protection of machinery and equipment; control of ignition sources;
              storage of flammable and combustible materials; housekeeping; staff training; and end-of-
              shift checks. These subjects are addressed in the Hazards Identification Procedure prior to
              construction start-up in Appendix A of this manual. This section focuses on means of
              avoiding and controlling fires.

11.2          Layout

              Good layout helps ensure the project can be carried out efficiently. Overall requirements for
              site planning are in Section 7. (See Appendix C attachment). The following principles of
              project layout and organization can help minimize fire risks:

              11.2.1

                          Avoid congestion around machinery and equipment where there is a high level of
                          activity and traffic.

              11.2.2

                          Operations having a high fire risk, such as welding and spray painting, should be
                          isolated from flammable and explosive materials or specially protected.

              11.2.3

                          Be sure to provide adequate emergency access and egress.

              11.2.4

                          Storage of flammable and explosive materials in the plant site should be restricted
                          to minimum quantities necessary for an uninterrupted cycle of operations; use a
                          larger, secondary storage site outside the plant area where possible.

11.3          Equipment Protection

              Some items of plant equipment need special handling and care after they arrive on site and
              until they are commissioned. Examples are computer (and other electronic instrumentation
              and control gear) and large pumps and compressors. Such equipment should be covered and
              protected against possible damage that could result from its exposure to normal construction
              activity, dust, paint spray, etc. Consideration should also be given to protecting it against
              fire, which could be caused by storing it near combustible material and against water or other
              fire fighting agents that might be used to put out a fire.




February 1993 - 11.0 Fire Prevention                                                                   Page 64
11.4          Control of Ignition Sources

              Compliance with work permit procedures and conditions protects against possible ignition of
              oil or gas from process operations. The contractor must also take steps to prevent ignition of
              construction materials, lubricants, and fuels used in the job itself.

              11.4.1

                          Electrical equipment should be checked regularly for defects.

              11.4.2

                          Smoking is permitted only in designated areas.

              11.4.3

                          Welding equipment, asphalt kettles, heating appliances and other open flames or
                          hot surfaces should be segregated from combustible materials.

              11.4.4

                          Beware of indirect sources of ignition: hot welding slag dropped from a height for
                          example, or sparks from a fire under an asphalt kettle are familiar examples of this.

              11.4.5

                          Open fires and/or open burning of materials are strictly prohibited. Authorization
                          must be obtained from Saudi Aramco Fire Protection Department.

              11.4.6

                          Proper bonding and grounding techniques shall be used for any operation where
                          static electricity could become an ignition source.

11.5          Flammable Liquids
              Flammable liquids are those that can produce a flammable mixture in air at ambient
              temperature. In Saudi Aramco, this is defined as a fluid (liquid or gas) having a flash point
              of 55oC (130oF) or lower. Care in handling flammable fluids is of prime importance.

              11.5.1      Storage

                          All flammable liquids must be kept in securely capped metal containers or steel
                          drums on which the contents are clearly marked. Gasoline, acetone, spirits and
                          other volatile liquids with flash points below 32oC (90oF) should be kept in strong
                          metal lockers located in well-ventilated, non-combustible huts or sheds. Drums
                          containing flammable fluids shall be provided with proper bung vents. Flammable
                          storage areas must be securely locked (or fenced), posted with a warning sign
                          "Danger: Flammable Area" and must be located at least 15 meters (50 feet) away
                          from the nearest building or storage area for combustibles. No other materials
                          should be stored with flammable liquids.




February 1993 - 11.0 Fire Prevention                                                                    Page 65
                          Flammable gases in cylinders (acetylene, propane, etc.) shall be segregated from
                          other materials, preferably under an open, well-ventilated sun shade. Oxidizing
                          gases (oxygen, chlorine, nitrous oxide, etc.) shall be stored separately.

              11.5.2      Handling of Flammable Liquids
                          (Reference NFPA 30)

                          In handling, the following precautions should be observed:

                          1       Transportation must always be in (closed) metal containers. (Plastic
                                  containers are prohibited.)
                          2       Transfer operations should be carried out with funnels and there should be
                                  no open flames within 15 meters (50 feet) of the operation unless conditions
                                  warrant greater clearance.
                          3       Containers are to be grounded and bonded during transfer operations.
                          4       Screw tops and stoppers should be replaced immediately.
                          5       Any metal container holding flammable liquid must be a FM (or UL)
                                  approved type of safety container.

              11.5.3      Ventilation

                          Gì¥Á G                  ¿                             Jl




February 1993 - 11.0 Fire Prevention                                                                   Page 66
                             bjbjŽ ÙŽ Ù
                                          ÊÚ        ì³   ì³   ®:                ›-
                                                                           ÿÿ            ÿÿ
                                 ÿÿ                                    ]             ,    ,   ,
                                 ,              ,             ,

  ,                                        °:                 °

                            °:            °:             ÐC       ä ì¥Á G
                                  ¿                                Jl




February 1993 - 11.0 Fire Prevention                                                              Page 67
                 bjbjŽ ÙŽ Ù                                              ÊÚ     ì³   ì³    ®:             ›-
                                                           ÿÿ                     ÿÿ                    ÿÿ
                                              ]         ,              ,      ,              ,            ,
                              ,            ,                              °:           °:            °:
                    °:                     ÐC     ä rubber goods, lubricating oil and grease, and diesel
              fuel, in addition to the flammable liquids (fuels, paints, solvents) mentioned above.
              Therefore, daily site clean up of combustible materials is required to reduce fire hazards.

11.7          Housekeeping

              Rubbish, accumulated at a job site, provides a good starting point for a fire. Waste should be
              removed at regular intervals and always at the end of a working day. Metal bins with close-
              fitting lids should be provided for oily rags, wood shavings, and other highly combustible
              wastes. Use non-combustible absorbents to remove spills or leaks of oil. Contents of ash
              trays should not be mixed with other waste. Good housekeeping on the site can eliminate
              many of the situations where a fire can start.

11.8          Emergency Equipment

              The Fire Protection Department area offices can assist in training Saudi Aramco employees
              in the proper use of fire fighting equipment. (See GI 1781.001. Inspection and Maintenance
              of Fire Protection Equipment.)

              Each contractor has a contractual obligation to provide and maintain adequate, easily
              accessible fire extinguishers on the job site (Schedule 'D'). The contractor should consult
              with the local Fire Protection Unit for advice on selection of such equipment. There are
              three types of fire extinguishers normally found on construction sites: water, carbon dioxide
              and dry chemical types. Contractor personnel should be aware of the fire fighting equipment
              available on site and be familiar with its use.

              11.8.1      Water-Type Fire Extinguisher

                          Water extinguishers should be available around sites where there will be Class "A"
                          material, such as wood, paper, waste material, or packing crates. The typical
                          portable water extinguisher comes in a 9.5 liters (2-1/2 gallon) size. On
                          construction sites within Saudi Aramco facilities a pressurized system of fire water
                          hydrants and hoses will normally be available, so this type of extinguisher will
                          have limited use.

              11.8.2      Carbon Dioxide Type Extinguisher

                          The carbon dioxide (CO2) type extinguisher is normally used for controlling
                          electrical fires. These fires take place in motors, switch-gear, and so forth and are
                          usually very easily controlled by de-energizing the circuits that supply the power.
                          The advantage of using CO2 in this particular instance is that it leaves no residue
                          in the mechanisms of the electrical equipment and, therefore, does not further
                          contribute to the damage.

                          11.8.2.1     CAUTION

                                       A CO2 extinguisher should never be used in enclosed areas where
                                       people are present, because the gas displaces oxygen from the




February 1993 - 11.0 Fire Prevention                                                                    Page 68
                                       immediate environment. When the oxygen level in the environment is
                                       reduced sufficiently to put out a fire, the oxygen level is also incapable
                                       of supporting human life.

              11.8.3      Dry Chemical Type Extinguisher

                          A dry chemical type extinguisher is normally used in controlling Class "B" fires in
                          flammable liquids. A dry chemical extinguisher normally comes in portable 9
                          kilograms (20 pounds) and 13.6 kilograms (30 pounds) sizes. A larger wheeled
                          extinguisher of 68 kilograms (150 pounds) and above is available, but is usually
                          found only within petroleum operating areas. Some dry chemical extinguishers
                          today have a powder which is good in controlling Class "A", "B", and "C" fires.
                          This multipurpose ABC powder gives this particular fire extinguisher a good
                          chance of controlling any type of fire involving a wood, a petroleum liquid, or
                          electrical equipment.

              11.8.4      Pressurized Water

                          Where a pressurized water system is available on site, the contractor is responsible
                          for supplying hoses and nozzles. Since most fires at construction sites involve
                          Class "A" materials, they can be fought with water. Charged water hoses, ready
                          for use, are a necessity. If there is no permanent system installed at a particular
                          location, a water tanker and portable water extinguishers will have to be supplied
                          in order to take care of any Class "A" fires.

11.9          Reporting a Fire

              Every fire, including those extinguished by contractor personnel, should be reported to the
              Saudi Aramco representative. The Fire Protection Unit will inspect the area, to offer
              suggestions for preventing a recurrence, and to ensure the contractor has re-established his
              fire fighting capability by recharging extinguishers or replacing equipment.

              The emergency telephone number used for reporting a fire or any emergency that requires
              Saudi Aramco assistance is 110. The contractor must ensure that this number is posted at all
              telephones and that instructions are placed indicating how to report the emergency correctly.

11.10         End-of-Shift Checks

              A routine inspection shall be made at the end of the working day to see that everything is left
              in a safe condition. The following itemized checklist shall be followed:

                                 Clean-up and removal of rubbish and waste materials.
                                 Switch off electrical equipment at the mains. Separate circuits should be
                                  provided for security lights and other equipment that has to be left turned
                                  on.
                                 Cover valuable equipment to protect it against dirt and against the effects of
                                  water that might be used in an emergency.
                                 Make a special check of smoking areas, hot equipment, welding areas, etc.
                                  to be sure there is no possibility of delayed ignition resulting in a fire.
                                 Return flammable liquids and gas cylinders to designated storage areas.




February 1993 - 11.0 Fire Prevention                                                                      Page 69
FIGURE I.9: KNOW YOUR FIRE EXTINGUISHER
                                                                                                                                       Dry Chemical
                                                                Water Type              Carbon Dioxide                Sodium or                 Multi-Purpose
                                                                                              C02                     Potassium                      ABC
                                                                                                                     Bicarbonate




                                                             Stored Pressure            Stored Pressure
                                                                                                                       Cartridge                   Cartridge
                                                                                                                        Operated                    Operated
                       CLASS A FIRES -                               Yes                         No                         No                         Yes
                       Ordinary Combustibles
                      Wood, paper, trash


                       CLASS B FIRES -                                No                        Yes                        Yes                         Yes
                    Flammable Liquids and Gases
                   Gasoline, oil, paints, grease, etc.

                      CLASS C FIRES -                                 No                        Yes                        Yes                         Yes
                   Energized electrical equipment



                                                             Pull pin, unclip nozzle,       Pull pin, unclip      Unclip hose to break seal   Unclip hose to break seal
                METHOD OF OPERATION                         squeeze handle and direct   discharge horn, squeeze      and strike actuator;        and strike actuator;
                                                                  at base of fire       handle and blanket fire   squeeze nozzle and direct   squeeze nozzle and direct
                                                                                               with CO2               at base of flames,          at base of flames,
                                                                                                                    sweeping from side to       sweeping from side to
                                                                                                                             side.                       side.
                           RANGE                                     30'-40'                     3'-8'                      5'-20'                       5'20'
                       STOCK NUMBER                                21-104-550                 21-102-223                 21-102-820                  21-102-775

                                                                       Maintenance:
Maintenance should comprise of a monthly check by proponent organization - Check extinguisher is in correct location, access is unobstructed and extinguisher
is clearly visible. Check contents gauges, where fitted, indicate extinguisher is serviceable. Check for signs of leakage, corrosion, or physical damage. Check
seals are unbroken and up to date inspection tag is fitted. If in doubt, contact your local fire control unit.


February 1993 - Fire Prevention                                                                                                                                   Page 70
12.0 RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
In a widespread area such as that covered by Saudi Aramco operations, it is not cost effective to lay down
telephone lines and establish subsidiary installations for communication. It is more feasible to develop a
radio communications network instead. The continuous development of the Saudi Aramco radio
communications system has enabled us to convey messages to the most remote corner of the Company's
operational area.

This section is mainly concerned with the two-way radio network which is installed in vehicles, offices,
outlying plants and allied facilities. This network is extensively used by many employees in their day-to-
day business. Standard procedures must be followed in these radio operations.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 70.500           Disaster Contingency Plan - Dhahran Area

GI 80.500           Disaster Control - Refinery and Terminal - Ras Tanura

GI 1600.003         Destruction Of Obsolete/Damaged, Unneeded Communication Equipment

GI 1601.002         Radio Asset Control And Accountability Program (RACAP)

GI 1602.001         Residential Telephone Service

GI 1602.002         Business Telephone Service Inside Aramco Communities And Facilities

GI 1602.003         Business Telephone Service Outside Aramco Communities And Facilities

GI 1603.001         Data Circuits, Message Switch And Facsimile Terminals

See also OIMs, RIMs, and TIMs.

No. 525.001         Disaster Control Plan - Plants and Pipelines Department - Abqaiq Producing and
                    Udhailiyah Producing Divisions (also in Saudi Aramco GI Manual)

No. 85.001          Disaster Control Plan - Safaniya (also in Saudi Aramco GI Manual)

No. 554.001         Disaster Control Plan - Udhailiyah Area

No. 554.002         Disaster Control Plan - Qurayyah Seawater Treatment Plant




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Radio Communications                                   Page 71
Radio Telephone Procedure Guide:

                      Communications Department - Dhahran

12.1         Equipment

             There are a minimum of three types of radio sets used in the Saudi Aramco network today:
             the mobile radio set, the stationary radio set with remote control, and the portable hand radio
             set.

             12.1.1     Remote Control Unit

                        The remote control units located in offices are used to control radio equipment at
                        some other location. The unit controls used by operating personnel are the volume
                        control, hand set switch, and the frequency switch. All other controls must be set
                        by technical personnel.

12.2         Safe Operation

             Adjustment of equipment must always be carried out by authorized personnel. Unauthorized
             tampering with equipment can result in electric shock or equipment malfunction leading to
             circuit interference.

             Under certain circumstances, radio waves can cause ignition of electric blasting caps. Radio
             equipment must be shut down within 91 meters (100 yards) of any blasting operations or
             where electric detonators are used or stored.

             Water Damaged Equipment:

             Vehicle drivers and maintenance personnel are requested to exercise great caution when
             washing vehicles containing radio equipment.

12.3         Radio Phrases

             AFFIRMATIVE: This means Yes

             BREAK: The work BREAK means the message will continue, but due to the length of the
             message the operator will break the circuit to allow the reception of EMERGENCY
             messages.

             CORRECTION: This means that An error has been made; the correct message is ...

             DISASTER: When used on Company communications systems, DISASTER warns all
             operators that a sudden misfortune has occurred, causing either loss of life, property, fire, or
             a combination of the three. All operators must stop transmitting unless involved in the
             disaster and should standby unless told to transmit by Disaster Control or the Disaster
             Control Post.

             DISASTER DRILL: This is an exercise for training personnel to handle disaster situations.




February 1993 - 12.0 Radio Communications                                                             Page 72
             HOW DO YOU READ?: This means that the operator is trying to determine if the message
             is being received well.

             MAYDAY: This is an international radio distress signal which is primarily intended for
             ships and aircraft requiring assistance to save human lives or property.

             NEGATIVE: This means No.

             OUT: An operator using the word OUT at the end of a transmission indicates that he is
             finished with the communications circuit and any other station may begin its call.

             OVER: This means that the transmission of a message has ended, but one station is waiting
             for the other to transmit.

             OVER AND OUT: Do not use this phrase.

             PRIORITY TRAFFIC: This is a message having preferential rating over the routine. The
             expression "I have priority traffic" means the operator has listened to the messages being
             transmitted and has determined that his message is of greater urgency.

             READ BACK: This means that the operator wants to make sure that his message has been
             correctly understood.

             RESUME TRAFFIC: All stations are free to transmit routine messages.

             ROGER: This means that the operator has received and understood the message and accepts
             responsibility to carry out any instructions therein.

             SAY AGAIN: Do not use the word "repeat". If a message is to be repeated, the operator
             shall instruct the station to "say again your message".

             SAY EVERY WORD TWICE: This phrase is used when the operator is having trouble
             understanding, and wants each word said twice.

             SPEAK SLOWLY: This phrase is used mostly in cases where technical difficulties are
             causing the circuit to cut in and out.

             STANDBY: Any or all operators told to STANDBY shall cease further use of the
             communications circuit until further notice.

             TRAFFIC: The information or signals transmitted over a communications systems.

             URGENT TRAFFIC: A message requiring the attention of all operators.

             VERIFY: Check with originator and make certain the message is correct.

12.4         Phonetic Alphabet

             In a radio message, some letters of the alphabet are likely to be confused with others: as "B"
             with "P" and "D" with "T". A standardized international phonetic alphabet for radio
             operators is in use to clear up such ambiguities. Whenever a word is not properly understood
             by the receiver, it is advantageous to utilize the Phonetic Alphabet. For example, an operator




February 1993 - 12.0 Radio Communications                                                           Page 73
             intends to make clear "ABQAIQ". He will spell it out like this: "A" as in "ALPHA"; "B" as
             in "BRAVO"; "Q" as in "QUEBEC"; "I" as in "INDIA"; and, so on. Use the phonetic
             alphabet which is listed which follows:
PHONETIC ALPHABET


              Letter                            Word                           Pronunciation

                 A                             ALPHA                               AL fah
                 B                             BRAVO                             BRAH vo
                 C                            CHARLIE                            CHAR lee
                 D                             DELTA                              DELL ta
                 E                              ECHO                              ECK oh
                 F                           FOX-TROT                            FOKS trot
                 G                              GOLF                               GOLF
                 H                             HOTEL                             hoh TELL
                 I                              INDIA                            IN dee ah
                 J                             JULIET                          JEW lee ETT
                 K                               KILO                             KEY loh
                 L                              LIMA                              LEE mah
                 M                              MIKE                               MIKE
                 N                           NOVEMBER                           No VEM ber
                 O                             OSCAR                              OSS car
                 P                              PAPA                              Pah PAH
                 Q                            QUEBEC                             keh BECH
                 R                             ROMEO                            ROW me oh
                 S                             SIERRA                           See AIR rah
                 T                             TANGO                             TANG go
                 U                            UNIFORM                          YOU nee form
                 V                             VICTOR                              VIC tor
                 W                            WHISKEY                            WISS key
                 X                             X-RAY                             ECKS ray
                 Y                            YANKEE                            YANG key
                 Z                              ZULU                              ZOO loo


12.5         International Communications Union Agreement

             All Company communications systems and networks come under the regulations of the
             International Communications Union Agreement. The Saudi Arab government is a signatory
             of the Communications Agreement and a member of the International Telecommunications
             Union (ITU). Regulations which shall be binding on all members include the operating of
             telegraph, telephone and radio. Any violation or infringement of any communication system
             or network shall be reported to the violator's administration by the control organization,
             stations, or inspectors detecting them.

             All stations must be established and operated in such a manner as not to result in harmful
             interference to associated members or members of recognized private operating
             organizations.




February 1993 - 12.0 Radio Communications                                                       Page 74
             NOTE: All stations are forbidden to carry out the following: unnecessary transmissions; the
             transmissions of superfluous signals; or false (or deceptive) distress, safety, or identification
             signals.

             Use of profane or obscene language is a violation of the International Agreement.

             Tampering with equipment is highly dangerous because of the high voltage involved.
             Adjustments to equipment are only to be made by competent and authorized personnel.
             Tampering can also cause off frequency operation and other technical problems which are
             violations of the ITU Agreement.

             12.5.1     Monitoring of Circuits

                        Most voice transmissions are transmitted by radio waves and can easily be
                        monitored by outside agencies. It is forbidden to disclose or divulge any
                        information intercepted over the Company communications systems.

             12.5.2     Secrecy Act

                        All member nations of the ITU bind themselves to the Secrecy Act which states:
                        "They will take the necessary measures to prohibit and prevent:

                        *        The unauthorized interception of radio communications not intended for
                                 public use.

                        *        The divulgence of the contents, simple disclosure of the existence,
                                 publication, or any use whatever, without authorization, of information of
                                 any nature obtained by the interception of radio or telephone
                                 communications."

                        Supervisors should be especially alert for violations of this kind and use maximum
                        disciplinary action toward violators.

             12.5.3     Penalties

                        All persons operating the communications systems will be held responsible for any
                        improper operation and will be held subject to disciplinary action.

12.6         Message Priorities for Company Operations

             1     MAYDAY

             2     PAN/DISASTER

             3     DISASTER DRILL

             4     SAFETY SIGNAL (Number 3 Priority - International Frequencies)

             5     PRIORITY TRAFFIC

             6     ROUTINE




February 1993 - 12.0 Radio Communications                                                              Page 75
             12.6.1     MAYDAY

                        (Broadcast to all stations)

                        When MAYDAY is spoken three times and followed by the words: "this is (the
                        call station, station identification, or other identification of the mobile station)",
                        indicates that a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle is threatened by grave and imminent
                        danger and requires immediate assistance to save human life or property.

                        The message has absolute priority over all other messages. When the message is
                        heard, all stations shall stop transmitting and listen to the message. The nature of
                        distress may be such that the operator may not be able to complete the message or
                        repeat.

                        International Search and Rescue Monitor Stations shall 'fix' the bearings of the
                        signal and alert ships and aircraft in the area to assist with the rescue.

                        All persons operating radio equipment must be thoroughly acquainted with this
                        type of priority message.

             12.6.2     URGENCY SIGNAL

                        (International PAN; Company DISASTER)

                        This message is usually directed to a particular station. PAN/DISASTER, when
                        spoken three times and followed by the words: "This is (the call sign or station
                        identification)", indicates that the station has a critical emergency concerning
                        injury, oil operations or other extreme operating situation.

                        Messages of this nature carry priority over all messages except MAYDAY.
                        Company operators use the word DISASTER. Within Company operations
                        DISASTER has the same priority as the word PAN for those operating on
                        international circuits or frequencies.

             12.6.3     DISASTER DRILL

                        At various times the Company conducts training exercises which are associated
                        with familiarization and indoctrination programs. At the beginning of such a drill,
                        radio     stations     will    announce       "A    DISASTER         DRì¥Á G
                                          ¿                             Jl




February 1993 - 12.0 Radio Communications                                                              Page 76
                           bjbjŽ ÙŽ Ù
                                        ÊÚ       ì³   ì³   ®:                 ›-
                                                                         ÿÿ                        ÿÿ
                             ÿÿ                                      ]                  ,           ,      ,
                             ,               ,             ,                  ,                                °:
                                  °:             °:             °:                          ÐC   ä ì¥Á G
                                             ¿                                     Jl




February 1993 - 12.0 Radio Communications                                                                      Page 77
             jbjŽ ÙŽ Ù

                                        ÊÚ        ì³       ì³   ®:                ›-

                                       ÿÿ                            ÿÿ                ÿÿ
                                       ]               ,                  ,   ,          ,         ,
                               ,              ,                               °:          °:           °:
                              °:             ÐC                  ä and followed by the station identification.
                        The SAFETY SIGNAL is used

                        when a station is going to broadcast a message concerning the safety of navigation
                        or giving important meteorological warnings.

             12.6.5     PRIORITY TRAFFIC

                        Repairs to facilities involved in disasters should be classified as PRIORITY
                        TRAFFIC.

             12.6.6     ROUTINE

                        All messages except those classified above should be ROUTINE.

12.7         Distress Messages

             (Forms and Examples)

             12.7.1     MAYDAY

                        1             Distress Signal

                                      The distress signal is MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY followed by
                                      the name of station or station call letters repeated three times.

                                      Give location, first.

                                      Give the nature of the distress, second.

                                      Give the kind of assistance required.

                                      Complete message with any other information which can be of
                                      assistance to rescue operations.

                        2             Stations Receiving Message

                                      From the location given, the receiving stations can determine if they
                                      are in the immediate vicinity. All stations shall cease transmission.
                                      The station in the immediate vicinity shall acknowledge receipt by
                                      transmitting the following message: "(Give name of station in distress;
                                      repeat three times) - This is the (name of station), Roger, your Mayday
                                      Message."




February 1993 - 12.0 Radio Communications                                                               Page 78
                                      This station assumes the full responsibility of a control station for all
                                      further radio transmissions and all other stations remain off the air
                                      unless directed to transmit by the control station.

                                      By virtue of acknowledging the MAYDAY message, the receiving
                                      station assumes control and becomes fully responsible. It may use any
                                      means at its disposal to carry out the rescue operation.

                        3             End of Mayday Distress

                                      When the distress traffic has ceased or when silence is no longer
                                      necessary on a circuit or frequency which has been used for distress
                                      traffic, the control station shall transmit the following message:

                                      "To all stations, to all stations, to all stations - This is (control station
                                      identification, repeated three times) distress traffic has ended with
                                      (station in distress identification). All stations resume normal traffic."

                                      The message should be repeated at intervals in order to assure that all
                                      stations standing by receive the message.

                                      IMPORTANT: The transmission of MAYDAY messages for the
                                      purpose of training is not permitted under any circumstances.

             12.7.2     Urgency Signal

                        This signal indicates that the calling station has a very urgent message to transmit
                        concerning the safety of a person, ship, or aircraft.

                        1             Signal

                                      Radio operators, operating on international circuits or frequencies,
                                      shall be alert for the urgency signal which is PAN, repeated three
                                      times followed by the station call letter or identification. The
                                      Company equivalent to urgency signal is DISASTER.

                        2             Response

                                      All stations shall cease transmitting and listen to the message that
                                      follows. If the stations receiving the message can be of any assistance,
                                      they shall acknowledge and render all assistance possible; otherwise,
                                      they shall cease transmission until the urgency traffic has been cleared.

                        3             Procedures

                                      All persons operating Company communications equipment shall be
                                      familiar with the word DISASTER. When it is heard, they shall cease
                                      transmitting until the DISASTER is over. The procedures are outlined
                                      in the General Instruction Manual, under Disaster Procedure, Abqaiq,
                                      Dhahran, Ras Tanura.




February 1993 - 12.0 Radio Communications                                                                   Page 79
                        4             Return to Normal

                                      When the disaster has ended, the responsible parties outlined in the
                                      General Instruction shall clear the radio circuits for normal traffic.

             12.7.3     Priority Traffic

                        Repairs to facilities involved in disasters would be classified as priority traffic and
                        the priority would depend on the situation.




February 1993 - 12.0 Radio Communications                                                               Page 80
13.0 TRANSPORTATION
This section outlines the procedures and responsibilities for preventing motor vehicle accidents in Saudi
Aramco's jurisdiction. In addition, it sets the standards for driver performance, responsibility, and vehicle
maintenance expected of all contractor, service organization and Saudi Aramco drivers. All drivers are
expected to drive in a defensive manner and maintain control of their vehicles at all times.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 1183.215          Transporting Explosives in Company Owned/Leased/Rented Motor Transport Vehicles

GI 150.002           First Aid / CPR Training and First Aid Kits - Remote Areas

GI 6.025             Control of Remote Area Travel and Search/Rescue Procedures

GI 6.029             Reporting and Recording Of Motor Vehicle Accidents

GI 6.030             Traffic and Vehicle Safety

GI 1321.015          Request for Air Medical Evacuation

Driving in Saudi Arabia: A Saudi Aramco guide to safer driving and desert travel.

Schedule 'D':

                     Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Transportation.

13.1          Driver Requirements

              All contractors must employ only qualified personnel as drivers of motor vehicles. It is the
              responsibility of the driver's supervisor, foreman, or superintendent to verify the driver's
              credentials prior to his employment. It is Saudi Arab Government law and a Company rule,
              that each person driving a motor vehicle must possess and have on his person a valid Saudi
              Arab Government driver's license.

13.2          Driver's Responsibilities

              13.2.1

                          It is the responsibility of the driver to ensure that his vehicle is safe to operate.

              13.2.2

                          It is the responsibility of each driver to take his vehicle to the proper facility for
                          servicing and repairs when they are required or scheduled.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Transportation                                                   Page 81
              13.2.3

                          The driver of the vehicle is fully responsible and accountable for the mechanical
                          and physical condition of the vehicle. He must report any damage, beyond normal
                          wear and tear, immediately.

              13.2.4

                          The driver is responsible for transporting materials properly and ensuring that a
                          load does not exceed the manufacturer's design load capacity. All loads must be
                          properly secured and tied down. Materials should not extend over the sides of the
                          truck. Loads extending beyond the front or rear shall be marked with a red flag.
                          Also such loads must be equipped with visible brake and tail lights at their rear end
                          points.

              13.2.5

                          Tires which have breaks in the casing, or with exposed fabric, shall not be used.

              13.2.6

                          Sand tires present a hazard if used on vehicles which are operated at excessive
                          speed especially when they are not properly inflated. It is the driver's
                          responsibility to ensure that Saudi Aramco Transportation Department tire
                          inflation standards are maintained. Proper inflation pressures are posted at the
                          Department's tire shops.

              13.2.7

                          Drivers shall not transport unauthorized persons in Company vehicles.            The
                          driver's supervisor shall authorize all passengers in the vehicle.

              13.2.8

                          The driver and all passengers of a Company vehicle shall wear seat belts at all
                          times while the vehicle is in motion.

              13.2.9

                          Drivers have full authority to refuse to transport any passenger who refuses to use
                          seat belts. Conversely, passengers may refuse to ride with a driver who refuses to
                          wear his seat belt.

              13.2.10

                          Passengers shall not be transported in the rear of pickups or on truck beds.

              13.2.11

                          Drivers should not transport more passengers than the number of seat belts
                          provided in the vehicle.




February 1993 - 13.0 Transportation                                                                      Page 82
              13.2.12

                          All drivers shall be familiar with what the Company considers unsafe driving
                          practices and avoid them at all times.

                          The driver must not exceed the posted speed limit. This is the maximum speed
                          allowed in a certain area.. Every driver is expected to reduce his vehicle's speed
                          under hazardous weather or road conditions. (See GI 6.030.)

13.3          Motor Vehicle Regulations: Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco

              Each driver shall become familiar with, and abide by, the Saudi Arab Government Traffic
              Regulations. An English translation of these regulations is available from the Loss
              Prevention Department.

              13.3.1

                          Where there is no sign post indicating the maximum speed limit, no vehicle may be
                          driven at a speed greater than the following:

                             1.       100 kilometers per hour for light motor vehicles outside city limits. (See
                                      GI 6.030.)

                             2.       70 km/hr for vehicles with sand tires.

                          To drive safely, speed must be reduced below the allowable speed limit at night, or
                          during fog, rain or sand storm.

              13.3.2

                             Drivers shall comply with all Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco traffic
                             signs.

              13.3.3

                             All vehicles shall be parked correctly and/or in designated parking areas. Parked
                             vehicles shall not obstruct other vehicles, roadways, access ways or fire
                             hydrants.

13.4          Vehicle Condition

              It is the responsibility of the driver to ensure his vehicle is safe to operate. It is the
              responsibility of the driver to bring the vehicle in for scheduled maintenance. The driver is
              responsible for inspecting a vehicle before operating it to determine if the following items
              have been provided and are in satisfactory condition:

              Vehicle Inspection Checklist:

              1.     The vehicle number, company name, current inspection stickers and license plate (front
                     and back) must be in place.

              2.     Seat belts are mandatory for all vehicle occupants.




February 1993 - 13.0 Transportation                                                                        Page 83
              3.     Two reflective warning triangles should be in each vehicle.

              4.     Windows and windshield must be clean and free of cracks or damage. The glass must
                     be in good condition. The windows must open and close properly.

              5.     All lights (high and low beam headlights, tail lights, dash lights, stop lights, turn signal
                     lights, and the rear license plate light) must be in working order. When fog lights (front
                     & rear) and clearance lights have been provided, they must be also be in good working
                     order.

              6.     All brakes (foot and hand brakes) must be in good working order. Check the foot and
                     hand brake mechanism for correct operation.

              7.     The automatic transmission must be in good operating condition and should shift into
                     the parking position correctly.

              8.     Springs and shock absorbers must be in good condition with no alignment or control
                     problems.

              9.     There should be no excessive movement of the steering wheel and no signs of damage.
                     Steering knobs and loose coverings are prohibited.

              10. Tires should have no breaks in the tire casing or exposed fabric and must be inflated to
                  correct air pressure as specified by the Transportation Department.

                     If the treads show any signs of wear like bare patches, this could indicate defective
                     steering, springs and/or shock absorbers.

              11. Check the wheels for rim damage. Make sure the wheels are not buckled or out of
                  alignment and wheel lug nuts are in place and secure on the rim.

              12. If the vehicle is fitted with a trailer, the coupling must be intact and working correctly.
                  The trailer should have safety coupling chains, rear brake lights, turn signals, tail lights
                  and rear license plate lights.

              13. Make sure that the inside and outside rear view mirrors are clean, adjusted, secured
                  and undamaged.

              14. Check that the windshield wiper blades are in good condition, and operate properly.
                  Inspect the rear window wiper, if fitted.

                     The windshield washer should work properly and there should be water in the washer
                     container.

              15. The speedometer should be in good working order.

              16. Test the exhaust system by starting up the engine of the vehicle, listening for sounds
                  and spotting any leaks associated with it. Check to see if the tail pipe extends at least
                  three inches from the body of the vehicle. The tail pipe emissions should be released
                  from a point where they do not directly come into contact with the driver of the vehicle
                  or its occupants, thereby causing any adverse health affects to any of them.




February 1993 - 13.0 Transportation                                                                       Page 84
              17. A properly inflated spare tire with a jack and tire wrench must be provided. The tire
                  wrench should be the correct size to fit the wheel nuts of the vehicle.

              18. Check the following fluids for leaks and proper levels, especially in hot weather.

                         Radiator coolant
                         Oil
                         Brake fluid
                         Transmission oil (checked with engine running)
                         Distilled water for the battery

              NOTE:       The driver should check the radiator coolant level only when the engine is cool.
                          Fluid should be added to the level mark on the overflow expansion tank only if
                          provided.

              19. The vehicle's horn must be operational.

              20. Note all damage on the vehicle, process the proper reports and have the damage
                  repaired. You could be charged with a hit and run accident unless you have a police
                  vehicle release for major damage, and back up reports for minor parking lot "dings and
                  scratches".

                     Each driver must conduct a vehicle inspection whenever taking charge of a vehicle and
                     periodically thereafter (at least once a month) to ensure that all systems are operating
                     properly and there is no damage.

                     Passengers will be carried only in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. All vehicle
                     occupants must wear seat belts. Drivers shall insist that all passengers wear seat belts
                     before starting the vehicle. Drivers can receive a moving violation for not adhering to
                     this regulation.

                     Loose materials are to be kept out of the driving compartment. Do not place materials
                     (hard hats, etc.) on rear window shelf.

13.5          Driver Training

              The Company conducts driver training courses for Saudi Aramco employees. Details about
              the courses are available from the On-the-Job Training Unit.

13.6          Enforcement of Safe Driving Practices

              The Industrial Security Organization issues "Unsafe Driving Practice Warning" notices.

              13.6.1

                          Saudi Aramco drivers who commit traffic offenses are given penalty points.
                          Repeat offenders may receive disciplinary action. (See GI 6.030.)

              13.6.2

                          Contractors driving on Saudi Aramco facilities or in the communities are required
                          to abide by all Saudi Aramco and Saudi Arab Government traffic regulations.




February 1993 - 13.0 Transportation                                                                    Page 85
                          Offenders will be referred to proponent organizations for appropriate action,
                          including counseling and revocation of driving privileges within Saudi Aramco.
                          For repeat offenders, contract may be reviewed for cancellation.

13.7          Action Taken After a Saudi Aramco Motor Vehicle Accident

              All motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) shall be reported to the closest main gate or security
              control center. This must be done by telephone, radio, or by sending a message with a
              passing driver. Other procedures in GI 6.029 must then be followed.

              The Main Gate/Security Control Center telephone numbers are:

                                           Dhahran:                               874-2055
                                           Ras Tanura:                            673-5231
                                           Abqaiq:                                572-5291
                                           Udhailiyah:                            577-8114
                                           Yanbu:                                 321-4284
                                           Mubarraz:                              577-2344
                                           Abu Ali:                               678-2228
                                           Berri:                                 678-7226

              Other procedures as detailed in GI 6.029 must then be followed.

              13.7.1      Emergencies

                          In the event of serious injury, fire or hazardous road block caused by an accident
                          on Saudi Aramco facilities, the emergency telephone number 110 should be used.
                          For emergencies occurring off Saudi Aramco facilities, a Main Gate/Security
                          Control Center telephone number can be used (see above). This will allow both
                          the Main Gate/Security Control Center and Medical Controller to be informed and
                          they will ensure that the proper unit will respond to assist. When reporting any
                          accident, make sure the message is understood before hanging up.

              13.7.2      Remain at Scene

                          A driver shall not leave the scene of an accident or move his vehicle after an
                          accident unless he needs to take an injured person to a hospital. This is a Saudi
                          Arab Government law and the Traffic Department investigating officer is the only
                          one delegated the authority to release vehicles involved. The Saudi Aramco
                          Government Affairs Representative will advise you of this release. If a damaged
                          vehicle is blocking traffic or is stopped on the highway, reflective triangles must be
                          used to warn approaching traffic of the vehicle's presence.

13.8          Passenger Seating and Seat Belts

              Passengers shall be transported only in passenger compartments of cars, trucks and buses.
              The number of passengers being transported in the passenger compartment of a vehicle must
              not exceed the manufacturer's specifications.

              Seat belts shall be worn by the driver and passengers in all vehicles except buses with more
              than 14 seats, where seat belts are only required for drivers.




February 1993 - 13.0 Transportation                                                                      Page 86
13.9          Desert Driving

              All persons who drive in the desert should study "Driving In Saudi Arabia," the Saudi
              Aramco guide on safe driving tips and desert travel. It is recommended that the driver have a
              copy with him in the vehicle. Copies may be obtained from any Loss Prevention area office.

              In particular, any person who drives in the desert shall ensure that:

              1.     His immediate supervisor knows his destination and route.
              2.     His vehicle is in good condition with adequate fuel, oil, and water.
              3.     His vehicle has tools, equipment, and spares for emergency use.
              4.     He has sufficient food and drinking water to sustain him until rescue, should he be
                     stranded.
              5.     He is familiar with survival and rescue techniques and procedures.
              6.     Driver shall pass the off-the-road vehicle test conducted by Saudi Aramco Driver
                     Training Unit before being permitted the use of 4-wheel drive vehicles.

              13.9.1      Stay With Vehicle

                          A person lost or stranded in the desert must stay with the vehicle as it provides
                          shelter and to make it easier for searchers to locate him.

              13.9.2      Sand Tires

                          Sand tires are hazardous to use when they are not properly inflated, when they are
                          driven at high speeds or when the roads are wet. It is the driver's responsibility to
                          ensure the following requirements are met for sand tires:

                           VEHICLE TYPE                           TIRE SIZE            RECOMMENDED
                                                                                       TIRE PRESSURE
                                                                                       MIN       MAX
                           Carryall, 4x4                              9.00x16           15        35
                           Pickup, 4x4,1/2 Ton                        9.00x15           15        35
                           Pickup, 4x4,3/4 Ton                        9.00x16           15        35
                           Pickup, Crewcab, 4x4, 1 Ton               11.00x16           15        35
                           Utility, 4x4,3/4 Ton                       9.00x16           15        35
                           Utility, Crewcab, 4x4, 1 Ton              11.00x16           15        35
                           Stake Truck, 4x4, 1 Ton                   11.00x16           15        35
                           Welder's Truck, 4x4, 1 Ton                11.00x16           15        35




February 1993 - 13.0 Transportation                                                                     Page 87
                          Maximum speed for sand tires (on hard dry road):

                               70 KPH at maximum sand tire pressure
                               20 KPH at minimum sand tire pressure

                          Since sand tires have a larger diameter than standard tires, speedometer readings
                          will not be accurate. Unless the vehicle speedometer has been corrected to account
                          for the oversize tires, the driver should remember that he is traveling
                          approximately 10-15% faster than the speedometer reading.

13.10         Vehicle Admittance to Restricted Areas

              Vehicles requiring admittance to a restricted area (e.g. hydrocarbon facilities, refinery and
              terminal areas) shall be inspected by the Saudi Aramco Transportation Department. Upon
              successful completion of the inspection, a window sticker is issued for the vehicle. This
              sticker is valid for three months after which the vehicle must be inspected again. If the
              vehicle fails inspection, it will not be permitted entry into any restricted area until all
              deficiencies have been corrected. File form 7575 (Restricted Area Access Sticker Request).

13.11         Operation of Motor Vehicles Within Saudi Aramco Communities

              All contractor, service organization and company operated vehicles must be constructed to
              comply with the Saudi Arabian Traffic Regulations, Saudi Arabian Standards Organization
              (SASO) and Saudi Aramco rules for the safe operation of motor vehicles while driving
              within any Saudi Aramco community.

              13.11.1     Seat Belts

                          All vehicles shall be equipped with seat belts for each passenger seat in accordance
                          with Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO).

              13.11.2     Traffic Regulations

                          All posted speed limits shall never be exceeded and all local traffic signs shall be
                          obeyed.




February 1993 - 13.0 Transportation                                                                    Page 88
14.0 AIRCRAFT OPERATION
This section will deal with both passenger and cargo transportation for which Saudi Aramco aircraft are
used.

Although some of the safety standards imposed will seem to restrict use, these regulations were designed
not only with the safety of the passengers and aircraft cargo in mind, but also for the safety of the aircraft
and the crew.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 1310.00           Transportation of Dangerous Articles Onboard Saudi Aramco Aircraft

Aircraft Guidelines For Crew Managers And Aviation Remote Airfield Operations Personnel (February
1988)

IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (33Rd Edition, 1992)

US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 175 - "Carriage By Aircraft"

14.1          General Operating Responsibilities

              14.1.1      Captain/Pilot

                          The Captain/Pilot is in command of the aircraft at all times and is responsible for
                          the safety of his passengers and cargo. He is the sole judge and will make all
                          decisions in determining if the weather is acceptable for flight or if landing and
                          take off conditions are within Company minimum standards.

                          No one is allowed to "pressure" the pilot into carrying more weight than the pilot
                          states is acceptable.

                          The Captain/Pilot is authorized to follow any course of action which he judges
                          requires immediate decision or action in the interests of safety.

              14.1.2      Camp Supervisors

                          All camp supervisors in remote areas will familiarize themselves with all the
                          relevant instructions on the movement of aircraft to and from their areas as detailed
                          in the "Saudi Aramco Aviation Department Policy and Guidelines for Camp
                          Managers".

                          It is to the mutual advantage of the user department and the pilots of the Aviation
                          Department that rules of Aviation Safety be reviewed and applied to all operations
                          in remote areas. Complete cooperation and understanding between pilots and
                          camp supervisors is essential for the safe and efficient operation of all inbound and
                          outbound aircraft.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Aircraft OperationPage 89
14.2          Passenger Briefing/Instructions, General (All Aircraft Types)

              14.2.1

                          The pilot shall either orally brief his passengers or direct their attention to the
                          aircraft safety instructions.

              14.2.2

                          Passengers should never approach fixed-wing aircraft for boarding from the front,
                          and they must keep well clear of props and engines at all times.

              14.2.3

                          A flight crew member or designated safety observer should monitor passenger
                          movement while they are boarding or leaving an aircraft.

              14.2.4

                          Smoking is prohibited on all Saudi Aramco aircraft and on all ramp and apron
                          areas.

              14.2.5

                          Seat belts must be fastened during all flights. Do not unfasten the seat belt until
                          the aircraft has come to a complete stop and you are instructed to do so.

              14.2.6

                          Passengers will comply with all flight crew or flight attendant instructions.

              14.2.7

                          Ear protection is supplied by Saudi Aramco where appropriate.

              14.2.8

                          All Saudi Aramco aircraft carry US registration. The Company complies with US
                          DOT, FAA, ICAO and KSA President of Civil Aviation (PCA) regulations.
                          Failure to comply with these regulations and instructions could endanger the lives
                          and property of others and could be refused future use of the Saudi Aramco
                          aircraft, termination of service, or prosecution.

              14.2.9

                          Other areas of briefing may include the use and handling of special material or
                          equipment which must be declared and will be shipped only at the Captain's
                          discretion.




February 1993 - 14.0 Aircraft Operation                                                                   Page 90
              14.2.10

                          In the event of forced landing, the pilot and passengers will stay with the aircraft.
                          The Captain will direct rescue/survival activities. The Aviation Department will
                          conduct a day and night search for the disabled aircraft.

14.3          Transportation of Dangerous Goods

              Saudi Aramco complies with the provisions of ICAO regulations as published in the IATA
              Dangerous Goods Regulations. All shippers and passengers intending to transport dangerous
              goods on Saudi Aramco aircraft are required to be familiar with and comply with the IATA
              Regulations. Further requirements are contained in GI 1310.00.

              Any questions on Dangerous Goods Transport should be addressed to Central Area Loss
              Prevention Department, Aviation Safety Officers, or the Terminal Supervisor of the nearest
              Saudi Aramco airfield terminal.

14.4          Hours of Operation for Single-Engine Helicopters

              Normal hours of single-engine helicopter operations are from sunrise to 30 minutes before
              sunset. A helicopter is required to be at its final destination no later than 30 minutes before
              sunset.

              By permission from the area supervisor, a helicopter may fly overland up to 30 minutes after
              sunset if warranted by extenuating circumstances. Operations may also authorize short
              flights to continue until sunset if rescue facilities are immediately available.

14.5          General Precautions for Helicopters

              No loose clothing should be worn which may entangle on any aircraft surface or impede
              egress or flotation in any way.

              All persons shall approach the helicopter from the front in full view of the pilot. Never walk
              around the rear of the helicopter. Hold onto your headgear when approaching aircraft. Carry
              long objects below waist level.

              When visibility is reduced by dust or other conditions, personnel shall exercise special
              caution to keep clear of the main and stabilizing rotors.

              14.5.1      Life Vests

                          In the event of a forced landing at sea, the float gear is capable of supporting the
                          helicopter. Life vest must be worn on all over-water flights. Only the vests
                          provided in the helicopter should be used.




February 1993 - 14.0 Aircraft Operation                                                                 Page 91
II. General And Civil




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: II. General And Civil   Page 92
1.0 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM
The Work Permit System incorporates procedures commonly used in industrial facilities to ensure that
necessary communication takes place and hazards are controlled.

Saudi Aramco's restricted areas are potentially hazardous. However, knowledgeable people using proper
procedures can perform work tasks efficiently and safely. The Saudi Aramco work permit procedure is
important in maintaining a safe work environment and is a requirement for all Saudi Aramco jobs in
restricted areas.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100              Work Permit System

GI 2.708              Gas Testing Procedures

GI 2.711              Fire & Safety Watch

GI 6.012              Isolation, Lockout And Use Of Hold Tags

Power Distribution Instruction:

No. 3.0               Definitions of Terms and Approved Abbreviations

No. 10.0 Power Distribution Operations

No. 11.0 Hold Orders, Clearances and Permission to Test

1.1           Definitions

              1.1.1       Restricted Areas

                          Restricted areas are those areas or activities which have been designated by
                          department managers as requiring the work permit system. These include (but are
                          not limited to) all areas where hydrocarbons, flammable liquids or gases, or
                          oxidizing agents are handled, stored, piped, or processed in significant quantities;
                          and critical non-hydrocarbon operations.

                          The following are examples of restricted areas: petroleum processing plants; pump
                          stations; tank farms; loading piers; hydrocarbon pipelines; oil wells; gas plants;
                          specified locations on marine vessels; gasoline service stations; areas where
                          explosives and industrial X-ray or radioactive materials are used or stored; work
                          areas under or near power lines; confined space entry; and material supply storage
                          areas.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Work Permit System                                         Page 93
             1.1.2       Issuer (Operation Supervisors)

                         Operation supervisors are those supervisors who are certified by their division or
                         department head to issue and approve work permits in restricted areas under their
                         supervision.

             1.1.3       Receiver (Authorized Craftsmen)

                         Authorized craftsmen are the craft supervisors, craftsmen, or others who have been
                         certified by their division or department head to sign and receive work permits in
                         the case of Company employees and by sponsoring organization heads in the case
                         of contractors.

             1.1.4       Work Permit

                         There are four work permits:

                         1      Release of Hazardous Liquids or Gases, Form 924-1 (yellow) -

                                This form is required when opening lines or vessels that may release
                                hazardous or toxic materials.

                         2      Hot Work, Form 924-2 (red) -

                                This form is required when using spark or flame producing equipment and
                                for vehicle entry into a restricted area.

                         3      Cold Work, Form 924-3 (blue) -

                                This form is for work that will not produce sufficient energy to ignite
                                flammable atmospheres/materials.

                         4      Confined Space Entry, Form 924-4 (green) -

                                This form is required for tank cleaning, tank inspection, work in sewers or
                                excavations of 4 feet or deeper.

                         All work in restricted areas must have at least one of the listed work permits.
                         Work must be performed according to the instructions and precautions specified in
                         the work permit.

1.2          Issuance and Approval

             The authorized receiver (authorized craftsman) must request a work permit from a certified
             issuer (operation supervisor) before doing any work in a restricted area.

             The issuer will grant the work permit after he has visited the site with the receiver, reviewed
             the hazards applicable to the particular job, and is satisfied that the work can be done safely.
             If the work contemplated involves any change, addition, or deletion in the facility, the work
             should be reviewed by an engineer and appropriate authorization is necessary.




February 1993 - 1.0 Work Permit System                                                                Page 94
             Both the issuer and the receiver must hold valid work permit certificates issued by Saudi
             Aramco.

             1.2.1       Power Distribution Department Clearances
                         Power Distribution Department (PDD), issues clearances to enable work to be
                         accomplished on high voltage electrical apparatus that has been de-energized and
                         isolated from the power system in an approved manner. These clearances are
                         issued by PDD dispatchers in addition to any work permits that are required.

                         Usually clearance receivers are PDD employees. Non-PDD employees and
                         contractors should request PDD Electric System operators for assistance.

                         The following instructions apply to PDD clearances:

                         PDD 3.0:        Definitions of Terms and Approved Abbreviations
                         PDD 10.0:       Power Distribution Operations
                         PDD 11.0:       Hold Orders, Clearances and Permission to Test

1.3          Precautions

             1.3.1       Checklist

                         Each permit contains a checklist of precautions against common hazards. Such a
                         list cannot include precautions against all hazards. It is the duty of both the issuer
                         and the receiver to review the job, anticipate what hazards might arise, check for
                         flammable gases in the area and see that proper precautions have been specified on
                         the permit before it is signed.

             1.3.2       Clear Area

                         One specific precaution applying to all work is to clear the area of people not
                         required for the job to avoid their being exposed to unnecessary hazards. If people
                         enter an area where they could be exposed to undue danger, the work should be
                         stopped until they are cleared from the area.

             1.3.3       Work Stoppage

                         If conditions change or become unsafe during the course of work, the issuer or
                         local supervisor may stop the work and cancel the permit.

                         The receiver has the responsibility to stop the work and advise the issuer or
                         supervisor any time he feels the safety of the job does not meet the conditions of
                         the work permit.

1.4          Handling of Issued Work Permit

             A work permit is valid for only one shift, but it may be extended for one additional shift with
             proper approval. Exceptions in excess of 16 hours may be granted in special cases, provided
             certain precautions are taken. (See GI 2.100 for details.)

             The receiver of the work permit must keep the permit posted at the job location at all times.




February 1993 - 1.0 Work Permit System                                                                  Page 95
             The receiver of a work permit must keep a copy in his possession or within view of the job
             site for the duration of the job, so that it may be presented upon request. If the receiver
             leaves the job site, he shall give the permit to a responsible senior crew member to keep until
             he returns. The issuer, receiver and the senior crew member must sign the work permit
             transferring the work permit to the senior crew member.

1.5          Closing Out and Filing the Permit

             When the job is completed or at the end of the shift, each work permit must be closed out by
             both issuer and receiver. The only exception shall be when the distance and remoteness
             make signing impractical, and it is so stated when the work permit is issued. The work
             permit will be filed and kept by the issuing department for three months.

1.6          Certification

             In order for a person to be a certified receiver of work permits, he must attend the work
             permit Receivers Course conducted by the Loss Prevention Department and pass a test on
             work permit System (GI 2.100) given at the end of the course.

             The superintendent of the construction organization will assure Saudi Aramco by his
             signature that his employee knows both the general instruction and his job. Contact the local
             Loss Prevention office for work permit certification information.

             Records of current certificate holders, with their names and the dates issued, must be kept by
             each superintendent or organization head.

1.7          12 Rules on Work Permit Procedure
             (See below)

1.8          Hold Tags and Multiple Lockouts

             1.8.1    Instructions contained in GI 6.012 outline the use of tagging and lockout for
                      controllers which are to be held inoperative or for work clearance.

             1.8.2    The purpose for the Lockout System is to render controllers inoperative, i.e., circuit
                      breakers, disconnect switches, valves, etc. on any systems (electrical, steam,
                      hydrocarbon, water, acid, etc.), where the operation of the control device could be
                      hazardous to personnel working on the system.

             1.8.3    Hold tags and locks are primarily intended to protect the individual doing the work
                      from being injured by an inadvertent start-up.

             1.8.4    Work permit issuers and operations supervisors shall ensure that hold tags and lock
                      outs are used and so noted on the work permit. The use of hold tags/lock outs shall
                      be strictly enforced.




February 1993 - 1.0 Work Permit System                                                               Page 96
TWELVE RULES ON WORK PERMIT PROCEDURE

1)        Issuer and receiver must inspect job site together before signing the work permit.

2)        Issue the correct permits for the job - hot, cold, vessel or confined space entry, and/or gas
          release. Two or more permits may be required for the job.

3)        Issuer and receiver must both have in their possession a valid work permit certification card
          (issuer and receiver respectively).

4)        J-W Sniffer gas test and/or H2S gas test and/or oxygen analysis test must be made before issuing
          work permit.

5)        Job description and equipment used must be clearly stated on the work permit. Be specific,
          issue permits for a single pump, drum, etc.

6)        All tick boxes must be correctly filled in and gas readings indicated.

7)        Proper lockouts, hold tags, and blinds must be used where applicable (multiple clips with lock,
          and/or chains with padlocks).

8)        Work permits should be issued for the specific period of time required to complete the job.

9)        To extend time work permit beyond one shift, the oncoming shift issuer must inspect job site,
          write in extended time and sign permit.

10)       Special precautions such as requirements for fire watch, Scott air packs, life lines, barricades,
          etc. must be written on the permit.

11)       The work permit must remain on the job site in a conspicuously visible place while work is
          going on. If an emergency develops, the permit must be withdrawn immediately and all work
          stopped without questions.

12)       The work permit must be closed out after a job is completed. Issuer and receiver must inspect
          the job site and sign off the work permit.




February 1993 - 1.0 Work Permit System                                                              Page 97
LOCK OUT AND TAG

Workers may be injured while working on equipment when the controls have not been locked and tagged
in the off position. People do make mistakes and start equipment on which maintenance men are
working; vibrations and ineffective mechanisms can cause controls to move or valves to open. Protection
is simple: lock the control in the off position and prevent an accident.

Saudi Aramco has special rules requiring the use of locks on switches and controls when it would be
unsafe to work on an energized or operating system. Each supervisor of operations and maintenance
should know the rules in GI 6.012 - Isolation, Lock Out and Use of Hold Tags.

When more than one man is going to work on a system or on a number of pieces of equipment within the
system, the multiple lockout clip enables each man to lock out the circuit or machine control. If your man
can't get his lock on the clip, work should not proceed until a suitable clip is found. Clips may be ordered
under stock number 21-350-487; locks under stock number 08-323-261; tags under stock number 39-
378-419. Locks belonging to contractor personnel must have one key only and should be compatible
with the Saudi Aramco system. Contractors will establish their own lock issuing procedure complete with
logging and a numbering system.

Note:     Contractors are required to establish a lock out and TAG system compatible with the Saudi
          Aramco system as part of the contractor Loss Prevention Program plan requirements of
          Schedule 'D'.

Tags are useful to tell who is working on the equipment and who authorized the shutdown. Teach your
men the lockout procedure and insist they follow it.




February 1993 - 1.0 Work Permit System                                                               Page 98
FIGURE II.1: HOLD TAG

                                         Front View




                                         Back View




February 1993 - 1.0 Work Permit System                Page 99
FIGURE II.2: LOCKOUT CLIP (TYPICAL)




February 1993 - 1.0 Work Permit System   Page 100
2.0 EXCAVATIONS, TRENCHING AND SHORING
Accidents due to cave-in can occur for excavations which are not shored or otherwise supported. Even
rock that looks solid from a cursory inspection can collapse without warning. The sides of an excavation
may need to be suitably shored, benched or sloped back to a safe angle of repose, depth, and soil
composition.

Other types of excavation accidents are caused by contact with underground pipes and cables, by falls of
equipment and persons, by persons being struck by excavating equipment, and by hazardous
atmospheres.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 1021.000         Street and Road Closure, Excavation Reinstatement and Traffic Controls
                    (See Appendix D)

GI 2.100            Work Permit System

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard:

SAES-A-111          Borrow Pit Requirements

OSHA Safety And Health Standards:

29 CFR 1926
Subpart P           Excavations

              DEFINITIONS:

              1.          Excavation

                          Any man-made cavity or depression in the earth's surface, including its sides,
                          walls, or faces, formed by earth removal and producing unsupported earth
                          conditions by reason of the excavation.

              2.          Trench Excavation

                          A narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth
                          is greater than the width, but the width of a trench is not greater than 4.5 meters (15
                          feet).

              3.          Accepted Engineering and Construction Practices

                          Plans for excavations and protective system methods shall be submitted to Loss
                          Prevention before work start up.

              4.          Protective Systems

                          Methods used to protect employees from cave-ins, from materials that could fall or
                          roll into the excavation onto the workers or from collapse of adjacent structures.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                          Page 101
                         Protective systems include supports, sloping and benching, shields and other
                         means to protect workers.

              5.         Shoring

                         Hydraulic, timber or mechanical systems that support the sides of an excavation,
                         designed to prevent cave-ins.

              6.         Hydraulic Shoring

                         A pre-engineered support system of aluminum hydraulic cylinders (cross-braces)
                         used with vertical rods (uprights) or horizontal rods designed specifically to
                         support side walls of an excavation to prevent cave-in.

              7.         Benching

                         A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an
                         excavation to form one or a series of horizontal steps, with a vertical rise between
                         steps.

              8.         Sloping

                         A method of excavating in which the sides of an excavation are laid back to a safe
                         angle to prevent cave-ins. (The safe angle required varies with different types of
                         soil, exposure to the elements and superimposed loads. There is no single angle of
                         repose. Soil classification must be identified to select safe sloping and benching
                         methods.)

              9.         Soil Classification System

                         A method of categorizing soil and rock deposits as types A, B, and C in decreasing
                         order of stability. Soil type is determined by analysis of the soil's properties and
                         how it performs under exposure to the elements and superimposed loads.

                         Type A:

                         Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 ton per square foot
                         (tc) (144kPa) or greater are classified as Type A. Examples of cohesive soils are:
                         clay, silty clay, sandy clay, clay loam and in some cases, silty clay loam and sandy
                         clay loam. Cemented soils such as caliche and hardpan are also considered Type
                         A. However, no soil is Type A if one or more of the following conditions are true:

                         (i)     The soil is fissured.
                         (ii)    The soil is subject to vibration from heavy traffic, pile driving, or similar
                                 effects.
                         (iii)   The soil has been previously disturbed.
                         (iv)    The soil is part of a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the
                                 excavation on a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) or greater.
                         (v)     The material is subject to other factors that would require it to be classified
                                 as a less stable material.

                         Type B:




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                                                   Page 102
                         Soils classified as Type B are:
                         (i)    Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tsf
                                (48 kPa) but less than 1.5 tsf (144 kPa).
                         (ii) Granular cohesionless soils including angular gravel (similar to crushed
                                rock), silt, silt loam, sandy loam and, in some cases, silty clay loam and
                                sandy loam clay.
                         (iii) Previously disturbed soils except those which would otherwise be classed as
                                Type C soil.
                         (iv) Soil that meets the unconfined compressive strength or cementation
                                requirements for Type A, but is fissured or subject to vibration.
                         (v)    Dry rock that is not stable.
                         (vi) Material that is part of a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the
                                excavation on a slope less steep than four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V)
                                but only if the material would otherwise be classified as Type B.

                         Type C:

                         Soils classified as Type C are:
                         (i)    Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5 tsf (48 kPa)
                                or less.
                         (ii) Granular soils including gravel, and loamy sand.
                         (iii) Submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping.
                         (iv) Submerged rock that is not stable.
                         (v)    Material in a sloped layered system where the layers dip into the excavation
                                or a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V).

              10.        Trench Boxes:

                         A structure that is able to withstand the forces imposed on it by cave-ins, and in the
                         process, protects employees inside the structure. (Plans for trench boxes are to be
                         submitted to Loss Prevention.)

2.1           Before Work Starts

              In order to begin excavation work with minimum risk to men, plant and equipment and to
              enable the work to proceed without interruption, the following factors must be considered
              well before the job starts:

              1.)   Size and purpose of the excavation.
              2.)   Nature of the ground including the proximity of made-up ground.
              3.)   Stability of adjacent structures.
              4.)   Position of underground obstructions such as pipes, electric cables, and other utilities.
              5.)   Weather and soil moisture conditions, especially high water table.
              6.)   Sources of soil vibrations (highway traffic, railroads, machinery, etc.).
              7.)   Adjacent roads and footpaths.
              8.)   Method of excavation.
              9.)   Excavation plan submitted to Loss Prevention.

              Consideration of these factors will indicate the safety measures which must be implemented
              to proceed with the job and whether the sides of the excavation can be sloped and benched to
              a safe angle or whether other protective systems will be required. It is important to provide
              adequate and suitable protective systems for use whenever excavation work is to be carried




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                                                 Page 103
              out to a depth of 1.5 meters (5 feet) or more. Excavation work to a depth of less than 1.5
              meters (5 feet) may also require protective systems.

2.2           Work Permit

              Work permits must be obtained from the appropriate operations supervisor before excavation
              work is started in any Saudi Aramco facility, including residential areas and roadways, and in
              any place where the presence of underground/utility obstructions is known or suspected.
              Outside of clearly defined responsibility areas, work permits shall be obtained from the
              Superintendent, Utilities and the Communications Foreman, Oil and Gas Dispatch Unit or
              their delegated representatives. A Confined Space Entry Work Permit is a second work
              permit and is required for trenches deeper than 1.2 meters (4 feet). (See GI 2.100 for work
              permit requirements.)

              All protective shoring systems and configurations, such as timber shoring, hydraulic and
              pneumatic systems, sloping, benching, shielding, sheet piling and freezing must be designed
              in accordance with Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention requirements. Excavation plans must be
              submitted to Loss Prevention before work start up.

              2.2.1      Excavation near Saudi Telephone Cables

                         To avoid disruptions of service and unnecessary costs which result from the
                         accidental cutting of Government telephone cables by contractors working on
                         Saudi Aramco projects, proponents should urge their contractors to inquire about
                         the location of such cables prior to excavation. Contractors may contact the
                         Saudi Telephone Cable Locator Division on telephone no. 843-3247 during normal
                         Government working hours or telephone no. 906 at any hour. Subsequently, they
                         may be required to submit a written application to the Saudi Telephone Cable
                         Locator Division providing a site plan of the proposed excavation and stating when
                         it will be done. Contractor letters may be addressed to the Director, Dammam
                         Area Communications, Ministry of Telegraph Post and Telephone, Dammam.

                         Saudi Aramco proponent inquiries may be addressed to the Contractor Liaison
                         Division of Government Affairs, telephone 874-1461 (Corporate Advisor,
                         Contractor Liaison/GAO).

2.3           Underground Obstructions

              Whenever the presence of underground pipes, cables, vessels, or structures is known or
              suspected, mechanical excavators shall not be used until all such obstructions have been
              exposed by hand digging. Mechanical excavators shall not be used within 3 meters (10 feet)
              of any such obstruction. Pneumatic breakers shall only be used where necessary to break
              concrete or other hard surfaces.

2.4           General Precautions

              2.4.1      Shoring Protective Systems

                         As soon as an excavation reaches a depth of 1.2 meters (4 feet) or soil banks are
                         greater than 1.5 meters (5 feet), suitable shoring shall be installed or the sides




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                                              Page 104
                         sloped back to a safe angle. Shoring may be of timber or any other suitable
                         material, such as steel sheet piling.

                         The determination of the angle of slopes, benches, (See Figure II.3) or the choice
                         and design of other protective systems shall be based on evaluation of pertinent
                         factors such as: type of soil (Type A, B, or C), depth of cut; possible variations in
                         water content of the material while the excavation is open; anticipated changes in
                         materials from exposure to air, sun, or water; loading imposed by structures,
                         equipment, overlying material, or stored material; and vibrations from equipment,
                         blasting, traffic, or other sources.

                         Excavations shall not be sloped at an angle greater than one and one-half
                         horizontal to one vertical (340 measured from the horizontal). Plans for sloping
                         and benching systems shall be sent to Loss Prevention for review. (See Figures
                         II.3, II.4, II.5.)

                         Shoring systems shall be designed by a qualified person and meet accepted
                         engineering requirements. Materials used shall be in good serviceable condition,
                         and timbers shall be sound, free from large or loose knots, and of proper
                         dimensions.

              2.4.2      Personnel Protection

                         Portable trench boxes or sliding trench shields may be used for the protection of
                         personnel in lieu of a shoring system or sloping. Where such trench boxes are
                         used, the design shall be approved by Saudi Aramco Consulting Services
                         Department.

                         Trench boxes shall be designed, constructed and maintained to provide protection
                         equal to or greater than the sheeting or shoring required.

                         Shields shall be installed in a manner to restrict lateral or other movement of the
                         shield and be capable of withstanding any sudden application of lateral loads.

                         Shields shall be extended above the excavation to protect employees working
                         inside the shields and when entering or exiting the areas protected by shields.

                         Employees shall not be allowed inside the shielded areas whenever shields are
                         being installed, removed or moved (see Figure II.7).

              2.4.3      Inspection

                         All parts of an excavation, including the shoring, shall be inspected every day by a
                         competent person to ensure that there is no danger of collapse and all observations
                         shall be noted in the site safety log book.

              2.4.4      Clearance

                         In order to provide a safe footing at the edge, and to prevent spoil falling into an
                         excavation, a clear space at least 0.6 meter (2 feet) wide shall be maintained on all
                         sides. (See Figure II.8: Guide to Safe Distance Back From Top Of Slope For
                         Storage of Materials / Equipment Placing.)




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                                                Page 105
              2.4.5      Mechanical Excavator

                         Men shall not be permitted to work underneath loads or in places where they could
                         be struck by any part of a mechanical excavator.

              2.4.6      Walkways

                         Where employees, equipment, or members of the public are required or permitted
                         to cross over an excavation, a close planked bridge or walkway with standard
                         guard rails shall be provided and kept clear of excavated materials or other tripping
                         hazards. No sidewalk shall be undermined unless properly shored.

2.5           Access and Egress

              Safe means of getting into and out of an excavation shall be provided at intervals not
              exceeding 7.5 meters (25 feet). Ladders shall conform to the requirements set out in Section
              9.2, be placed at an angle of 75o, and extend at least 0.9 meter (3 feet) above the stepping-off
              point. Ladders shall be securely fixed.

2.6           Hazardous Atmospheres and Materials

              2.6.1      Ventilation

                         Where there is reason to suspect oxygen deficiency or the presence of a hazardous
                         atmosphere in an excavation, gas tests must be carried out by a qualified person.
                         Where necessary, mechanical ventilation shall be used, or other appropriate
                         precautions shall be taken before men enter.

                         Note: Toxic, oxygen and flammable gas tests are to be conducted before entering
                               hazardous excavations in Restricted Areas (as mentioned in GI 2.100).

                         2.6.1.1        Hazardous Atmospheres

                                        Prior to entry into excavations greater than four feet deep, or confined
                                        spaces, a work permit shall be issued. Gas tests shall verify that the
                                        oxygen level is 20-21%, combustible gases 0.0 LEL, and H2S is 0
                                        ppm. For elevated levels of gases tested follow requirements of GI
                                        2.100. Corrective measurers may include use of air movers,
                                        identification and isolation of sources from fuel lines, sewers, open
                                        tanks or other measures to return the breathing atmosphere to normal
                                        readings. Subsequent testing is required to monitor the area during the
                                        work so appropriate precautions can be taken as necessary.

                                            Precautions shall be taken to prevent employee exposure to an
                                             atmosphere containing a concentration of any flammable gas
                                             above its lower explosive limit (LEL).

                                            For an atmosphere with a concentration of any flammable gas
                                             below its lower explosive limit (LEL), use the guidelines given
                                             in GI 2.100 (Work Permit System) as shown below:

                                                  Above 0.0 LEL - No hot work permitted




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                                                  Page 106
                                                  0.05 LEL to 0.5 LEL - Breathing apparatus must be used
                                                  Above 0.5 LEL - No entry permitted

                                            When controls are used that are intended to reduce the level of
                                             atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels, testing shall be
                                             conducted as often as necessary to ensure that the atmosphere
                                             remains safe.

                         2.6.1.2        Emergency Rescue Equipment

                                        (i) Emergency rescue equipment, such as breathing apparatus, a
                                        safety harness and line, or a basket stretcher, shall be readily available
                                        where hazardous atmospheric conditions exist or may develop during
                                        work in an excavation. This equipment shall be attended by a standby
                                        man outside the trench when in use.

                                        (ii) Employees entering bell-bottom pier holes, or other similar deep
                                        and confined footing excavations, shall wear a harness with a lifeline
                                        attached to it. The lifeline shall be separate from any line used to
                                        handle materials, and shall be individually attended at all times while
                                        the employee wearing the lifeline is in the excavation. Mechanical
                                        devices shall be available to lift incapacitated employees from
                                        excavations.

              2.6.2      Exhaust Gases

                         Where an internal combustion engine is used in an excavation, special precautions
                         must be taken to ensure that exhaust gases are discharged so as not to be a hazard
                         to men working in the excavation.

              2.6.3      Organic Lead

                         Where the presence of buried organic lead (TEL) sludge, asbestos or any other
                         hazardous chemical is known or suspected, whether in a Restricted Area or not,
                         excavation work shall not be started (or continued) until the Industrial Hygiene
                         Service and Loss Prevention Departments have identified the hazard and specified
                         the precautions to be taken and a new work permit has been issued.

2.7           Edge Protection, Markers and Fixed Lighting

              Whenever it is necessary to place or operate power shovels, derricks, trucks, materials, soil
              banks or other heavy objects on a level above and near an excavation, the side of the
              excavation shall be sheet-piled, shored, and braced as necessary to resist the extra pressure
              due to such superimposed loads. When mobile equipment is utilized or allowed adjacent to
              excavations, substantial stop logs or barricades shall be installed. If possible, the grade
              should be away from the excavation. If men or vehicles are in the vicinity after dark, fixed
              warning lights shall be used to mark the limits of the work.

2.8           Roads, Streets, and Sidewalks

              Excavation work in roads, streets, and sidewalks shall not be undertaken without the prior
              approval of the relevant authorities (See Section II.1, Work Permit System). Excavation




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                                                    Page 107
              work on public highways will have to be cleared in advance with Government Affairs and
              any special measures that they might specify must be implemented (See Section II.8,
              Roadworks).

2.9           Backfilling

              Backfilling and removal of trench supports shall be accomplished first by backfilling up to a
              level allowing for the removal of the lower braces. Another layer of backfill shall be
              positioned in the trench to the next layer of braces to be removed. Removal of trench
              supports shall progress together with the backfill from the bottom of the trench. In unstable
              soil, ropes shall be used to pull out the jacks or braces from above after employees have
              cleared the trench. All excavations shall be backfilled and consolidated, and the surface shall
              be left in good condition as soon as is practicable.

2.10          Borrow Pits

              Location of borrow pit boundaries (i.e., residential, industrial plants, sub-stations, highways,
              etc.) shall be located at the distance noted in SAES-A-111.

              2.10.1       A separate traffic flow plan is required to keep pedestrian traffic away from
                           vehicle traffic areas. Traffic is strictly prohibited in borrow pit areas. Signs in
                           Arabic and English shall be posted in roped-off areas, warning personnel to stay
                           out of borrow pits.

              2.10.2       Dust concentration, noise levels, and security fencing associated with borrow pit
                           operations shall be in accordance with Saudi Aramco Safe Operating Procedures.

              2.10.3     Hydraulic Shoring For Trenches

                         Hydraulic shoring is provided as a method of protection against cave-ins in
                         trenches that do not exceed 20 feet (6.1 m) in depth. Trench depths exceeding 20
                         feet (6.1 m) require Loss Prevention review.

                         It is not intended that the aluminum hydraulic specifications apply to every
                         situation that may be experienced in the field. These data were developed to apply
                         to the situations that are most commonly experienced in current trenching practice.
                         Situations that are not covered require specific designs for specific applications
                         and will be subject to Loss Prevention review. (See Figures II.9, II.10, II.11, and
                         II.12.)

              2.10.4     Timber Shoring For Trenches

                         Timber shoring is provided as a method of protection from cave-ins in trenches
                         that do not exceed 20 feet (6.1m) in depth. Loss Prevention requirements must be
                         used when timber shoring protective systems are designed. (See Figures II.13,
                         II.14, II.15 and II.16.)




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                                                Page 108
TABLE II.1: MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SLOPES




              SOIL OR ROCK TYPE                          MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SLOPES (H:V)
                                                         [1] FOR EXCAVATIONS LESS THAN 20
                                                         FEET DEEP [3]

              STABLE ROCK                                VERTICAL      (90O)
              TYPE A [2]                                 3/4 : 1       (53O)
              TYPE B                                     1:1           (45O)
              TYPE C                                     1-1/2 : 1      (34O)


                    NOTES:

                    1.   Numbers shown in parentheses next to maximum allowable
                         slopes are angles expressed in degrees from the horizontal.
                         Angles have been rounded off.

                    2.   A short term maximum allowable slope of 1/2H : 1V (63 O) is
                         allowed in excavations in Type A soil that are 12 feet (3.67 m)
                         or less in depth. Short-term maximum allowable slopes for
                         excavations greater than 12 feet (3.67 m) in depth shall be 3/4 H
                         : 1V (53O).

                    3.   Sloping or benching for excavations greater than 20 feet deep
                         shall be reviewed by Loss Prevention.

                                                Slope Configurations

                         (All slopes stated below are in the horizontal to vertical ratio)




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                                       Page 109
FIGURE II.3: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN TYPE A SOIL




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring   Page 110
FIGURE II.3A




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring   Page 111
FIGURE II.3B




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring   Page 112
FIGURE II.4: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN TYPE B SOIL




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring   Page 113
FIGURE II.4A




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring   Page 114
FIGURE II.5: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN TYPE C SOILS




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring   Page 115
FIGURE II.6: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN LAYERED SOILS




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring   Page 116
FIGURE II.6A: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN LAYERED SOILS




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring   Page 117
FIGURE II.7: EXAMPLES OF TRENCH SHIELDS




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring   Page 118
FIGURE II.8: GUIDE TO SAFE DISTANCE BACK FROM TOP OF SLOPE FOR STORAGE OF MATERIALS
            OR PLACING EQUIPMENT




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                        Page 119
FIGURE II.9: EXAMPLES OF SCREW TRENCH JACKS




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring   Page 120
FIGURE II.10: ALUMINUM HYDRAULIC SHORING TYPICAL INSTALLATIONS




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring           Page 121
FIGURE II.11: ALUMINUM HYDRAULIC SHORING

Vertical Shores for Soil Type A


                    Hydraulic Cylinders
                                                                           Width Of Trench

  Depth of            Maximum              Maximum              Up to 8       Over 8 up to   Over 12 up to
 Trench Feet          Horizontal           Vertical                               12              15
                       Spacing              Spacing
     Over 5               8                    4                2 inch             2 inch    3 inch diameter
    up to 10                                                   diameter           diameter
    Over 10                 8                    4              2 inch             2 inch    3 inch diameter
    up to 15                                                   diameter           diameter
    Over 15                 7                    4              2 inch             2 inch    3 inch diameter
    up to 20                                                   diameter           diameter

    Over 20                                              Loss Prevention Review

Vertical Shores for Soil Type B


                    Hydraulic Cylinders
                                                                           Width Of Trench

  Depth of            Maximum              Maximum              Up to 8       Over 8 up to   Over 12 up to
 Trench Feet          Horizontal           Vertical                               12              15
                       Spacing              Spacing
     Over 5               8                    4                2 inch             2 inch    3 inch diameter
    up to 10                                                   diameter           diameter
    Over 10                6.5                   4              2 inch             2 inch    3 inch diameter
    up to 15                                                   diameter           diameter
    Over 15                5.5                   4              2 inch             2 inch    3 inch diameter
    up to 20                                                   diameter           diameter

    Over 20                                              Loss Prevention Review




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                                               Page 122
FIGURE II.12: ALUMINUM HYDRAULIC SHORING WALER SYSTEMS FOR SOIL TYPE B




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                   Page 123
FIGURE II.13: EXAMPLE OF TIMBER SHORING PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring       Page 124
FIGURE II. 14: TIMBER TRENCH SHORING - MINIMUM TIMBER REQUIREMENTS*




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring                Page 125
FIGURE II.15: TIMBER TRENCH SHORING - MINIMUM TIMBER REQUIREMENTS*




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring               Page 126
FIGURE II.16: TIMBER TRENCH SHORING - MINIMUM TIMBER REQUIREMENTS*




February 1993 - 2.0 Excavations, Trenching And Shoring               Page 127
3.0 DEMOLITION
Numerous factors must be taken into account before the method of demolition is decided. Of prime
importance are the age of the structure, the method of construction, the state of preservation, its previous
use, and the surrounding environment. These factors must be known before any planning can begin.

Many problems are peculiar to the demolition of tanks, vessels, and ancillary pipe work associated with
the oil industry. For instance, many serious accidents have resulted when due consideration was not
given to the cleaning and gas-freeing of this equipment before work began.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100            Work Permit System

GI 2.711            Fire and Safety Watch

GI 6.012            Isolation, Lockout And Use Of Hold Tags

GI 8.001            Safety Requirements For Scaffolds

GI 150.001          Asbestos Regulation

GI 402.001          Operational Chemical Cleaning of Boilers

Refinery Instruction Manual:

No. 10.185          Precautions for Working in Leaded Product Tanks

American National Standards Institute:

ANSI A 10.6-83

                    Safety Requirements for Demolition

ANSI Z 88.2-80

                    Standard Practice for Respiratory Protection

ANSI Z 117.1-89

                    Safety Requirements for Working in Tanks and Confined Spaces

American Petroleum Institute:

API 2217-84         Guidelines for Confined Space Work in Petroleum Industry

API 2015-91         Safe Entry And Cleaning Of Petroleum Storage Tanks




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Demolition                                              Page 128
3.1           Before Work Starts

              The contractor shall submit a Hazard Identification Plan as a part of his loss prevention
              program to the Company Representative. All such programs must be reviewed and
              concurred with by the Loss Prevention Department before start-up. (See Chapter I, Section
              1.3.2.)

              3.1.1      Responsible Supervisor

                         Before any demolition work is started, a competent supervisor must be appointed
                         in writing as the person responsible for all work on site. The man appointed
                         should be experienced in demolition operations. His duties will include the direct
                         supervision of the work force, ensuring that work permit requirements are met, and
                         liaison with other contractors working in the general area and with operators and
                         construction or maintenance engineers.

              3.1.2      Original Drawings

                         The original drawings of the structure to be demolished should be obtained. An
                         examination of them should be made to ascertain whether any major changes from
                         the original construction have been made and where utility connections may be
                         found.

              3.1.3      Disconnections

                         All utility services such as electricity, gas, and water must be shut off and the main
                         supplies disconnected outside the line of the demolition work. Tanks, vessels, and
                         paperwork must be completely disconnected from inlet, outlet, and overflow
                         points.

              3.1.4      Adjacent Structures and Public Areas

                         Adjacent structures, public buildings, pedestrian walkways, parking lots, etc. shall
                         be protected from demolition debris that can likely cause hazards to the general
                         public. Also, bracing must be installed to insure stability of adjacent structures.

              3.1.5      Barricades/Signs

                         Barricades must be erected around the work area. Signs bearing the words
                         "Danger - Demolition in Progress" in Arabic and English must be erected at each
                         approach to the barricade.

3.2           Method of Demolition

              The method of demolition to be used should be decided upon in consultation with the Saudi
              Aramco representative, Loss Prevention and all contractors involved. The re-use of salvage
              materials should be considered prior to this decision. It should be remembered that the safest
              and most efficient method is to start at the top and dismantle in the reverse order of
              construction. There are, however, cases where such a method is impractical or uneconomical
              and where other methods have to be considered. Any portion of the job which contains
              asbestos insulation should be cleared under the general procedures (See Section II.4), and
              Industrial Hygiene Services, Preventive Medicine Services Division, shall be contacted.




February 1993 - 3.0 Demolition                                                                         Page 129
              3.2.1      Demolition of Equipment Containing PCB: Polychlorinated Biphenyl
                         (ASKAREL)

                         Before equipment containing or suspected of containing PCB(s) is removed in
                         demolition work, the Loss Prevention Department and the Industrial Hygiene Unit
                         shall be notified to ensure safe procedures are used. Proper personnel protection
                         equipment and disposal systems must be utilized. (See GI 355.004.)

              3.2.2      Demolition Of Buildings With Asbestos / Insulation Materials

                         Before demolition of buildings with asbestos and insulation, notify Loss
                         Prevention and Industrial Hygiene Services to ensure safe procedures are followed.
                         Proper personnel protective equipment and disposal systems must be utilized. (See
                         Chapter 4 and GI 150.001.)

3.3           Stability During Demolition

              As work progresses, continuing inspections must be made to detect hazards arising through
              weakened or overloaded floors, unsupported walls, or loose material. Immediate steps shall
              be taken by bracing or by other means to prevent the premature collapse of the whole or any
              part of the structure.

              3.3.1

                         Lateral support should not be removed from more than one story of wall at any
                         time before starting to demolish it. When a wall from which support has been
                         removed must be left standing at anytime, including overnight and off-shift work
                         hours, adequate bracing (guying) must be provided to prevent collapse and to
                         guard against wind pressures.

3.4           Working Place Clearance

              3.4.1      Access

                         A safe means of access to and egress from all working places must be provided.
                         Work places and the areas around ladders and stairways must be kept clear of
                         material and debris.

              3.4.2      Glass Removal

                         Nails in timber must be removed or bent over, or the timber must be stacked where
                         it will not be a source of danger. All glass in windows, doors, partitions, etc.
                         should be completely removed prior to structural demolition.

3.5           Structural Steel Removal

              All steel construction should be demolished column length by column length and tier by tier.
              A structural member being removed must not be under any stress other than its own weight.
              Members being cut or dismantled should be chained or lashed in place to prevent
              uncontrolled swinging or dropping.




February 1993 - 3.0 Demolition                                                                     Page 130
3.6           Tanks, Vessels and Pipe Work (Explosion Prevention)

              3.6.1       Welding and Hot Cutting

                          No tank, vessel, or pipe work which has contained explosive or flammable material
                          shall be subjected to welding or hot cutting operation until all steps have been
                          taken to remove the substance and any vapors. When hot cutting is planned, the
                          advice of the area Fire Chief and the Loss Prevention Department should be
                          sought.

              3.6.2       Cold Cutting

                          The use of cold cutting techniques for the dismantling of tanks, vessels, and pipe
                          work, can substantially reduce the risk of explosion. Although this is often more
                          costly and laborious, there are times when it is the only safe method which can be
                          used.

              3.6.3       Steaming and Ventilation

                          In the case of vessels and tanks up to about 22,712 liters (6000 gallons) capacity,
                          both vapors and residues can usually be removed by steaming out; however, with
                          larger tanks the problems are somewhat different. Because of the high capacity of
                          a large tank, steaming cannot be relied on to volatilize all residues unless very
                          large quantities of steam are available. It is, however, relatively easy to eliminate
                          explosive concentrations of vapor within the tank by forced ventilation using a
                          blower or eductor system approved for hazardous locations.

              3.6.4       Residue Cleaning

                          With volatile materials, use of such methods as in 3.6.3 above will rapidly reduce
                          vapor concentrations. With materials less volatile, the main danger lies in the hot
                          cutting setting fire to any residues in the tank. It is, therefore, essential that any
                          residues are removed before work starts.

3.7           Protective Clothing and Equipment

              All demolition workers should be provided with and make use of the following protective
              equipment:

              1       Safety helmet
              2       Goggles
              3       Heavy duty gloves
              4       Appropriate respiratory equipment (whenever necessary to prevent inhalation of dust
                      and fumes)
              5       Safety boots with steel toe caps and preferably with penetrant resistant soles.

              Safety belts or harnesses (with lifelines where required) shall be used by men working in
              isolated or dangerous locations where there is the possibility of them falling and where other
              preventive measures are impractical.




February 1993 - 3.0 Demolition                                                                          Page 131
3.8           Mechanical Equipment Guards

              Mechanical equipment such as cranes and bulldozers should be equipped with wire mesh
              guards over windows and with solid protection over the driving position so that there is no
              danger of the operator being struck by flying debris.




February 1993 - 3.0 Demolition                                                                   Page 132
4.0 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBERS
Asbestos is the generic name given to a number of naturally occurring inorganic fibrous silicate minerals.
Asbestos materials have been widely used in the construction industry and may be present in a number of
manufactured products such as cement sheeting, molded insulation, gaskets, ropes, blocks, fire resistant
boards, etc. For the purpose of these regulations, asbestos is defined as any of the minerals crocidolite,
amosite, chrysotile, fibrous anthophyllite or any mixture containing any of these minerals.

The use of asbestos is restricted. At present, the Saudi Aramco Industrial Hygiene Unit must approve the
use of asbestos materials, under GI 150.001.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100            Work Permit System

GI 8.003            Breathing Apparatus

GI 150.001          Asbestos Regulations

American National Standards:

ASTM C460-88

                    Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Asbestos - Cement

4.1           Types of Asbestos

              These exist in two main rock-forming mineral groups: 1) Serpentine group, which includes
              chrysotile (white asbestos); and, 2) Amphibole group, which includes crocidolite (blue
              asbestos) and amosite (brown asbestos). These two main groups were the most widely used
              asbestos minerals. However, fibrous anthophyllite has also been used in industry in a few
              applications. Chrysotile was commonly used as the reinforcing material in asbestos-cement
              products. Because crocidolite has high resistance to acids, it has been extensively used in
              chemical plants. Due to the superior heat resistance of amosite it has been used principally
              for the manufacture of fire-resistant insulation boards. The majority of asbestos products has
              been made of white asbestos, but some products contain blue asbestos (crocidolite). Of the
              asbestos products manufactured blue asbestos has the higher health risk. Blue asbestos can
              usually be recognized by its dark lavender blue color; however, its presence could be masked
              by other materials. Since prolonged exposure to heat, as would be the case with boiler or
              hot-pipe lagging, may change the characteristic blue color of crocidolite to a white or fawn
              color.

4.2           Health Risks

              Over a period of time, breathing asbestos dust can cause asbestosis (scarring of the lung),
              which may go undetected for years after exposure. All forms of asbestos are capable of
              causing asbestosis. The most important factors in the development of the disease are the
              amount of dust to which the individual is exposed, duration of exposure, and the personal
              susceptibility of the individual to the asbestos fiber. In addition, asbestos fibers can




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Asbestos And Other Fibers                               Page 133
              penetrate the skin, causing small tumors, warts, or corns. These asbestos tumors are usually
              found on the palms or fingers. They may not be cured unless every minute fiber is removed.

              The maximum allowable concentration of airborne asbestos dust shall not exceed 0.2
              asbestos fibers longer than five microns in length per cc of air on a time-weighted average
              (TWA) exposure for an eight-hour work day.

4.3           Before Work Starts

              The contractor shall submit a Hazard Identification Plan to Loss Prevention Department and
              to the Industrial Hygiene Service, Preventive Medicine Services Division for review and
              concurrence prior to job start-up, when removing or using asbestos materials. (See
              Administration I, Section 1.3.4.) Unless approved of in advance by the Industrial Hygiene
              Unit, asbestos products shall not be used in new construction.

              4.3.1       Air Sampling

                          Where the contractor knows that some part of an operation requires the use or
                          removal of asbestos materials, he must notify, in writing, the Industrial Hygiene
                          Services, Preventive Medicine Services Division. When informed, the Industrial
                          Hygiene Services will take random samples of air at the point of operation during
                          the working period. Bulk samples may be sent for the analysis and identification
                          of asbestos to either Industrial Hygiene Services or to the Laboratories
                          Department.

              4.3.2       Job Details

                          The contractor shall then inform the Industrial Hygiene Services of details of the
                          work involved, the number of persons employed, the anticipated duration of the
                          operation, the type of asbestos being used, and the type of equipment being used to
                          work the asbestos material.

              4.3.3       Chest X-rays

                          It is the contractor's duty to ensure that each man employed on asbestos work be
                          given a chest X-ray prior to commencement of the job and thereafter at two-year
                          intervals. Detailed records shall be kept by the contractor of all persons employed
                          in the process. These records shall be available to Saudi Aramco upon request.

4.4           Storage and Transportation

              All asbestos materials removed from or used on a job shall be stored in an approved
              container at all times. For new construction, only that amount of asbestos material that is
              immediately required for the operation shall be moved to the work area.

              Approved containers shall be used during the transportation of asbestos materials. All such
              containers that contain asbestos shall be clearly marked in English and Arabic: "Caution:
              Health Hazard - Contains Asbestos".




February 1993 - 4.0 Asbestos And Other Fibers                                                        Page 134
4.5           Work Area

              The work area shall be clearly defined and where feasible roped off and notices displayed
              warning persons of the presence of asbestos dust. Signs shall be posted at all approaches to
              the work area. These signs shall be posted at readily visible locations near work areas and
              these notices shall read in both English and Arabic:

                                            Caution:
                                    ASBESTOS HEALTH HAZARD
                       Respirator and protective overalls must be worn when entering this area.

              Only persons directly concerned with the operation shall be permitted inside the area.

4.6           Handling and Use

              4.6.1       Wetting/Ventilation

                          The handling, mixing, applying, removing, cutting, and spraying of asbestos
                          materials shall be done in a wet state so as to prevent the emission of harmful
                          fibers in excess of allowable concentration.

                          Before removing asbestos cement mortar, coating, grouting, plaster, or similar
                          material containing asbestos from bags, cartons, or shipping containers, the
                          material shall be wetted or enclosed, or the operation shall be carried out under
                          total exhaust ventilation.

                          Work practices for using or removing asbestos are given in Section 4, GI 150.001.

              4.6.2       Cutting

                          Shearing or punching shall be used in preference to sawing or drilling of asbestos.
                          Where it is necessary to cut or saw materials containing asbestos using hand or
                          power tools, it shall be done in a separate cordoned off area with an approved
                          exhaust and dust collection system.

              4.6.3       Protective Equipment

                          Protective equipment shall be required for all instances where asbestos is used
                          regardless of ventilation, wetting, etc.

4.7           Protective Clothing

              4.7.1       Types

                          The contractor shall provide approved disposable overalls, head covering, foot
                          protection, and gloves to prevent any airborne asbestos fibers from coming into
                          contact with the body.

                          The contractor shall provide a sufficient amount of clothing to each employee
                          working with asbestos to ensure that a complete change of clean protective
                          clothing is available for the start of each shift.




February 1993 - 4.0 Asbestos And Other Fibers                                                          Page 135
              4.7.2       Contamination

                          At the end of each shift, contaminated personal protective equipment shall be
                          collected and disposed of in accordance to GI 150.001. Under no conditions shall
                          contaminated clothing be worn from the work site. Employees shall be careful to
                          prevent contamination of street clothes from work clothes.

                          Asbestos-contaminated clothes shall be packed and carried in sealed impermeable
                          bags or containers and disposed of in accordance to Section 6, GI 150.001.

              4.7.3       Review

                          The Loss Prevention Department and Industrial Hygiene Services shall review the
                          types and applications of contractor's protective clothing for its' acceptability to
                          Saudi Aramco.

4.8           Respiratory Equipment
              Where there is an unavoidable emission of asbestos dust, the contractor shall supply a
              respirator approved by Industrial Hygiene Services and Loss Prevention Department to each
              employee.

              4.8.1       Type

                          In normal circumstances, an approved filter type dust respirator will be adequate
                          protection; however, dusty jobs (e.g. stripping, delogging, demolition, etc.)
                          involving asbestos materials require air-supplied positive pressure respiratory
                          equipment.

              4.8.2       Use

                          All employees shall be properly trained in the use of respiratory equipment before
                          being engaged in any work with asbestos. Also, it is the contractor's responsibility
                          to make sure that each worker be supplied with equipment that provides the level
                          of protection required and of the proper fit.

              4.8.3       Care

                          All respiratory equipment shall be thoroughly checked, cleaned, disinfected and
                          stored at the end of each work period and before use by other persons.

4.9           Washing and Changing Facilities

              The contractor shall provide showering/washing facilities for all employees engaged in
              asbestos work.

              The contractor must ensure that employees use these facilities before leaving the job site at
              the end of each shift.

              The contractor shall provide suitable changing accommodations, disposal facilities for
              protective clothing worn during asbestos work and separate accommodations for street
              clothing not worn during working hours.




February 1993 - 4.0 Asbestos And Other Fibers                                                         Page 136
4.10          Disposal of Waste Asbestos Materials/Clothing

              All waste asbestos materials and disposal clothing shall be disposed of in sealed impermeable
              bags or containers.

              All bags and containers shall be marked in both English and Arabic: "Caution: Health
              Hazard - Contains Asbestos". The bags and containers shall be handled and disposed of in
              accordance to Section 6, GI 150.001.

4.11          Cleanliness of Work Areas and Equipment

              The contractor shall ensure that all machinery, equipment, work areas, and adjacent areas are
              kept free from asbestos dust and waste as provided in Section 5, GI 150.001.




February 1993 - 4.0 Asbestos And Other Fibers                                                      Page 137
5.0 WELDING, CUTTING, AND BRAZING
This section outlines the principles involved and the precautions to be taken in gas welding, cutting, and
brazing and electric arc welding operations.

Welding/cutting are safe operations if carried out in the correct manner. Where equipment is defective or
there is no well-arranged, well-lit, or properly ventilated working place, hazards can arise.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100              Work Permit System

GI 355.020            Control of Compressed Gas Cylinders

GI 401.081            Performance Qualifying Tests Of Welders And Welding Operations

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards:

SAES W-4              Welding Alloy Steels

SAES W-5              Field Stress Relieving

Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual:

Section 6             Safe Handling of Compressed Gases

Schedule 'D':

                      Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Oxygen and
                      Acetylene Equipment and Electric Arc Welding Equipment

American National Standards:

ANSI Z49.1            Safety In Welding and Cutting

ANSI Z87.1            Practice For Occupational And Educational Eye And Face Protection

NFPA 70               National Electrical Code

5.1           Gas Welding: Oxy-Acetylene Equipment and Use

              Personnel working with welding equipment shall be trained, competent, and provided with
              personal protection equipment. Welding goggles, helmets, screens, forced ventilation and
              similar equipment shall be provided to all workers and to trainees in the immediate area.

              5.1.1       Gases

                          Oxygen (O2) is odorless. It can promote rapid combustion, therefore, grease and
                          oil must never be used near oxygen as this could cause fire.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                         Page 138
                          Oxygen cylinders or apparatus shall not be handled with oily hands or gloves. A
                          jet of oxygen must never be permitted to strike an oily surface, greasy clothes or
                          enter fuel, oil or other storage tanks.

                          Acetylene (C2H2) has a distinct odor often likened to that of garlic or sour apples.
                          It is combustible when mixed with air over a wide range (2.5% - 81%). Acetylene
                          burned with oxygen can produce a higher flame temperature than any other
                          commercial gas.

                          Acetylene becomes unstable at pressures above 103 kPa (15 psig) which means it
                          may explode. Under no conditions shall acetylene be generated, piped (except in
                          approved cylinder manifolds) or utilized at a pressure in excess of 15 psi gauge
                          pressure. Inside the cylinder, acetylene is dissolved in acetone to prevent internal
                          explosion; therefore, it is essential that acetylene cylinders be stored, handled, and
                          used in the vertical position to prevent the liquid acetone from escaping and
                          damaging the valves and other equipment.

                        Warning: Regulated Acetylene pressures must never be allowed to exceed 103
                                  kPa (15 psig) or it may explode.

              5.1.2       Color Coding of Cylinders

                          Color coding can be of great help but also a potential source of danger as there is
                          no internationally recognized standard color code. Refer to GI 355.020-4, Control
                          of Compressed Gas Cylinders, for Saudi Aramco color coding requirements.

              5.1.3       Storage Of Cylinders

                          5.1.3.1

                                        Cylinders should be stored in a safe, dry, well-ventilated place
                                        prepared and reserved for that purpose. Flammable substances such as
                                        oil and volatile liquids or corrosive substances should not be stored in
                                        the same area. Oxygen cylinders and flammable gas cylinders shall be
                                        stored separately, at least 6.6 meters (20 feet) apart or separated by a
                                        fire proof, 1.6 meters (5 feet) high partition.

                                        All storage areas shall have Arabic and English "No Smoking
                                        Permitted" signs prominently displayed.

                                        All cylinders should be chained or otherwise secured in an upright
                                        position. To prevent rusting, cylinders stored in the open should be
                                        protected from ground contact, extremes of weather, or contact with
                                        water. Valve caps shall be kept in place when cylinders are not in use.
                                        Flammable substances shall not be stored within 50 feet of cylinder
                                        storage areas. (See GI 355.020.)

                          5.1.3.2

                                        Cylinders shall not be stored at temperatures exceeding 54 oC (130oF).
                                        Accordingly, they should not be stored near sources of heat such as
                                        radiators, furnaces, or near highly flammable substances like gasoline.




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                       Page 139
                                        Cylinders shall be stored out of the direct rays of the sun, in protective
                                        enclosures or sun shelters.

                          5.1.3.3

                                        Cylinder storage should be planned so that cylinders will be used in
                                        the order in which they are received from the supplier. Empty and full
                                        cylinders must be stored separately with empty cylinders plainly
                                        marked as such, to avoid confusion. Empty cylinders should be
                                        segregated according to the type of gas they have held.

                          5.1.3.4

                                        All cylinder storage rooms shall be ventilated sufficiently so that
                                        explosive concentrations of gas cannot accumulate. Smoking or any
                                        other source of ignition shall be prohibited near storage areas, and
                                        appropriately marked "No Smoking" as in Section 5.1.3.1 above. All
                                        wiring shall be in conduit and electric switches shall be located outside
                                        the room. All electrical installations shall meet the National Electrical
                                        Code (NFPA 70) for hazardous areas.

              5.1.4       Handling of Cylinders

                          Serious accidents may result from the misuse, abuse, or mishandling of cylinders.

                          5.1.4.1

                                        Cylinders should never be lifted by their valves since the valves are
                                        not designed to take such stress. When the cylinder is not in use, the
                                        valve shall be protected with the valve cap.

                          5.1.4.2

                                        All valves must be fully closed before a cylinder is moved. Unless a
                                        trolley or special carrier is used, regulators and hoses should be
                                        detached from the cylinders, for moving.




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                         Page 140
                          5.1.4.3

                                        If cylinders are to be lifted by a crane, specially designed bottle
                                        holders with lifting eyes should be used. Chain and wire rope slings
                                        can allow cylinders to slip. Where a trolley is to be used for slinging,
                                        its base should be strong enough to take the weight of the cylinders.
                                        Do not lift a cylinder with an electromagnet.

                          5.1.4.4

                                        Cylinders in transit on vehicles shall have valve caps in place and be
                                        firmly secured to prevent movement. Cylinders shall be secured to
                                        avoid any violent contact. Loading and unloading shall take place
                                        carefully. Cylinders shall not be dropped, thrown, dragged, used as
                                        rollers, or as a support. No damaged or defective cylinder shall be
                                        used.

                          5.1.4.5

                                        When in doubt as to the proper handling of a compressed gas cylinder
                                        or its contents, the supplier of the gas, the Bottled Gas Coordinator
                                        (Central Area Storehouse Department), or Loss Prevention
                                        Department should be consulted. Depleted cylinders shall be returned
                                        to the supplier with the valves closed and the valve protection caps in
                                        place. Cylinders, even those marked empty, should be treated as a
                                        possible hazard and handled with great care as they still contain some
                                        gas.

              5.1.5       Inspecting Equipment

                          All equipment should be examined immediately before use and regularly
                          maintained. All welding operations shall be conducted in well ventilated areas.

                          5.1.5.1

                                        Only soapy water should be used to check for leaks. Presence of a
                                        leak is often indicated by a hissing sound or unusual changes in the
                                        torch flame. Cylinders and valves should be kept clean. Valve
                                        sockets shall be kept free of grit, dirt, grease or oil.




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                       Page 141
                          5.1.5.2

                                        Hoses should be used for one type of gas only and color coded for
                                        identification. They should be examined before use for any signs of
                                        splitting which might give rise to leakage. All connections should be
                                        made by clips or crimps. The hoses used for acetylene and for oxygen
                                        shall not be interchangeable.

                          5.1.5.3

                                        Connections and check valves should be regularly examined.
                                        Equipment should be fitted with the correct pressure regulators and a
                                        regular check should be made to ensure that the regulator is working
                                        properly. The torch nozzle should be kept closed.

                                        An acetylene cylinder valve wrench shall be available at all times for
                                        the cylinder in use.

                          5.1.5.4

                                        Means of torch ignition should be readily available. A friction lighter
                                        shall be used for this purpose.

                          5.1.5.5

                                        Acetylene can form explosive compounds in contact with certain
                                        metals or alloys, particularly unalloyed copper or silver. Joint fittings
                                        or lines made of copper should not be used and acetylene should not
                                        be allowed to come into contact with copper pipe work or tubing.
                                        Only approved materials shall be used for acetylene systems.

                          5.1.5.6

                                        It is dangerous to let the torch flame come into contact with gas
                                        cylinders or for the lighted torch itself to be left unattended. Torches
                                        shall never be sat down while lit. It is equally dangerous to rest
                                        blowpipes, even extinguished ones, on old drums. "Empty" drums
                                        which have contained low flash point liquids are known to have
                                        become lethal bombs when a hot welding torch was laid down on
                                        them.

                          5.1.5.7

                                        Cylinders in use should be kept upright on a custom-built stand fitted
                                        with a bracket to accommodate the hoses and equipment or otherwise
                                        secured. The metal cap should be kept in place to protect the valve
                                        when the cylinder is not connected for use.

              5.1.6       Faults

                          It is not uncommon for minor "explosions" to occur during welding or cutting.
                          Most are more frightening than harmful, but some can lead to very dangerous
                          conditions.




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                        Page 142
                          There are four general groupings of these faults:

                          1      Snapout can occur during use when:

                                            Both regulators are set at an incorrect pressure
                                            Torch nozzle obstructed
                                            Nozzle held too close to the work

                                 Corrective action:

                                            Completely shut both torch valves
                                            Check regulator setting
                                            Check cylinder pressures
                                            Check nozzles
                                            Re-light
                                            Ensure adequate gas flow

                          2      Backfire can occur on lighting up when:

                                            Regulators not set to correct pressure
                                            Light applied before flow of gas mixture properly established

                                 Corrective action:

                                            Close both torch valves, oxygen first
                                            Check cylinder pressures
                                            Check and adjust regulator settings
                                            Cool torch and check nozzle orifice for obstruction
                                            Re-light

                          3      A flashback is very dangerous. Flashback is caused by gases being mixed in
                                 the hose(s). Usually this mixing of gases occurs when the hoses have been
                                 disconnected from regulators or torches or when a new hose is being used
                                 for the first time. Sometimes it is due to loose connections. Usually one of
                                 the hoses will have burst and possibly ignited.

                                 Preventive action:

                                            Use flashback flame arrestors for regulator and torch
                                            Ensure all connections are tight
                                            Ensure cylinder valves are open and torch valves closed
                                            Set regulators to the required pressures
                                            Purge each hose separately and consecutively by opening the
                                             torch valve and allowing gas to flow for sufficient time to ensure
                                             only pure gas remains in the hoses
                                            Close the valve for each gas as the purge is completed
                                            This purge should be carried out only in the open or in extremely
                                             well-ventilated areas

                                 Corrective action:

                                            Close both torch valves
                                            Close both cylinder valves




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                      Page 143
                                            Extinguish hose if alight
                                            Repair equipment and hoses

              5.1.7       Fuel Gas and Oxygen Manifolds

                          Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall bear the name of the substance they contain in
                          English and Arabic letters at least 1-inch high which shall be either painted on the
                          manifold or on a sign permanently attached to it.

                          Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall be placed in safe, well ventilated, and
                          accessible locations. They shall not be located within enclosed spaces.

                          Manifold hose connections, including both ends of the supply hose that lead to the
                          manifold, shall be such that the hose cannot be interchanged between fuel gas and
                          oxygen manifolds and supply header connections. Adapters shall not be used to
                          permit the interchange of hose. Hose connections shall be kept free of grease and
                          oil.

                          When not in use, manifold and header hose connections shall be capped.

                          Nothing shall be placed on top of a manifold, when in use, which will damage the
                          manifold or interfere with the quick closing of the valves.

5.2           Electric Arc Welding

              Arc welding is a process for joining metals by heating with an electric arc. For arc welding,
              two welding leads, the electrode lead and the work lead, are required.

              5.2.1       Voltage

                          The voltage across the welding arc is normally within the range 20-40V. The
                          voltage supplied, however, needs to be somewhat higher so that means of
                          stabilizing and regulating the arc current can be introduced into the circuit. Using
                          DC, a 60-80V supply will usually suffice. Using AC, an 80-85V supply will
                          suffice although some of the latest techniques need an open circuit voltage of up to
                          100V between electrode and work. It should be remembered that a nominal 100V
                          supply has, in fact, a peak voltage of 141V.

                          For these reasons, DC should be used for welding operations in any situation
                          where the effect of electric shock is likely to be extreme, such as in damp and
                          confined spaces (tanks, boilers, etc.).

              5.2.2       Welding Connections

                          In each welding circuit there are three main connections:

                                    1) the welding lead;
                                    2) the welding return;
                                    3) the welding ground.

                          5.2.2.1




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                     Page 144
                                        The welding lead is the conductor carrying the welding current from
                                        the point of supply to the electrode holder.

                          5.2.2.2

                                        The welding return is the conductor carrying the current back from the
                                        work to the point of supply. Its conductivity should at least equal that
                                        of the welding lead. The welding return should be used to ground the
                                        metal case of the welding machine. This high current capacity is
                                        essential, because all the current fed to the arc has to be conducted
                                        back to the supply point. The current involved could be as high as 300
                                        amperes on a hand welding operation.

                          5.2.2.3

                                        A continuous welding ground is essential and indispensable for
                                        conductors since electric currents as low as 50 milliamperes can be
                                        fatal. The ground should be of low impedance so that there can be no
                                        rise in the potential of the work and so that sufficient fault current
                                        passes quickly enough to cut off the supply if necessary. It is
                                        recommended that the welding ground be bonded to the ground of the
                                        main supply system by a separate substantial conductor.

                                        The frames of all fixed arc welding and cutting machines shall be
                                        grounded either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit
                                        conductor or through a separate wire which is grounded at the source
                                        of the current.

                                        Welding grounds and returns should be securely attached to the work
                                        by cable lugs, by clamps in the case of stranded conductors, or by
                                        bolts for strip conductors. Bolts are unsatisfactory for stranded
                                        conductors, since the strands can loosen under the bolt head and
                                        become detached (see Manufacturers Grounding Specifications for
                                        Electrically Powered Equipment and Engine Powered Equipment).

                          5.2.2.4

                                        Welding cable insulation needs to be abrasion resistant to withstand
                                        normal treatment over rough ground and the wear inflicted by foot and
                                        vehicular traffic. Where feasible, cables should be additionally
                                        protected by stringing overhead or by using cable covers. They
                                        should be regularly examined for cuts or abrasions to the insulation;
                                        damaged cable shall not be used. If joints become necessary, standard
                                        plug and socket coupling shall be used. Holders should be unplugged
                                        when not in use. If joints become necessary, standard plug and socket
                                        couplings shall be used. Splices are not allowed in welding cables.

                          5.2.2.5

                                        Electrode holders shall be constructed to accommodate all sizes of
                                        electrodes and with an ejector for hot, spent stubs.

                          5.2.2.6




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                       Page 145
                                        A shield should be fitted between electrode holder and handle to
                                        prevent live elements from being touched. The handle itself shall be
                                        made of non-flammable insulating material and be free from joints or
                                        holes.

                          5.2.2.7       Auxiliary Power Outlets

                                        Most welding machines are furnished with an alternator which
                                        produces 3 KVA of 115 and 230 volts. As a safety factor, all power
                                        hand tools which are not double insulated should be grounded to the
                                        welder frame. Ground Fault Interrupters are required, where power
                                        output exceeds 5 KV. Placards must be placed on the welding
                                        machine.

5.3           Protective Measures

              5.3.1

                          The need for the operator to take safety precautions and preventive measures
                          during the operation of welding machines to ensure that no safety-related incident
                          occurs cannot be overemphasized. The following is a list of precautions and
                          operating considerations to take into account when operating a 400 amp arc
                          welding machine, for example. All users are strongly encouraged to read the
                          equipment's operating manual to ensure reliable and safe operation.

                          1.     Keep all doors, covers and panels in place when operating the machine: the
                                 arc welding machine is designed to operate with all its doors, covers and
                                 panels in place. They ensure the optimum flow of cooling air, and removal
                                 of these covers and panels will reduce the cooling of the engine and
                                 generator, resulting in overheating and premature failure of the unit.

                          2.     Ensure that the engine protection push button 'pops out' when the engine is
                                 switched off. Under normal circumstances, this button will 'pop out' once
                                 the engine is switched off. However, if the unit becomes clogged with dirt,
                                 dust or sand, it may not return to its 'off' position without assistance. If the
                                 button remains depressed, it will quickly drain the unit's battery. The
                                 resulting failure to start will delay your work while a new battery is fitted, a
                                 'jump start' arranged, or a recharge cycle is completed.

                          3.     Maintain welding and ground cables and connections in good condition. A
                                 major source of safety hazards, poor and inconsistent welding performance,
                                 and loss of point-of-use welder capacity is a set of welder leads in poor
                                 condition, or of the wrong size for the length of cable being run. Other
                                 sources of safety hazards related to cables and connections are:

                                cracked insulation is an obvious source of hazard producing shorts to
                                 ground eventually leading to increase of conductor resistance. With no-load
                                 voltages approaching 100+ volts, significant hazard of electrocution to
                                 personnel exists, especially in wet areas or when working on metal
                                 structures.
                                combining sets of low capacity cables to reach a distant welding site can
                                 greatly reduce the effective welding power available to the welding
                                 machine. Larger-capacity cables must be used to reach distant sites,




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                        Page 146
                                 because of the buildup of resistance from the extra length of the leads.
                                 Inadequate or weak cable connections can also introduce sparking hazards,
                                 potential shorts to ground, and extra resistance which reduces effective
                                 welding machine capacity.       Cable sizes and lengths must be as
                                 recommended by the manufacturer, as follows (for 400 amp machine):

                                   Combined length of electrode and         Minimum Cable Size
                                             work cable
                                           up to 150 feet                             2/0
                                            150-200 feet                              3/0
                                            200-250 feet                              4/0

                          4.     When welding is in progress, the full length of cable must be stretched out
                                 on the ground. Leaving the cable coiled on the machine alters the current
                                 flow and disrupts the welding process.

                          5.     Do not adjust the 'current control' while welding is in progress. This can
                                 damage the control.

              5.3.2

                          Sparks and molten or hot metal coming from the work area can easily set fire to
                          combustible materials near or below the working area. Wherever possible, all
                          combustible material should be removed from the work area. If it cannot be
                          removed, it should be covered with fireproof material. Gas cylinders should be
                          protected from falling sparks.

              5.3.3

                          Operators of arc welding equipment must always switch off the current to the
                          electrode holder and remove the electrode whenever it is to be set down and is not
                          actually in use.

              5.3.4

                          When welding or cutting material that is supported by a crane, a shield or an
                          effective screen should be provided to protect the suspension ropes or chains.
                          Grounding cables shall only be connected to the work, not to the crane or rigging.

              5.3.5

                          Forced ventilation shall be arranged wherever work is to be carried out in a
                          confined area. Suitable metal bins shall be provided for spent electrode stubs as
                          they are usually hot when discarded and can easily cause a fire. Dry chemical fire
                          extinguishers should be kept available while work is in progress. All completed
                          work should be marked "HOT".




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                      Page 147
5.4           Welding and Cutting: Tanks, Vessels and Drums

              Careful tests should be made to establish that the tank, vessel or drum is free from explosive
              flammable vapors or substances. The responsible supervisor should make a check before
              permitting any work to begin. It is essential that past contents of the tank, vessel or drum be
              identified. If there is any doubt or if the tank is known to have had any kind of flammable or
              explosive content, it should be cleaned and purged thoroughly prior to welding or cutting.
              Extreme care should be taken in considering methods of tank welding and cutting as these
              jobs are hazardous operations unless correct safety measures are taken. (See General And
              Civil II.1, Work Permit System.) Welding and cutting on drums is strictly controlled and, in
              most cases, prohibited. Contact area Loss Prevention for guidance and information.

              Note: The use of oxygen for blowing out containers and small tanks is forbidden.

5.5           Confined Spaces

              It is vital that forced ventilation be maintained in confined spaces at all times. Air line
              respirators may be needed for men working inside such places. No gas cylinders should ever
              be allowed into such an area. The hoses and equipment used inside must be in excellent
              condition.

              Where work in confined spaces has to take place over several days, the hoses and equipment
              shall be taken outside overnight in case of any leakage that could occur, resulting in a build
              up of gas. (See General And Civil II.1, Work Permit System. )

5.6           Personnel Protection

              5.6.1

                          Helmets, welding hoods, and goggles are necessary to protect eyes and face against
                          heat and the effect of the intense light emitted by welding operations.

              5.6.2

                          Goggles are required to protect the eyes of the welder from pieces of flying slag
                          chips during electric arc welding. They should be fitted with opaque side pieces.
                          These goggles should also be worn under the regular welding hoods.

              5.6.3

                          Electric welding operations must be effectively screened to prevent nearby
                          personnel from being affected by harmful radiation. Screens should be made from
                          fire resistant materials or should be suitably treated with a fire resistant compound.
                          Screens should be designed and placed so as not to restrict the flow of air for
                          ventilation purposes.

              5.6.4




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                       Page 148
                          Gloves are necessary protection to the hands against heat, sparks, molten metal,
                          and radiation. Leather, suitably reinforced at points of maximum wear, is the
                          material most generally worn. Gloves should be long enough to protect wrists and
                          forearms. When gloves are not long enough, protective sleeves of similar
                          materials should be worn.

              5.6.5

                          Safety boots and leggings are essential to provide effective protection against heat,
                          flying sparks, and falling metal. Pant cuffs shall never be worn inside of the safety
                          boot.

5.7           Health Hazards

              Apart from the obvious hazards of physical burns, health hazards in welding operations fall
              into two classes: hazards from radiant energy and hazards from dusts and fumes.

              5.7.1       Radiant Energy

                          The process of welding produces radiant energy in the form of visible light, ultra-
                          violet rays, and infrared rays. The risk of this energy harming the operator or other
                          personnel can be minimized by the proper use of protective clothing and shielding.
                          Exposure of the skin to infrared and ultraviolet rays can result in irritation and
                          burning. The risk of exposure is lessened by wearing protective clothing,
                          shielding, and distance.

                          Arc-eye or flash burn is a well known condition in welding operations and is due to
                          the eyes being exposed to ultraviolet rays. This condition is a superficial burn on
                          the outer layer of the eye.

                          The effects normally wear off within two days, and generally no permanent
                          damage is caused. The condition is, however, extremely painful and can easily be
                          avoided by the use of eye protective lens or shields.

                          Welding protective lens shall be tempered glass.          Lens shall be distinctively
                          marked to identify approved lens shade.

                                  Lens Shade Guide:
                                 1. Arc Welding-           10 to 14
                                 2. Torch Brazing-         3 to 6
                                 3. Gas Welding-           4 to 8

              5.7.2       Respiratory Effects

                          The risk of being gassed in normal welding operations is slight; however, when
                          working in confined areas, a forced ventilation system should be in operation to
                          remove any build up of hazardous gases.

                          5.7.2.1

                                        Oxy-acetylene welding operations can cause the oxygen and nitrogen
                                        of the air to unite to form nitrogen oxides. In well ventilated areas this




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                         Page 149
                                        does not cause any problems; however, in confined areas or where the
                                        welder is working very close to the job, the amount of nitrogen oxides
                                        breathed can rapidly reach toxic levels. The main problem with this
                                        gas is that the welder does not appear to be affected at the time; the
                                        real effects take place some 6 to 24 hours after exposure.

                          5.7.2.2

                                        All welding operations produce quantities of ozone, a highly toxic gas.
                                        In oxy-acetylene and electric arc welding, the amount produced is
                                        small and providing adequate ventilation is used, the risk is negligible.
                                        Significant and sometimes dangerous amounts of ozone can be formed
                                        when inert gas shielded welding is being carried out.

                                        There are many other dangers which can arise when welding or cutting
                                        under specific conditions or on particular metals. Hazardous
                                        operations include: welding on manganese steel, galvanized material,
                                        material which has been degreased or on material which has been
                                        painted with lead, copper-bearing, or chromate-containing paint.
                                        These problems must be recognized before the job starts, and safe
                                        practices for dealing with them must be established.

                                        Although welding cannot be regarded in general as an extremely
                                        hazardous occupation, exposure to concentrated fumes may be
                                        irritating and in some cases dangerous. It is essential that each
                                        operation be analyzed before work starts and that the control measures
                                        are correctly applied.




February 1993 - 5.0 Welding, Cutting, And Brazing                                                        Page 150
6.0 EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS
The use of explosive materials within construction is extensive and, whether large or small quantities are
handled, the responsibilities falling upon supervisory staff are considerable. Those responsible must
consider the acquisition, storage, transporting, handling and use of explosive materials, as well as the
emergency procedures to be adopted in the case of misfire, accident, fire, etc. The acquisition and use of
explosive materials in Saudi Arabia are strictly controlled by the Saudi Arab Government, whose
requirements must be adhered to at all times. All blasting operations in Saudi Aramco are strictly
controlled and the use of explosive materials by contractors is prohibited without prior written approval
by Company representatives. For contractor In-Kingdom blasting operations, contact the Resources
Planning Department, Project Support Services Division, Blasting Services Unit for all blasting
requirements.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100            Work Permit System

GI 355.015          Requisitioning, Receiving, Storing and Issuing Explosives

GI 475.001          Blasting Near Existing Facilities

GI 475.002          Use Of Explosives In Construction

GI 610.001          Special Regulations for the Use of Explosives in Seismic Operations

GI 1183.215         Transporting Explosives on Company Owned/Leased/Rented Motor Transport Vehicles

GI 1310.00          Transportation Of Dangerous Articles Aboard Saudi Aramco Aircraft

Schedule 'D':

                    Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements

American National Standards:

ANSI A10.7-89         Safety Requirements for Transportation, Storage, Handling, and Use of Commercial
                      Explosives and Blasting Agents in Construction and Demolition

NFPA 495-90           Explosive Materials Code

National Safety Council Industrial Data Sheets:

I-644-90            Treatment Of Extraneous Electricity In Electric Blasting

I-730-86 Ammonium Nitrate / Fuel Oil Mixtures As Blasting Agents




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Explosive MaterialsPage 151
7.0 PILING OPERATIONS
Piling operations attract many of the problems associated with other types of construction work: access,
unguarded machinery, housekeeping, etc. Heavy equipment and the stress and vibration imposed upon
that equipment give rise to hazards peculiar to piling operations. The standard of supervision should be
high, as well as the standard and maintenance of equipment.

Piling operations fall into two categories: driving load-bearing piles, which may be driven vertically or
raked; and, driving sheet piles. Piles may be of steel, concrete, timber or any combination of the three.
Piling equipment can vary from a simple air-operated hand-held hammer to a large complex rig.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100.            Work Permit System

GI 7.025.            Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification

GI 7.026.            Crane and Heavy Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures

GI 7.029.            Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings

GI 7.030.            Inspection And Testing Requirements Of Elevating / Lifting Equipment

Schedule 'D':

                     Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Excavations

Crane Safety Handbook (Page 99)

National Safety Council Data Sheet:

                     Special Hazard Bulletin X128. Property Damage from Blasting, Pile Driving, and
                     Similar Sources

ASME Standard:

                     Section I            Power Boilers
                     Section VII          Pressure Vessels

7.1           Before Work Starts

              In order that piling operations may be undertaken with the minimum risk to men and
              equipment, the following factors should be considered before work starts.

                  The nature and purpose of the operation.

                  Soil investigation reports of the area.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Piling Operations                                    Page 152
                   Location and nature of any underground services in the area, which should be checked
                    with the various departments through the Saudi Aramco Construction Engineer; then,
                    precisely located by careful hand digging, under competent supervision.

              Where piling operations are within a restricted area, the proper Work Permits should be
              obtained before any work is undertaken.

              Competent supervision, experienced in piling operations, is essential for piling work.

              Equipment of adequate capacity to perform the operation should be assembled. All
              equipment must be carefully inspected before being used with particular attention to the
              following. (See GI 7.030.)

              7.1.1       Cranes

                          Cranes used for both lifting and piling operations should be of an adequate size
                          and capacity to perform the work safely. Where cranes are to be used for driving
                          raking piles with a drop hammer or driving piles below the level of the crane using
                          extended leaders, the hammer will be suspended from the crane at a greater radius
                          than the boom angle indicator will show. In all such cases, the distance of the
                          hammer from the center point of the crane must be calculated and this distance
                          used to ascertain the safe working load.

                          Outriggers, counterbalances, etc., shall be provided to maintain stability of the pile
                          driver rig.

              7.1.2       Pile Gates

                          Sufficient timber or steel must be available for the construction of pile gates.
                          Proper ladder access must be provided to the pile gates, and where they are over
                          1.8 meters (6 feet) high, handrails or rigger's belts must be provided.

              7.1.3       Inspection

                          Air compressors or steam boilers must be carefully examined and all hoses and
                          couplings checked both for leaks and general condition. All steam and air hoses
                          should be fitted with a regulator valve and a quick acting shut-off valve for
                          emergency.

              7.1.4       Wedges

                          An adequate supply of hardwood wedges should be obtained for adjusting piles
                          while pitching. Softwood wedges are likely to split and must not be used.

              7.1.5       Timber Block

                          Stop blocks shall be provided for the leads to prevent the hammer from being
                          raised against the head block.

                          Guards shall be provided across the top of the head block to prevent the cable from
                          jumping out of the sheaves.




February 1993 - 7.0 Piliing Operations                                                                  Page 153
                          Fixed leads shall be provided with ladder and adequate attachment points so that
                          the loft worker may engage his safety belt lanyard to the leads. If loft platforms are
                          provided, they shall be protected with standard guardrails.

                          Steam/air hose leading to the hammer or jet pipe and all hoses shall be securely
                          attached with 1/4" chain or cable to prevent whip lash.

              7.1.6       Ground Support

                          The ground upon which the crane or rig will stand should be firm and level.
                          Digger mats or a hard-core standing should be provided if the ground is likely to
                          subside under the high ground loading imposed by driving or extracting piles.

7.2           Driving Piles

              7.2.1       Pitching

                          Piles should only be lifted and positioned in the pile gate or onto the leaders or rig
                          with sound lifting gear adequate for the purpose. Quick release shackles should be
                          examined before each use. Where hollow section or concrete piles are lifted with
                          chains or wire slings, timber or burlap packing should be placed between the lifting
                          gear and the pile. Adequate access, such as a cradle or a properly secured ladder,
                          must be provided for the topman when pitching sheet piles. The topman must wear
                          stout gloves when pitching.

              7.2.2       Driving

                          Workmen should stand clear of the operation while driving is in progress. The
                          emergency shut-off valve and the crane or winch controls must be manned at all
                          times during driving. The foreman must be present and so positioned that he can
                          be seen by the crane or winch operator and the man standing by the valve. When
                          driving raking piles, the pile, leaders, and machine must all be in the same line.
                          Under no circumstances should any man touch the hammer until all valves are
                          closed. A system of signals must be arranged between the foreman, the winch or
                          crane operator, and the valve operator, so that the emergency shutdown does not
                          depend on verbal communication. Where the head of a pile becomes distorted
                          through driving, no attempt should be made to clear it from the leaders by lifting or
                          booming up. The pile head should be cut off and the debris cleared from the
                          leaders.

7.3           Pile Extraction

              No attempt should be made to extract piles which have been hammer-driven by lifting or
              booming up with a crane. A steam, air, or electric operated extractor should be used.
              Particular attention should be paid to the extractor wedges and the condition of the gripping
              faces, which should not be smooth. Workmen must not walk under piles that are suspended
              from extractors.




February 1993 - 7.0 Piliing Operations                                                                  Page 154
7.4           General Precautions

              7.4.1

                          Men handling piles or working on piling operations should always wear safety
                          helmets, safety shoes, safety glasses, stout gloves, and be equipped with ear
                          protection, preferably of the muff type.

              7.4.2

                          At the start of each shift, hammers and extractors should be carefully checked for
                          loose bolts, etc.

              7.4.3

                          All other equipment should be inspected daily for defects.

              7.4.4

                          Piling operations should never be undertaken except under competent supervision
                          and with a crew experienced in this class of work. Crane operators shall have a
                          valid Saudi Arab Government heavy equipment license and a valid Saudi Aramco
                          certificate (See GI 7.030).

              7.4.5

                          Piling operations are a construction process with special hazards. In addition to
                          these special hazards, men are exposed to the hazards commonly associated with
                          all types of construction work, and precautions against these general hazards must
                          not be neglected.




February 1993 - 7.0 Piliing Operations                                                              Page 155
8.0 ROADWORKS
A contractor engaged in roadwork is not only responsible for the safety of his own men, he also has an
obligation to protect the public from potential construction hazards, during the day, at night and in all
weather conditions. Consequently, the marking of construction sites and the safe and efficient diversion
and control of traffic must be properly planned and executed. Road closure plans must be submitted to
Loss Prevention before roads are closed.

Failure to do this can have disastrous results.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 1021.000           Street and Road Construction, Excavation, and Maintenance of Traffic Controls
                      (Appendix D)

GI 2.100              Work Permit System

8.1           General

              8.1.1

                         Saudi Aramco organizations can obtain barriers, lights, etc. from the Maintenance
                         Department during normal working hours. Contractors shall provide their own
                         barriers, lights, etc..

              8.1.2

                         To avoid creating a traffic hazard, warning devices must not be put in place until
                         they are needed. They must be promptly removed when work is complete.

              8.1.3

                         Activities which produce dust shall be kept to a minimum.

              8.1.4

                         Permanent road signs and striping shall be restored before the roadway is returned
                         to service.

              8.1.5

                         The surface of any highway, street, or sidewalk shall be level and in good
                         condition before any barriers and markers are removed.

              8.1.6

                         Should there be any doubt as to the type of marking and protection required for
                         roadwork in any location, the Loss Prevention engineer for the area should be
                         consulted.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Roadworks                                              Page 156
             8.1.7

                        A flagman, equipped with a safety vest and a red flag, shall be posted at least 50
                        meters (165 feet) from the work site at the entrance barricade and another flagman
                        at the exit barricade. It shall be the duty of the flagmen to control the flow of
                        traffic in a safe manner. Both flagmen shall be in sight of each other. If conditions
                        do not permit this, then a third man shall be positioned where he can see and be
                        seen by the other two men in order to signal them to start or stop traffic. Traffic
                        control signals shall be in accordance with GI 1021.000. At night, flagmen shall
                        wear light-reflecting vests and gloves, and use reflective signs or flags. Flagmen
                        shall be stationed in an illuminated area.

             8.1.8

                        During darkness, the work area will be marked by lights spaced 10 meters (30 feet)
                        apart. Warning lights used in oil operations, industrial, or company housing areas
                        shall be weather proof and positioned 0.6 meter (2 feet) and 0.9 meter (3 feet)
                        above grade.

             8.1.9

                        In addition to the foregoing, excavation work in residential areas shall be entirely
                        enclosed, covered over, or roped-off.

             8.1.10

                        Excavations in sidewalks or areas of expected pedestrian traffic shall be provided
                        with close-planked walkways or bridges 0.9 meters (3 feet) wide and equipped
                        with standard guardrails.
8.2          Street and Road Construction, Excavations, and Maintenance Traffic
             Controls

             See Appendix D (GI 1021.000).




February 1993 - 8.0 Roadworks                                                                        Page 157
9.0 WORKING PLACES, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDING
Every contractor and every employer of workmen has a legal and contractual responsibility to ensure
that each place at which his men work is safe and that it remains safe so long as men work there.
Similarly, each supervisor is responsible for ensuring that every man working under his direction or
control has a safe working place and a safe means of getting to and from every working place.

Where work cannot safely be done on the ground or from part of a building or permanent structure,
scaffolds, ladders, or other means of support shall be provided and properly maintained.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

The Standards used for guidance in this section of the Construction Safety Manual are those of the
American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI) and US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
1910.28. Where scaffold manufacturers products meet other scaffold standards that are equivalent to or
higher than ANSI requirements, then those products can be used. Scaffold products from different
manufacturers shall not be mixed on a scaffold, unless they are specifically designed to be used together.

Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards:

GI 2.100.            Work Permit System

GI 6.020.            Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water

GI 8.001.            Safety Requirements For Scaffolding (formerly 1009.006)

SAES-P-123.          Lighting Utilization

Schedule 'D':
                     Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Ladders;
                     Scaffolding; Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water.

American National Standards Institute:

                     Uniform Building Code

ANSI A10.8 - 1988
               Scaffolding-Safety Requirements

ANSI A14.1 - 1982./ANSI A14.1a- 1985
               Ladders - Portable Wood Safety Requirements

ANSI A14.2 - 1990
               Portable Metal Ladders

ANSI A14.3 - 1984
               Ladders - Fixed-Safety Requirements

ANSI A92.2 - 1990
               Vehicle - Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices

US. Code of Federal Regulations, 29. CFR Part 1910.28, Safety Requirements for Scaffolding




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding               Page 158
National Safety Council Data Sheets:

                      Data Sheet 568. Job-Made Ladders

NFPA 70 - 90          National Electrical Code (NEC)

9.1           Working Places, General

              9.1.1       Falls

                          Within Saudi Aramco, every working place shall be safe and of adequate
                          dimensions. Where men, tools, or materials could fall 1.8 meters (6 feet) or more,
                          a guardrail system (consisting of toprails and midrails) and toeboards shall be
                          provided. Should the provision of these safeguards be impracticable, other means
                          of preventing falls, such as safety belts, etc. shall be used. For further
                          information, see Personal Protective Equipment, Section I.9, (9.6.5 and 9.6.6) of
                          this Manual.

              9.1.2       Access and Egress

                          A safe means of getting to and from a working place shall be provided and used.
                          Ladders shall conform to the requirements set out in 9.2.

              9.1.3       Lighting

                          Every working place and every means of getting to and from a working place
                          shall be provided with adequate lighting which shall be properly maintained. (See
                          SAES-P-123)

              9.1.4       Prevention of Falls

                          Permanent decking, parts of a structure, walkways, footbridges, etc., which men
                          use in the course of their work or for a permanent or temporary access, shall be
                          provided with a guardrail system and toeboards (permanent or temporary) at all
                          edges from which men, tools, or materials could fall 1.8 meters (6 feet) or more.
                          Holes and gaps shall be guarded or securely covered. Stairs (permanent or
                          temporary) shall have all treads properly secured and shall be fitted with handrails
                          throughout their length and conform to the Uniform Building Code.

              9.1.5       Ramps

                          Where the slope of a ramp exceeds 1 vertical to 4 horizontal, the ramp shall be
                          fitted with stepping cleats at 0.3 meter (1 foot) intervals. When a ramp is to be
                          used by the general public, its slope shall not exceed 1 vertical to 4 horizontal.
                          Handrails shall be provided.

              9.1.6       Falling Material

                          Where there is danger of men being struck by falling material, protective
                          coverings shall be erected or No. 18 gauge wire, 1/2 inch mesh or equivalent,
                          shall be securely fixed between the toeboard and midrail to prevent falling
                          objects.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                           Page 159
              9.1.7       Hot Surfaces

                          Suitable precautions shall be taken to prevent men coming into contact with any
                          hot surface.

              9.1.8       Slipping and Tripping

                          Contractors are responsible for maintaining good housekeeping to prevent
                          slipping, tripping, and falling. Oil spills, mud, scrap, and other debris must be
                          cleared up immediately. Men shall not be permitted to walk or work on steel
                          work or other surfaces on which paint or cement wash is still wet.

              9.1.9       Roof Work

                          Where work is done on or from the roof of a building or structure, or where men
                          have to cross, work on, or work from fragile roofs or surfaces, adequate
                          protection in the form of crawling boards, roof ladders, or other suitable covering
                          must be provided to prevent men and materials falling from or through the roof.
                          Temporary guardrails shall be placed to prevent workers from falling. If roof
                          work is accomplished on pitched roofs with a slope greater than 1:4, workers shall
                          be equipped with safety belts that are securely anchored to the structure. During
                          storms or high winds, workers shall not be working on a roof or scaffold that is
                          exposed to the weather.

              9.1.10      Insecure Structures

                          Unstable or weak structures shall be supported by guys, stays, supports, or other
                          fixings where necessary. If work being done is likely to reduce the stability of an
                          existing structure or building, bracing or other means of support shall be used.
                          Unstable structures shall not be left unsupported over night.

                          No wall sector which is more than one story in height, shall be permitted to stand
                          alone without lateral bracing, unless such wall was originally designed to do so
                          and is in a safe condition to be self-supporting. All walls shall be left in a stable
                          condition at the end of each shift by bracing support jacks, timbers and/or guy-
                          wired, taking wind force and storm conditions into consideration.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                            Page 160
              9.1.11      Work Over Water

                          9.1.11.1

                                         Where men work on, over or near water, a guardrail system and
                                         toeboards, fencing or other suitable barriers shall be provided for the
                                         protection of the worker.

                          9.1.11.2

                                         Wherever the provision of a guardrail system and toeboards, fencing
                                         or other suitable barriers is impracticable, or if for any reason men are
                                         outside the protection of these safeguards, suitable life vests shall be
                                         worn and a safety belt or harness securely fixed to a dropline.

                          9.1.11.3

                                         Approved rescue equipment that meets the requirements of GI 6.020
                                         in the form of life rings with life lines, etc.; where necessary, a suitably
                                         equipped rescue boat shall be readily available, and properly
                                         maintained. Men shall be thoroughly trained in the use of all
                                         protective and rescue equipment, first aid and cardiopulmonary
                                         resuscitation (CPR).

9.2           Ladders and Stepladders

              The safety of a ladder depends on four important factors: selection, condition, position and
              use. Ladders shall comply with the referenced ANSI or equivalent codes.

              9.2.1       Selection

                          9.2.1.1

                                         A ladder must be of the proper length for the job to be done. If it is to
                                         be used for access or as a working place, it shall rise to a height of 36
                                         inches to 42 inches above the landing place or above the highest rung
                                         to be reached by the feet of the man using the ladder.

                          9.2.1.2

                                         Metal ladders, ladders with metal reinforced side rails, and ladders
                                         which are wet shall not be used near electrical equipment with exposed
                                         live conductors. Such ladders shall have a warning notice attached to
                                         guard against use near electrical equipment.

                          9.2.1.3

                                         Aluminum ladders shall not be used where there is a likelihood of
                                         contact with materials harmful to aluminum, such as caustic liquids,
                                         damp lime, wet cement, etc.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                                 Page 161
              9.2.2       Condition

                          9.2.2.1

                                         Each ladder shall be examined before use. Those with split or broken
                                         side rails, missing, broken, loose, decayed or damaged rungs or cleats,
                                         or with other faulty equipment shall be tagged and removed from
                                         service.

                          9.2.2.2

                                         Rungs shall be properly mortised into side rails. Cleats shall be inset
                                         by 2.25 centimeters (7/8 inch), or filler blocks used on the side rails
                                         between the cleats. Cleats shall be uniformly spaced 30.5 centimeters
                                         (1 foot) between centers.

              9.2.3       Position

                          9.2.3.1

                                         The side rails of a ladder shall be equally supported on a firm level
                                         surface. Boxes, blocks, barrels, etc. shall not be used as a means of
                                         support. The area at the base of a ladder must be kept clear. Ladders
                                         shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways or
                                         scaffolds.

                          9.2.3.2

                                         Ladders shall not be supported on their rungs or cleats. Rungs or
                                         cleats shall not be used to support planks.

                          9.2.3.3

                                         Whenever possible, ladders shall be set at an angle of 75o to
                                         horizontal ground (i.e., one meter out to four meters up).

                          9.2.3.4

                                         Metal reinforcing shall be on the underside of the rungs and where
                                         reinforcing is on only one side of the side rails, that too shall be on the
                                         underside.

                          9.2.3.5

                                         Both side rails of a ladder shall be evenly supported at the upper
                                         resting place. Side rails must be securely tied off to prevent
                                         movement. Where secure fixing is impracticable, other measures must
                                         be taken to prevent movement by securing at the base, using side guys,
                                         or stationing a man at the base. It must be understood, however, that a
                                         man stationed at the base will be unable to control a ladder more than
                                         6 meters (20 feet) in length.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                                Page 162
                          9.2.3.6

                                         Where there is a possibility of a ladder being struck by moving
                                         vehicles or equipment, a man should be placed on guard or a space at
                                         the base should be securely fenced off. If a ladder is erected close to a
                                         doorway, the door should either be locked, shut, or be secured in the
                                         open position with a man on guard or properly barricaded.

                          9.2.3.7

                                         Ladder landing places shall be provided at least every 9 meters (30
                                         feet) of height and shall be fitted with a guardrail system and
                                         toeboards. Holes in decking through which ladders pass shall only be
                                         enough to permit passage of the man using the ladder.

                          9.2.3.8

                                         A ladder should always be placed so that there is space behind each
                                         rung or cleat for a proper foothold. There should be no obstruction in
                                         the way of a man's foot, particularly at the landing platform. Here the
                                         rung or cleat should be level with the platform.

                          9.2.3.9

                                         Where ladders have to be suspended, both side rails shall be lashed
                                         top and bottom so as to provide equal support. Where long ladders
                                         are used, they shall also be lashed at the center to prevent lateral
                                         movement.

              9.2.4       Use

                          9.2.4.1

                                         Where an extension ladder is used fully extended, the minimum
                                         overlap depends on the extension ladder length, and overlap should be
                                         as follows (examples):

                                         9.75 to 10.97 meters (32 to 36 feet) = 1.22 meters (4 feet) overlap

                                         10.97 to 14.63 meters (36 to 48 feet) = 1.52 meters (5 feet) overlap

                                         Splicing or lashing ladders together shall not be permitted.

                          9.2.4.2

                                         Before mounting a ladder, personnel shall check their shoes for
                                         freedom from grease, oil or mud. They shall always step through, not
                                         around, the rail extensions at the top of the ladder.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                              Page 163
                          9.2.4.3

                                         Single rung and single cleat ladder should be used by only one man at
                                         a time. When ascending or descending personnel shall face the ladder
                                         and keep both hands on the ladder. Personnel shall not run up or
                                         down or slide down a ladder at any time. The width of single cleat
                                         ladders shall be at least 38.1 centimeters (15 inches) but not more than
                                         50.8 centimeters (20 inches) between rails at the top.

                          9.2.4.4

                                         Men ascending or descending ladders shall not carry tools and
                                         materials in their hands. Tools may be carried in pockets or on special
                                         belts provided there is no risk of injury and movement is not impaired.
                                         Materials shall be raised or lowered using a handline after being
                                         securely tied or placed in a basket.

                          9.2.4.5

                                         A man working on or from a ladder must always have a secured
                                         handhold and both feet on the same rung or cleat. If the work to be
                                         done requires the use of both hands, a safety belt is required, securely
                                         fixed to a dropline (life line). Only one person shall be on a ladder at
                                         a time.

                          9.2.4.6

                                         Job-made ladders shall be constructed for intended use. If a ladder is
                                         to provide the only means of access or exit from a working area for 25
                                         or more employees, or if simultaneous two-way traffic is expected, a
                                         double cleat ladder shall be installed.

                                         Double cleat ladders on Saudi Aramco construction sites shall not
                                         exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet) in length.

                                         Single cleat ladders shall not exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet) in length
                                         between supports (base and top landing). If ladders are to connect
                                         different landings, or if the length required exceeds this maximum
                                         length, two or more separate ladders shall be used, offset with a
                                         platform between each ladder. A guardrail system and toeboards shall
                                         be erected on the exposed sides of the platforms.

                                         5.08 by 10.16 centimeters (2 by 4 inches) lumber shall be used for side
                                         rails of single cleat ladders up to 4.5 meters (15 feet) long.

                                         5.08 by 10.16 centimeters (2 by 4 inches) lumber shall be used for side
                                         and middle rails of double cleat ladders up to 3.6 meters (12 feet) in
                                         length; 5.08 by 15.24 centimeters (2 by 6 inches) lumber for double
                                         cleat ladders from 3.6 by 4.5 meters (12 to 15 feet) in length.

                                         Wood cleats shall have the following minimum dimensions when
                                         made of woods that meet ANSI requirements for ladders:




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                             Page 164
                               LENGTH OF CLEAT                         THICKNESS                     WIDTH
                                  Up to and including                  1.9 cm (.75 in)            7.62 cm (3 in)
                                  50.8 cm (20 inches)
                            Over 50.8 cm (20 in.) and up to           1.9 cm (.75 in.)          9.52 cm (3.75 in.)
                            and including 76.20 cm (30 in.)

                                         Cleats may be made of species of any other group of wood provided
                                         equal or greater strength is maintained.

                                         Cleats shall be inset into the edges of the side rails one-half inch, or
                                         filler blocks shall be used on the rails between the cleats. The cleats
                                         shall be secured to each rail with three 10d common wire nails or other
                                         fasteners of equivalent strength. Cleats shall be uniformly spaced,
                                         30.48 centimeters (12 inches) between centers.

                          9.2.4.7

                                         Metal ladders shall not be used for work on electrical systems unless
                                         the ladders are specifically designed for that application.

              9.2.5       Stepladders

                          Generally, the foregoing remarks on selection, condition and use of ladders apply
                          equally to stepladders. The following requirements also apply:

                          9.2.5.1

                                         To ensure stability, stepladders shall be spread to their fullest extent
                                         limited by manufacturer's braces when in use. Whenever possible,
                                         they should be placed at right angles to the work with either the front
                                         or back facing the work.

                          9.2.5.2

                                         Do not stand, climb or sit on the stepladder top, pail shelf, braces or
                                         back section.

              9.2.6       General

                          9.2.6.1

                                         Ladders and stepladders shall be maintained in good condition at all
                                         times. Joints shall be tight, all hardware and fittings shall be securely
                                         attached, and movable parts shall operate freely without binding or
                                         undue play.

                          9.2.6.2

                                         Ladders and stepladders must not be painted.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                              Page 165
                          9.2.6.3

                                         Where a ladder is carried by one man, the front end should be kept
                                         high enough to clear men's heads and special care shall be taken at
                                         corners and blind spots.

9.3           Scaffolding Components

              9.3.1

                          All scaffold structures shall be erected with metal components approved per ANSI
                          requirements or equivalent. Scaffolds shall be stored to prevent damage and to
                          permit easy access for use. Scaffold erection plans (drawings) shall be submitted
                          to Loss Prevention Department for review prior to men being allowed to work on
                          the scaffold.

              9.3.2       Tubing

                          Ordinary scaffold tubing is 4.8 centimeters (1-29/32 inches) in diameter and
                          nominal wall thickness 0.4 centimeter (5/32 inch) and is referred to as two-inch
                          nominal diameter tubing. It is mild steel and normally supplied in lengths of 6.4
                          meters (21 feet). Tubes must meet ANSI or equivalent requirements and must be
                          free from cracks and surface flaws, laminations, excessive rust and other defects.
                          The ends shall be cut square and cleanly. A tube shall not deviate from a straight
                          line by more than 1/600 of its length measured at the center of the tube length.

              9.3.3       Aluminum Tubing

                          9.3.3.1

                                         Although the aluminum tubing is dimensionally interchangeable with
                                         steel tubing, it must not be used in the same structure; the difference in
                                         the elastic modulus of the two materials results in greater deflection in
                                         aluminum tubing for the same loading conditions.

                          9.3.3.2

                                         Aluminum tubing shall not be used where there is likelihood of contact
                                         with materials harmful to aluminum such as caustic liquids, damp
                                         lime, wet cement and sea water.

              9.3.4       Fittings

                          All fittings (couplers, clamps, etc.) shall be of a metal type approved to ANSI or
                          equivalent requirements. They shall be examined regularly and care must be
                          taken to ensure that moving parts are sound and well lubricated and that threads
                          are not stripped.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                               Page 166
              9.3.5       Typical Scaffold Fittings

                          (Figures II.17 - II.22)

                          Base Plate: A 15 centimeter (6 inch) by 15 centimeter (6 inch) steel plate greater
                          than 0.64 centimeters (1/4 inch) thick providing a flat bearing surface for load
                          distribution from posts. It has an integral spigot and fixing holes for use with sills.

                          Screwjacks: Used for compensating variations in ground levels.

                          Standard Coupler: Also known as a Right Angle or 90o Coupler. A load
                          bearing coupler used for connecting two tubes together at right angles.

                          Adjustable Coupler: Used for connecting two tubes together at any angle
                          through 360o. Not to be used where a load bearing standard coupler is required.

                          End-to-End Coupler: Also known as a Sleeve Coupler. Used for connecting
                          two tubes end-to-end.

                          Reveal Pin: Inserted into the end of a tube and adjusted to form a rigid
                          horizontal or vertical member between two opposing surfaces. It forms a solid
                          anchorage to which a scaffold can be tied.

              9.3.6       Planks

                          9.3.6.1

                                         Planks shall be of rough timber and graded as scaffold planks without
                                         defects (2" x 9"), 5 centimeters (2 inches) thick by 23 centimeters (9
                                         inches) wide, and shall conform to the following specifications:

                                         1    All planking shall be Scaffold Grade to ANSI requirements.

                                         2    On the face of the plank, the ends shall not be split up more than
                                              30.5 centimeters (1 foot), without fixed banding or the end bolted
                                              through.

                                         3    On the face of the plank, not more than one third the width in any
                                              one place shall be knot wood.

                                         4    On the edge of the plank, not more than half the depth shall be
                                              knot wood.

                                         5    On the edge of the plank, the grain shall not cross from face-to-
                                              face within a distance of less than 30.5 centimeters (1 foot).

                                         6    From end-to-end, the plank must not be twisted by more than 1.3
                                              centimeters (1/2 inch).

                                         7    Scaffold planks shall meet the loading requirements of Table II.2.

                          9.3.6.2




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                             Page 167
                                         Planks shall not be painted or treated in any way that would conceal
                                         defects.

                          9.3.6.3

                                         Planks which are split, decayed or warped shall not be used, but the
                                         parts affected may be cut off to produce shorter planks with the ends
                                         banded or bolted through.

                          9.3.6.4

                                         Planks should be stacked on a suitable foundation. Where the height
                                         of a stack exceeds 20 planks, measures should be taken to tie or bond
                                         succeeding layers.

                          9.3.6.5

                                         Planks should not be stood on end unattended.

                          9.3.6.6

                                         Scaffold planks shall not be used for shuttering for concrete, shoring
                                         for trenches, or as sills for scaffolding. Planks shall be inspected for
                                         defects, including decay, prior to each use.

                          9.3.6.7

                                         The design working load of each platform unit (i.e., plank) shall be
                                         capable of supporting without failure one or more 91 kg (200 lb)
                                         person with 22.7 kg (50 lb.) of equipment.

                          9.3.6.8

                                         Platform units rated for one person capacity shall be designed and
                                         constructed to carry 113.6 kg (250 lb.) at the center of the span.

                          9.3.6.9

                                         Platform units rated for two persons shall be designed and constructed
                                         to carry a working load of 227 kg (500 lb.) : 113.6 kg (250 lb.) placed
                                         at 0.46 meters (18 inches) to the left and right of the center of the
                                         span.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                             Page 168
                          9.3.6.10

                                         Platform units rated for three persons shall designed and constructed
                                         to carry a working load of 341 kg (750 lb.) : 113.6 kg (250 lb.) placed
                                         at 0.46 meters (18 inches) to the left and right of the center of the
                                         span, and at the center of the span.

                          9.3.6.11

                                         The design loads in sections 9.3.6.7 to 9.3.6.10 are not to be added to
                                         uniformly distributed loads for light, medium and heavy duty scaffold
                                         (i.e., 25, 50 and 75 lb./ft2 respectively), but are shown as alternates.

                          9.3.6.12

                                         Each platform, where applicable, shall be designed and constructed to
                                         carry a uniformly distributed load as an alternate to the person loading
                                         of 9.3.6.7 to 9.3.6.10. Uniformly distributed loads and person loading
                                         are not cumulative and the most restrictive loading shall be used for
                                         platform design.

                          9.3.6.13

                                         Light, medium and heavy duty uniformly distributed load requirements
                                         shall be 25, 50 and 75 pounds per square foot respectively. Greater
                                         uniformly distributed loads shall be specially designed.

TABLE II.2: WOOD SCAFFOLD PLANK LOADING CHART

                                                 Permissible Span (ft)
                                                  Douglas Fir or                    Spruce
                                                   Southern Pine                 Rough Sawn

                                                     2 in x 10 in              1-7/8 in x 9-7/8 in

                                                     Nominal or                        or

       Loading Condition                     1-1/2 in x 9-1/4 in Actual            2 in x 9 in

 One worker or medium-duty                               10 ft                        8 ft

  Two workers or heavy-duty                               8 ft                        7 ft

          Three workers                                   5 ft                        5 ft

REFERENCE: ANSI A10.8-1988




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                             Page 169
FIGURE II.17: STANDARD COUPLER                                 FIGURE II.18: ADJUSTABLE COUPLER
       (Bearers, Runners)                                                           (Braces Only)




FIGURE II.19: TYPICAL END TO END COUPLER                             FIGURE II.20: SCREWJACK




FIGURE II.21 TYPICAL REVEAL PIN                                      FIGURE II.22 TYPICAL BASE PLATE




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                        Page 170
9.4           Requirements Common to All Scaffolding

              9.4.1       Foundations

                          9.4.1.1

                                         A sound base is essential; therefore, the ground or floor on which a
                                         scaffold is going to stand must be carefully examined. Sand or made-
                                         up ground may need compacting to ensure there are no cavities. Such
                                         bases as floors, roofs, etc. may need shoring from underneath.

                                         Scaffolds, including components, shall be capable of supporting
                                         without failure at least 4 times the maximum intended load.

                          9.4.1.2

                                         Timber sills at least 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide by 3.8 centimeters
                                         (1-1/2 inches) thick (not scaffold planks) will be required to spread the
                                         load on sand, made up ground, asphalt pavement, wooden floors, and
                                         slippery surfaces. A sill shall extend under at least two posts.

                          9.4.1.3

                                         Where scaffolding is erected on a solid bearing such as rock or
                                         concrete, small timber pads may be used in place of sills and nailed to
                                         prevent the base plates sliding off.

                          9.4.1.4

                                         Concrete blocks, barrels, and other loose or unsuitable material shall
                                         not be used for the construction or support of scaffolding.

                          9.4.1.5

                                         If used to compensate for variations in ground level, the screwjack
                                         shall not be adjusted to more than two-thirds of the total length of the
                                         thread. The base plate shall be of a type approved for supporting
                                         scaffolding posts. (See manufacturer's specifications.)

              9.4.2       Posts

                          9.4.2.1

                                         Posts shall be pitched on 15 centimeters (6 inches) by 15 centimeters
                                         (6 inch) steel base plates and at least 0.64 centimeter (1/4 inch) thick.
                                         Joints in posts should be staggered, i.e., joints in adjacent posts should
                                         not occur in the same lift. All posts shall be vertical.

                          9.4.2.2

                                         The inner row of posts shall be placed as close as possible to the face
                                         of the building or structure. To avoid projections, the posts may be up
                                         to 41 centimeters (16 inches) away from the wall or structure as




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                               Page 171
                                         necessary, provided that, where there is room to do so, the gap
                                         between the wall or structure and the inner posts shall be closed with
                                         planks on extended board bearers. The outer row of posts shall be
                                         positioned from the inner row of posts depending on the load
                                         requirements of the scaffold, and the working platform shall be fully
                                         decked out.

              9.4.3       Runners

                          9.4.3.1

                                         Runners shall be securely fixed to posts with standard couplers and
                                         shall be horizontal. Joints in runners should be staggered, i.e., joints
                                         in adjacent runners should not occur in the same bay. Runners should
                                         be secured end-to-end by sleeve couplers, not by joint pins.

                          9.4.3.2

                                         Runners shall be vertically spaced no more than 2.0 meters (6 feet, 6
                                         inches) to give adequate headroom along the platforms.

              9.4.4       Bearers

                          Bearers should be installed between posts and securely fixed to the posts bearing
                          on the runner coupler and secured with standard couplers. When coupled directly
                          to the runners, the coupler must be kept as close to the posts as possible. These
                          bearers must remain in position as they are a structural part of the scaffold.

              9.4.5       Board Bearers

                          Board bearers shall be installed between bearers to accommodate differences in
                          plank lengths.

                          Board bearers shall be secured to the runners between bearers where necessary to
                          support platform units (planks). These may be removed when no longer required
                          to support platform units.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                             Page 172
              9.4.6       Bracing

                          9.4.6.1

                                         Cross bracing shall be installed across the width of the scaffold at least
                                         every third set of posts horizontally and every fourth runner vertically.
                                         Such bracing shall extend diagonally from the inner and outer runners
                                         upward to the next outer and inner runners. These braces should be
                                         fixed to the runners with standard couplers as close to the posts as
                                         possible. Where such a fixing is impracticable, adjustable couplers
                                         may be used to fix the braces to the posts. (See Figures II.23 and
                                         II.24.)

                          9.4.6.2

                                         Longitudinal diagonal bracing shall be installed at approximately 45-
                                         degree angle from near the base of the first outer post upward to the
                                         extreme top of the scaffold. Where possible, such bracing shall be
                                         duplicated at every fifth post. On short but high runs, diagonal
                                         bracing shall be installed at an angle of 45 degrees from the base of
                                         the first outer post to the last outer post and shall alternate directions
                                         to the top of the scaffold. When bracing cannot be attached to the
                                         posts, this bracing may be attached to the runners, as close as possible
                                         to the posts. Only standard couplers or adjustable couplers may be
                                         used. Joints in braces shall be made with end-to-end or parallel
                                         couplers.

                          9.4.6.3

                                         Temporary rakers (inclined load-bearing tube supports) brace the
                                         scaffold against the ground when setting out. These rakers are
                                         replaced by permanent braces when the scaffold has been plumbed,
                                         leveled and tied. Rakers must be secured with proper couplers at the
                                         scaffold and coupled to a ground stake.

              9.4.7       Ties

                          9.4.7.1

                                         It is essential that all scaffolds, with the exception of certain tower and
                                         mobile scaffolds (See 9.7 and 9.8), be securely tied to the building or
                                         structure throughout their length and height to prevent movement of
                                         the scaffold either towards or away from the building or structure.
                                         This should be done by connecting a tie tube to both runners or posts
                                         and coupling this to a two-way tie or column box tie assembly. (See
                                         Figures II.25 and II.26.)

                          9.4.7.2

                                         Where the foregoing is impracticable, tubes may be securely wedged
                                         between opposing surfaces on the building or structure by the use of
                                         reveal pins and coupled to the tie tubes (Figure II.27). Where reveal
                                         ties are used, they shall not exceed 50% of the total number of ties.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                                Page 173
                                         Two-way ties or column box ties shall be evenly distributed over the
                                         scaffold area. To ensure the security of reveal ties, it is necessary to
                                         check frequently for tightness.

                          9.4.7.3

                                         Ties shall occur at the top of the scaffold and at least every 7.9 meters
                                         (26 feet) vertically and 9.1 meters (30 feet) horizontally and at each
                                         end of the scaffold. All tie assembly connections shall be made with
                                         standard couplers.

              9.4.8       Platform Units

                          9.4.8.1

                                         All platform units (i.e., planks, fabricated decks, etc.) shall be closed
                                         planked with, whenever practicable, each plank resting on at least
                                         three supports. Planks shall extend over their end supports by not less
                                         than 15 centimeters (6 inches) and not more than 30.5 centimeters (12
                                         inches).

                          9.4.8.2

                                         Supports for scaffold planks shall be spaced with due regard to the
                                         nature of the platform and the load it will bear. (See Table II.2.)

                          9.4.8.3

                                         Except on platform units adjacent to the surface of a cylindrical or
                                         spherical structure, planks shall be laid flush.

                          9.4.8.4

                                         Planks shall be secured in position to prevent displacement by high
                                         winds.

                          9.4.8.5

                                         Adequate space for men to pass in safety shall be provided and
                                         maintained wherever materials are placed on platform units or if any
                                         higher platform is erected thereon.

                          9.4.8.6

                                         Platform units shall be kept free of unnecessary obstructions,
                                         materials, and projecting nails.

                          9.4.8.7

                                         Platform units which have become slippery with oil or any other
                                         substance shall be cleaned, or otherwise removed and replaced.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                              Page 174
                          9.4.8.8

                                         Slopes in platform units shall not exceed 1 vertical to 4 horizontal and
                                         stepping cleats at 0.3 meter (1 foot) intervals shall be provided.

                          9.4.8.9

                                         All platform units shall be closed planked for the full width of the
                                         scaffold structure.

              9.4.9       Guardrail Systems and Toeboards

                          9.4.9.1

                                         Guardrail systems (consisting of toprails and midrails) and toeboards
                                         shall be installed at all open sides and ends of all scaffolds and
                                         supports on no more than 3-meter (10-foot) centers from which men or
                                         materials could fall a distance of more than 1.8 meters (6 feet).
                                         Toprails shall be no less than 0.91 meter (36 inches) and no more than
                                         1.14 meters (45 inches) above the working surface; midrails shall be
                                         installed equidistant between the working surface and the toprail.
                                         Toeboards shall not be less than 10 centimeters (4 inches) in height by
                                         2.5 centimeters (1 inch) thick. Guardrail systems and toeboards shall
                                         be securely fixed to the inside of posts to withstand a lateral thrust of
                                         200 pounds.

                          9.4.9.2

                                         Landings: Safe landings shall be provided at the top of all ladders.
                                         Rings shall be eliminated above the landing level, and side rails shall
                                         extend 36 to 42 inches above the landing for mounting and
                                         dismounting. Where multiple ladders are required, solidly decked
                                         platforms shall be provided. Guardrails, intermediate rails and
                                         toeboards shall be erected on the outside edges and exposed sides of
                                         the platform.

              9.4.10      Access

                          Access to a working platform is best achieved by providing a separate ladder
                          tower or a cantilevered access platform so as not to obstruct the working platform
                          and to minimize the risk of persons falling through gaps in the guardrail system or
                          platform units. Access must be provided to working platforms.

              9.4.11      Scaffold Ladders

                          Scaffold ladders provide the means of access and egress for scaffolds. They can
                          generally be classified as follows:




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                              Page 175
                          9.4.11.1       Portable Straight and Extension Ladders
                                         (Figure II.24)

                                         A straight ladder is a portable ladder that only consists of one section
                                         which determines its overall length. It cannot support itself or be
                                         adjusted in length.

                                         An extension ladder is a portable ladder that cannot support itself but
                                         can be adjusted in length. It consists of two or more sections which
                                         are arranged to permit length adjustment. Its overall length is the sum
                                         of the length of all its sections measured along the side rails.

                                         Portable straight and extension ladders shall have a firm base and be
                                         positioned with a slope of 1:4.

                          9.4.11.2       Vertical Ladder

                                         A vertical ladder is a type of fixed ladder which is permanently
                                         attached to the horizontal or vertical components of a scaffolding.

                                         The main criteria to consider in the use of a vertical ladder is
                                         clearance. The following clearance guidelines shall be used.

                                             General:

                                              Safe clearances shall be maintained to prevent workers from
                                              bumping into, or snagging onto, projecting objects while
                                              ascending or descending the ladder.

                                             Climbing Side:

                                              Ladders shall have a minimum clear perpendicular distance of 30
                                              inches from the rungs to the nearest projecting object on the
                                              climbing side. When unavoidable obstructions are encountered,
                                              the minimum clearance distance may be reduced to 24 inches if
                                              deflector plates are provided.

                                             Back Side Of Ladder:

                                              The perpendicular distance from the face of the rung on the
                                              climbing side to the nearest fixed object on the back side of the
                                              ladder shall not be less than 10 inches. When unavoidable,
                                              horizontal obstructions (e.g. beams, pipes, etc.) are encountered,
                                              the vertical toe clearances specified in the following sections,
                                              shall apply.

                                             Side Clearance:

                                              The minimum clear distance to the nearest fixed object shall be 15
                                              inches on each side of the centerline of single rung ladders.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                             Page 176
                                             Vertical Clearance:

                                              The minimum vertical toe clearance from horizontal obstructions
                                              shall be 1 1/2 inches below and 4 1/2 inches above the top edge of
                                              the rung.

                                             Multiple Ladders:

                                              When two or more separate ladders are used with a landing
                                              platform, the side-step distance shall be a minimum of 15 inches
                                              from the centerline of the upper ladder to the near side of the
                                              lower ladder.

              9.4.12      Workmanship

                          9.4.12.1

                                         Scaffolding shall be erected, altered, and dismantled by experienced
                                         men working under the direction of a competent supervisor.

                          9.4.12.2

                                         Posts shall be set accurately in place and checked vertically by using a
                                         spirit level or by using vertical lines on the building or structure.

                          9.4.12.3

                                         Scaffolding couplers should be tightened with proper scaffolding
                                         spanners. The use of an ordinary spanner or tool giving greater
                                         leverage could damage the screw threads and render the coupler
                                         unserviceable.

                          9.4.12.4

                                         Scaffolding materials shall not be thrown or dropped from heights.

              9.4.13      Inspections

                          All scaffolds shall be inspected regularly by a competent Supervisor and after
                          adjustments, modifications, adverse weather conditions, etc. Erected scaffolds
                          and platforms should also be inspected continuously, by those using the scaffold,
                          to insure that the scaffold has not been altered and is in a safe working condition.

9.5           Fabricated Tubular Frame and System Scaffolding

              Fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding are composed wholly or partly of
              prefabricated sections. There are many types of fabricated tubular frame and system
              scaffolding available which vary in design and methods of erection; however, the same
              basic principles set out in 9.4 apply and the following matters warrant particular attention.
              All scaffolds must be erected as per manufacturer's direction and limitations. A scaffold
              plan needs to be submitted to Loss Prevention Department for review. (See Figures II.28 to
              II.31)




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                             Page 177
              9.5.1

                          To be erected, altered and dismantled by experienced men, under the direction of a
                          competent Supervisor.

              9.5.2

                          Periodic inspections shall be made of all parts and accessories. Broken, bent,
                          altered, excessively rusted or otherwise structurally damaged frames or accessories
                          shall not be used.

              9.5.3

                          All fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding shall be constructed and
                          erected to support four times the maximum intended loads.

              9.5.4

                          Scaffold posts shall be pitched on steel base plates and on timber sills or pads as
                          necessary. Screwjacks shall be used to compensate for variations in ground level.

              9.5.5

                          Scaffolds shall be properly braced by cross braces and longitudinal diagonal braces
                          for securing vertical members together. The cross braces shall be of such length as
                          will automatically square and align vertical members so that the erected scaffold is
                          always plumb, square, and rigid. All brace connections shall be made secure.

              9.5.6

                          The frames or posts shall be placed one on top of the other with coupling or
                          stacking pins to ensure proper vertical alignment of the legs.

              9.5.7

                          The frames and posts shall be locked together vertically by pins or other equivalent
                          suitable means.

              9.5.8

                          Fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding over 38 meters (125 feet) in
                          height shall be specially designed by a Professional Engineer. In Saudi Aramco,
                          scaffold heights are limited to a maximum height of 12.2 meters (40 feet), unless a
                          scaffold plan has been reviewed by the Area Loss Prevention Division
                          representative prior to construction. Scaffolds above 12.2 meters (40 feet) should
                          be constructed using scaffold contractors; however no scaffolds shall exceed 38.1
                          meters (125 feet) unless the design has been reviewed by an Area Loss Prevention
                          Division representative, Consulting Services Department and approved by a
                          qualified engineer. (See also GI 8.001, section 6.1.1.)

9.6           Tube and Coupler Scaffolds
              (Tube and Coupler Construction - Figure II.23)




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                          Page 178
              9.6.1       Independent Tied Scaffold

                          An independent tied scaffold (also commonly known as a double pole scaffold)
                          consists of a double row of posts connected together longitudinally with runners
                          and with bearers at right angles to the runners. Braces and ties are essential for
                          stability. Independent tied scaffold is the most common form of tube and coupler
                          scaffolding and is divided into three groups.

                          In Saudi Aramco the height limitation of the tube and coupler scaffold shall not
                          exceed 12.2 meters (40 feet) unless a scaffold plan proposing to use such a scaffold
                          at a greater height has been reviewed by the Loss Prevention Department per the
                          provisions of Section 9.5.8.

                          1         Light Duty: for painting, cleaning, etc.
                          2         Medium Duty: when materials are deposited on the platforms.
                          3         Heavy Duty: where the deposited material is of a more substantial nature.

              9.6.2       Light Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds
                          (For general requirements, see 9.4 and 9.5)

                          9.6.2.1        Design, Loading and Dimensions

                                         A light duty tube and coupler scaffold can have up to three working
                                         platforms in use at any one time, and the maximum distributed load on
                                         the platform shall be 1.2 kPa (25 lb./sq. ft) with posts 3.05 meters (10
                                         feet) apart longitudinally and 1.83 meters (6 feet) transversely.
TABLE II.3: TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS--LIGHT DUTY


            Uniformly distributed load                         Not to exceed 25 p.s.f.
           Post Spacing (longitudinal)                                10 ft. 0 in.
             Post Spacing (transverse)                                6 ft. 0 in.


         Working Levels                   Additional Planked             Maximum Height
                                                Levels

                  1                                  8                           125 ft.
                  2                                  4                           125 ft.
                  3                                  0                        91 ft. 0 in.

Reference: CFR 1910.28

                          9.6.2.2        Platform

                                         The platform between posts should be decked out with 23 centimeters
                                         (9 inches) wide by 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) thick planks. Bearers
                                         may be cantilevered for use as brackets to carry not more than two
                                         planks between the building and inner post.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                             Page 179
                          9.6.2.3        Limitations

                                         Light duty tube and coupler scaffolds erected in accordance with these
                                         directions may be used up to a maximum height of 38.1 meters (125
                                         feet) and limited to a uniformly distributed load of 25 lb./ft 2. Light
                                         duty tube and coupler scaffolds departing from these directions shall
                                         be specially designed or designed to a higher rating such as medium or
                                         heavy duty.

              9.6.3.      Medium Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffold

                          (For general requirements, see 9.4)

                          9.6.3.1        Design, Loading, and Dimensions

                                         A medium duty tube and coupler scaffold may have up to two working
                                         platforms in use at any one time. The maximum distributed load on
                                         each platform shall not exceed 2.39 kPa (50 lb./sq. ft) with posts not
                                         more than 2.4 meters (8 feet) apart longitudinally and 1.83 meters (6
                                         feet) transversely.
TABLE II.4: TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS--MEDIUM DUTY


             Uniformly distributed load                         Not to exceed 50 p.s.f.
            Post Spacing (longitudinal)                                8 ft. 0 in.
             Post Spacing (transverse)                                 6 ft. 0 in.


          Working Levels                   Additional Planked             Maximum Height
                                                 Levels

                   1                                  6                              125 ft
                   2                                  0                        78 ft. 0 in.

Reference: CFR 1910.28

                          9.6.3.2        Platform

                                         The platform between posts should be decked out with 23 centimeters
                                         (9 inches) wide by 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) thick planks. Bearers
                                         may be cantilevered for use as brackets to carry not more than two
                                         planks between the building and inner post.

                          9.6.3.3        Limitations

                                         Medium duty tube and coupler scaffolds erected in accordance with
                                         these directions may be used up to a maximum height of 38.1 meters
                                         (125 feet) and limited to a uniformly distributed load of 50 lb./ft2.
                                         Medium duty tube and coupler scaffolds departing from these
                                         directions shall be specially designed or designed to a higher rating
                                         such as heavy duty.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                            Page 180
                           9.6.3.4       Bearers

                                         Bearers on medium duty tube and coupler scaffolds shall be 6.35
                                         centimeters (2.5 inches) outside diameter steel tube and of nominal
                                         wall thickness of 0.4 centimeter (5/32 inch).

              9.6.4        Heavy Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds

                           (For general requirements, see 9.5)

                           9.6.4.1       Design, Loading and Dimensions

                                         A heavy duty tube and coupler scaffold has one working platform with
                                         a maximum distributed load of 3.6 kPa (75 lb./sq ft) on the platform.
                                         The posts shall be no more than 2.0 meters (6 feet, 6 inches) apart
                                         longitudinally and 1.8 meters (6 feet transversely).
TABLE II.5: TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS--HEAVY DUTY


                  Uniformly distributed load                                  Not to exceed 75 p.s.f.
                  Post Spacing (longitudinal)                                        6 ft. 6 in.
                   Post Spacing (transverse)                                         6 ft. 0 in.


              Working Levels                      Additional Planked Levels               Maximum Height

                       1                                       6                                   125 ft.

Reference: CFR 1910.28

                           9.6.4.2       Platform

                                         The platform between the posts shall be decked out with 23
                                         centimeters (9 inches) wide by 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) thick planks.

                           9.6.4.3       Limitations

                                         Heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds erected in accordance with
                                         these directions may be used up to a maximum height of 38.1 meters
                                         (125 feet). Heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds departing from
                                         these directions shall be specially designed.

                           9.6.4.4       Bearers

                                         Bearers on heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds shall be 6.35
                                         centimeters (2.5 inches) outside diameter steel tube and be of nominal
                                         wall thickness 0.4 centimeter (5/32 inch).

9.7           Free-Standing Tower Scaffolds

              A free-standing tower scaffold consists of four or more posts connected together
              longitudinally with runners and bearers at right angles to the runners, forming a square or




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                                 Page 181
              rectangular tower (see Figure II.32). Alternatively, a free-standing tower scaffold may be
              constructed of a fabricated tubular frame or system scaffolding (see 9.5). A free-standing
              tower scaffold has a single working platform and is a common form of access scaffolding
              for painters and others who do work of a light nature and of short duration.

              9.7.1       General Requirements

                          For general requirements, see 9.4 and where a fabricated tubular frame or system
                          scaffolding is to be used, see 9.5.

              9.7.2       Design, Loading and Dimensions

                          A free-standing tower scaffold shall have only one working platform and the
                          maximum distributed load shall not exceed the load rating which is determined by
                          the platform unit type and the scaffold duty.

                          The height from the base to working platform of a free-standing tower scaffold
                          shall not exceed four times the minimum base dimension. In no case shall the
                          minimum base dimension be less than 1.2 meters (4 feet).

              9.7.3       Runners and Bearers

                          The vertical spacing of runners and bearers shall be 2.0 meters (6 feet, 6 inches).
                          The lowest runners and bearers shall be as near to the base as possible. Runners
                          and bearers shall be secured to the posts with standard couplers.

              9.7.4       Bracing

                          Sway bracing is necessary on all four elevations to the full height of the scaffold.
                          Plan bracing is also required at the base, at the top, and at every third lift to
                          prevent racking.

              9.7.5       Ties

                          Free-standing tower scaffolds more than 9.8 meters (32 feet) in height shall be
                          adequately tied to a building or structure. Where tying to a building or structure
                          is impracticable, one of the following methods of ensuring stability shall be used
                          (see Figures II.33 to II.35):

                          1       Guy wires at a slope of approximately 45o connected to the working
                                  platform level of the tower.
                          2       Bottom corners of the tower securely anchored.
                          3       Outriggers extending to the ground.

                          The strength of the guy wires or of the anchorage used shall be calculated, having
                          due regard to the horizontal wind forces and other known forces which may be
                          applied to the tower. These calculations shall be reviewed by Loss Prevention
                          Department.

              9.7.6       Platform

                          The single working platform of a free-standing tower scaffold shall not project
                          beyond the base area and the platform unit(s) shall be securely fixed in position.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                           Page 182
              9.7.7       Access

                          Where the means of access to the working platform is outside the tower structure,
                          due consideration must be given to the effect of such means of access on the
                          stability of the scaffold. Where a sloping ladder would cause instability, a
                          securely fixed vertical ladder may be used.

              9.7.8       Limitations

                          Free-standing tower scaffolds erected and used in accordance with these directions
                          and with one working platform may be used up to a maximum height of 12 meters
                          (40 feet) to the work platform. Free-standing tower scaffolds departing from these
                          directions shall be specially designed.

9.8           Mobile Tower Scaffolds
              (Figure II.31)

              The requirements for free-standing tower scaffolds in 9.7 also apply to mobile tower
              scaffolds with the exception that wheels are used in place of base plates and sills.

              9.8.1       Foundations

                          Wheels or casters, not less than 12.7 centimeters (5 inches) in diameter, and fitted
                          with brakes, which cannot be released accidentally, shall be securely fixed to the
                          bases of the posts by lock pins or dowels.

                          A mobile tower scaffold shall only be used and moved on surfaces sufficiently
                          firm and level to ensure stability. Where the scaffold is to be used on a suspended
                          floor, it shall be designed to apply loads no greater than the bearing capacity of
                          the floor.

                          Temporary foundations or track laid on soft or uneven ground to facilitate the
                          erection and movement of the tower shall be constructed and anchored so that its
                          bearing capacity is not exceeded due to imposed loading from the tower. The
                          track shall be level and properly secured.

              9.8.2       Operation

                          A mobile tower scaffold shall be moved only by pushing or pulling at the base.
                          Force must not be applied at a height greater than 1.4 meters (4 feet, 6 inches)
                          above the base. No men, equipment or materials shall be on the working platform
                          or elsewhere on the structure while it is in motion. Wheel brakes shall be applied
                          at all times when men are on the stationary mobile tower scaffold.

              9.8.3       Limitations

                          Mobile tower scaffolds, erected and used in accordance with these directions,
                          supported on four wheels and with one working platform, may be used up to a
                          maximum height of 12 meters (40 feet). Mobile tower scaffolds departing from
                          these directions shall be specially designed and properly secured (See 9.7.5).




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                           Page 183
9.9           Scaffolds for Tanks and Vessels

              Tube and coupler scaffolds for tanks and vessels shall be erected in accordance with 9.6.
              Secure tying to the structure is essential for stability.

              9.9.1       Bracket Scaffolds

                          9.9.1.1

                                         Brackets and bracket straps shall be constructed, fixed and erected in
                                         accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

                          9.9.1.2

                                         It is essential that the brackets, straps and welds are of sufficient
                                         strength to support the weight of the scaffold, men, tools and
                                         materials.

                          9.9.1.3

                                         The bracket straps shall be welded to the wall of the tank by a certified
                                         welder. The weld shall be a full 5 millimeters (3/16 inch) fillet. Prior
                                         to welding on any tank, approval is required from Saudi Aramco
                                         Consulting Services Department.

                          9.9.1.4

                                         The weld shall be made with the same type of electrode as used for the
                                         main tank weld joints. Before the bracket is attached to the strap, the
                                         weld shall be inspected by a competent welding inspector or welding
                                         supervisor who will approve and accept the weld.

                          9.9.1.5

                                         Brackets shall be inspected prior to each use and damaged or defective
                                         brackets shall be removed from service. Brackets shall be vertical and
                                         horizontal spacing shall not exceed 2.5 meters (8 feet) on centers.

                          9.9.1.6

                                         A rigid guardrail system and toeboards shall be securely fixed to the
                                         uprights of the brackets (see Section 9.4.9). Alternatively, 3/8 inch
                                         diameter wire ropes may be used in place of toprails and midrails
                                         providing that they are securely fixed and kept taut by the use of turn
                                         buckles.

                          9.9.1.7

                                         Whenever men are working, the platform shall be fully decked.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                              Page 184
                          9.9.1.8

                                         Excessive storage or accumulation of materials or platform units
                                         (planks) shall not be permitted.

                          9.9.1.9

                                         The scaffold shall be designed to support a minimum load of 1.2 kPa
                                         (25 lb./sq. ft). No more than two persons shall occupy any given 2.5
                                         meters (8 feet) of bracket scaffold at any one time. Tools and
                                         materials shall not exceed 34 kg (75 lb.) in addition to person(s)
                                         occupying the area.

9.10          Special Scaffolds

              Scaffolds to suit special applications and those required for unusual heights or for use in
              abnormal circumstances shall be of a special design, which has been reviewed by the Loss
              Prevention Department as per the provisions of section 9.5.8.

              Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating aerial devices shall comply with ANSI A92.2-1990.

9.11          Scaffold Terminology

              Where possible, the scaffold terminology used in this document is based on ANSI A10.8-
              1988: Scaffolding - Safety Requirements. A list of common ANSI scaffold terms is
              included, and in brackets are equivalent British Standard (BS 5973: 1990 scaffold terms,
              where an equivalent term exists.

              (1)    Base Plate. A metal plate with a spigot or screwjack for distributing the load from a
                     post or other load bearing tube.

              (2)    Bearer (Transom). A horizontal tube across runners to form the support for a platform
                     or to connect the outer posts to the inner posts.

              (3)    Brace. A tube placed diagonally with respect to the vertical and horizontal members
                     of a scaffold and fixed to them to give stability.

              (4)    Coupler. A device for locking together component parts of tube and coupler scaffold.

              (5)    Design Load. The maximum intended load; that is, the total of all loads including the
                     worker(s), material and the equipment placed on the unit.

              (6)    Dropline. A vertical line from a fixed anchorage, which is independent of the work
                     platform and its rigging, and to which the lanyard is affixed.

              (7)    Fabricated Tubular Frame Scaffold. A system of tubular frames (panels) field erected
                     with bracing members.

              (8)    Guardrail System. A rail system erected along open sides and ends of platforms. The
                     rail system consists of a toprail and midrail and their supports.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                         Page 185
              (9)    Lanyard. A flexible line to secure the wearer of a body belt or harness to a dropline or
                     a fixed anchor.

              (10) Load Ratings. Maximum loading for the following categories:

                          (a)     Heavy Duty: Scaffolding constructed to carry a working load of 75 lb./ft 2
                                  such as for masonry work, with storage of materials on the platform.
                          (b)     Medium Duty: Scaffolding constructed to carry a working load of 50
                                  lb./ft2 such as for bricklayers with the weight of materials in addition to
                                  workers.
                          (c)     Light Duty: Scaffolding constructed to carry a working load of 25 lb./ft2
                                  and is intended for workers only, with no material storage other than the
                                  weight of tools.
                          (d)     Special Duty: Scaffold designed and constructed to carry specific types of
                                  objects.

              (11) Mobile Scaffold.          A scaffold assembly supported by casters and moved along
                   manually.

              (12) Midrail. A horizontal rail approximately midway between the toprail and platform of
                   a guardrail system.

              (13) Plank. A wood board or fabricated component that is a flooring member.

              (14) Platform. An elevated work surface composed of one or more platform units.

              (15) Platform Unit. Individual wood planks, fabricated planks, fabricated decks, and
                   fabricated platforms.

              (16) Post (Standard). Vertical scaffold tube that bears the weight of the structure.

              (17) Putlog (Truss). A fabricated tube upon which the platform rests, the putlog has a
                   flattened end, to rest in or on part of the brickwork.

              (18) Rated Load. The manufacturer's recommended maximum load.

              (19) Runner (Ledger). A horizontal scaffold tube that extends from post to post, that
                   supports putlogs or bearers and that forms a tie between the posts.

              (20) Scaffold. A temporary elevated or suspended work unit and its supporting structure
                   used for supporting worker(s) or materials, or both.

              (21) Scaffold Access. A separate, attachable or built-in means of access to and from a
                   scaffold or work unit.

              (22) Scaffold Deck 'Fabricated'. A work unit equipped with end hooks that engage the
                   scaffold bearer.

              (23) Sill (Sole Plate). A timber, concrete or metal spreader used to distribute the load from
                   a post or base plate to the ground.

              (24) Tie. A device used between scaffold components and the building or structure to
                   enhance lateral stability.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                           Page 186
              (25) Toeboard. A barrier secured along the sides and the ends of a platform unit to guard
                   against the falling of material, tools and other loose objects.

              (26) Toprail. The uppermost horizontal rail of a guardrail system.

              (27) Tube and Coupler Scaffold. A scaffold system consisting of tubing that serves as
                   posts, bearers, braces, ties and runners; a base supporting the posts; and special
                   couplers that serve to connect the uprights and join the various members.




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                     Page 187
FIGURE II.23: A TYPICAL INDEPENDENT TIED SCAFFOLD CONSTRUCTED USING TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDING




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                       Page 188
FIGURE II.24: A TYPICAL TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLD




February 1993 - Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding   Page 189
FIGURE II.25: PLAN VIEW OF TWO-WAY TIE




FIGURE II.26: PLAN VIEW OF COLUMN BOX TIE




FIGURE II.27: PLAN VIEW OF REVEAL TIE




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding   Page 190
FIGURE II.28: A TYPICAL SYSTEM SCAFFOLD




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding   Page 191
FIGURE II.29: A TYPICAL SYSTEM SCAFFOLD BEING ASSEMBLED




FIGURE II.30: A TYPICAL SYSTEM SCAFFOLD BASE IN THE PROCESS OF BEING ASSEMBLED AND
              LEVELED




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                   Page 192
FIGURE II.31: A TYPICAL FABRICATED TUBULAR FRAME MANUALLY PROPELLED MOBILE
                SCAFFOLD




       Working Platform                   Guard Rail System                                   Spring Loaded
Access Gate




          End Frame                                                                    Toeboard




          Locking Pins                                                       Coupler




          Cross Bracing                                                      Access Ladder




          Horizontal Diagonal Brace                            Caster Fastening Pins          Locking
Casters




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                                        Page 193
FIGURE II.32: A TYPICAL TUBE AND COUPLER MOBILE ACCESS TOWER




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding   Page 194
FIGURE II.33: CROSS TUBE ANCHOR




FIGURE II.34: OUTRIGGERS IN USE                                FIGURE II.35: DRIVEN TUBE ANCHOR




February 1993 - 9.0 Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding                               Page 195
10.0 HAND TOOLS AND POWER TOOLS
Hand tools are those tools for which the hand provides the motive force, e.g., picks, shovels, axes,
crowbars, wrenches, saws, chisels, hammers, screwdrivers, etc. It is the contractor's duty to ensure that
his workmen are properly instructed in the selection and use of the correct tool for the job. Tools
constructed of good quality materials should always be used. Poor quality tools increase the risk of
accidents and also reduce the efficiency of work.

Power tools, however, allow many jobs to be carried out more efficiently and with greater speed and
accuracy. The correct use of power tools can only be achieved by the proper training of workmen, by
proper maintenance, and by adequate site supervision. Many accidents have occurred because unskilled
and untrained labor have been allowed to operate power tools in an incorrect manner.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco Instructions And Standards:

Schedule 'D':

                    Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Cartridge Operated
                    Tools

United States Code of Federal Regulations 29, Part 1910, Subpart "0", Machinery And Machine
Guarding

American National Standards Institute:

ANSI A10.3-1985

                    Safety Requirements For Powder Actuated Fastening Systems

ANSI A10.9-1983

                    Safety Requirements For Concrete Construction and Masonry Work

ANSI B7.1-1988

                    Safety Code For The Use, Care, And Protection Of Abrasive Wheels

ANSI B15.1-1984

                    Safety Code For Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus

NFPA - 70-90

                    National Electrical Code (NEC)




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Hand Tools And Power Tools                           Page 196
10.1         Hand Tools, General

             10.1.1      Quality

                         The contractor shall ensure that the finest quality tools shall be provided for all
                         jobs where hand tools are used.

             10.1.2      Cleanliness

                         The contractor shall ensure that hand tools are regularly cleaned and, where
                         necessary, lightly oiled as a protection against corrosion.

             10.1.3      Repair and Storage

                         All hand tools shall be regularly inspected before and after use, and before storage.
                         If wear or damage is observed, the tool should be withdrawn from use for repair or
                         disposal. The contractor shall ensure that the storekeeper maintains a record of all
                         tools issued, repaired, and withdrawn from use. Proper racks and boxes shall be
                         provided for the storage of hand tools.

             10.1.4      Selection

                         The majority of accidents are caused by using an incorrect tool for the job. It is
                         essential that the correct type, size, and weight of tool should be decided upon
                         before any work is carried out.

             10.1.5      Electrical Risks

                         All uninsulated metal tools are conductors of electricity. Where work takes place
                         on or near electrical operations, only properly insulated and non-conductive tools
                         should be used. Insulation should be checked at regular intervals by a competent
                         electrician.

10.2         Individual Hand Tools, Precautions

             10.2.1      Screwdrivers

                         It is essential that a screwdriver has the correct size of tip to fit the slot of the
                         screw. If the screwdriver fits the screw correctly, the screw will be drawn into the
                         correct position without unnecessary force being applied. Over-tightening of
                         screws can lead to possible hand injury if the screwdriver slips.

                         Screwdriver shanks are not designed to withstand the twisting strain applied by a
                         pair of pliers or more grips in order to obtain additional leverage. On no account
                         should screwdriver handles be subjected to blows from a hammer or similar
                         instrument.

                         Screwdrivers should never be carried in the pockets of coveralls or other clothing.
                         A screwdriver can produce a serious wound.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                       Page 197
             10.2.2      Hammer

                         It is essential that the right kind of hammer be selected for the job. Hammer
                         handles should be made from smooth timber or be made of an integral head and
                         shaft of steel. Hammer heads should be secured to wooden handles with proper
                         wedges.

             10.2.3      Chisels

                         Cutting edges should be kept sharp at all times, and the original shape and angle
                         should be maintained. Re-sharpened cold chisels should be suitably hardened and
                         tempered to maintain them in a safe working condition. The chisel heads will
                         mushroom in use. As soon as mushrooming is observed, the head should be
                         reground with a slight taper around the edge to prevent chipping and reduce the
                         tendency to re-mushroom. Eye protection should be worn at all times when a cold
                         chisel is used.

                         On jobs where it is necessary to use a sledge hammer for striking the chisel, the
                         chisel should be held by a second person using a pair of tongs.

                         Wood chisels should also be maintained in a sharp condition so that minimum
                         pressure is exerted when making a cut. If the chisel is to be struck, only a wooden
                         or soft mallet should be used.

             10.2.4      Picks and Shovels

                         Picks and shovels shall be maintained in a serviceable condition at all times.
                         Shovel blades should not be allowed to become blunt, turned, split, or jagged.
                         Pick head points should be kept sharp and heat-treated so that the metal wears
                         down in use and does not splinter or chip off. Shafts of picks and shovels should
                         be kept free from cracks and splinters.

             10.2.5      Spanners and Wrenches

                         Only spanners and adjustable wrenches of the right size should be used. When
                         possible, use box-end rather than adjustable wrenches. The jaw should first be
                         checked for any sign of opening out or splitting. Spanner and wrench lengths are
                         graded to provide sufficient leverage on the nuts for which they are designed.
                         Improvised extension to these tools is an unsafe practice and may cause the bolt
                         tread to strip or cause shearing of the bolt. On no account should ordinary
                         wrenches be struck by a hammer when tightening nuts. For heavy work of this
                         nature, a properly designed slugging wrench should be used.

             10.2.6      Pipe Wrenches

                         Pipe wrenches must be large enough for the job, the jaw teeth must be kept clean
                         and sharp, and the knurl, pin, and spring should be kept free from damage. Pipe
                         wrenches should never be struck with a hammer, nor should they be used as a
                         hammer.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                     Page 198
             10.2.7      Pliers

                         Pliers should only be used when there are no other tools for the job. They are
                         meant only for gripping around objects and should not be used as a wrench.

                         Care should be taken when cutting soft metal with pliers to ensure the scrap portion
                         does not fly off and cause injury. If wire is cut under tension, then long handled
                         pliers should be used. Where pliers are used for electrical work, they must be
                         fitted with insulated handles. All pliers should be kept free from dirt and grit, and
                         the movable parts should be lightly lubricated.

             10.2.8      Jacks

                         Jacks should be marked with rated capacity and must be heavy enough and strong
                         enough to raise and maintain the load. They should be placed on a firm and solid
                         support, and the load should be positioned on the center line of the jack.

                         Once a load has been raised, it must be shored or blocked. The jack should never
                         be relied upon to hold the raised load in position by itself. Extreme care should be
                         taken when working under or near a raised load.

             10.2.9      Hacksaws

                         The correct type of blade should be selected to suit the material to be cut. The
                         blade should be set in a hacksaw frame so that the teeth are pointing in the forward
                         direction, and sufficient tension should be applied to ensure blade is maintained
                         rigid.

             10.2.10     Hand saws

                         Many kinds of woodworking hand saws are available, and care should be taken to
                         select the correct saw. All hand saws shall be regularly examined to ensure that the
                         saw teeth are properly set so as to avoid binding in the timber which can cause the
                         blade to buckle. The teeth should be kept sharp, clean, and lightly oiled. When
                         the saw is not in use, the blade should be protected by a slotted piece of timber or a
                         sheath.

                         Two-man saws should be operated by pulling only. The cut should be kept straight
                         to avoid the blade buckling. The cut should be wedged open to prevent the timber
                         from pinching the blade.

10.3         Power Tools, General

             10.3.1      Quality

                         The contractor shall ensure that all portable power tools do not exceed 125 volts
                         rating, are manufactured of sound materials, and are free from defects and properly
                         grounded.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                        Page 199
             10.3.2      Repair and Storage

                         All portable power tools shall be stored in clean, dry conditions. The contractor
                         shall provide a schedule of systematic inspection and maintenance for all power
                         tools. All tools shall be returned to the storekeeper at the completion of each
                         individual job. Power tools must not be left lying around the job site where they
                         could be damaged.

                         Rotating tools should be switched off and held until rotation has completely
                         stopped before they are set down. Tools must be disconnected before changing
                         bits, blades, cutters, or wheels.

                         Power for tools can be supplied by compressed air, explosive cartridge, or
                         electricity. All portable power tools must be equipped with properly functioning
                         "dead man" switches.

10.4         Pneumatic Tools

             10.4.1      General

                         10.4.1.1

                                       An air compressor shall always be under the supervision of a
                                       competent person. It should always be sited in such a place so as to
                                       have adequate ventilation. Compressors shall not be permitted to
                                       operate in confined spaces without the provision of adequate exhaust
                                       ventilation.

                         10.4.1.2

                                       All compressed air hoses shall be of the correct size to fit the tool
                                       being used. Any joint in the hoses shall be made with a proper coupler
                                       and secured by safety wire. The hose length shall be kept as short as
                                       possible and placed so as not to be subjected to damage.

                         10.4.1.3

                                       Pneumatic tools require clean air to operate efficiently. In every line
                                       feeding a power tool, there shall be an adequate filter and lubricator.

                         10.4.1.4

                                       During operation all air tools should be held firmly to prevent them
                                       spinning and jumping. This pressure should be maintained during the
                                       stopping process to prevent injury to the operator's feet and hands.

             10.4.2      Individual Tools, Precautions

                         10.4.2.1      Jack Hammer and Concrete Breakers

                                        The tool bit retaining spring shall always be securely in position to
                                        prevent the bit from dropping out. The bit must be kept sharp.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                       Page 200
                                        Ear, eye and foot protection shall be required when working with this
                                        type of equipment. See I.9 for other personal protective equipment
                                        requirements.

                         10.4.2.2      Rock Drill

                                        It is extremely important that the operator maintains a firm grip with
                                        both hands and stands in a balanced position. Any other method of
                                        using the tool can cause serious bodily injury.

                         10.4.2.3      Grinding Machine

                                       This tool is probably the most misused of all the power tools. Care
                                       should always be taken to ensure that the grinding wheel is free from
                                       defect before mounting. Any defect may cause the wheel to
                                       disintegrate as it gains momentum.

                                       Only persons who have been instructed in the proper selection and
                                       fitting of grinding wheels should be allowed to install wheels on tools.

                                       The proper size and type of wheel should be fitted to the tool so that
                                       the maximum permissible running speed of the spindle does not
                                       exceed the maximum periphery speed displayed on the grinding wheel.
                                       No grinding machine shall be used unless the maximum speed is
                                       clearly marked on the case. All wheels shall be fitted with adequate
                                       guards in conformance with ANSI B7-1-1988. (See Figure II.36.)

                                       Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels, used for external
                                       grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The
                                       maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides
                                       shall be not more than 90o, except that when work requires contact
                                       with the wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle, the angular
                                       exposure shall not exceed 125o. In either case, the exposure shall
                                       begin not more than 65o above the horizontal plane of the spindle.
                                       Safety guards shall be strong enough to withstand the effect of a
                                       bursting wheel. (See Figures II.37 and II.38.)

                                       Floor and bench-mounted grinders shall be provided with work rests
                                       which are rigidly supported and readily adjustable. Such work rests
                                       shall be kept at a distance not to exceed one-eighth inch from the
                                       surface of the wheel. (See Figure II.37.)

                                       Cut type wheels used for external grinding shall be protected by either
                                       a revolving cup guard or a band type guard in accordance with the
                                       provisions of the American National Standards Institute, B7.1-1988
                                       Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels.
                                       All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding, shall be
                                       provided with safety guards (protection hoods) meeting the
                                       requirements of this paragraph, except as follows:

                                           When the work location makes it possible, a wheel equipped with
                                            safety flanges shall be used.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                        Page 201
                                           When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely
                                            mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used.

                                       Portable abrasive wheels used for internal grinding shall be provided
                                       with safety flanges (protection flanges) except as follows:

                                           If the wheels are entirely within the work being ground while in
                                            use.

                                           When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely
                                            mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used.

                                       When safety guards are required, they shall be so mounted as to
                                       maintain proper alignment with the wheel, and the guard and its
                                       fastenings shall be of sufficient strength to retain fragments of the
                                       wheel in case of accidental breakage. The maximum angular exposure
                                       of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall not exceed 180 o.

                                       When safety flanges are required, they shall be used only with wheels
                                       designed to fit the flanges. Only safety flanges of a type and design
                                       and properly assembled so as to ensure that the pieces of the wheel
                                       will be retained in case of accidental breakage, shall be used.

                                       All abrasive wheels shall be closely inspected and ring-tested before
                                       mounting to ensure that they are free from cracks or defects. (See
                                       Figure II.39.)

                                       Grinding wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and shall not be forced
                                       on. The spindle nut shall be tightened only enough to hold the wheel
                                       in place. (See Figure II.40.)

                                       All employees using abrasive wheels shall be protected by eye
                                       protection equipment.

                                       Materials that require grinding shall be placed on the tool rest with
                                       moderate head-on pressure applied. Materials should not be forced or
                                       jammed into the wheel. Grinding the materials on the sides of the
                                       wheel is an unsafe practice which can damage the wheel. A grooved
                                       or damaged wheel must be replaced.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                       Page 202
FIGURE II.36: ABRASIVE/GRINDING WHEEL

             1      Dimensions

             2      Nature of the Abrasive

             3      Abrasive Grain Size

             4      Grade

             5      Structure

             6      Bond

             7      Maximum Speed

             8      Color Stripe = Speed




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools   Page 203
FIGURE II.37: GRINDER GUARDS

             1.     Work rests shall be kept adjusted to the wheel with a maximum gap of 1/8 inch.

             2.     Tongue guards shall be kept adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of
                    1/4 inch.

             3.     The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery should not exceed
                    90o. This exposure shall begin at a point not more than 65o above the horizontal plane.

             4.     Whenever the nature of the work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal
                    plane, the exposure shall not exceed 125o.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                      Page 204
FIGURE II.38:       BENCH GRINDER - MACHINE GUARDING




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools        Page 205
10.5         Cartridge Operated Tools

             10.5.1      General

                         Cartridge operated tools have a great advantage in that they can be used in almost
                         any situation without the inconvenience of trailing leads or hoses. However, it is
                         essential that these tools be operated only by properly trained personnel who are
                         over 18 years of age. The contractor shall ensure that each man required to operate
                         such a tool will undergo a thorough training period and be certified by the tool
                         vendor. Use of cartridge operated tools will be in accordance with Saudi Aramco
                         GI 2.100, ANSI A10.3-1985 and the manufacturer's specifications and shall be
                         subject to review and concurrence by the Loss Prevention Department.

             10.5.2      Storage

                         Safe and secure storage for cartridges and tools must be provided on the job site.
                         Storage must be fire proof, dry, must be capable of being locked and should be
                         sited in a clear, but easily accessible location where constant supervision can be
                         maintained.

                         Cartridges and tools must not be stored together. A storage unit providing positive
                         physical separation of cartridges and tools (i.e., a wall or partition) is required.

                         Warning to be posted where cartridges are stored: "DANGER - NO SMOKING
                         Cartridge Storage".

                         Ventilation must be provided in the store. Cartons of cartridges must not be
                         stacked against the wall and ventilation spaces must be left around the cartons.
                         Only one carton of each strength cartridge shall be open at any one time. All
                         empty cartons, and intermediate packing, must be removed at once.

                         Tools must be stored in their carrying cases. No loose cartridges must be in the
                         carrying cases; all cartridges must be in their color coded boxes.

                         Only authorized personnel must be allowed access to the store.

             10.5.3      Selection and Training of Personnel

                         No person may operate, clean, maintain, or repair any cartridge tool without
                         possessing a certificate of competency, issued by an accredited tool vendor or
                         manufacturer's representative, which identifies the particular model that the person
                         is qualified to handle.

                         Personnel for training must be selected with the following points in mind:

                         1      Must be over 18 years of age.
                         2      Must be physically fit and have full use of both hands and both eyes.
                         3      Should ideally be a tradesman, e.g. plumber, mason, electrician,
                                joiner/carpenter, etc.
                         4      Storemen may also need to be trained if they are required to clean and
                                maintain the tools.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                       Page 206
                         Training, both theoretical and practical, must be given by a competent instructor.

                         The training must follow the manufacturer's instructions as contained in the
                         handbook of each particular model.

             10.5.4      Personal Protective Equipment

                         Eye Protection shall be worn by the operator and his assistant whenever using the
                         tools. Goggles must be of a satisfactory standard designed to withstand high speed
                         impacts and/or, penetrations.

                         Ear muffs will be available for use at any time and shall be used in confined
                         spaces.

                         Safety belts may be required in certain situations where the recoil from the tool
                         could cause an operator to loose his balance.

             10.5.5      Issue and Returns

                         Contractors will ensure that a full register of the serial numbers of each tool is
                         made and kept up to date.

                         A log inventory system of issuing and returning cartridges and tools against
                         signatures must be initiated and maintained. See Figure II.47: Cartridge/Tool
                         Issuance Control.

                         Only personnel in possession of a user certificate will be allowed to withdraw tools
                         or cartridges from the store.

                         Only the minimum number of cartridges required for that particular shift's
                         operation should be issued at any one time.

                         Cartridges and tools must not be left on the job site at lunch break or at end of shift
                         but must be returned to the store for safekeeping.

                         Any loss, either of tools or cartridges, must be reported, at once, to Saudi Aramco
                         project proponent.

             10.5.6      Work Permits

                         Work Permits will not normally be required for use on job sites.

                         Where tools will be used in restricted areas (as defined in GI 2.100 Work Permits),
                         a Hot Work Permit must be obtained before work commences.

             10.5.7      Use

                         No person may operate, clean, maintain or repair any cartridge tool without
                         possessing a certificate of competency which identifies the particular model that
                         person is qualified to handle.

                         The manufacturer's operating instructions must be followed at all times.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                         Page 207
                         Cartridges are manufactured in different calibers and strengths. There are three
                         sizes: .25 short, .27 short, and .27 long; and, four strengths, as follows:


                         POWER LEVEL               NUMBER              COLOR CODE             LETTER CODE
                              Low                     3                    Green                   L
                          Low/Medium                  4                   Yellow                  LM
                          Medium/High                 5                     Red                   MH
                           Extra High                 6                 Purple/Black              EX

                         It is, therefore, imperative that the correct size and strength of cartridge required
                         for the tool, the fixing, and the material to be fixed onto be properly determined. A
                         wrongly sized cartridge will cause a stoppage or misfire.

                         Using a cartridge which is too powerful could cause a ricochet or a spalling or
                         fracture of the material.

                         The following General Safety and Operating Rules are common to all types of
                         tools:

                         1      As soon as the tool is removed from its carrying case, check to make sure
                                that a cartridge is NOT LOADED.

                         2      Inspect the tool before use each day to ensure that it is complete, in good
                                condition (e.g., clean), and that the safety devices are in proper working
                                condition.

                         3      Any tool that is not in proper working order or that develops a defect during
                                use, shall be immediately withdrawn from service and not used until
                                properly repaired.

                         4      Tools shall not be loaded with a cartridge until just prior to the intended
                                firing time. When loading a tool, point it away from you and anyone else.
                                Never walk around with a loaded tool; load it where you are working.
                                Never leave the tool loaded when not in use. Loaded tools shall not be left
                                unattended.

                         5      Never try to operate the tool without the end of the barrel hard against the
                                fixing surface.

                         6      All tools shall be used with the correct shield, guard, or attachment
                                recommended by the manufacturer.

                         7      Fasteners shall not be driven into very hard or brittle materials including,
                                but not limited to, cast iron, glazed tile, surface hardened steel, glass blocks,
                                hollow tile, terra cotta, marble, granite, slate, etc.

                         8      Driving into soft or easily penetrable materials shall be avoided unless
                                materials are backed by another material that will prevent the pin from
                                passing completely through and creating a flying missile hazard on the other
                                side. Careful inspection of all materials should be made before deciding on
                                the use of a cartridge tool.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                          Page 208
                         9      No pins shall be driven into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory shot,
                                or into any existing hole in the material. Care should be taken to ensure that
                                the new fixing is at least two inches away from any previous hole, and a
                                similar distance from any welded joint.

                         10     Pins must not be fired into corner bricks, mortar joints, and must be at least
                                four (4) inches (100 mm) away from the edge of concrete or brick work
                                and one-half inch (12 mm) from the edge of steel.

                         11     Ensure that the correct strength cartridge is used for the pin, fixing and
                                material involved. For the first, or test firing use the weakest cartridge. Too
                                strong a cartridge may result in over penetration, or the fastener may
                                rebound or ricochet.

                         12     The tool must be held at right angles to the job when firing.

                         13     In the event of a misfire, the tool should be re-triggered without moving the
                                tool from the work face. If the shot again fails, then the tool must be held
                                firmly in the firing position for at least 30 seconds to allow for a possible
                                "Hang Fire" in the cartridge. The removal of the misfired cartridge must be
                                as per the manufacturer's instructions. Do not use nails, knives, etc., to pry
                                the cartridge loose.

                         14     Recoil from firing can throw an operator off balance, especially when
                                working from ladders or scaffolds. Care must be taken to ensure that the
                                operator has a secure and safe work area. Safety belts should be used if
                                necessary.

                         15     Do not leave cartridges loose on the job site or in the carrying case or carry
                                them in your pockets. Cartridges are of the 'Rim Fire' type and could
                                explode accidentally if in receipt of a knock from a pin, fixing, or even a
                                bunch of keys.

                         16     Before returning the tool to the stores, ensure that it is clean and complete
                                and that all cartridges are in their correct color coded box.

             10.5.8      Maintenance and Repair

                         Before any repair/maintenance work is carried out, check to make sure that the tool
                         is NOT LOADED with a cartridge.

                         No person may operate, clean, maintain or repair any cartridge tool without
                         possessing a certificate of competency which identifies the particular model that
                         the person is qualified to handle.

                         Tools must be dismantled, as far as the manufacturer's instructions indicate, at least
                         once every week and checked for defects and excessive wear before being cleaned
                         and oiled. If any defect is found, the tool must be made serviceable before being
                         issued for use.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                        Page 209
                         Only manufacturer's authorized spare parts are to be used for repair/replacement.

                         NO CARTRIDGES must be allowed in the repair/maintenance area. Test firing of
                         repaired tools must be done in a safe location away from work and store or office
                         areas.

10.6         Electrically Operated Tools

             10.6.1      General

                         10.6.1.1

                                       All electrically operated hand tools shall be rated and used at a voltage
                                       not exceeding 125V to ground.

                         10.6.1.2

                                       Before any electrical tool is used, a careful check shall be made by the
                                       supervisor to ensure that the supply voltage is within the range marked
                                       on the information plate on the tool. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
                                       (GFCIs) are required for all 120 volt, single phase, 15 and 20 ampere
                                       receptacle outlets on construction sites which are not a part of the
                                       permanent wiring system.

                         10.6.1.3

                                       All electrical power hand tools shall be of the double insulated type or
                                       properly grounded.

                                       External metal parts of double insulated tools (drill chucks, saw
                                       blades, etc.) are insulated from the electrified parts inside the tool and,
                                       under normal conditions, contact with electrified parts of the tool does
                                       not take place. However, under wet conditions, rain, condensation,
                                       high humidity, damp locations, etc., the hazards are as great as with
                                       faulty grounded tools. All electrical tools are hazardous when used
                                       damp or wet, but with double insulated tools the moisture coupled
                                       with metal dust, carbon dust, etc. can form a conductive path from
                                       inside the tool to the surface through the ventilation holes or cracks.
                                       Since there is no ground wire to carry this current away, the user can
                                       receive an electric shock. Double insulated tools, like all electric
                                       tools, must be kept dry and should not be used without a ground fault
                                       circuit interrupter.

                         10.6.1.4

                                       All tools shall be used with extension cords which are as short as
                                       possible. All extension cords shall be fitted with grounding pin and
                                       blades to fit the socket outlet on the distribution board. Extension
                                       cords shall be of the three-wire conductor type. Plugs and sockets
                                       must meet the National Electrical Code requirement with respect to
                                       grounding and polarity.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                           Page 210
                                       Overcurrent protection shall be provided to extension cords in
                                       accordance with the requirements of the National Electrical Code
                                       Article 240. Factors to be considered for adequate overcurrent
                                       protection are: type of conductors, size, and length of run.

                                       Example: Consider electrical equipment being used on a construction
                                       site that may require 15 or 18 ampere (amp.) capacity. Construction
                                       plans call for three No. 12 AWG (wire size) copper conductors which
                                       run to a 20 amp. receptacle (120 v) 40 feet from the electrical panel
                                       box. This circuit is protected by a 20 amp. circuit breaker. Is this a
                                       problem? Yes - There may be three problems: (1) the size of the
                                       conductors, (2) the length of cable run and, (3) the circuit breaker size.

                                       In order to prevent an employee from receiving an electric shock, the
                                       breaker size and receptacle should be reduced to 15 amp. or the
                                       conductors changed to a No. 10 AWG so that the breaker can function
                                       at 20 amp. when required. Leaving the circuit the way it is would
                                       allow considerable electrical leakage without tripping the circuit
                                       breaker. Also conductor insulation would be subject to heat damage
                                       causing electrical leakage and fire. Heavy duty construction type
                                       extension cords are required for 20 ampere circuits, No. 14 AWG or
                                       larger size for 100 feet of run length. (See Figure II.41.)

                         10.6.1.5

                                       Where it is necessary to make electrical splices, these shall be made
                                       with proper connector blocks or by plug and socket connectors.
                                       Taped joints shall not be permitted.

             10.6.2      Maintenance and Storage

                         A proper inspection and maintenance routine shall be established by the contractor
                         for all electrical tools. The inspection and maintenance of all tools shall be carried
                         out at least once in every working week by a competent electrician.

                         All tools shall be stored in a clean, dry place, and a record of issue and receipt
                         shall be maintained by the storekeeper.

             10.6.3      Personal Protective Equipment

                         The contractor shall ensure that all operators are provided with eye, head, and ear
                         protection. If there is any likelihood of harmful dust being emitted, dust
                         respirators should be used.

             10.6.4      Individual Tools, Precautions

                         10.6.4.1      Grinders

                                       All grinders shall be equipped with a protective guard which allows
                                       only the working part of the wheel to be exposed. This guard must not
                                       be removed.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                          Page 211
                                       Grinders shall be clearly marked with their maximum running speed.
                                       The maximum running speed of the spindle must not exceed the
                                       maximum periphery speed marked on the grinding wheel. Wheels
                                       should be checked for defects before mounting. All defective wheels
                                       must be destroyed. (See Figure II.40.)

                         10.6.4.2      Drills

                                        Care should be taken not to drill too large a hole at one time.
                                        Drilling of large holes should be done in stages by using small bore
                                        drills and gradually increasing the size as necessary. If this is not
                                        done, the drill may bind on breakthrough, and the torque set up could
                                        twist the tool against the user's wrist.

                         10.6.4.3      Saws

                                        Hand operated circular saws shall be fitted with spring loaded guards
                                        which allow only the working part of the blade to be exposed. (See
                                        Figure II.42.)

                                        Portable table saws shall be provided with adjustable guards, anti-
                                        kick-back devices, and push-type start/stop buttons within easy reach
                                        of the operator. (See Figures II.43 and II.44.) Fixed table saws shall
                                        be hard wired to an emergency electrical disconnect switch that has
                                        the capability of locking out in addition to having start/stop buttons at
                                        the operator's location, etc. Portable table saws must be unplugged
                                        for repair, maintenance, or when not in use.

                                        Where a provision is made for a table saw riving knife to be fitted, it
                                        shall be kept clean and properly adjusted to the work at all times.
                                        Push sticks must be provided and used when necessary on all bench
                                        saws.

                                        The work area shall be cleaned to prevent excessive build-up of
                                        sawdust and scrap wood.

                                        Operators shall wear eye and hearing protection.

                         10.6.4.4      Radial Saws
                                       (Figure II.45)

                                        Radial saws must be provided with:

                                                 An upper hood to enclose the top portion of the blade down
                                                  to a point that includes the end of the saw arbor. The sides
                                                  of the lower, exposed portion of the blade must be guarded
                                                  to the full diameter of the blade by a device that
                                                  automatically adjusts to the thickness of the stock being cut.

                                                 Anti-kickback dogs (on both sides of saw) designed to
                                                  provide adequate holding power for all thicknesses of
                                                  ripping stock.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                          Page 212
                                                 An adjustable stop limiting the forward travel of the blade
                                                  beyond the distance necessary to complete the cut in
                                                  repetitive operations.

                                                 A saw housing which automatically returns to the starting
                                                  position.

                                                 A marking on the hood showing the direction of the saw
                                                  rotation. In addition, a permanent label must be affixed to
                                                  the rear of the guard, reading: "DANGER. DO NOT RIP
                                                  OR PLOUGH FROM THIS END."

                                                 Start/stop buttons at the operator's position. Additionally, in
                                                  the case of fixed saws, each saw must be wired to an
                                                  emergency electrical disconnect isolation switch capable of
                                                  locking out the saw.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                          Page 213
FIGURE II.39: "RING TEST"




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools   Page 214
FIGURE II.40: CORRECTLY MOUNTED GRINDING WHEEL




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools   Page 215
FIGURE II.41: WIRE CONVERSION CHART

             *     Middle Ring American Wire                               *     Outer Ring Allowance
                   Gauge                                                   Ampacities    Of      Insulated
                                                                           Conductors Rate 0-2000 Volts,
                                                                           60o To 90o ("THWN" 75oC
                                                                           Cable Temperature Ratings)

             * Inter Ring Metric or MM2

             Note: Ambient Temperature Corrections Factors Must Be Applied As Per SAES-P-104




             CMills = MM2               Example 500 mcm AWS 500000 = 250MM2 (Reference N.E.C. Table 310-60)
             19735                                          19735




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                         Page 216
FIGURE II.42: SELF ADJUSTING GUARD




                                    As the blade moves up through the stock,
                                     the guard rises up to the stock surface.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                 Page 217
FIGURE II.43: TABLE SAWS

                   Table saws must be provided with a hood that covers the saw at all times.
                   Table saws used for ripping must be equipped with an anti-kickback device and
                    spreader.
                   The exposed part of the saw underneath the table must be guarded.
                   Table must be secured in position.
                   Guarded start/stop buttons shall be provided at the operator's position.
                   All fixed table saws shall be hard wired to an emergency electrical disconnect switch
                    capable of locking out the saw.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                  Page 218
FIGURE II.44:       TABLE SAWS - MACHINE GUARDING




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools     Page 219
FIGURE II.45: RADIAL SAWS

Radial Saws must be provided with:

                   An upper hood to enclose the top portion of the blade down to a point that includes the
                    end of the saw arbor. The sides of the lower, exposed portion of the blade must be
                    guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that automatically adjusts to the
                    thickness of the stock being cut.

                   Anti-kickback dogs (on both sides of the saw) designed to provide adequate holding
                    power for all thicknesses of ripping stock.

                   An adjustable stop limiting the forward travel of the blade beyond the distance
                    necessary to complete the cut in repetitive operations.

                   A saw housing which automatically returns to the starting position.

                   A marking on the hood showing the direction of the saw rotation. In addition, a
                    permanent label must be affixed to the rear of the guard, reading: "DANGER. DO
                    NOT RIP OR PLOUGH FROM THIS END."

                   Guarded start/stop buttons shall be located at the operators position.

                   Saw stand shall be secured in position.

                   All fixed radial saws shall be hard wired to an emergency electrical disconnect switch
                    capable of locking out the saw.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Hand Tools And Power Tools                             Page 220
FIGURE II.46: THE WOODWORKING MACHINE REGULATIONS

Circular saws are included under types specified as woodworking machines.

Training:
    No person should be employed on a woodworking machine who has not been trained and instructed
     in its operation.

Duties Of Employed Persons:
    Employees using woodworking machines must use and keep properly adjusted guards and other
     safety devices and use push sticks, jigs, holders and backstops provided.

Working Environment:
   Sufficient space to be provided around machine to allow work without risk of injury.
   Floors to be level, in good condition, free of loose material, and not slippery.

Guards:
   Cutters to be guarded to the greatest practicable extent.
   Guards to be of substantial construction, properly secured and adjusted, and constantly in position
    while cutters are in motion.

Top Guard:
   Guard to be strong and easily adjustable.
   Adjusted to extend from top of riving knife to a point as close as practicable to the surface of the
    material being cut; or to a point not more than 12 mm above the material being cut where squared
    stock is being hand held.

Bottom Guard:
    Blade below table to be guarded to the greatest extent practicable.

Push Sticks:
    Must be available for use on every hand-fed circular saw, and used to feed material-
           a) throughout any cut of 300 mm or less
           b) during the last 300 mm of any cut more than 300 mm in length
           Push sticks should also be used to remove cut material from between the saw blade and the
           fence.




February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                 Page 221
FIGURE II.47: CARTRIDGE/TOOL ISSUANCE CONTROL




                               Cartridge Quantity                                 Received By
    Date         Issued       Returned Returned     Returne        Tool     Cert No.    Name/          Issued By   Remarks
                                Used      Unused     d Un-        Issued                Signature
                                                    explode   (Type/MDL)
                                                       d




  Warning: Above items can only be issued to workers with valid training certificate      Storekeeper:
                                                                                          Safety Officer:


February 1993 - 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools                                                                              Page 222
11.0 PAINTS AND COATINGS
In addition to the usual hazards associated with construction activities, workmen engaged in surface
preparation and paint application can be exposed to the dangers of fire, explosion, chemical burns, toxic
fumes, dust, and insufficient air. This section of the manual discusses these hazards and how to minimize
them.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100            Work Permit System

GI 6.021            Safety Requirements For Abrasive Blast Cleaning

GI 8.003            Breathing Apparatus

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards:

SAES-A-105          Noise

SAES-B-067          Safety Identification and Color Coding

SAES-H-102          Safety Requirements for Painting

Steel Structures Painting Council. Steel Structures Painting Manual, Volumes 1 and 2.

United States of America Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1910.1000 Air Contaminants.

11.1          Flammability Hazards of Coating Materials

              11.1.1      Flammable Materials

                          In paint systems, it is normally the organic solvent vapor that is flammable. In the
                          Saudi Aramco paint system, all the solvents (except for the water based paints)
                          present a fire hazard.

              11.1.2      Flash Point (Definition)

                          The flash point is defined as the lowest temperature at which a liquid will give off
                          sufficient vapor to ignite when exposed to an open flame. For most paint solvents
                          in the Saudi Aramco system, the flash point is less than the normal ambient
                          temperatures in Saudi Arabia. The danger of fire exists virtually always when
                          solvents are in use.

              11.1.3      Flammable (Explosive) Limits (Definition)

                          The lower and upper flammable (explosive) limits define the range of vapor/air
                          concentrations that are potentially explosive. The lower flammable (explosive)
                          limit (LEL) is typically on the order of 1% to 2% by volume, a level readily




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Paints And Coatings                                       Page 223
                          obtained in the area near opened solvent containers and near the nozzle of a spray
                          painting gun in operation.

              11.1.4      Fire Precautions

                          Solvents in paints constitute a significant fire and explosion hazard when in the
                          presence of ignition sources. No painting should be carried out within 75 feet of
                          potential ignition sources, e.g., welding, flame-cutting, smoking areas, or sparking
                          tools, unless conditions warrant greater clearance.

                          Ventilation equipment should be used to maintain a maximum level of solvent
                          concentration, typically below 10% of the LEL.

                          All electrical lighting and equipment shall be explosion-proof when required in
                          areas where solvent vapors are likely to be present.

                          All electrical equipment such as switches, panel boards, electrical motors and
                          associated equipment must be de-energized before spray painting to eliminate
                          explosion hazards.

                          Solvents and solvent based paints shall not be applied to surfaces exceeding Saudi
                          Arabia summer ambient temperatures.

                          The use and storage of flammable paints and solvents shall be kept to restricted
                          areas and these areas should be suitably marked with the appropriate warning
                          signs. Flammable paints should be kept in a special building or in a sun shelter.

                          Fire extinguishers should be located at the work area and the area Loss Prevention
                          representative/Fire Chief shall agree upon their suitability.

                          Work areas should be kept as clean as practicably possible.

11.2          Health Hazards Associated With Paints

              Many paint ingredients are harmful to humans; most people can withstand these materials
              over a short time and in small quantities. However, some people are immediately sensitive to
              some ingredients and almost everyone will be affected to some degree if exposed for
              sufficient time.

              There are two major groups of irritants: toxic materials and dermatitic or skin irritating
              materials.

              11.2.1      Toxic Materials

                          The most abundant toxic materials found in paints and coatings are solvents. Other
                          toxic materials in paints include pigments (lead), binders (epoxies, polyesters) and
                          additives (organotin). Also, dust from cleaning operations or application of the
                          paint can generate toxic materials. These toxic materials can enter the body
                          through breathing, ingestion or skin absorption. Most solvents are toxic to some
                          degree depending on exposure. The degree of toxicity can be measured by the
                          Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) expressed as parts per million (ppm) or




February 1993 - 11.0 Paints And Coatings                                                              Page 224
                          milligrams of particulate per cubic meter (mg/M3) of solvent in air over an
                          exposure of 8 hours a day five days a week with no ill effects.

              11.2.2      Dermatitic Materials

                          Dermatitic materials irritate the skin which, if left untreated, can cause infections
                          or ulceration.

                          Solvents have a tendency to dissolve and remove natural oils and fats from skin.
                          Certain binders such as epoxy resins may also irritate the skin.

                          Other chemicals used in paint related work should be handled with care (e.g. paint
                          removers, acid and alkaline cleaners).

              11.2.3      Prevention of Health Hazards

                          Many solvents and coatings contain hazardous ingredients. A copy of the
                          appropriate Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) should be obtained for all
                          materials used, studied carefully, and the required safety precautions implemented.

                          The following precautions should minimize health hazards:

                                Identify and seal all toxic and dermatitic materials when not in use.

                                Adequately ventilate all painting areas and provide National Institute for
                                 Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Mine Safety and Health
                                 Administration (MSHA)-approved or equivalent respiratory protection
                                 where necessary. All workmen spray painting shall wear chemical cartridge
                                 respirators or airline hoods depending upon the hazards of the paint.

                                Minimize dust during surface preparation, and dispose of coating residue in
                                 accordance with the recommendations of the Environmental Engineering
                                 Division, Process and Control Services Department.

                                Wear the appropriate personnel protective equipment for the work being
                                 carried out.

                                Avoid touching any part of the body and wear protective equipment (e.g.
                                 gloves, Tywag suits, etc.) when handling dermatitic materials. Personnel
                                 involved in painting shall wash thoroughly before eating and at the end of
                                 the day.

                                Use ventilation control or respirators when working with paint removers
                                 containing toxic solvents.

11.3          Ventilation in Confined Spaces

              A supply of clean air is a necessity for all operations involving the application of coating
              materials, and the paint curing/drying process. A high quality air supply is also required for
              life support (refer to GI 8.003 - Breathing Apparatus).




February 1993 - 11.0 Paints And Coatings                                                                 Page 225
              Ventilation is a necessity when painting in confined areas because solvents tend to be heavier
              than air and migrate to lower levels. The fresh air inlet of the ventilation system should be
              located near the top of the confined space, and the discharge should be located near the
              bottom, positioned to eliminate dead air spaces. Supplementary fans may be necessary to
              ensure good air circulation.

              Natural ventilation through open man ways, etc. is rarely sufficient to keep local vapor
              concentrations to a safe level in terms of PELs or LELs. As a general rule, forced ventilation
              shall be used, especially in small enclosures and always during spray painting.

              Ventilation requirements are proportionally greater for vessels with a capacity smaller than
              1580 m3 (10,000 BBL's or 56,000 cu ft). The recommended ventilation requirements for
              various vessel capacities are shown in Table II.6; ref. SAES-H-102.

              Ventilating to 10% of the LEL considerably reduces the likelihood of fire or explosion;
              however, this level will no doubt exceed the Permissible Exposure Limits for toxic materials.
              Hence, supplied air respiratory protection is required in confined spaces.

              The preparation of air used for life support involves the following factors: PEL's of nuisance
              and toxic dusts; fume, gas and vapor content; air temperature. Air required for breathing
              apparatus shall meet the requirements of GI 8.003, Breathing Apparatus.

TABLE II.6: VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CONFINED SPACES




       Volume of Confined Area                        Required Air Mover
                                                           Capacity
                    m3                       BBL              L/s                       cfm
                     16                      100             472                        1000
                     80                      500             1180                       2500
                    160                     1000             2360                       5000
                    800                     5000             4720                      10000
                   1600                     10000            7080                      15000
                  4000 +                   25000 +           9440                      20000


11.4          Surface Preparation
              Equipment and materials that are used in surface preparation for paints and coatings can be
              hazardous if used carelessly. There are several methods for preparing surfaces and these
              include:

                   Blast cleaning where abrasives in the form of sand, iron shot, grit, slag, etc. are used.
                    Other types of blast cleaning use high pressure water or steam.

                   Hand or power tool cleaning includes grinders, sanders, rotary wire brushes, impact
                    tools, chisels, hammers.

                   Chemical cleaning using paint removers, or solvents, alkali, acids or detergents.




February 1993 - 11.0 Paints And Coatings                                                                Page 226
              11.4.1      Abrasive Blast Cleaning

                          This section covers blast cleaning using abrasives in the form of sand, iron shot,
                          grit, slag or similar materials.

                          Abrasive blast cleaning operators shall have pre-placement physical examinations,
                          including chest X-ray and pulmonary function tests with repeat tests at least every
                          two years.

                          The abrasive blast cleaning operator shall wear an air supplied protective hood
                          approved (NIOSH/MSHA or equivalent) for the type of abrasive material being
                          used and any other toxic contaminants (lead, zinc, etc.) that are present. Where
                          blast cleaning assistants could be exposed to silica sand dust or toxic contaminants,
                          then self-contained or air supplied breathing apparatus shall be worn by the
                          assistant. The breathing apparatus and air quality specification shall meet the
                          standards referenced in GI 8.003, Breathing Apparatus.                 Personnel (e.g.
                          maintenance, workers handling abrasive supplies or clean up crews) within the
                          range of rebound abrasive contaminants shall wear approved (NIOSH/MSHA or
                          equivalent) dust-filter respirators for the specific airborne hazards.

                          A bonding system that bonds nozzle, hose, blasting equipment and the material
                          being cleaned shall be provided, and this bonding system shall be grounded to
                          prevent a build up of static charges. Ground continuity tests shall be conducted
                          periodically to ensure proper grounding.

                          To prevent ignition of hydrocarbons in classified areas, the appropriate precautions
                          listed in GI 2.100, Work Permit System, must be followed.

              11.4.2      Hydroblast and Steam Cleaning

                          Hydroblast cleaning uses a high pressure ambient temperature water jet and steam
                          cleaning uses a high pressure and high temperature steam jet. Extra caution should
                          be exercised when using such equipment. These types of equipment are used for
                          removing dirt or rust scales and the personal protective equipment requirements
                          are shown in Table II.7.

              11.4.3      Hand and Power Tool Cleaning

                          This section briefly covers the safety aspects of hand and power tools used for
                          surface preparation.

                          Particular attention should be paid to eye protection to guard against flying
                          particles, and where necessary, ear protection should be provided to prevent long
                          term hearing loss per SAES-A-105, Noise.

                          Tools should be correctly selected for the purpose, and also operated and
                          maintained to the manufacturer's instructions.

                          Suitable respirators should be used if contaminant levels exceed Permissible
                          Exposure Limits.

                          Extreme care should be used if tools have the ability to create sparks.




February 1993 - 11.0 Paints And Coatings                                                                Page 227
              11.4.4      Chemical Cleaning

                          This section is concerned with four types of chemical cleaners (organic solvents,
                          alkalines, acids and detergents) used to assist in the removal of surface
                          contaminants such as light oils, greases and rust.

                          Solvents such as kerosene, mineral spirits, and turpentine are used to dissolve and
                          remove oil contaminants. Hazards associated with solvents include their
                          flammable, toxic and dermatitic characteristics. Safety precautions regarding these
                          solvents are included in sections 11.1 and 11.2.

                          Alkaline cleaners are composed of highly alkaline salts with wetting agents and/or
                          soaps. They function by wetting, emulsifying, dispersing and solubilizing surface
                          contaminants, and are generally used at elevated temperatures.

                          Acid cleaners are generally composed of strong acids. They remove contaminants
                          by chemical attack and are primarily used to remove metal scales such as rust.

                          Detergent cleaners are comparable to alkaline cleaners except they are generally
                          used at low temperatures (60 to 100 degrees Celsius).

                          For all of the above chemical cleaners, personal safety precautions must be taken
                          to protect personnel from materials and conditions that present fire hazards or
                          cause personnel to experience dermatitic or toxic effects (such as inhalation
                          effects, skin burns, or eye irritants).

                          When using chemical cleaners, appropriate eye and body wash facilities shall be
                          available in the immediate area to minimize the effects of chemical burns in the
                          event of an accident.

                          Chemical cleaning agents such as solvents shall not be used for cleaning personnel.

                          The following solvents shall not be used for cleaning purposes due to the very
                          toxic nature:    benzene, gasoline, carbon tetrachloride, and chlorinated
                          hydrocarbons.

              11.4.5      General Safety in Surface Preparation

                          Instruction and training of operators about correct use of the cleaning agents and
                          equipment are essential.

                          Surfaces other than those receiving preparation should be protected from damage
                          due to cleaning operations.

                          Where operators are using equipment such as blast cleaners or power tools, they
                          must have safe footing. Extra caution should be taken on scaffoldings.

                          Never point a cleaning gun or nozzle at anyone or any part of your body.

                          Equipment such as blast guns and power tools must have automatic controls that
                          shut off the flow of abrasive and propellant if for any reason the operator releases
                          the control switch.




February 1993 - 11.0 Paints And Coatings                                                              Page 228
                          Power tools should be properly grounded to prevent electric shock.

                          All manufacturers recommendations on protective guards shall be implemented.

                          Fire and explosion hazards always exist when using solvents, especially in
                          confined areas. Adequate ventilation must be provided.

11.5          Personal Protective Equipment

              Personal protective equipment is required for the majority of operations that involve surface
              preparation or paint application. The amount and type of personal protection depends on the
              work being carried out and the location. Table II.7 gives a summary of essential personal
              protective equipment that must be worn by personnel carrying out specific duties. In
              addition, all personnel on Saudi Aramco industrial facilities and potentially hazardous areas
              must wear safety shoes, a hard safety hat and safety spectacles. Other protective details such
              as gloves, face shields, overalls and hearing protections should be addressed to either the
              area Loss Prevention or Industrial Hygiene offices.




February 1993 - 11.0 Paints And Coatings                                                            Page 229
TABLE II.7: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT TO BE WORN OR USED DURING
             SURFACE PREPARATION AND PAINT APPLICATION

        TYPE OF WORK                       PERSONAL PROTECTIVE      PERSONAL PROTECTIVE
         PERFORMED                               EQUIPMENT          EQUIPMENT TO BE WORN
                                                TO BE WORN           (Confined space) See key
                                               (Outside) See key
 Surface preparation
 Hand or power tool operations                  3,4,5,9,10,11                 3,4,9,10,11
 Abrasive blast cleaning
 Operator                                         1,9,10,11                    1,8,9,10,11
 Other workmen in the vicinity                  3,4,5,9,10,11                  1,8,9,10,11
 Hydroblast and steam cleaning                  3,4,5,9,10,11                3,4,5,8,9,10,11
 Chemical cleaning                                4,7,10,11                    1,4,7,10,11
 Paint application (spray)
 Epoxy and coal tar epoxy                        2,4,6,10,11                   1,6,10,11
 (SAPCS - 1,2 and 3)
 Alkyd (SAPCS - 4 and 6)                         2,5,6,10,11                  1,5,6,10,11
 Inorganic zinc                                  2,5,6,10,11                  1,5,6,10,11
 (SAPCS -1A, 11A and 17)
 Chlorinated rubber                              2,5,6,10,11                  1,5,6,10,11
 (SAPCS - 9)
 Bituminous (SAPCS - 10)                         2,5,6,10,11                  1,5,6,10,11
 Polyurethane (SAPCS - 25)                       2,5,6,10,11                  1,5,6,10,11
 Paint application (brush)
 Epoxy and coal tar epoxy                         4,6,10,11                   2,4,6,10,11
 (SAPCS - 1,2 and 3)
 Alkyd (SAPCS - 4 and 6)                          6,10,11                      2,6,10,11
 Inorganic zinc                                   6,10,11                      4,6,10,11
 (SAPCS -1A, 11A and 17)
 Chlorinated rubber                               6,10,11                      2,6,10,11
 (SAPCS - 9)
 Bituminous (SAPCS - 10)                          6,10,11                      2,6,10,11
 Polyurethane (SAPCS - 25)                        6,10,11                       6,10,11

Note:     Safety belts / harnesses shall be used when these operations are performed above ground levels
          (1.82 m - 6 ft or more) if a guard rail system is not in place, and / or in confined spaces.
          The workman should always refer to the MSDS for complete details.




February 1993 - 11.0 Paints And Coatings                                                        Page 230
                                               Key to Table II.7:

              1.    OSHA-approved, respirable air fed hood and filter, SAMS No. 21-444-934
              2.    Respirator; chemical cartridge, SAMS No. 21-370-800/810/820
              3.    Dust respirator, SAMS No. 21-370-500
              4.    Face shield (1), SAMS No. 21-426-121
              5.    Goggles, safety impact, SAMS No. 21-434-249
              6.    Gloves, SAMS No. 21-432-XXX
              7.    Gloves; rubber, SAMS No. 21-432-630
              8.    Ear protection, SAMS No. 21-327-110
              9.    Gloves (leather and fabric), SAMS No. 21-432-353
             10.    Helmets (hard hats), SAMS No. 21-441-055 (MSA) / SAMS No. 21-441-050
                    (American Optical)
             11.    Safety Shoes, SAMS Nos. 21-472-200 / 21-472-221 / 21-472-300 / 21-472-350

11.6          Paint Application

              There are numerous hazards associated with paint application and this section is concerned
              with air and airless spraying, together with brush and roller painting.

              11.6.1      Paint Materials

                          The majority of paint solvents, many pigments and some binders are toxic in
                          addition to having potential dermatitic hazards. Refer to the Material Safety Data
                          Sheet (MSDS) for information concerning the hazards associated with their use.

                          In that, solvent based painting materials also present a fire and explosion hazards,
                          painting shall not be carried out near an ignition source. Also, additional care
                          should be taken to provide adequate ventilation in confined spaces.

                          Spraying paint using air or airless systems can be very hazardous and should only
                          be used by trained operators.

              11.6.2      General Safety In Paint Application

                          All personnel involved with the application of paint to surfaces should wear the
                          appropriate personal protective equipment for the work being carried out at a given
                          location. For some paint jobs personal protective equipment may have to exceed
                          the requirements specified in Table II.7 due to the nature of the work being
                          performed. Some examples of these jobs are above ground and water operations,
                          use of special paints, etc.

                          All pressurized equipment should be handled carefully. Operators and their
                          assistants should know how to operate and de-energize the equipment in
                          accordance to manufacturer's recommendations.

                          No spray gun should be pointed at anyone or part of the user's body.

                          The spray painting operation should be conducted from the upwind side of the
                          object being coated, wherever practicable.




February 1993 - 11.0 Paints And Coatings                                                              Page 231
                          Before using airless spray equipment, all guards recommended by the manufacturer
                          shall be in place and the system shall be in good order and correctly grounded to
                          prevent static build-up.

                          Prompt professional medical aid shall be available to any person receiving paint
                          injuries.

                          The area around spray painting activity should be enclosed by hardboard fence or
                          equivalent to protect outside personnel from paint over spray.

11.7          Scaffolding and Ladders

              Details concerning the use and hazards associated with scaffolding and ladders are included
              in Section II.9 of the Construction Safety Manual.

              Only good condition, correctly erected equipment shall be used that meets industry standards
              (ANSI) or equivalent. Users and erectors of such equipment should be trained about its use
              and limitations.

11.8          Tarring Operations

              Tarring operations are commonly used in roof work, and hazards associated with this type of
              work include body burns, fire and toxicity. Precautions that are required for tar operations
              include:

                   The heating of tar shall not be carried out on roof tops or in similar potentially
                    hazardous locations.

                   Tar heating operations shall be carried out using approved fuel gas in the correct
                    cylinders. The heating operations shall be at ground level and at a minimum distance
                    of 4.5 m (15 feet) away from fuel gas cylinders, buildings or similar structures.

                   The transferring of hot tar to its required location shall be carried out using the safest
                    mode of transport available (preferably pumped). Lifting of hot asphalt in buckets is
                    not allowed.

                   The temperature of the asphalt shall be monitored with a temperature gauge and must
                    not exceed 4500F at any time during the tarring operations.

              In addition to personal protective equipment (safety shoes, safety glasses and hard hats), the
              following shall be provided for all personnel directly involved in tar operations: face shields,
              leather gloves, cotton overalls, and heat resistant aprons. Also, respiration protection may be
              required in confined spaces.

11.9          General Safety for Paints and Coatings

              Safety precautions concerning various stages of paints and coatings are mentioned under
              their respective sub-headings of Section 11. This section is provided to highlight areas of
              paints and coating operations not covered under an individual sub-heading.




February 1993 - 11.0 Paints And Coatings                                                              Page 232
              *     Colors - All color coding shall conform to the requirements in SAES-B-067: Safety
                    Identification and Color-Coding. Colors reserved for safety use within Saudi Aramco
                    are red, green, yellow and black, orange and blue. Some equipment identified by color
                    coding that may be required by painters include:

                          Fire protection: red.
                          Emergency stops: red.
                          Danger signs: red.
                          Emergency safety equipment and instructions (eye wash, showers, first aid): green.
                          Hazards (physical and radioactive): yellow/black.
                          Potable water: blue.

              *     Breathing Air - Before breathing air used for respiration purposes, it must be checked
                    to ensure it meets the quality requirements referenced in GI 8.003. Once compressors
                    providing breathing air have conformed to the requirements of GI 8.003, they shall be
                    re-tested every quarter to ensure that air quality remains satisfactory.

              *     Personal Protective Equipment - Depending on the work being carried out and its
                    location, appropriate personal protective equipment must be worn that meets both the
                    manufacturers requirements and those of Saudi Aramco. Personal protective
                    equipment shall be in good condition.

              *     Blast Cleaning - Abrasive blast cleaning equipment and abrasive materials shall be
                    suitable for the work to be carried out; substandard products will be removed from
                    Saudi Aramco facilities.

              *     Signs and Barricades - Areas where hazardous work is being carried out (such as
                    abrasive blast cleaning and airless spraying) shall be suitably barricaded to keep
                    personnel out of the hazardous area, or the timing of the work shall be such that only
                    the work crew doing the job is present at the site, or a lookout is posted around the site.
                    Warning signs shall be posted in hazardous areas with suitable warnings of the potential
                    dangers (i.e., "No entry, sand blasting in progress").

              *     Paints and Solvents - The amount of paints and solvents stored at the site shall be
                    restricted to a day's requirements. Bulk storage of paints and solvents shall be in a
                    designated, well marked safe area away from the work area and protected from the
                    sun's heat.

              *     Work Permits - The Saudi Aramco work permit system shall always be used where
                    necessary for all aspects of paints and coatings (reference GI 2.100).

              *     Equipment - Before any equipment is used, operators and assistants shall be trained on
                    the equipment's use and operation. Also, the equipment shall be in good working order,
                    have an automatic shut-off system and all safety guards installed.

              *     Personal Health - Personnel involved with using paints, solvents and cleaning
                    equipment (i.e., sand blasting) shall be in good health and have medical examinations
                    by professional medical staff at least every two years.

              *     Assistants - No one shall work alone in hazardous areas. An assistant shall always be
                    available or the "buddy" system used.




February 1993 - 11.0 Paints And Coatings                                                               Page 233
12.0 CONCRETE, CONCRETE FORMS, AND SHORING

12.1          General

              All equipment and materials used in concrete construction and masonry work shall meet the
              applicable requirements for design, construction, inspection, testing, maintenance, and
              operations.

12.2          Reinforcing Steel

              Employees working more than 1.8 meters (6 feet) above any adjacent working surfaces,
              placing and tying reinforcing steel in walls, piers, columns, etc., shall be provided with
              proper work platforms with a guardrail system. When work is to be accomplished outside a
              work platform, a safety belt shall be worn that is securely fixed to a dropline or anchor.

              Employees shall not be permitted to work above vertically protruding reinforcing steel unless
              it has been bent over or capped.

              Guying: Reinforcing steel for walls, piers, columns, and similar vertical form work
              structures shall be guyed and supported to prevent collapse and to guard against possible
              wind pressures.

              Wire mesh rolls: Wire mesh rolls shall be secured at each end to prevent dangerous
              recoiling action.

12.3          Bulk Concrete Handling

              Bulk storage bins, containers, or silos shall have conical or tapered bottoms with mechanical
              or pneumatic means of starting the flow of material.

12.4          Concrete Placement

              12.4.1     Concrete Mixers

                         Concrete mixers equipped with 0.75 cubic meter (1 cubic yard) or larger loading
                         skips shall be equipped with a mechanical device to clear the skip of concrete.

              12.4.2     Guardrails

                         Mixers of 0.75 cubic meter (1 cubic yard) capacity or greater shall be equipped
                         with protective guardrails installed on each side of the skip.

              12.4.3     Bull Floats

                         Handles on bull floats, used where they may contact energized electrical
                         conductors, shall be constructed of non-conductive material, or insulated with a
                         non-conductive sheath whose electrical and mechanical characteristics provide the
                         equivalent protection to a handle constructed of non-conductive material.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Concrete, Concrete Forms And Shoring                   Page 234
              12.4.4     Powered Concrete Trowels

                         Powered and rotating-type concrete troweling machines that are manually guided
                         shall be equipped with a control switch that will automatically shut off the power
                         whenever the operator removes his hands from the equipment handles. The
                         rotating blades shall be guarded at the top and outer perimeter.

              12.4.5     Concrete Buggies

                         Handles of buggies shall not extend beyond the wheels on either side of the buggy.
                         Installation of knuckle guards on buggy handles is recommended to protect the
                         hands.

              12.4.6     Pumpcrete Systems

                         Pumpcrete or similar systems using discharge pipes shall be provided with pipe
                         supports designed for 100 percent overload. Compressed air hose in such systems
                         shall be provided with positive fail-safe joint connectors to prevent separation of
                         sections when pressurized.

              12.4.7     Concrete Buckets

                         Concrete buckets equipped with hydraulic or pneumatically operated gates shall
                         have positive safety latches or similar safety devices installed. Prevent aggregate
                         and loose material from accumulating on the top and sides of the bucket.

                         Riding of concrete buckets for any purpose shall be prohibited, and vibrator crews
                         shall be kept out from under concrete buckets suspended from cranes or cable
                         ways.

              12.4.8     Discharging on Slope

                         When discharging on a slope, the wheels of ready-mix trucks shall be blocked and
                         the brakes set to prevent movement.

              12.4.9     Back-Up Man, Truck Spotter

                         Back-up man, ready-mix truck spotter shall be used to back ready-mix trucks.

              12.4.10    Pneumatic Hose

                         Nozzleman applying a cement, sand, and water mixture through a pneumatic hose
                         shall be required to wear protective head and face equipment.

12.5          Vertical Shoring

              12.5.1     General Requirements

                         When temporary storage of reinforcing rods, material, or equipment on top of form
                         work becomes necessary, these areas shall be strengthened, shored to meet the
                         intended loads.




February 1993 - 12.0 Concrete, Concrete Forms, And Shoring                                          Page 235
                         The sills for shoring shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum
                         intended load.

                         All shoring equipment shall be inspected prior to erection to determine that it is as
                         specified in the shoring layout. Any equipment found to be damaged shall not be
                         used for shoring.

                         Erected shoring equipment shall be inspected immediately prior to and
                         immediately after the placement of concrete. Any shoring equipment that is found
                         to be damaged or weakened shall be immediately reinforced or re-shored.

                         Re-shoring shall be provided when necessary to safely support slabs and beams
                         after stripping, or where such members are subjected to superimposed loads due to
                         construction work done.

              12.5.2     Tubular Welded Frame Shoring

                         Metal tubular frames used for shoring shall not be loaded beyond the safe working
                         load recommended by the manufacturer.

                         All locking devices on frames and braces shall be in good working order; coupling
                         pins shall align the frame or panel legs; pivoted cross braces shall have their center
                         pivot in place; and all components shall be in a condition similar to that of original
                         manufacture.

                         When checking the erected shoring frames with the shoring layout, the spacing
                         between towers and cross brace spacing shall not exceed that shown on the layout,
                         and all locking devices shall be in the closed position.

                         Devices for attaching the external lateral stability bracing shall be securely
                         fastened to the legs of the shoring frames.

                         All base plates, shore heads, extension devices, or adjustment screws shall be in
                         firm contact with the footing sill and the form.

12.6          Forms and Shoring

              12.6.1     General Provisions

                         Form work and shoring shall be designed, erected, supported, braced, and
                         maintained so that it will safely support all vertical and lateral loads that may be
                         imposed upon it during placement of concrete.

                         Personnel shall not be allowed under or in close proximity of the form work during
                         pour operations.

                         Personnel not engaged in the pour operation shall stay clear of the pour area. A
                         clear area shall be maintained at 1-1/2 times the highest point of the form work.

                         Drawings or plans showing the jack layout, form work, shoring, working decks,
                         and scaffolding, shall be available at the job site.




February 1993 - 12.0 Concrete, Concrete Forms, And Shoring                                             Page 236
                         Stripped forms and shoring shall be removed and stockpiled promptly after
                         stripping, in all areas in which persons are required to work or pass. Protruding
                         nails, wire ties, and other form accessories not necessary to subsequent work shall
                         be pulled, cut, or other means taken to eliminate the hazard.

                         Imposition of any construction loads on the partially completed structure shall not
                         be permitted unless such loading has been considered in the design and approved
                         by the engineer-architect.

              12.6.2     Vertical Slip Forms

                         The steel rods or pipe on which the jacks climb or by which the forms are lifted
                         shall be specifically designed for the purpose. Such rods shall be adequately
                         braced where not encased in concrete.

                         Jacks and vertical supports shall be positioned in such a manner that the vertical
                         loads are distributed equally and do not exceed the capacity of the jacks.

                         The jacks or other lifting devices shall be provided with mechanical dogs or other
                         automatic holding devices to provide protection in case of failure of the power
                         supply of the lifting mechanism.

                         Lifting shall proceed steadily and uniformly and shall not exceed the
                         predetermined safe rate of lift or concrete cure.

                         Lateral and diagonal bracing of the forms shall be provided to prevent excessive
                         distortion of the structure during the jacking operation.

                         During jacking operations, the form structure shall be maintained in line and
                         plumb.

                         All vertical lift forms shall be provided with scaffolding or work platforms
                         completely encircling the area of placement with intermittent tie breaks to ensure
                         that superimposed loads on the scaffold/work platforms cannot pull down the
                         entire scaffold works.

              12.6.3     Tube and Coupler Shoring

                         Couplers (clamps) shall not be used if they are deformed, broken, or have defective
                         or missing threads on bolts, or other defects.

                         The material used for the couplers (clamps) shall be of a structural type such as
                         drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. Gray cast iron
                         shall not be used.

                         When checking the erected shoring towers with the shoring layout, the spacing
                         between posts shall not exceed that shown on the layout, and all interlocking of
                         tubular members and tightness of couplers shall be checked.

                         All base plates, shore heads, extension devices, or adjustment screws shall be in
                         firm contact with the footing sill and the form material and shall be snug against
                         the posts.




February 1993 - 12.0 Concrete, Concrete Forms, And Shoring                                          Page 237
              12.6.4     Single Post Shores

                         For stability, single post shores shall be horizontally braced in both the
                         longitudinal and transverse directions, and diagonal bracing shall also be installed.
                         Such bracing shall be installed as the shores are being erected.

                         All base plates or shore heads of single post shores shall be in firm contact with the
                         footing sill and the form materials.

                         Whenever single post shores are used in more than one tier, the layout shall be
                         designed and inspected by a structural engineer. Lay-out to be submitted to Saudi
                         Aramco for approval.

                         When form work is at an angle, or sloping, or when the surface shored is sloping,
                         the shoring shall be designed for such loading.

                         Adjustment of single post shores to raise form work shall not be made after
                         concrete is in place

                         Fabricated single post shores shall not be used if heavily rusted, bent, dented, re-
                         welded, or having broken weldments or other defects. If they contain timber, they
                         shall not be used if timber is split, cut, has sections removed, is rotted, or otherwise
                         structurally damaged.

                         All timber and adjusting devices to be used for adjustable timber single post shores
                         shall be inspected before erection.

                         Timber shall not be used if it is split, cut, has sections removed, is rotted, or is
                         otherwise structurally damaged.

                         Adjusting devices shall not be used if heavily rusted, bent, dented, re-welded, or
                         having broken weldments or other defects.

                         All nails used to secure bracing or adjustable timber single post shores shall be
                         driven home and the point of the nail bent over if possible.




February 1993 - 12.0 Concrete, Concrete Forms, And Shoring                                               Page 238
III. Mechanical Equipment And
     Materials




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - III. Mechanical Equipment And Materials   Page 239
1.0 CRANES AND LIFTING EQUIPMENT
SAUDI ARAMCO INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

ALL REFERENCED STANDARDS ARE INCORPORATED INTO THIS SECTION.

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100.           Work Permit System

GI 2.702.           Electrical Safety for Boom or Derrick Type Hoisting Equipment

GI 6.029.           Reporting and Recording Of Motor Vehicle Accidents

GI 7.024.           Marine and Offshore Cranes and Rigging

GI 7.025.           Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification

GI 7.026.           Cranes and Heavy Equipment Accident Reporting

GI 7.027.           Personnel Work Platform Operations

GI 7.028.           Crane Lifts: Types and Procedures

GI 7.029.           Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings

GI 7.030.           Inspection and Testing of Cranes, Elevators, Powered Platforms, and Mobile Aerial
                    Baskets

Refinery Instruction Manual:

1.087.              Precautions to be taken for Operating Cranes near Overhead Power Lines

1.808.              Operating Cranes

Heavy Equipment Operator Licensing Information, Attachment No. III.1

Schedule 'D':
                    Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Cranes and Rigging
                    Equipment

Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook

Riggers Handbook

American Petroleum Institute:

API SPEC 2C          Specification for Offshore Cranes

API SPEC 2D         Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Cranes

Contractor Liaison Notice No. 5.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Cranes And Lifting Equipment                      Page 240
                      Procedure for Obtaining Crane and Heavy Equipment Operator's Licenses for
                      Expatriate Employees (See Appendix F)

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI)

ANSI A10.4.         Safety Requirements

ANSI 30.2.          Overhead and Gantry Cranes

ANSI B30.3.         Hammerhead Tower Cranes

ANSI B30.4.         Portal, Tower and Pillar Cranes

ANSI B30.5.         Mobile and Locomotive Cranes

ASME B30.6.         Derricks

ASME B30.8.         Floating Cranes and Floating Derricks

ASME B30.14. Side Boom Tractors

ANSI B30.16.        Overhead Hoists

ANSI B30.22.        Articulating Boom Cranes

1.1           Competent Person

              A competent person is a person who, by possession of a recognized pertinent degree or
              certificate of professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience
              has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to safe crane
              operations and procedures (e.g. Rigger Technician, Crane and Rigging Specialist, etc.). A
              competent person shall supervise all lifts.

1.2           Saudi Aramco Crane Operations (General Requirements)

              Before beginning any crane operation, the supervisor and operator should complete the pre-
              operation checklist (Figure III.1). A lift plan required as a part of this procedure must
              provide the following information:

                    1.    Crane radius
                    2.    Boom length
                    3.    Safe working limits of the crane (load chart)
                    4.    Weight of the load
                    5.    Ground and site conditions
                    6.    Placement of the crane
                    7.    Swing and tail clearances
                    8.    Necessary communication to be used
                    9.    Explanation of hand signals
                    10.   Rigging hardware
                    11.   Rigging sketch for critical or hazardous lifts
                    12.   Rated capacity of rigging components




February 1993 - 1.0 Cranes and Lifting Equpment                                                    Page 241
                    13.   Sling angles
                    14.   Strain calculations
                    15.   Wind velocity
                    16.   Load moment indicator
                    17.   Other

              One competent person shall be placed in charge of the lift with the responsibility of
              explaining in detail, the duties of all involved in the lift before the actual lift commences.
              The outriggers must be fully extended prior to the lift, and the rubber tires must be off the
              ground (see Figure III.2, Crane Lift Plan).

              Cranes shall have a valid Crane Safety inspection sticker issued by the Saudi Aramco Crane,
              Communication, and Facilities Inspection Unit. (See GI 7.030.)

1.3           Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Qualifications

              A valid SAG heavy equipment license and Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Certificate are
              required for all contractor mobile crane operators. Contact the Vehicle & Heavy Equipment
              Training and Testing Unit (Tel. Nos. 875-4347/874-1857) to operate specific mobile heavy
              equipment. (See GI 7.025.)

1.4           Special Crane Operating Procedures

              Heavy lifts, critical lifts, and crane personnel work platform operations require special
              procedures outlined in the Saudi Aramco General Instructions. The Heavy Haul Unit,
              Transportation Dept., Abqaiq should be contacted and lift plans/work permits submitted.
              (See GI's 7.027, and 7.028.)

1.5           Effect of Wind Speeds on Crane Operations

              When wind velocities are above 32 km/h (20 mph), the rated load and boom lengths shall be
              reduced according to manufacturer specifications. Wind forces are greater at height by as
              much as 35% or more. All lifts above ground level, must account for wind force, i.e., side
              loads, down drafts, etc. as applied to the load and boom. (See TABLES III.1 and III.2.)

1.6           Overhead Power Lines

              There is an area surrounding every power line that is referred to as the absolute limit of
              approach. It is strictly forbidden to move any crane boom or load line or load into this are
              unless the line has been de-energized or insulated. There are no exceptions. The absolute
              limit of approach varies according to the following table:

                Line Voltage                      Absolute Limit Of Approach
                Up to 250,000 volts               20 feet (6 meters)
                Over 250,000                      25 feet (7.5 meters)




February 1993 - 1.0 Cranes and Lifting Equpment                                                     Page 242
FIGURE III.1: PRE-LIFT OPERATION CHECKLIST

                   OPERATOR:

              -     CURRENT SAUDI ARAB GOVERNMENT CRANE OPERATORS' LICENSE
              -     CURRENT SAUDI ARAMCO OPERATORS' CERTIFICATE

                   OUTRIGGERS:

              -     FULLY EXTENDED
              -     LEVEL GROUND
              -     COMPACT SOIL
              -     HEAVY PAD SUPPORTS
              -     LOCKING PINS/LOCKS SET
              -     NO HYDRAULIC LEAKS
              -     NO DAMAGE
              -     GOOD CONDITION
              -     WHEELS OFF THE GROUND

                   OPERATION:

              -     CURRENT CRANE SAFETY INSPECTION STICKER
              -     CLEAR 360o VISIBILITY
              -     NO SHADES/CURTAINS IN CAB
              -     LOAD CHARTS IN CAB
              -     CLEAR VISIBILITY
              -     WIND, ABOVE 20 m/h (32 km/h), NO GO
              -     DO NOT OPERATE DURING STORMS AND AT NIGHT
              -     LIGHTNING, NO GO
              -     BARRICADE CRANE CAB SWING AREA
              -     TAG LINES IN USE
              -     CLEAR OVERHEAD POWER LINES
              -     CLEAR AREA OF PERSONNEL 1-1/2 x BOOM LENGTHS
              -     NO LIFTS OVER WORKERS OR CRITICAL PROPERTY
              -     TRIAL LIFT, FLOAT LOAD ONE METER OFF GROUND TO CHECK BALANCE
              -     CLEAR VIEW OF SIGNAL MAN (RIGGER)
              -     DO NOT PULL LOADS WITH CRANE
              -     LOAD RADIUS INDICATOR
              -     MAN LIFT WORK PERMIT
              -     ANTI-TWO BLOCK OPERATIONAL
              -     LMI (LOAD MOMENT INDICATOR) OPERATIONAL

                   RIGGING:

              -     CHECK ALL RIGGING FOR DAMAGE
              -     CHECK SLING LOAD CAPACITY
              -     CHECK BLOCK, HOOKS, etc. FOR DAMAGE
              -     HOOK SAFETY LATCH IN PLACE
              -     RECORD WEIGHT OF LOAD
              -     RECORD WEIGHT OF CRANE GEAR, ADD CRANE GEAR WEIGHT TO TOTAL
                    WEIGHT
              -     LIFT PLAN APPROVED
              -     USE LOAD WEIGHT MEASURING DEVICE FOR UNKNOWN LOADS




February 1993 - 1.0 Cranes and Lifting Equpment                            Page 243
                   TRAVELING:

              -     BLOCK SECURED
              -     TIRES PROPERLY INFLATED AND IN GOOD CONDITION
              -     BRAKE LIGHTS, SIGNALS, MIRRORS, HORN OPERATIONAL
              -     ROUTE PLAN CHECKED FOR FIRM GROUND, OVERHEAD AND SIDE
                    RESTRICTIONS
              -     ESCORT VEHICLES REQUIRED WITH FLASHING BEACON LIGHTS
              -     SPEED TO BE MAINTAINED FOR SAFE LIMITS (SLOW AS POSSIBLE)

                  PARKING:
              -     BOOM AND HOOK BLOCK(S) LOWERED TO TRAVEL POSITION
              -     APPLY SWING BRAKE AND POSITIVE SWING LOCK
              -     TIE DOWN HOOK BLOCK(S)
              -     RETRACT STABILIZERS
              -     RETRACT OUTRIGGERS
              -     EXTEND STABILIZERS AND LATCH ONTO FLOAT PADS
              -     WEIGHT OF CHASSIS OFF THE TIRES
              -     LET ENGINE IDLE 3-5 MINUTES
                    REMOVE ALL FOREIGN MATERIAL FROM CAB(S)
              -     CLOSE ALL DOORS, WINDOWS, SKYLIGHTS AND COMPARTMENTS
              -     TURN OFF SWITCHES
              -     STOP ENGINE




February 1993 - 1.0 Cranes and Lifting Equpment                            Page 244
FIGURE III.2: LIFT PLAN FOR CRANES
1. Contractor:__________________________________________________ J.0. No.:_____________________________________________
2. Crane Inspection Sticker valid: Yes: No: Date of expiry:________________________________________________________________
3. Operator Saudi Aramco certified: Yes: No:      4. Description of load:___________________________________________________
5.        Type of crane to be used ______________________                                    Stowed     Erected    N/A            (lbs/kgs)
          Boom length (total) _______________________ft/m       Jib:                                                           _______
          Jib length ______________________________ft/m         Extension:                                                     _______
                                                                 Hookblock (Main):            ______     _____      _____          _______
                                                                 Aux. Boom Head:              ______                             _______
                                                                 Headache Ball:               ______                             _______
                                                                 Slings, Shackles, etc.:      ______     ______     ______         _______
                                                                 Others:                 __________________________________        _______
                                                                                         __________________________________        _______
                                                                 Total (Gross Load Weight):                                        _______


6.       Weight of load                    _______lbs/kgs           Effective weight of jib _____ lbs/kgs (see jib chart)
         Effective weight of jib headache ball ______ lbs/kgs       Weight of load block    _____ lbs/kgs
         Weight of hoist rope below boom tip______ lbs/kgs          Weight of spreader bar _____ lbs/kgs
         Weight of other rigging            ______ lbs/kgs
          Total load weight                   _____ lbs/kgs
7.    Hoisting clearance ________ft/m. 8. Lift quadrant zone ___________________ .              9. Operating radius ___________ft/m.
10.   Crane capacity at operating radius __________ (Note: Do not make lift if total load is greater than crane capacity shown in Item 10. Refer to GI 7.028
      for appropriate derating based on type of lift.)
11. Crane capacity for jib configuration:____________ 12.         Ground and site conditions:______________________________________ ________
13. Wind speed:__________mph (Maximum 20 mph)
14. Work permit required: Yes No:
15. Load moment indicator: Yes: No: Type:_________________________________________
16. Sketch and supplementary information for crane lift is required to be attached to this plan. (Note: The sketch of the crane should include the following
      rigging information: size of each component; safe working load (SWL) capacity; length of slings; type of component; component diameter; weight of
      component and sling angles).
Contractor:______________________ Date:__________________ Crane Operator:_______________________ Date:_________________________ _
Approved:_______________________ Date:__________________ Reviewed by:_____________________ Date:__________________________ ___
             (Competent Person)                                                  (Saudi Aramco Site Representative)
Approved:_______________________ Date:__________________
           (Heavy Haul/Rig Move Unit, Transportation Dept., Abqaiq)
Footnote: This form is to be filled out for the following lifts: 1. At all construction sites and operating plants; 2. Associated with offshore and marine
      sites and operations; 3. Within safety zones of power lines; 4. Involving personnel platforms (as per GI 7.027, 7.028 and 7.030).




February 1993- Cranes And Lifting Equipment                                                                                                        Page 245
TABLE III.1: WIND SPEED (MILES PER HOUR) VS. FORCE OF WIND IN POUNDS PER SQUARE FOOT

        MILES                  FORCE PER SQUARE
      PER HOUR                   FOOT, POUNDS
           1                         .004
           2                         .014
           3                         .036
           4                         .064
           5                           .1
          10                           .4
          15                           .9
          20                          1.6
TABLE III.2: WIND SPEED DEFINITION

The following table lists speed, in the major units, relative to Beaufortwind Scale Numbers, the
internationally accepted reference for wind force:

 Beaufort           Descriptio               Knots      M/Sec          KM/H         Miles/H
  Numbers                  n
     0                   Calm                   0-1      0-0.51          0-1.84        0-1.15
     1                 Light Air                1-3    0.51-1.53       1.84-5.52     1.15-3.45
     2               Light Breeze               4-6    2.04-3.07      7.36-11.04      4.6-6.9
     3              Gentle Breeze              7-10    3.58-5.11      12.88-18.4     8.05-11.5
     4                Moderate                11-16    5.62-8.18     20.24-29.44    12.65-18.4
                        Breeze
       5             Fresh Breeze             17-21    8.69-10.73    31.28-38.64    19.55-24.15
       6            Strong Breeze             22-27   11.24-13.80    40.48-49.68     25.3-31.05
       7              Near Gale               28-33   14.31-16.87    51.52-60.72     32.2-37.95
       8                 Gale                 34.40   17.38-20.44     62.56-73.6      39.1-46
       9             Strong Gale              41-47   20.96-24.02    75.44-86.48    47.15-54.05
       10               Storm                 48-55   24.53-28.11    88.32-101.2     55.2-63.25
       11           Violent Storm             56-63   28.62-32.20   103.04-115.92    64.4-72.45
       12             Hurricane                64+       32.71+        117.76+          73.6

Reference: GROVE COLES CRANE SPECIFICATION BULLETIN NO. 045




February 1993 - 1.0 Cranes And Lifting Equipment                                         Page 246
2.0 SLINGS AND LIFTING GEAR (RIGGING)
Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 7.027.            Personnel Work Platform Operations

GI 7.029.            Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings

American National Standards:

ANSI B30.5.          Mobile and Locomotive Cranes

ANSI B30.9.          Slings

ANSI B30.10.         Hooks

ANSI B30.20.         Below the Hook Lifting Devices

ANSI B30.21.         Manually Lever Operated Hoists

Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook (See Appendix E)

Saudi Aramco Riggers Handbook

Saudi Aramco Inspection Procedures

07-AIP-0I-P          Inspection of Steel Wire Rope Slings

2.1.          Safe Working Load (SWL)

              Slings and other rigging equipment must be constructed according to a recognized standard.

              The safe working load of rigging equipment is the maximum load which the equipment
              should be subjected to; this load should never be exceeded.

              Before use, all new equipment should be subjected to a proof load test by the manufacturer
              and certified. The safe working load and serial number shall be clearly marked on the sling
              and the lifting gear, either by tagging, stamping, engraving, or embossing. Riggers shall not
              use lifting gear unless the safe working load is clearly visible (see Figures III.3 and III.6).

              Slings shall not be tagged with an safe working load in the field. Approval by the Inspection
              Department and subsequent review by the Loss Prevention Department is required.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Slings And Lifting Gear                                  Page 247
2.2.          Chain Slings

              2.2.1       Grades

                          Only alloy steel chain complying with ASTM A391 shall be used. Other grades
                          are subject to approval by the Saudi Aramco Crane, Communications and Facilities
                          Inspection Unit [CCFIU] (see Figure III.5).

                          Each grade of chain should be clearly tagged by the manufacturer, and riggers
                          should be trained to look for the safe working load marked on each sling. They
                          shall be forbidden to use any equipment unless the safe working load is clearly
                          visible.

                          All attached fittings (hooks, rings, etc.,) shall be as prescribed by the manufacturer.
                          Hooks, shackles, and eyebolts shall be equal to or exceed the safe working load of
                          the chain.

              2.2.2       Repairs

                          Modern chains are produced under closely controlled factory conditions using
                          proper heat treatment and testing procedures. On-site welding repairs cannot
                          provide the necessary controlled conditions to safely repair a damaged chain.
                          Damaged chains must be returned to the manufacturer for repair or destroyed. In
                          particular, watch for bent links, cracked welds, and excessive wear.

              2.2.3

                          Logger chains or chains used to secure truck loads shall not be used for rigging.

2.3           Wire Rope Slings

              2.3.1

                          Wire rope is the most common type of sling in use on construction sites. It is
                          essential that each wire rope sling is properly constructed and used. All wire rope
                          slings shall be manufactured, inspected, and load tested by a recognized
                          manufacturer. Homemade wire rope slings shall not be allowed at Saudi Aramco
                          unless they meet all standards and pass inspection by CCFIU.

              2.3.2       Damaged slings shall be destroyed if there are:

                          2.3.2.1

                                         *    10 random broken wires in one lay.
                                         *    4 broken wires in one strand of a rope lay.
                                         *    One broken wire at the fitting.

                          2.3.2.2

                                         *    Severe localized abrasion or scraping.




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear                                                              Page 248
                          2.3.2.3

                                         *    Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or any other damage causing
                                              distortion.

                          2.3.2.4

                                         *    Evidence of heat damage.

                          2.3.2.5

                                       *      End attachments are cracked, deformed, or excessively worn.

                          2.3.2.6

                                         *    Bent or opened hooks.

                          2.3.2.7

                                         *    Severe corrosion.

              2.3.3

                          Each sling shall bear a permanent manufacturer's identification stating the safe
                          working load (SWL) in tons and serial number. Proof load test and documentation
                          of testing is required from the manufacturer (see Figures III.3 and III.6).

              2.3.4

                          Wire rope clips (bulldog clips or crosby clips) shall not be used to make slings.

2.4           Synthetic Webbing Slings

              These are manufactured from woven man-made fiber. Their strength lies in the width of their
              bearing surface. These slings must not be subjected to point loading, sharp edged objects,
              and non-vertical lifting (see Figure III.7). Synthetic web slings shall be marked with a
              stitched in label to show:

              (a)     Name or trademark of manufacturer
              (b)     Rated capacity for each type of hitch
              (c)     Type of material

              2.4.1       Removal from Service

                          Slings which have been damaged or are defective in any way shall be immediately
                          removed from service, cut up and destroyed.

              2.4.2       Repaired Slings

                          The use of repaired slings is prohibited.




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear                                                            Page 249
2.5           Synthetic and Natural Fiber Rope Slings

              2.5.1

                          Each synthetic and natural fiber rope sling shall be permanently marked to show:

                          2.5.1.1        Name or trademark of manufacturer

                          2.5.1.2        Manufacturer's code or stock number

                          2.5.1.3        Rated loads for the types of hitches used

                          2.5.1.4        Type of natural or synthetic material

                          2.5.1.5        Date of manufacture

              2.5.2

                          All associated rigging hardware shall equal or exceed the safe working load rating
                          of the rope sling.

              2.5.3

                          Slings shall be removed from service and destroyed when:

                          2.5.3.1

                                         *    The fibers are cut, badly abraded or seriously worn.

                          2.5.3.2

                                         *    There is considerable filament or fiber breakage (a light fuzzing is
                                              acceptable) on the surface.

                          2.5.3.3

                                       *      There are particles of broken filament or fibers inside the rope
                                              between strands.

                          2.5.3.4

                                       *      There is other damage visible such as: melting or charring, kinks
                                              or hackles, knots, damaged fittings.




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear                                                               Page 250
2.6           Care of Slings

              The following points must be considered in the storage and handling of slings:

              2.6.1

                          Slings will undergo shock loading when a load is suddenly lifted or when the
                          hoisting is abruptly stopped. This can be caused by the sudden application of the
                          crane brake, the jerking of the load by poor operation, or the sling slipping on the
                          load. A shock load can increase the normal working load by as much as five times
                          its value.

              2.6.2

                          As the angle between the legs of a multiple sling increases, the safe working load
                          decreases. The included angle should be no more than 90 0 and must never exceed
                          120o under any circumstances (see Figure III.9).

              2.6.3

                          Before storage, chain and wire rope slings should be cleaned, lightly lubricated,
                          and inspected. Slings must be stored in a location where they are not liable to
                          suffer mechanical damage, away from extremes of heat, cold, and especially
                          dampness.

              2.6.4

                          Contractors shall maintain a job site log of slings containing the following
                          information: ID. number; date in service; safe working load as stated in proof load
                          certificate; full details of periodic inspections (see Figure III.13).

              2.6.5

                          All rigging shall be inspected at least every six months per ANSI B30.9, and a
                          Sling Inspection Report shall be completed and filed for review by the Crane
                          Inspector to comply with GI 7.029.

2.7           Hooks

              2.7.1

                          Hooks should be fitted with a safety catch on the hook opening, or should be
                          moused with wire and a shackle used or the hook should be designed so that the
                          slings cannot be displaced (Figure III.11).

              2.7.2

                          Loads should be applied on the hook only in the part designed to take them (i.e. the
                          bend [bow] of the hook). Point loading can result in over stressing the hook
                          causing it to open or break. Therefore, point loading shall not be permitted.




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear                                                           Page 251
              2.7.3

                          Hooks should be regularly inspected for signs of damage.

              2.7.4

                          The hook shall be removed from service for the following reasons:

                          1.       If there are visible cracks
                          2.       If it is twisted 10o out of place
                          3.       If there is a 15% throat opening beyond the manufacturer's specification

                          A thorough examination shall be carried out each year by a qualified inspector.

2.8           Spreader Bars

              2.8.1

                          All spreader bars shall be manufactured, tested, and inspected to ANSI B30.20.

              2.8.2

                          Spreader bars shall be permanently identified with the safe working load,
                          manufacturer's name and serial number.

              2.8.3

                          Spreader bars shall be stored away from moisture, and protected from physical
                          damage.

2.9           Eyebolts And Safety Hoist Rings

                          Sometimes machinery or other equipment is delivered to the site with eyebolts
                          attached as lifting points. For such situations, the design and function of each of
                          the three basic types of eyebolts should be known (see Figure III.10.).

              2.9.1

                          Standard eyebolts are the weakest and are dependable only for vertical lifts.

              2.9.2

                          Shouldered eyebolts can be used at slight angles, but are unsafe at less than 45
                          degrees with the horizontal.

              2.9.3

                          Safety hoist rings (swivel eyes) are bolted in place with a calibrated torque wrench
                          and maintain maximum capacity at all angles.




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear                                                               Page 252
2.10          Shackles

                          Shackles (clevis) are used for making connections in rigging. They should be
                          tested by the manufacturer and marked with the safe working load.

                          The pins are separate but matched parts of the shackles, so care must be taken to
                          use the correct pin for each shackle. Rebar, mild steel bolts or similar items are
                          not acceptable replacements for shackle pins (see Figure III.12.).

2.11          Rigger

                          The job of rigger requires thorough training. The man assigned must be well-
                          acquainted with the capabilities of the crane being used, hand signals, the different
                          functions of lifting gear, and the various methods of loading.




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear                                                            Page 253
FIGURE III.3: IDENTIFICATION TAGS




                                              All slings shall carry permanent
                                              manufacturer's identification.




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear                                      Page 254
FIGURE III.4: INSTALLING A WEDGE SOCKET ON A ROPE




FIGURE III.5: TWO-LEGGED CHAIN SLING: MAJOR COMPONENTS




FIGURE III.6: SLING FIXINGS




                                                         (Sling No. 123
                                                         SWL 8 Tons)




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear                               Page 255
FIGURE III.7: SYNTHETIC WEBBING SLINGS




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear   Page 256
FIGURE III.8: SLING LOADING                   FIGURE III.9: EYEBOLTS




FIGURE III.10: CRANE HOOKS                    FIGURE III.11: SHACKLES




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear                             Page 257
FIGURE III.12: WIRE ROPE SLING INSPECTION LOG

Contractor:______________________________________ Location: __________________________

BI/JO Number: ___________________________________ Project Title: ______________________


         Sling#              Diameter         Length   SWL       Date-In      Date-Out-   Inspector Signature (Date)
                                                                 Service       Service




February 1993 - 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear                                                                            Page 258
3.0 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
The widespread use of mechanical equipment in the construction industry improves the quality and
efficiency of the work but it can lead to situations which are potentially hazardous.

This section cannot cover all the situations which could arise, but it outlines some of the hazards likely to
be encountered from specific items of equipment and their use.

The only safe way of using mechanical equipment is to have properly trained operators, running
equipment that is well maintained and carrying out the work for which it was designed.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 7.025            Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification

GI 7.026            Cranes and Heavy Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures

GI 7.030            Inspection, and Testing Requirements Of Elevating / Lifting Equipment

GI 8.003            Breathing Apparatus

GI 447.002          Pressure Relief Valves - New Installation, Change in Set Pressure, Replacement or
                    Retirement from Service

GI 447.003          Pressure Relief Valves - Routine Test, Inspection, Quality Assurance and Regulation

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards:

Inspection Procedures

17-SAIP-6.01        Diesel Electric Generating Set

20-SAIP-3.01        Welding Generator

31-SAIP-1.01        Pumps

31-SAIP-1.02        Compressor

31-SAIP-8.05        Vibrating Roller

31-SAIP-8.10        CAT Motor Grader

31-SAIP-8.15        Road Rollers

31-SAIP-8.16        Scraper

31-SAIP-10.01       Concrete Mixers

31-SAIP-12.04       Diesel Fork Lift Truck




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Mechanical Equipment                                     Page 259
31-SAIP-12.05        Electric Fork Lift Truck

Schedule 'D':

                     Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Mechanical
                     Equipment

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS:

ANSI-A 10.4-81

                     Safety Requirements For Personnel Hoists

ANSI-B 15.1-84

                     Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus

ANSI-B 30.1-86

                     Safety Code for Jacks

ANSI B30.5.          Mobile and Locomotive Cranes

ANSI-B 56.1-88

                     Safety Standard for Low and High Lift Trucks

3.1          Operators

             3.1.1       Qualifications

                         Only trained personnel shall operate any mechanical equipment. Operators shall
                         be trained in the procedures and functions relevant to a specific piece of
                         equipment; they must be fully aware of the capabilities and limitations of the
                         machine and have a knowledge of the day-to-day maintenance that it requires.

                         It is recommended that contractors train and test all equipment operators and issue
                         them with written authorization specifying the equipment which they are competent
                         to operate.

             3.1.2       Licensing Requirements

                         Operators of mobile heavy equipment must be in possession of a Saudi Arab
                         Government (SAG) license for that particular class of machinery and a Saudi
                         Aramco certificate issued by the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator
                         Testing and Training Unit (see GI 7.025).

3.2          Machinery Guards

             All moving parts of machinery must be shielded by guards. This is particularly true with
             gears, pulleys, V-belt drives, fans, and revolving shafts. All of these are present on most of
             the static equipment used on or around construction sites. Other examples of equipment




February 1993 - 3.0 Mechanical Equipment                                                            Page 260
             which must be guarded include cooling fans on compressors and generators, the main drive
             shafts on pumps and dumpers, and the cable drum on winches and concrete mixers.

             Guards must be installed on equipment before it arrives on site and maintained in position at
             all times while the equipment is operating. Guards removed for routine maintenance or for
             repair must be replaced before the equipment is returned to service.

             3.2.1       Multi-Piece Tire Rims and Locking Rings

                         As safety equipment like tire cages, restraining bars, racks and clips during tire
                         check-out cannot fully protect employees working on or near the tire repair area,
                         always deflate the tire first before making repairs. Inflate tires inside a strong
                         restraining device (tire cage) by increasing the tire pressure very slowly.

3.3          General Requirements

             3.3.1

                         Before any mechanical equipment is used in a Saudi Aramco restricted area, all
                         required work permits must be obtained.

             3.3.2

                         All machinery should be inspected before being placed in service and at regular
                         intervals thereafter.

             3.3.3

                         Maintenance schedules should be established for each piece of equipment and
                         strictly followed.

             3.3.4

                         No repair, adjustment, or replacement of parts on moving machinery is permitted.
                         Before making any repairs, all equipment must be stopped and deactivated so that
                         it cannot be unintentionally started.

             3.3.5

                         At the start of each shift, the operator must check oil, water, fuel, and hydraulic
                         levels, that all gauges are operating and that the machine is functioning smoothly.
                         Safety equipment (e.g., guards, limit switches, governors) must be checked daily.

             3.3.6

                         Equipment traveling or working on the highway must have lights and reflectors.
                         Park equipment clear of the roadway. If this is not possible, use flashing lights,
                         cones, or other warning devices to alert approaching traffic.




February 1993 - 3.0 Mechanical Equipment                                                            Page 261
             3.3.7

                         When vehicles are left unattended (even overnight), engines must be stopped,
                         parking brakes applied and the wheels chocked. Blades, scraper bowls, and other
                         hydraulic equipment must be lowered to the ground before the operator leaves the
                         machine. The ignition key should be removed and/or battery cables disconnected
                         to avoid start-up by unauthorized personnel.

             3.3.8

                         Unless otherwise instructed, operators must dismount from machines while
                         maintenance or repair work is being carried out.

             3.3.9

                         Cabs fitted to equipment must give 360o visibility. Cabs must be kept clean and
                         clear of such items as rubbish and loose tools. Windows must be kept clean at all
                         times and should be replaced if the glass becomes pitted, cracked or broken.

             3.3.10

                         Where the operator of a mobile machine cannot see the area all around his
                         machine, an attendant must be in a position to direct and assist the operator.

             3.3.11

                         All equipment must be located so that exhaust fumes will not affect workers in the
                         area. Gasoline-driven equipment shall not be used inside a building or other
                         confined space.

3.4          Compressors

             Compressors are one of the most common pieces of equipment used in construction work.
             They can be used to supply air for portable power tools or to supply air to sustain men
             working with breathing apparatus in extremely hazardous atmospheres. There is a
             considerable difference in the quality of the air used for these two functions.

             3.4.1

                         All employees on site must know the dangers of compressed air. Never use
                         compressed air to dust off clothing or machinery. Horseplay with compressed air
                         must be strictly forbidden.        When compressed air is used in special
                         cleaning/purging tasks, goggles and full face shield
                         must be worn.

             3.4.2

                         Compressors must be properly designed, inspected, tested and maintained. Relief
                         valves shall be installed in accordance with GI 447.002/3, and the air receiver
                         must be periodically inspected.

             3.4.3




February 1993 - 3.0 Mechanical Equipment                                                           Page 262
                         Before start up, a daily check should be made of the compressor's pressure relief
                         valve, fuel, oil and water levels and the air reservoir should be drained of trapped
                         water. The operating manual for the particular type of compressor used should be
                         strictly followed.

             3.4.4

                         When compressors supply air for breathing:

                         1.)    The air intake must be located so that it does not draw in exhaust gas.
                         2.)    There must be a filter to remove oil mist.
                         3.)    They must be equipped with an automatic high temperature alarm.
                         4.)    The air must be tested periodically to be certain it is safe to breathe (see
                                Administration, I.10., 1.3.)

3.5          Concrete Mixers and Batching Plants
             A concrete mixer of some type will be used on almost every construction site. The principles
             of good maintenance and properly trained operators apply equally whether it is only a small
             mixer for masonry work or a full batching plant with a large capacity cement silo, sand and
             aggregate bins, and a power shovel.

             3.5.1

                         All chains, gears, and revolving shafts must be guarded.

             3.5.2

                         Safety chains and catches must be operative, and the lifting mechanism must be in
                         good order.

             3.5.3

                         Men must not be allowed to work under or near the loading skip unless it is held in
                         position by a safety chain or catch or positively blocked.

             3.5.4

                         The mixer drum and the area around the machine must be thoroughly cleaned at
                         the end of each day's operation.




February 1993 - 3.0 Mechanical Equipment                                                                 Page 263
             3.5.5

                         Cement bags must not be allowed to accumulate in the mixer area; they should be
                         collected and disposed of at regular intervals during the day.

             3.5.6

                         A hooped access ladder must be firmly attached to silos for access to the top
                         manhole. Men must not be allowed to work inside the silo unless they are wearing
                         a safety belt with a lifeline and an attendant is posted outside ready to assist in case
                         of emergency.

             3.5.7

                         The approach to the sand and aggregate bins should be barricaded, and the
                         barricades should only be removed to allow access for vehicles delivering material.

             3.5.8

                         Personal protective equipment such as respirators, ear muffs, and goggles shall be
                         worn. Loose fitting clothes shall not be worn around moving machinery.

             3.5.9

                         Lockout and tag system is required in batching plants to ensure the safety of repair
                         and/or maintenance personnel. This is a means to disable process/mechanical
                         electrical 'control' equipment during repairs and maintenance. Lockout and tag
                         system rules must be posted in a conspicuous location throughout the plant and
                         workers must be thoroughly trained in the lockout/tag procedures.

3.6          Dumpers and Dump Trucks

             Dumpers and dump trucks, commonly used for construction work, often travel on the public
             highway. Therefore it is essential that they be properly maintained.

             3.6.1

                         The latch on dumper skips must be in good working order, and the release
                         mechanism should function smoothly.

             3.6.2

                         Dumpers are not designed to carry passengers. It must be strictly forbidden for
                         employees to ride in the skip or on the engine cover.

             3.6.3

                         When repairs or maintenance are being carried out on a hydraulically operated
                         dump truck, the dump body should be fully lowered. If it is necessary to have it in
                         the raised position, it must be blocked. Do not rely on the hydraulic ram to support
                         the raised body for an extended period.




February 1993 - 3.0 Mechanical Equipment                                                                 Page 264
             3.6.4

                         All vehicles with cabs shall be equipped with windshields and powered wipers.
                         Cracked or broken windshields or windows shall be replaced. All cab glass shall
                         be safety glass or equivalent.

3.7          Excavators

             Excavations are carried out using very specialized equipment which roughly falls into two
             categories: 1) fixed position machines, and 2) moving machines.

             The choice of equipment to be used is determined by the size of the project, topography,
             volume of earth to be hauled out and many other factors. Fixed position machines include,
             but are not limited to, face shovels, backhoes, draglines and grabs. The "fixed" excavator
             loosens the soil and loads from a stationary position. They are useful to perform specific
             excavation tasks at a single location. Their loss of mobility is compensated by the fact that
             greater force can be applied at the excavation face. "Moving" machines include, but are not
             limited to, bulldozers, loaders, scrapers, graders and trenching machines. They remove,
             transport and deposit excavated material all in one cycle of operation. They are used in
             applications where large volumes of earth need to be moved over uneven ground. In this
             process, they also help to level the ground over which they operate. (Also see General And
             Civil, II.2 of this manual.)

             3.7.1

                         The excavation work permit may require that underground pipelines or cables be
                         located by manual digging. The permit must be counter-signed by the Power
                         Distribution Department (PDD) and the area Utilities Services Department.

             3.7.2

                         Operators of excavators must possess a valid Saudi Arab Government license for
                         the machine and a valid Saudi Aramco certificate issued by the Saudi Aramco
                         Heavy Equipment Operator Testing Unit.

             3.7.3

                         Outriggers must be fully extended when operating a mechanical excavator so
                         fitted.

             3.7.4

                         An attendant must be appointed and be available at all times during excavation to
                         assist and guide the operator.

             3.7.5

                         Excavators with a swinging motion must have a clearance of at least 0.6 meter (2
                         feet) from any fixed object.




February 1993 - 3.0 Mechanical Equipment                                                          Page 265
             3.7.6

                         Booms on excavators must be latched before travel.

             3.7.7

                         Do not excavate closer than 10 feet to the nearest pipeline or other equipment in
                         place.

3.8          Fork Lift Trucks

             Fork lift trucks are designed to operate on firm, level ground. This type of equipment has a
             limited use in construction operations. They are, however, sometimes used in materials
             handling yards and for placing loads where there are firm ground conditions. Operators of
             fork lift trucks must have a valid Saudi Arab Government heavy equipment license and a
             valid Saudi Aramco certificate.

             3.8.1

                         It is essential that drivers be fully trained and experienced. They must be able to
                         manipulate loads smoothly and efficiently.

             3.8.2

                         A specific course of instruction should be established for fork lift drivers. They
                         should not be allowed to use the vehicles on site until they have taken the course.

             3.8.3

                         Special equipment fitted to the truck, in addition to or in place of the forks, must
                         be designed for the specific machine.

             3.8.4

                         The truck shall be equipped with overhead protection.

             3.8.5

                         When traveling with a load on the forks, the forks should be as low as possible to
                         maintain stability.

             3.8.6

                         If the load being carried obstructs the operator's forward view, he should travel in
                         reverse.




February 1993 - 3.0 Mechanical Equipment                                                             Page 266
             3.8.7

                         Operators, loaders, helpers and other workers should never place any part of their
                         bodies between the mast uprights, cross members, or other moving parts of the fork
                         lift truck. Stay well within limits of the truck body or cab.

3.9          Generators

                         A competent electrician shall be available to ensure that electrical connections are
                         properly made. The operator should be responsible only for the mechanical
                         function of the machine.

             3.9.1

                         All pulleys, belts, and fans must be totally enclosed or otherwise guarded.

             3.9.2

                         The side panels to the engine cover are designed to give access to the machinery
                         for maintenance or repair. They must be closed at all times when the engine is
                         running.

             3.9.3

                         The machine must be properly grounded before each use.

             3.9.4       Fire Prevention Guide for Portable Generators

                         The following is a typical check list of the major items to look for. There may be
                         other potential fire hazards not listed, therefore a thorough inspection must be
                         made.

                               Repair all fuel leaks.
                               Check hose and pipe connections for wear and cracks.
                               Clean up all combustible trash around the generator.
                               Clean up all fuel spills and place clean sand around area when required.
                               Sheds constructed of combustible materials placed around generators and
                                wooden base frames are prohibited.
                               Exhaust piping system shall be kept away from work areas and combustible
                                materials.
                               Generator sets shall be located at least 50 feet from buildings or materials
                                that may catch fire.
                               Inspect all wiring for damage or improper splices/repairs.
                               Electrically ground all generator sets (system and frame ground).
                               Fire extinguishers must be readily accessible. One CO2 extinguisher for the
                                generator and a dry chemical extinguisher for the engine drive is
                                recommended.
                               Conduct daily inspections of all generator sets using this guide.




February 1993 - 3.0 Mechanical Equipment                                                               Page 267
3.10         Graders, Dozers, Scrapers, Loaders And Miniloaders

             Heavy earth moving equipment only allows the operator a limited view of the immediate
             area. It is, therefore, essential that a banksman be appointed to warn the operator of hazards
             that cannot be seen from the operator's position.

             This equipment shall be equipped with rollover protection. A valid Saudi Arab Government
             heavy equipment license and a valid Saudi Aramco certificate issued by the Saudi Aramco
             Heavy Equipment Operator Testing Unit are required for each operator of such equipment.

             3.10.1

                         Before moving his machine, the driver must walk around it to see that the area is
                         clear.

             3.10.2

                         Men must not be allowed to sit or lie in the area around the machine.

             3.10.3

                         The engine shall not be left running when the driver is not at the controls. Before
                         leaving his machine, a driver must shut off the engine and remove the ignition key.

             3.10.4

                         Blades, scraper bowls, etc. must be lowered to the ground before the driver leaves
                         his unit. The wheels should be properly chocked.

             3.10.5

                         If there is work to be done underneath such hydraulic equipment, the equipment
                         must be blocked in position.

3.11         Woodworking Machinery

             Only fully trained operators may be allowed to use woodworking machinery. This
             machinery is inherently dangerous since the hazardous parts, knives, blades, etc., cannot be
             fully enclosed. Only that part of the blade necessary to carry out the work shall be exposed
             at any one time.

             3.11.1

                         The area around saws, planers, and routers must be barricaded and only authorized
                         and trained personnel allowed within the barricaded area.




February 1993 - 3.0 Mechanical Equipment                                                            Page 268
             3.11.2

                         The ground around such machinery must be kept clear of off-cuts and other
                         tripping hazards.

             3.11.3

                         Machinery should be securely anchored to prevent movement during use. (See
                         General And Civil, II of this manual.)




February 1993 - 3.0 Mechanical Equipment                                                    Page 269
4.0 MATERIALS HANDLING
Materials handling forms a large part of construction work. How construction materials are handled can
have a considerable effect on the efficiency of production and on the safety record of the site. Because of
the temporary nature of site work and the frequent change of the work place, it is not possible to
mechanize material handling to the same extent as it would be in a more stable operation. However, there
are many areas in which labor intensive, inefficient, costly, and frequently dangerous, manual material
handling work can be replaced by the use of machines.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 355.001            Identifying, Ordering, Receiving, Storing, Issuing And Disposing Of Hazardous
                      Materials

GI 1130.013           Vehicle Loading

GI 1131.165           Use of Trailer Brakes

GI 1131.921           Use of Trailer Safety Chains

4.1           Planning

              Successful mechanization of material handling requires that the correct machines be
              available and properly used. The storage and movement of the various materials must be
              carefully arranged to make optimum use of the machines so that efficient service can be
              provided and ensure that all vehicle, crane and heavy equipment operators hold current Saudi
              Arab Government License and Saudi Aramco Certification where required.

              Planning for materials handling operations begins as the production schedule is being drawn.
              Ensure that the layout of storage areas provides for adequate access for necessary
              mechanical equipment.

              4.1.1

                          Selection of the storage area should be made with due consideration for drainage
                          and protection from rain and sandstorms (see Figure III.13 Typical Construction
                          Materials Store Yard).

              4.1.2

                          Open storage areas should be planned to minimize the reversing and maneuvering
                          of trucks especially into and out of confined areas.

              4.1.3

                          Access ways must be wide enough to allow for the passage of fire trucks. Fire
                          fighting equipment should be located throughout the area. Contact the Fire
                          Prevention Group of Loss Prevention for information (see Figure III.13 Typical
                          Construction Materials Store Yard).




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Materials Handling Page 270
              4.1.4

                          Cribbing timber, racks, or pallets should be used to ensure that all materials are
                          stored off the ground.

              4.1.5

                          Protection should be provided for materials such as cement, insulation, and other
                          bulk material which could be damaged by moisture.

              4.1.6

                          All machinery, equipment, and valves should be maintained fully assembled and
                          securely closed. All machined surfaces must be covered and fully protected from
                          exposure to the weather.

              4.1.7

                          The quantity of material on site at any one time must be restricted to a minimum
                          stock. Flammable stores shall be kept separated. Such a policy should greatly
                          reduce losses due to pilferage or damage (see Figure III.13 Typical Construction
                          Materials Store Yard).

                          Once these factors have been established, the staffing of the storage areas can then
                          be considered.

              4.1.8

                          On larger projects, the movement of materials could justify the employment of a
                          loading and unloading gang, whereas small jobs would probably need only one
                          man assigned to this responsibility.

              4.1.9

                          Routinely, on most sites, there should be a man appointed as a materials controller
                          responsible for materials from the planning stage through to the final unloading,
                          storage, and distribution stage.

4.2           Machine Transport

              A wide variety of mechanical equipment is available for transporting and distributing
              materials on and around a job site. They range from simple equipment such as a dumper or a
              tractor and trailer to more sophisticated equipment such as a concrete pump or a large crane.

              4.2.1       Dumpers

                          Dumpers are one of the most commonly used pieces of construction equipment and
                          have proved very useful in transporting concrete and other small loads around site.
                          Unfortunately they are also a common source of injuries and damage.

                          Dumper drivers must be properly trained and experienced and must hold a current
                          Saudi Arab Government license. The equipment is designed for the movement of




February 1993 - 4.0 Materials Handling                                                                Page 271
                          material only. Passengers must not be allowed to travel in the skip or anywhere
                          else on the machine. Dumpers must be regularly maintained with particular
                          attention to brakes, steering, and skip release mechanism. If they are to be used for
                          towing, a proper towing eye with a shackle or pin must be provided.

              4.2.2       Tractors and Trailers

                          Tractors and trailers are useful for moving larger loads around the site. In addition
                          to the normal precaution of good maintenance, it is essential that safety chains or
                          wire ropes be fitted between the tractor and trailer so that if the towing connection
                          should break or become separated for some reason, the trailer can still be brought
                          to a controlled stop by the tractor. Trailer and its load shall not exceed the towing
                          capacity of the tractor and shall be fitted with an independent braking system if it is
                          designed to carry more than 9,072 kilograms (20,000 pounds). Trailers used for
                          carrying pipes should be fitted with side stops, and loads must be securely tied
                          down before being transported.

              4.2.3       Conveyor Belts and Monorails

                          Conveyor belts and monorails are occasionally used for transporting concrete,
                          sand, or aggregate on site. They require a complete maintenance program.
                          Because of the many problems associated with them, thorough consideration must
                          be given to their use. All pulleys, rollers, gears and pinch points shall be guarded.
                          On/off switches shall be clearly marked and readily accessible.

              4.2.4       Concrete Pumps

                          Concrete pumps are used for the placement of concrete in difficult situations.
                          They have the advantage of being able to move large amounts of concrete very
                          speedily to the area where it is required. The operation of this equipment demands
                          specialized knowledge of concrete technology; however, placing concrete by this
                          method can significantly reduce the number of dumpers employed or the crane
                          usage time expended on a civil engineering contract.

4.3           Site Stores
              For small or valuable materials which cannot be conveniently stored in outside areas, it is
              essential that an indoor stores shed, under the control of a responsible person, be established
              on site. Because of the nature of the materials stored in such an area, the main considerations
              must be security and fire prevention.

              The issuing and receiving of stores must be under the control of a responsible person.
              Adequate fire fighting equipment must be readily available in the area. Materials should be
              stored on shelving or with small items such as nuts and bolts, etc. in bins suitably marked
              with the contents. The safe loads allowed on racks and the maximum stack heights should be
              established. All hazardous material, such as paints, fuels, chemicals, etc., should be
              separated and stored in an isolated flammable storage area (see Appendix C). Notices
              warning of the dangers associated with these materials should be posted in the hazard area.




February 1993 - 4.0 Materials Handling                                                                   Page 272
4.4           Manual Handling

              There are many areas of construction work where mechanization cannot take the place of
              sheer muscle, and it is in such areas that the majority of injuries occur. The inevitable results
              of lifting incorrectly are strained backs, slipped discs, sprains and strains, and a complexity
              of internal injuries.

              It is, therefore, essential that workers be trained in the correct methods of manual handling.
              Safe lifting can only be carried out by the proper use of the right muscles. Back and
              abdominal muscles are weak, while the leg and thigh muscles are strong. The spine has a
              natural and comfortable shape when a man is standing upright; however, if he bends, the
              spine arches and becomes weaker. If the spine can be kept in a straight position when lifting,
              the strain of the lift goes to the strong muscles of the leg and thigh and loads can be lifted
              safely, with much less physical effort. This is the basic principle of manual handling.

              4.4.1

                          There are four significant points in a proper lift:

                          1.      Grip: A good grip makes maximum use of the palm of the hand, the ball of
                                  the thumb, and base of the fingers.
                          2.      Back: The back must be kept straight to maintain its most natural and
                                  strongest position. This means that the knees and ankles must be bent and
                                  the chin kept well into the chest. The body must be positioned as close to
                                  the load as possible so as to act as a counterweight.
                          3.      Feet: The feet should be apart the width of the hips with one foot slightly in
                                  front of the other so that a natural lead off is obtained.
                          4.      Arms: The arms must be kept as close as possible to the body.

              4.4.2

                          The important factor in manual handling is that a man should know his capabilities
                          and ask for assistance with loads beyond his capabilities. In dual lifting, partners
                          should be approximately the same height and weight so that the load does not
                          become unevenly distributed.

              4.4.3

                          Loads, even when properly lifted, can slip. The man lifting must be prepared for
                          such a possibility and wear the proper protective equipment. Safety footwear is
                          mandatory to protect feet and gloves should be worn to protect hands from
                          laceration or splinters and to give some protection if the fingers are trapped
                          between the load and the other surfaces.




February 1993 - 4.0 Materials Handling                                                                  Page 273
FIGURE III.13: TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS STORE YARD




                                                           Note:   Maximum grid
of
                                                                   driveway 50
' X 150'




February 1993 - 4.0 Materials Handling                                   Page 274
ATTACHMENT III.1: HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATOR LICENSING INFORMATION

GENERAL INFORMATION

All crane and other heavy equipment operators working on Saudi Aramco projects are required to have a
valid heavy equipment operator Saudi Arab Government (SAG) license and a Saudi Aramco Heavy
Equipment Operator Certificate. This applies to Saudi Aramco employees as well as contractor
employees.

Saudi Arabs and non-Saudi citizens employed by Saudi Aramco or contractors working on Saudi Aramco
projects may obtain their SAG license by following the established procedure.

              SAUDI ARAMCO EMPLOYEES (SAUDI AND NON-SAUDI)
              WITHOUT HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE

                          Application forms for SAG Heavy Equipment License are completed and
                          processed at the Saudi Aramco License Unit, Building # 510, Dhahran. (Saudi
                          Aramco employees in all other areas apply to local Saudi Aramco License Unit).
                          After completion of an eye examination and blood test, the applicant is scheduled
                          for an operator competency test by the Heavy Equipment Operator
                          Training/Testing Unit, Dhahran (Tel. 874-1857). Upon successful completion of
                          the test, application forms are returned to the Saudi Aramco License Unit for
                          processing through the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for SAG License
                          issue.

              SAUDI ARAMCO EMPLOYEES (NON-SAUDI)
              WITH HOME COUNTRY HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE

                          Employees with valid home country licenses need only apply through the Saudi
                          Aramco License Unit, Building # 510, Dhahran (Saudi Aramco employees in all
                          other areas apply to their local Saudi Aramco License Unit). After completion of
                          an eye examination and blood test, application forms are forwarded by the Saudi
                          Aramco License Unit for processing to the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for
                          SAG License issue. A company test is not required.

              CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEES (SAUDI AND NON-SAUDI)
              WITHOUT HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE

                          Application for SAG Heavy Equipment License is made directly to the SAG
                          Traffic Department, Dammam.

                          Upon completion of the eye examination and blood test, the contractor company
                          representative contacts the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator
                          Training/Testing Unit (Tel. 874-1857) for scheduling of the competency test.
                          (Application form is to accompany contractor employee to the test site).

                          After the successful completion of the competency test, the test sheet is attached to
                          the application form. The application form is then taken to the SAG Traffic
                          Department, Dammam, for processing and license issue.




February 1993 - 4.0 Materials Handling                                                                 Page 275
              CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEES (NON-SAUDI)
              WITH HOME COUNTRY HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE

                          Contractor employee with a valid home country license need only apply for SAG
                          license to the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for processing and license issue.
                          A competency test is not required for SAG license.

                          On receipt of the SAG license, the contractor company representative contacts the
                          Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Training and Testing Unit (Tel. 874-
                          1857) for scheduling of the Saudi Aramco certification test.




February 1993 - 4.0 Materials Handling                                                             Page 276
IV. Electrical And Radiation




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: IV. Electrical And Radiation   Page 277
1.0 ELECTRICITY
The human senses (smell, taste, hearing, etc.) do not provide a warning of an electrical hazard. The great
majority of electrical accidents result in burns. Fire and explosion from sparks in flammable atmospheres
can and does lead to loss of life and serious damage to property. All electrical installations, no matter
what voltages are used, should always be treated with great caution.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100             Work Permit System

GI 6.012.            Isolation, Lockout And Use of Hold Tags

Power Distribution Instruction:

No. 10.0.            Power Distribution System Operations

No. 11.0.            Hold Orders, Clearances and Permission to Test

No. 50.0.            Safety Grounding

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards:

Electrical Power Manual (SAES-P series)

SAES-B-064           Onshore And Near Shore Pipeline Safety

Operations Instructions Manual:

No. 1.111.           Electrical Connections

NFPA 70:             National Electrical Code

ANSI/IEEE C2-90

                     National Electrical Safety Code

ANSI B30.5. Mobile and Locomotive Cranes

29 CFR 1926          Subpart N - Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators And Conveyors

                     US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety And Health Administration (OSHA)




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Electricity                                           Page 278
1.1            Voltage

               The severity of electric shock is not entirely dependent upon the voltage of the power source.
               The ratio of the voltage to resistance determines the current that will flow through the body
               and the resulting injury.

               In terms of a formula this ratio is:

               Current through the body =         Voltage applied across the body
                                                  Resistance of the body + contact resistance

               The hazard is greater if working conditions are wet or if the worker perspires freely. This
               produces a combination of wet skin and body salt which provides low resistance to current
               flow.

1.2            Temporary Installations

               Distribution of electricity on a construction site is different from a permanent installation. As
               construction work proceeds, the type of equipment in use changes. From excavation to
               completion, there is a constant need for convenient means of connecting equipment. This
               requires a variety of voltages, phases, and current in different places at different times. Load
               requirements will vary considerably. All temporary electrical systems shall conform to the
               National Electrical Code.

               1.2.1

                           The contractor is responsible for the temporary electric supply system on a
                           construction site and the safety measures associated with the National Electrical
                           Code.

               1.2.2

                           Cables on site are subject to rough treatment. Special care should be taken to
                           ensure that the grounding conductor remains intact. If the conducting wire breaks,
                           the supply will not be interrupted under a ground fault condition and the system
                           will no longer be safe. Only UL, FM or other recognized testing lab approved
                           extension cords bearing appropriate lab trademarks shall be used. Damaged or
                           spliced cords are not acceptable to Saudi Aramco.

               1.2.3

                           Special care shall be taken to ensure that the correct fuse or breaker ratings are
                           strictly enforced and that the Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) are
                           installed properly on all circuits.

               1.2.4

                           All installation work must be carried out by qualified, experienced electricians.
                           Before connecting temporary electrical installations to existing installations, prior
                           approval must be obtained from the Saudi Aramco proponent department. This is
                           to ensure that no overloading of electrical devices will occur and system protection
                           will not be compromised.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                         Page 279
               1.2.5

                           A competent person must be made directly responsible for the overall safety of the
                           installation. Its general usage, its maintenance, and any alterations and extensions
                           to the system should be under his control. He must be at the site whenever work is
                           being done. Before any part of a newly installed electrical system or its equipment
                           is energized, it must be thoroughly tested. Safety can be ensured by regular
                           inspection and maintenance.

1.3            Hand Tools and Lighting

               1.3.1

                           Many injuries, fires, and explosions have resulted when extension lights with
                           defective cords or fittings have been used or when bulbs have been broken,
                           exposing the live filament wire to an explosive atmosphere. All electrically
                           operated tools shall be rated and used at a voltage not exceeding 125V. The use of
                           220V is prohibited.

               1.3.2

                           Defective extension lights and electric hand tools shall be repaired or replaced. A
                           defective electrical tool or cord can cause burns, falls as a result of sudden shocks,
                           or even fatalities.

               1.3.3

                           Portable electric tools, extension lights and cords should be inspected each time
                           they are issued and returned. This should be part of a tool store procedure.
                           Frequent random checks should be made where those tools, lights and plugs are
                           being used on site.

                           Portable hand lamps shall comply with the following:

                           (1)     Metal shell, paper-lined lamp holders shall not be used.

                           (2)     Hand lamps shall be equipped with insulated handle.

                           (3)     Substantial lamp guard shall be attached to the handle or holder. Metallic
                                   lamp guards shall be grounded. Three-wire power cords with grounding
                                   conductor shall be used.

               1.3.4

                           Failure of electrical equipment, because of misuse, is a frequent cause of shock.
                           Workers are prone to abuse extension cords by pulling them over sharp metal
                           objects, hanging them across equipment, kicking them, or letting them be run over
                           by industrial equipment. They often strain the cords during use, causing the plug
                           and fixture to part and expose live wires.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                          Page 280
               1.3.5

                           Many accidents occur when lower volt equipment is plugged into higher volt
                           systems. Before any portable tool or extension light is plugged in, the voltage
                           required for the tool or light must be the same as the power source, and the plugs
                           must be checked for damage.

               1.3.6

                           The importance of grounding all portable tools and lights cannot be emphasized
                           too strongly. All non-current carrying metal parts of any electrical equipment must
                           be properly grounded. This will reduce the electrical shock hazard.

               1.3.7

                           In hazardous areas, more stringent rules apply as to the type of equipment which
                           may be used. Explosion proof light fittings for extension lights is one example.
                           As with all work carried out on Saudi Aramco installations, Work Permits must be
                           obtained and the type of equipment to be used discussed and agreed upon before
                           the permit is issued.

               1.3.8       General Precautions:

                           Only qualified electricians should make repairs and carry out maintenance checks.
                           All extension lights must be fitted with protective guards, so if accidentally
                           dropped, the lamp remains intact. Up to a 120 volt maximum rated AC portable
                           lighting system may be used for illuminating inside confined spaces and vessels,
                           provided it is protected by an externally located ground fault circuit interrupter and
                           also meets the provisions of GI 520.001 Section 5.5.5.1 and 520.001-4
                           (Supplement 4) - "Confined Space Entry Procedure" (Abqaiq Plants).

               1.3.9

                           Ground fault circuit interrupters shall be used on all electrical circuits including
                           portable power electrical supplies (see NFPA Handbook of the National Electric
                           Safety Code, Section 305-b for GFCIs) on temporary wiring.

               1.3.10

                           The National Electric Safety Code defines requirements for the construction and
                           use of portable extension and electric cords in industrial service. This code shall be
                           followed by construction groups.

1.4            Work on Live Equipment

               1.4.1

                           Whenever workmen are required to work on energized equipment, the job must be
                           planned thoroughly and the workmen should proceed with caution.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                          Page 281
                           Before any work on live equipment starts, there must be a thorough knowledge of
                           the work involved, personal protective equipment must be available, and all
                           necessary work permits must be obtained.

               1.4.2

                           Employees must never work alone on live equipment. In addition to the man doing
                           the job, there must be another electrician standing by. A foreman or supervisor
                           should also be in attendance while this work is being carried out, and he must
                           know how to isolate the equipment.

               1.4.3

                           Before starting a job, the exact voltages should be known. This is important as it
                           determines the type of personal protection required for the work and the
                           procedures established in the work permit. If there is any doubt about voltages, a
                           check must be made before the work is started.

               1.4.4

                           Work platforms and equipment used near energized equipment shall be properly
                           grounded.

               1.4.5

                           Work on live equipment can be as safe as work on isolated equipment if the
                           following are observed:

                           1      There must be a thorough knowledge of the equipment and the job to be
                                  done.
                           2      If there is any doubt, the advice of the supervisor or responsible person
                                  should be sought.
                           3      The work must be correctly planned before starting.
                           4      Protective equipment must be used correctly.

1.5            Overhead and Underground Cables

               On any construction site, power supplies may have already been installed below ground or
               overhead.

               Contact should be made with the appropriate Saudi Aramco department at the planning stage
               of the job to determine the work permit requirements, route and depth of any underground
               cables and the recommended safe clearances. If re-routing existing cables is necessary, this
               should be done before the main contract starts.

               1.5.1       Overhead Lines
                           (Figure IV.1)

                           High voltage or overhead lines are usually uninsulated. Therefore, any kind of
                           metallic object coming near or in contact with them can cause a hazardous
                           situation. High voltage can easily arc across a considerable distance. (See OSHA
                           29 CFR 1926 Subpart N.)




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                      Page 282
               1.5.2       The Contractor Should Arrange for Power Lines to be:

                           1         Re-routed clear of all construction work or placed underground if possible.
                           2         Made "dead", grounded, and certified as such by Saudi Aramco.
                           3         Protected by barriers and timber or wire "goal-posts", so that no part of any
                                     mobile crane, earth moving equipment, etc. can approach the live cable.
                                     Clearance distances should be agreed upon with Saudi Aramco. Access
                                     below the powerlines shall be restricted by barriers to where the "goal-
                                     posts" are located (see Figure IV.1).

                           The need for caution in working with overhead lines cannot be over-emphasized.
                           High voltage overhead lines have been mistaken for telephone cables.

                           It should never be assumed that there is enough clearance; it should always be
                           proved. It should never be assumed that a cable or line is "dead"; it should always
                           be checked.

                           1.5.2.1       Spacing Between Powerlines and Pipelines

                                         Special precautions are required during installation, operation or
                                         maintenance of above grade or below grade onshore pipelines. (See
                                         SAES-B-064.)

               1.5.3       Underground Cables

                           Normal depth of underground cables varies between 46 centimeters (18 inches)
                           and 0.9 meter (3 feet). (Changes in ground level, due to the work, can mean that
                           the "as built" depth is no longer correct). No mechanical excavations should be
                           started before test trenches have been dug by hand and cable locations established.
                           Unless cables have been laid very deep, heavy vehicles should not be allowed to
                           pass over them.

                           Underground cables, exposed during excavation work should be assumed to be
                           energized and not repositioned or moved until certified to be de-energized.
                           Exposed buried cables in open trenches should be properly supported and the area
                           barricaded.

                           Accidental damage to any cable exposed during excavation shall be immediately
                           reported to Saudi Aramco. The area must be barricaded until the damaged cable
                           has been made safe.

1.6            Overhead Power Transmission and Distribution

               The standards given in this section provide minimum requirements for safety and health
               during construction.

               1.6.1       Initial Inspections, Tests, or Determinations

                           Existing conditions shall be determined before starting work, by an inspection or a
                           test. Such conditions shall include, but not be limited to, energized lines and
                           equipment, condition of poles, and the location of circuits and equipment,
                           including power and communication lines.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                           Page 283
                           Electrical equipment and lines shall be considered energized until determined to be
                           de-energized by testing and grounding.

                           Operating voltage of equipment and lines shall be determined before working on or
                           near energized parts.

               1.6.2       De-energizing Lines and Equipment

                           The procedures outlined in GI 2.100 and GI 6.012 shall be followed, and all
                           circuits will be identified, tagged, locked, and tested.

                           Equipment shall be checked for potential and protective grounds shall be applied.

                           Guards or barriers shall be erected as necessary near to adjacent energized lines.

                           When more than one independent crew needs to work on the same line or
                           equipment at the same time, a separate "clearance" shall be given to each crew by
                           the Saudi Aramco Power Dispatcher, and a prominent tag and lock for each such
                           independent crew shall be placed on the line or equipment by the designated crew
                           leader.

                           Upon completion of work on de-energized lines or equipment, the crew leader
                           shall determine that all members in his crew are clear and that protective grounds
                           installed by his crew have been removed. He shall release his clearance to Saudi
                           Aramco.

               1.6.3       Emergency Procedures and First Aid

                           The Contractor shall provide training or require that his employees are
                           knowledgeable and proficient in the following:

                           1      Procedures involving emergency situations;
                           2      First-aid fundamentals including cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and
                           3      Remote field crews shall have an employee certified in First-Aid.

               1.6.4       Night Work

                           When working at night, spotlights or portable lights for emergency lighting shall be
                           provided as needed to perform the work safely.

               1.6.5       Work Near/Over Water

                           When crews are engaged in work over or near water and when danger of drowning
                           exists, suitable protection such as buoyant work vests shall be worn. Life rings,
                           ropes and at least one skiff shall be provided.

               1.6.6       Hydraulic Fluids

                           All hydraulic fluids used for the insulated sections of derrick trucks, aerial lifts,
                           and hydraulic tools which are used on or around energized lines and equipment
                           shall be of the insulating type.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                         Page 284
               1.6.7       Live-Line Tools (Hot Sticks)

                           Only live-line tool poles having a manufacturer's certification meeting the
                           following requirements shall be used:

                           1      100,000 volts per foot of length for 5 minutes when the tool is made of
                                  fiberglass, or
                           2      75,000 volts per foot of length for 3 minutes when the tool is made of wood;
                                  or

                           All live-line tools shall be visually inspected and wiped clean before use each day.
                           Tools with any hazardous defect shall be removed from service.

               1.6.8       Material Handling

                           1.6.8.1     Unloading

                                       Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms, and similar material, the
                                       load shall be thoroughly examined to ascertain if the load has shifted,
                                       binders or stakes have broken, or the load is otherwise hazardous to
                                       employees.

                           1.6.8.2     Pole Hauling

                                       During pole hauling operations, all loads shall be secured to prevent
                                       displacement and a red flag shall be displayed at the trailing end of the
                                       longest pole.

                                       Precautions shall be exercised to prevent blocking of roadways or
                                       endangering other traffic.

                                       When hauling poles during the hours of darkness, illuminated warning
                                       devices shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole and
                                       haul truck brake lights shall not be obscured.

                           1.6.8.3     Storage

                                       No materials or equipment shall be stored under energized bus,
                                       energized lines, or near energized equipment.

                           1.6.8.4     Framing

                                       During framing operations, employees shall not work under a pole or a
                                       structure suspended by a crane, A-frame, or similar equipment unless
                                       the pole or structure is adequately supported.

                           1.6.8.5     Attaching the Load

                                       The hoist rope shall not be wrapped around the load. This provision
                                       shall not apply to electric construction crews when setting or removing
                                       poles.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                         Page 285
                                     Non-conductive tag lines or other suitable devices shall be used to
                                     control loads being handled by hoisting equipment.

               1.6.9       Grounding for Protection of Workers

                           1.6.9.1   Isolation and Voltage Testing

                                     Equipment to be worked on when it is deenergized shall be isolated
                                     from the system and tested for voltage using test equipment rated for
                                     the system, and be grounded.

                           1.6.9.2   Applying and Removing Grounds
                                     (See Figure IV.2)

                                     Grounding cables shall be connected to ground first, and then the
                                     equipment. Grounding cables shall be installed and removed using hot
                                     sticks or insulating gloves and protective apparel.

                                     Grounding cables shall first be disconnected from the line or
                                     equipment and then be disconnected from ground.

                                     Grounding cables shall be at, or as close as practicable to, the work
                                     location.

                                     Protective grounds shall be installed so that it is not possible for
                                     workers to come in contact with a grounded component and an
                                     ungrounded component simultaneously.

                           1.6.9.3   Grounding Distance

                                     If the work is to be performed at more than one location in a line
                                     section, the line section must be grounded and short circuited at each
                                     end of the line section and the conductor to be worked on shall be
                                     grounded at each work location.

                           1.6.9.4   Removal of Grounds for Testing Purposes

                                     Grounds may be temporarily removed with the permission of the
                                     Power Dispatcher. Extreme caution shall be exercised while the
                                     equipment/line is not grounded.

                           1.6.9.5   Grounding Electrode

                                     When grounding electrodes are utilized, such electrodes shall exhibit
                                     low resistance to ground; thereby, rapidly diminishing the electrical
                                     hazard to personnel. Otherwise, insulated tools (or other operating
                                     equipment) must be used by personnel.

                           1.6.9.6   Grounding Cables And Clamps

                                     Grounding cables and clamps shall be capable of conducting the
                                     anticipated fault current and shall have a minimum size of No. 2 AWG
                                     standard copper.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                    Page 286
               1.6.10      Overhead Lines

                           Prior to climbing poles, ladders, scaffolds, or other elevated structures, an
                           inspection shall be made to determine that the structures are capable of sustaining
                           the additional or unbalanced stresses to which they will be subjected.

                           Where poles or structures may be unsafe for climbing, they shall not be climbed
                           until made safe by guying, bracing, or other adequate means.

                           Before installing or removing wire or cable, strains to which poles and structures
                           will be subjected shall be considered and necessary action taken to prevent failure
                           of supporting structures.

                           When setting, moving, or removing poles using cranes, derricks, gin poles, A-
                           frames, or other mechanized equipment near energized lines or equipment,
                           precautions shall be taken to avoid contact with energized lines or equipment.

                           Unless using protective equipment suitable for the voltage involved, employees
                           standing on the ground shall avoid contacting equipment or machinery working
                           adjacent to energized lines or equipment.

                           Lifting equipment shall be bonded to an effective ground or it shall be considered
                           energized and barricaded when utilized near energized equipment or lines.

                           Pole holes shall not be left unattended or unguarded.        Even in desert areas,
                           unguarded pole holes are a hazard.

                           Tag lines shall be of a non-conductive type when used near energized lines.

                           1.6.10.1    Metal Tower Construction

                                       When working in unstable material, the excavation for pad or pile-type
                                       footings in excess of 1.52 meters (5 feet) deep shall be either sloped to
                                       the angle of repose as required or shored if entry is required. Ladders
                                       shall be provided for access to pad or pile-type footing excavations in
                                       excess of 1.2 meters (4 feet). (See Section II, 2.4, Excavations,
                                       Trenching, And Shoring for depth and slope criteria.)

                                       When working in unstable material, provision shall be made for
                                       cleaning out auger-type footings without requiring an employee to
                                       enter the footing unless shoring is used to protect the employee.

                                       A designated employee shall be used in directing mobile equipment
                                       adjacent to footing excavations.

                                       No one shall be permitted to remain in the footing while equipment is
                                       being spotted for placement.

                                       Where necessary to assure the stability of mobile equipment, the
                                       location of use for such equipment shall be graded and leveled.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                          Page 287
                                      Tower assembly shall be carried out with a minimum exposure of
                                      employees to falling objects when working at two or more levels on a
                                      tower.

                                      Guy lines shall be used as necessary to maintain sections or parts of
                                      sections in position and to reduce the possibility of tipping.

                                      Members and sections being assembled shall be adequately supported.

                                      No one shall be permitted under a tower which is in the process of
                                      erection or assembly, except as may be required to guide and secure
                                      the section being set.

                                      When erecting towers using hoisting equipment adjacent to energized
                                      transmission lines, the lines shall be de-energized when practical. If
                                      the lines are not de-energized, extraordinary caution shall be exercised
                                      to maintain the minimum clearance distances required.

                                      Erection shall be set on firm level foundations and when the cranes are
                                      so equipped, outriggers shall be used.

                                      Tag lines shall be utilized to maintain control of tower sections being
                                      raised and positioned, except where the use of such lines would create
                                      a greater hazard.

                                      The loadline shall not be detached from a tower section until the
                                      section is adequately secured.

                                      Except during emergency restoration procedures, erection shall be
                                      discontinued in the event of high wind or other adverse weather
                                      conditions which would make the work hazardous.

                                      Equipment and rigging shall be regularly inspected and maintained in
                                      safe operating condition.

                                      Adequate traffic control shall be maintained when crossing highways
                                      and railways with equipment.

                                      An employee shall be utilized to determine that required clearance is
                                      maintained in moving equipment under or near energized lines.

                           1.6.10.2   Stringing/Removing De-energized Conductors

                                      When stringing or removing de-energized conductors, the provisions
                                      of the following paragraphs shall be complied with.

                                      Prior to stringing operations, a briefing shall be held setting forth the
                                      plan of operation and specifying the type of equipment to be used,
                                      grounding devices and procedures to be followed, crossover methods
                                      to be employed, and the clearance authorization required.

                                      Where there is a possibility of the conductor accidentally contacting
                                      an energized circuit or receiving a dangerous induced voltage buildup,




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                        Page 288
                                  to further protect the employee from the hazards of the conductor, the
                                  conductor being installed or removed shall be grounded.

                                  When the existing line has been de-energized, proper clearance
                                  authorization shall be secured and the line grounded on both sides of
                                  the crossover, or the line being strung or removed shall be worked on
                                  as if energized.

                                  When crossing over energized conductors in excess of 600 volts, rope
                                  nets or guard structures shall be installed unless provision is made to
                                  isolate or insulate the workman or the energized conductor. Where
                                  practical the automatic re-closing feature of the circuit interrupting
                                  device shall be made inoperative. In addition, the line being strung
                                  shall be grounded on either side of the crossover or and worked on as
                                  if energized.

                                  Conductors being strung in or removed shall be kept under positive
                                  control by the use of adequate tension reels, guard structures, tielines,
                                  or other means to prevent accidental contact with energized circuits.

                                  Guard structure members shall be sound and of adequate dimension
                                  and strength, and adequately supported.

                                  Anchors, riggings, and hoists shall be of ample capacity to prevent
                                  loss of the lines.

                                  The manufacturer's load rating shall not be exceeded for stringing
                                  lines, pulling lines, sock connections, and all load-bearing hardware
                                  and accessories.

                                  Pulling lines and accessories shall be inspected regularly and replaced
                                  or repaired when damaged or when dependability is doubtful.

                                  Conductor grips shall not be used on wire rope unless designed for this
                                  application.

                                  While the conductor or pulling line is being pulled (in motion)
                                  employees shall not be permitted directly under overhead operations,
                                  nor shall any employee be permitted on the crossarm.

                                  A transmission clipping crew shall have a minimum of two structures
                                  clipped in between the crew and the conductor being sagged. When
                                  working on bare conductors, clipping and tying crews shall work
                                  between grounds at all times. The grounds shall remain intact until the
                                  conductors are clipped in, except on dead end structures.

                                  Except during emergency restoration procedures, work from structures
                                  shall be discontinued when adverse weather (such as high wind or ice
                                  on structures) makes the work hazardous.

                                  Stringing and clipping operations shall be discontinued during
                                  electrical storms.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                    Page 289
                                      Reel handling equipment, including pulling and braking machines,
                                      shall have ample capacity, operate smoothly, and be leveled and
                                      aligned in accordance with the manufacturer's operating instructions.

                                      Reliable communications between the reel tender and pulling rig
                                      operator shall be provided.

                                      Each pull shall be snubbed or dead ended at both ends before
                                      subsequent pulls.

                           1.6.10.3   Stringing Adjacent to Energized Lines

                                      Prior to stringing parallel to an existing energized transmission line, it
                                      shall be determined whether dangerous induced voltage buildups will
                                      occur in the system, particularly during switching and ground fault
                                      conditions.

                                      When stringing adjacent to energized lines, the tension stringing
                                      method or other methods which preclude unintentional contact
                                      between the lines being pulled and any employee shall be used.

                                      All pulling and tensioning equipment shall be isolated, insulated, or
                                      effectively grounded.

                                      A ground shall be installed between the tensioning reel setup and the
                                      first structure in order to ground each bare conductor, sub-conductor,
                                      and overhead ground conductor during stringing operations.

                                      During stringing operations, each bare conductor, sub-conductor, and
                                      overhead ground conductor shall be grounded at the first tower
                                      adjacent to both the tensioning and pulling setup and in increments so
                                      that no point is more than 3.218 kilometers (two miles) from a ground.

                                         The grounds shall be left in place until conductor installation is
                                          completed.

                                         Such grounds shall be removed at the last phase of aerial cleanup.

                                         Except for moving type grounds, the grounds shall be placed and
                                          removed with a hot stick.

                                         Conductors, sub-conductors, and overhead ground conductors
                                          shall be grounded at all dead-end or catch-off points.

                                      A ground shall be located at each side and within 3.2 meters (10 feet)
                                      of working areas where conductors, or overhead ground conductors
                                      are being spliced at ground level. The two ends to be spliced shall be
                                      bonded to each other. It is recommended that splicing be carried out
                                      on either an insulated platform or on a conductive metallic grounding
                                      mat bonded to both grounds. When a grounding mat is used, it is
                                      recommended that the grounding mat be roped off and an insulated
                                      walkway provided for access to the mat. (See Power Distribution
                                      Instruction No. 50.)




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                         Page 290
                                      All conductors, sub-conductors, and overhead ground conductors shall
                                      be bonded to the tower at any isolated tower where it may be
                                      necessary to complete work on the transmission line.

                                          Work on dead-end towers shall require grounding on all de-
                                           energized lines.

                                          Grounds may be removed as soon as the work is completed,
                                           provided that the line is not left open circuited at the isolated
                                           tower at which work is being completed.

                                      When performing work from the structures, clipping crews and all
                                      others working on conductors, sub-conductors, or overhead ground
                                      conductors shall be protected by individual grounds installed at every
                                      work location.

               1.6.11      Underground Lines

                           Warning signs shall be promptly placed when covers of manholes, hand holes, or
                           vaults are removed.

                           Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or an unvented
                           vault, it shall be promptly protected with a barrier, temporary cover, or other
                           suitable guard.

                           When work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault, GI 2.100, Work
                           Permit System, shall be enforced.

                                 No entry shall be permitted unless forced ventilation is provided or the
                                  atmosphere is found to be safe by testing for oxygen deficiency and the
                                  presence of explosive gases or fumes.

                                 Where unsafe conditions are detected, by testing or other means, the work
                                  shall be ventilated and otherwise made safe before entry.

                                 Provisions shall be made for an adequate continuous supply of air.

                           1.6.11.1   Work in Manholes

                                      While work is being performed in manholes, an employee shall be
                                      available in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance as
                                      required. This shall not preclude the employee in the immediate
                                      vicinity from occasionally entering a manhole to provide assistance,
                                      other than for emergencies. This requirement does not preclude a
                                      qualified employee, working alone, from entering for brief periods of
                                      time, a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service,
                                      for the purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or
                                      similar work if such work can be performed safely. However,
                                      someone on the surface must be aware of this type of entry and know
                                      the expected duration of the task.

                                      Before entering or using open flames in a manhole excavation in an
                                      area where combustible gases or liquids may be present, such as near a




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                        Page 291
                                       gasoline service station, GOSP, refinery, etc., the atmosphere of the
                                       manhole or excavation shall be tested and found safe or cleared of the
                                       combustible gases or liquids (See GI 2.100).

                           1.6.11.2    Trenching and Excavating

                                       During excavation or trenching, in order to prevent the exposure of
                                       employees to the hazards created by damage to dangerous
                                       underground facilities, efforts shall be made to determine the location
                                       of such facilities and work in accordance with GI 2.100, Work Permit
                                       System.

                                       When underground facilities are exposed (electric, gas, water,
                                       telephone, etc.) they shall be protected as necessary to avoid damage.

                                       When multiple cables exist in an excavation, the cable to be worked
                                       on shall be identified by electrical means unless its identity is obvious
                                       by reason of distinctive appearance.

                                       Before cutting into a cable or opening a splice, the cable shall be
                                       identified and verified by the proponent department.

                                       When working on buried cable or on cable in manholes, metallic
                                       sheath continuity shall be maintained by bonding across the opening or
                                       by equivalent means.

               1.6.12      Construction in Energized Substations

                           When construction work is performed in an energized substation, authorization
                           shall be obtained from the local power service dispatcher and a work permit shall
                           be issued. (See GI 2.100)

                           When work is to be done in an energized substation, safety precautions shall be
                           detailed in the work permit (See GI 2.100).

                           Extreme caution shall be exercised in the handling of busbars, tower steel,
                           materials, and equipment in the vicinity of energized facilities.

                           1.6.12.1    Barricades and Barriers

                                       Barricades or barriers shall be installed to prevent accidental contact
                                       with energized lines or equipment.

                                       Signs indicating the hazard shall be posted near the barricade or
                                       barrier.

                           1.6.12.2    Control Panels

                                       Work on or adjacent to energized control panels shall be performed by
                                       designated employees.

                                       Precaution shall be taken to prevent accidental operation of relays or
                                       other protective devices due to jarring, vibration, or improper wiring.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                         Page 292
                           1.6.12.3   Mechanized Equipment

                                      Use of vehicles, gin poles, cranes, and other equipment in restricted or
                                      hazardous areas shall at all times be controlled by designated
                                      employees.

                                      All mobile cranes and derricks shall be effectively grounded when
                                      being moved or operated in close proximity to energized lines or
                                      equipment, or the equipment shall be considered energized. (See
                                      OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart N.)

                                      Fenders shall not be required for low-boys used for transporting large
                                      electrical equipment, transformers or breakers.

                           1.6.12.4   Substation Fences

                                      When a substation fence must be expanded or removed for
                                      construction purposes, a temporary fence affording similar protection,
                                      when the site is unattended, shall be provided. Adequate bonding and
                                      grounding interconnections shall be maintained between temporary
                                      fence and permanent fence.

                                      All gates to all unattended substations shall be locked, except when
                                      work is in progress.

1.7            Electric Shock

               Speed is essential in dealing with any electrical accident. A copy of "The Treatment for
               Electric Shock" placard in Arabic and English should be prominently displayed so that
               everyone knows what to do in an emergency. Employees will be trained in First Aid and
               cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

               In brief, the sequence for dealing with an electrical accident is:

               1     If at all possible, switch off the power supply. If this is not instantly possible, release
                     the victim from contact with the conductor by using dry gloves, dry blanket, dry wood,
                     dry clothing, rubber sheets, or properly insulated equipment.
               2     If breathing has stopped, begin CPR and continue as necessary.
               3     Call for first aid assistance, a doctor, and an ambulance. The Saudi Aramco emergency
                     number is 110.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                                         Page 293
FIGURE IV.1: TEMPORARY CROSSING FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT


               Overhead power lines are usually uninsulated and any kind of
               metallic object coming near or in contact with them can cause a
               hazardous situation.     High voltage can easily arc across
               considerable distance. Overhead lines should therefore be re-
               routed, "made dead" or protected by timber "goal posts" and
               barriers. Clearance distances should be agreed upon with Saudi
               Aramco before work starts.




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                  Page 294
FIGURE IV.2 PROPER USE OF INSULATING TOOLS AND PROTECTIVE APPAREL

Note: Grounding Cables Shall Be Isolated And Removed Using Insulating Tools And Protective Apparel




February 1993 - 1.0 Electricity                                                            Page 295
2.0 IONIZING RADIATION
Ionizing industrial radiation, such as x-rays generated by equipment or gamma rays emitted
spontaneously by radioactive materials, are widely used in industry for non-destructive testing, e.g.,
testing of welds in pipes and pressure vessels, without damaging the material. The material tested does
not retain any radioactivity when testing is completed.

For all practical purposes, the radiation produced by x-ray equipment or emitted by radioactive sources
are the same. X-rays and gamma rays both have properties which should be understood. Even though
they penetrate the body, they cannot be perceived by any of our five senses; they can be absorbed and
scattered by matter; they travel in straight lines at the speed of light; they ionize gases; they affect
photographic emulsions; and by far the most important, they can be harmful to the living cells of the
body.

INSTRUCTIONS AND FORMS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

150.003               Ionizing Radiation Protection

00-AID-08             Radiation Safety Manual

Saudi Aramco Forms:

Saudi Aramco 2654              Personal Radiation Exposure

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings:

AB-36895              Radiation Warning Sign

2.1           Methods of Protection Against Radiation

              Distance, time, and shielding are the usual methods of reducing radiation exposure.

              2.1.1       Distance

                          Distance is an effective method of protection because gamma and x-rays obey the
                          inverse square law, that is, the radiation intensity decreases with the inverse square
                          of the distance. Conversely, dose rates at close distances can be extremely high,
                          even for low activity sources. It is essential, therefore, that unshielded sources are
                          kept at a sufficient distance from personnel so as not to pose a health hazard to
                          them.

              2.1.2       Time

                          Time is a useful method of protection because high dose rates can be accepted over
                          very short periods of time. However, the cumulative dose must remain at
                          acceptable limits given in GI 150.003-2.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Ionizing Radiation Page 296
              2.1.3       Shielding

                          To lessen harmful radiation, materials of high density, such as lead, depleted
                          uranium, or tungsten, are used to absorb emitted radiation.

                          In the use of x-ray equipment, precautions against emitted radiation are necessary
                          until the electric power is turned off and locked out. On the other hand,
                          radioactive materials constantly emit radiation and cannot be switched off.
                          Consequently, to absorb unwanted radiation and facilitate handling, sealed sources
                          are housed in shielded containers or bunkers.

2.2           Classification of Personnel and Exposure Limits

              In order to control human exposure to industrial radiation, all employees and contractors are
              classified as either radiation workers or non-radiation workers according to their training and
              need to use radiation sources. Classification does not guarantee safety; safety procedures and
              adequate equipment must be used at all times.

              2.2.1       Radiation Workers

                          A radiation worker is an occupationally exposed person or employee whose job
                          involves routine use of ionizing radiation and who has reasonable chance of being
                          exposed to radiation from a radioactive source.

                          Radiation workers are further categorized as Competent Persons or Radiographers.
                          Competent Persons do not normally use radiation sources, but by training and
                          experience are capable of supervising both routine operations and emergency
                          situations involving radiation. Radiographers are expected to safely use radiation
                          sources in the course of their work and must be in possession of a valid "Saudi
                          Aramco Permit to Use Material/Equipment Producing Ionizing Radiation" before
                          they can work with a radioactive source.

                          Radiographers must wear two personal dosimeters when working with radiation, a
                          direct-reading pocket dosimeter and an integrating permanent dosimeter (film
                          badge or thermoluminiscent dosimeter [TLD]).

              2.2.2       Non-Radiation Workers

                          Non-radiation workers should not receive more than those dose limits given in GI
                          150.003-2.

              2.2.3       Exposure Limits

                          Radiation doses to workers should always be kept as low as reasonably achievable
                          (ALARA). Under no circumstances shall the doses exceed those limits given in GI
                          150.003-2 for occupational or non-occupational people.

                          Special controls (see GI 150.003-2) are imposed on persons who are, or are
                          capable of being, pregnant. No occupational exposure is allowed for persons less
                          than 18 years of age.




February 1993 - 2.0 Ionizing Radiation                                                               Page 297
                          Over exposure shall be reported to the Saudi Aramco proponent, the Occupational
                          Medicine Services Unit, and the Loss Prevention Department.

2.3           Responsibilities for Safe Handling

              The Radiation Protection Committee (see GI 150.003) has full responsibility in all matters
              concerning the safe use, storage, and transportation of industrial sealed sources and x-ray
              machines used on Saudi Aramco property.

              2.3.1       Contractor

                          The contractor appoints competent persons to be responsible for the immediate
                          supervision and the enforcement of instructions and standards. Personnel involved
                          in performing non-destructive testing must be certified and hold a valid "Permit to
                          Use Material/Equipment Producing Ionizing Radiation".

              2.3.2       Competent Person

                          Each radiographer will check at the beginning of each shift on the zeroing and
                          recharging of dosimeters and on the condition of the equipment. A competent
                          person familiar with all of Saudi Aramco radiation use requirements will make
                          field audits to ensure compliance with Company instructions and standards. He
                          must report the results of these audits to the applicable department responsible for
                          the operation. Also he must be familiar with all equipment and procedures so that
                          the proper corrective action can be taken in any emergency situation involving
                          radioactive equipment.

              2.3.3.      Radiographer

                          At the start of each shift, radiographers must ensure that all equipment is in safe
                          working order. All malfunctions must be reported to the supervisor or Competent
                          Person immediately. The radiographer must also make sure that he is wearing a
                          valid TLD or film badge and a direct-reading pocket dosimeter which has been
                          charged and zeroed. One radiation monitoring instrument must be available for
                          each source in use. Equipment must be transported to the work site with safety
                          locks in place. Under no circumstance is equipment to be transported in an
                          unassembled or open condition.

                          Upon arrival at the job site and prior to operating with any sealed source, the
                          radiographer must ensure that non-radiation workers are not subject to radiation
                          levels that would exceed that which is permitted. Radiation areas must contain
                          radiation warning signs (see Figure IV.3) and be clearly displayed around the
                          circumference of the radiation area. In addition, in populated work areas, a rope or
                          tape barrier shall be erected around the radiation area. The area will be monitored
                          with approved survey meter to ensure safe area for non-radiation workers is
                          maintained. Further guidance on industrial radiography is provided in GI 150.003-
                          4 and 00.AIP-08.

                          A weekly report on the condition of all equipment should be passed to the
                          supervisor.




February 1993 - 2.0 Ionizing Radiation                                                                Page 298
2.4           Shipping and Transportation

              Government Permits are required for shipping radioactive materials into and out of Saudi
              Arabia. Additional information is available from Purchasing Services Division.

              Transporting radiation sources to work locations requires a locked container located out of
              the passenger compartment. The vehicle shall have radiation signs on the front and rear.

2.5           Storage Areas

              Upon completion of work or at the end of each work period, every sealed source must be
              returned to a storage area approved by the Saudi Aramco Radiation Protection Committee.
              Storage is usually within fenced area. All permanent or temporary storage areas (bunkers)
              must be approved of by the Saudi Aramco Radiation Protection Committee. Sources may
              not be stored in the back of a truck whether or not they are under lock and key. Radiation
              readings must be taken at the perimeter of the storage area and the radiation level must be
              within the acceptable limits given in GI 150.003. Radiation signs must be fixed to the
              barriers of all storage areas. (See Figure IV.3.)

                    A log shall be maintained of radiation sources in storage, logged in or out, by source
                     and responsible competent person in charge of source.




February 1993 - 2.0 Ionizing Radiation                                                             Page 299
FIGURE IV.3: STANDARD SIGN - RADIATION




February 1993 - 2.0 Ionizing Radiation   Page 300
V. Chemicals And Operations




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: V. Chemicals And Operations   Page 301
1.0 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES
Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are now being widely used in the construction industry. The
precautions covered in this section are directed to those industrial operators who handle these gases, i.e.,
stores personnel and the actual operators using the gases. LPG is a term applied to combinations of
hydrocarbons known under various trade names and also widely known as propane and butane.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 355.020          Control of Compressed Gas Cylinders

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards:

SAES-D-5            Liquefied Petroleum Gas Equipment, Installation

SAES-B.057          Safety Requirements: Refrigerated and Pressure Storage Vessels

Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual:

Part 1.7            Liquid Petroleum Gas

American National Standards:

NFPA 54-88          Fuel Gas Code

ANSI A10.10-81

                    Safety Requirements for Temporary and Portable Space Heating Devices & Equipment
                    Used in the Construction Industry

NFPA 58-89          Liquefied Petroleum Gases, Storage and Handling

1.1           General

              These gases are colorless, heavier than air, and normally odorless, but for commercial usage,
              an odorizing agent is added for the obvious reason of facilitating detection in the event of
              accidental escape of the gas.

              At normal temperatures, they are gaseous and can be changed into a liquid by the application
              of moderate pressure. In the liquid form, relatively large quantities of LPG can be safely
              transported and stored in suitably designed containers. The approximate ratios of gas
              volume to liquid volume are 275:1 for propane and 240:1 for butane.

              Both gases are heavier than air at normal temperatures. Any leakage will form a gas cloud
              which will settle at the lowest possible level. It may ignite if a flame or sparks are present.
              This could happen at some considerable distance from the source of leakage. The gases form
              an explosive mixture with air, and they react vigorously with oxidizing materials. These
              gases can be highly dangerous; if the container is exposed to heat or flame, there is a high




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Liquefied Petroleum Gases                                Page 302
              risk of explosion. To reduce the risk of explosion, the cylinders must be equipped with relief
              valves or fusible plugs.

1.2           Storage

              1.2.1

                          Cylinders, whether empty or full, should be stored under cover for protection
                          against the elements. The storage place should be detached from any other
                          buildings and constructed of non-combustible material. It should preferably be a
                          well-ventilated one-story building with all doors leading directly to the outside.

                          LPG cylinders must be stored at least 6.1 meters (20 feet) away from oxygen or
                          oxidizers or must be separated from them by a fire wall rated at 30 minutes.

              1.2.2

                          The building should be fenced-off and signs should be displayed both in Arabic
                          and English: "No Smoking".

                          Water and dry chemical fire extinguishers shall be available.

              1.2.3

                          Natural ventilation points should be positioned at both high and low levels.

              1.2.4

                          All electrical fixtures should be of an explosion-proof type.

              1.2.5

                          All gas valves, fittings, connections, and piping shall be made of stainless steel,
                          brass or copper; rubber/plastic hoses are prohibited.

1.3           Handling of Cylinders

              1.3.1

                          Cylinders must not be dropped or allowed to come into violent contact with each
                          other.

              1.3.2

                          They must be stored and used in an upright position, thus preventing the liquid
                          from passing through the relief valve regulator and into the equipment.




February 1993 - 1.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases                                                            Page 303
              1.3.3

                          They must not be placed in or near excavations or any low level area.

              1.3.4

                          They must be placed on level ground and secured to prevent accidental tipping
                          over.

              1.3.5

                          Care should be taken that the valve assemblies are not damaged. The main valve
                          should be closed and the valve cap in position when the cylinder is not in use.

              1.3.6

                          Smoking is not permitted when handling cylinders.

1.4           Leakage

              1.4.1

                          Cylinders, valves, connections, hoses, and pipings should be regularly inspected
                          for damage or leakage. Detection can be carried out by the following methods, if
                          flammable gas meter is unavailable:

                          1   Smelling
                          2   Touching:         Leaking cylinder may be colder than those around it.
                          3   Listening:        Sound of escaping gas.
                          4   Looking:          Localized condensation or frosting.

              1.4.2

                          Small leaks may be confirmed by using soapy water.

              1.4.3

                          A leaking cylinder must be immediately removed to an open space, clear of all
                          buildings and people or any potential source of ignition.

              1.4.4

                          The cylinder must be placed with the leak uppermost.




February 1993 - 1.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases                                                          Page 304
              1.4.5

                          The supplier must be notified immediately.

1.5           Transportation

              1.5.1

                          Full or empty cylinders which are loaded on vehicles must be placed in an upright
                          position, be adequately secured to prevent movement, and have valve caps in
                          place.

              1.5.2

                          The vehicle should have fire fighting and first aid equipment.

              1.5.3

                          The vehicle must also display all the necessary warning notices.

1.6           Operation

              1.6.1

                          In permanent or semi-permanent installations, the cylinder must be placed outside
                          the building out of direct sunlight and the gas piped to appliances inside.

              1.6.2

                          The cylinder must be secured in an upright position, away from excavation, pits,
                          and other low lying areas.

              1.6.3

                          The regulator and other equipment is to be connected and a test made to ensure
                          that all joints are gas tight.

              1.6.4

                          The regulator capacity must be suitable for the equipment being used.

              1.6.5

                          Before lighting, a check is to be made to ensure that there is sufficient ventilation
                          for the burner and that all combustible materials are removed from the work area.

              1.6.6

                          Once the burner has been lit, it should burn with a steady blue flame with blue-
                          green base cones.




February 1993 - 1.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases                                                          Page 305
              1.6.7

                          A dry chemical fire extinguisher must be readily available at the work area.

              1.6.8

                          Shut off valves shall be installed at the main tank supply and at the operating
                          source. (See Loss Prevention Booklet, "Hazards of Gas Cylinders")

1.7           Action in Case of Fire

              1.7.1

                          When cylinders are exposed to severe fire conditions and are engulfed in flames,
                          no attempt should be made to extinguish the fire. In such condition, cylinders are
                          likely to explode immediately.

              1.7.2

                          The action to be taken in such an instance is to evacuate the area immediately and
                          call the Fire Protection Department.

              1.7.3

                          Cylinders which have been exposed to fire conditions must be adequately cooled
                          with water before any attempt is made to remove them.

              1.7.4

                          If cylinders are equipped with automatic relief valves and the fire exposure is
                          severe, ignited jets of gas from these valves can extend as far as 6 meters (20 feet).

              1.7.5

                          In the case of a small fire arising from gas leakage, it is possible to extinguish the
                          fire by immediately turning off the cylinder valve. The cylinder should be
                          approached from the opposite direction to the source of fire.

              1.7.6

                          If a fire does not directly involve other cylinders in the vicinity, water hoses played
                          on those cylinders will prevent increased internal pressure and minimize the risk of
                          explosion.

              1.7.7

                          All cylinders which have been involved in a fire must be returned immediately to
                          the supplier, alerting the supplier that the cylinder was involved in a fire.




February 1993 - 1.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases                                                            Page 306
1.8           Bulk Installations

              Before any bulk storage installation is undertaken, the LPG supplier should be consulted on
              the size of the tank required and the most suitable fittings for that particular installation,
              including relief capacity.

              1.8.1

                          Temporary tanks are to be installed above ground on a dry, hard foundation away
                          from drains, culverts, or hollows where it would be possible for any leaking gas to
                          collect.

              1.8.2

                          Tanks should not be exposed to heat or direct rays of the sun and they must be
                          adequately protected against accidental or unauthorized interference.

              1.8.3

                          Only trained personnel are to install bulk tanks and equipment. All items used
                          must be of approved design and comply with the appropriate standards.

              1.8.4

                          All pipeline systems must be tested to a safe working pressure after completion of
                          the assembly.

              1.8.5

                          Fire water protection shall be provided.

1.9           First Aid

              If LPG has been inhaled, the affected person must be removed from the area, kept warm and
              rested, and not allowed to move about. If the affected person is not breathing, mouth-to-
              mouth resuscitation should be applied. No attempt should be made to give an unconscious
              person anything to drink. If the person is breathing, oxygen must be administered by a
              competent person. If liquid has gone to the eyes, they must be thoroughly washed out with
              water.

              Medical aid must be obtained as soon as possible.




February 1993 - 1.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases                                                        Page 307
2.0 PLANT OPERATIONS
The safe processing and movement of oil from underground to ship or transmission pipeline is the
primary Saudi Aramco objective. Any construction operation which could affect the safety of oil
processing and movement must be planned and performed in accordance with the operating procedures of
the area in which the job is located.

Every plant area in Saudi Aramco operations has a specific set of operating instructions and the operating
supervisor for that area has full responsibility for safety precautions. With this responsibility, he also has
authority to issue work permits and stop any work if it is not in accordance with proper procedures.

It is therefore necessary for anyone expecting to work in an area where oil or gas is handled to know the
rules and regulations and obey them.

Failure to follow the operating rules can result in not only destruction of Saudi Aramco property but also
death of construction and operating personnel. This type of disaster must be prevented.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100             Work Permit System

GI 2.710             Mechanical Completion & Performance Acceptance of Plant/Unit

GI 441.014           Repair Procedures on Hydrocarbon Pipelines

SAES-A-005           Safety Instruction Sheet

Schedule 'D':

                     Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Plant Operations

2.1           Additional Information On Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards

              There are a number of additional instructions and standards which apply to construction
              operations, either inside or outside Restricted Areas. The contractor must determine which
              of these apply to him and ensure that his supervisory staff is familiar with them. This can be
              accomplished through discussions with operations management for the area and with the
              construction engineer. A meeting of all concerned prior to starting a job shall be conducted
              and a Hazard Identification Plan shall be prepared for review by Saudi Aramco Loss
              Prevention Department.

              Because of the large number of instructions which might be applicable to a specific job, it is
              not practical to list all of them. The following, however, will be helpful in locating
              applicable instructions and standards.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Plant Operations                                         Page 308
              2.1.1       General Instruction Manual

                          This manual is one which provides general instructions applicable to all Saudi
                          Aramco areas and operations. The contractor will find most of the instructions
                          applying to him in this manual.

              2.1.2       Producing Instruction Manual

                          This manual is designed to provide producing operating personnel with
                          instructions on operating practices and procedures for specific operations. The
                          contractor would find it useful to know in advance what these procedures are and
                          how they affect him.

              2.1.3       Refinery Instruction Manual

                          This manual is designed for use in refinery operations. Its design and use is similar
                          to the Producing Instruction Manual except that it applies to refinery operations.

              2.1.4       Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards

                          These provide detailed instructions on how to do specific jobs and establish
                          minimum standards to follow. The contractor must use all applicable engineering
                          standards in the performance of his job. Failure to do so will result in immediate
                          shutdown, a delay for which the contractor will be responsible. The Saudi Aramco
                          construction engineer is familiar with the Engineering Standards and will assist the
                          contractor. Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention personnel will advise and provide
                          guidance on fire and safety problems.

2.2           Work Permit System

              Any contractor planning to do work in a restricted area must obtain a work permit from the
              operations supervisor for the area.

              To obtain this permit, the contractor must have personnel with a valid certificate to receive
              work permits. GI. 2.100, Work Permit System, provides the information needed to obtain
              such certificates and explains how to use them.

              The work permit is a written permission to proceed with the work in accordance with the
              plans and the restrictions written on the form. Without a proper permit, work will not be
              allowed in the area. (See Work Permit System, Section II.1 of this Manual.)

2.3           Operation of Plant Equipment

              It is expressly forbidden for any construction personnel to operate any valves, switches, push
              buttons, or other devices in an operating area. If the work dictates such action, the contractor
              personnel must call the operations supervisor to perform the service.

              If the job involves work on equipment which is in service, a specific set of written
              procedures will have to be prepared and approved in advance by Operating and Safety
              personnel. The contractor must strictly follow these procedures. No deviations will be
              permitted without the prior approval of the operation supervisor. Close contractor
              supervision will be required in these types of jobs.




February 1993 - 2.0 Plant Operations                                                                   Page 309
2.4           Shutdown and Maintenance in Plant Operations

              Shutting down a plant is the sole responsibility of operating personnel. Construction
              personnel should not, under any circumstances, be involved in any operational activity.

              In certain emergency situations, it may be necessary for the contractor to shut down the job
              and even move his equipment to permit access for operating and maintenance personnel.
              This emergency activity must be done as requested.

2.5           Commissioning

              GI 2.710, Mechanical Completion and Performance Acceptance of Plant/Unit, outlines the
              procedures and requirements for accepting new plants or additions to plants after they have
              been completed by the contractor. This is to assure that the plant is safe to operate in every
              respect. The contractor should familiarize himself with this instruction before he starts work.

              If there is any question on the fire and safety aspects of this instruction, the contractor should
              contact the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department for clarification and assistance.

2.6           Emergency Procedures: Saudi Aramco Disaster Plan

              It is necessary for all contractors to familiarize themselves with the Disaster Control Plan for
              the plant and area in which the job is located. Each person working for the contractor must
              know exactly what to do when the emergency evacuation or stop work alarms are sounded
              and do it without delay.

              The Disaster Control Plan does not normally require the assistance of any construction
              personnel. Saudi Aramco personnel are trained to handle the emergency.

              If the emergency is the result of a construction operation, construction personnel will notify
              operating personnel immediately. The operating personnel will initiate alarm procedures and
              direct activities in controlling the emergency.

              When the emergency alarm is sounded for any reason, all contractor personnel will
              immediately shut down their job, make it safe, and proceed in an orderly manner to the
              designated assembly point. They will be checked out by Security and should assemble at a
              point outside the area and await further instructions from the Saudi Aramco Disaster
              Commander.

              Periodically, Saudi Aramco holds Disaster Drills to ensure the smooth functioning of its
              Disaster Plan. The contractor is required to participate in these drills just as if it were an
              actual emergency.




February 1993 - 2.0 Plant Operations                                                                    Page 310
              2.6.1       Gas Release Emergency Procedures

                          If there is a reason to suspect a gas release in the area through which you are
                          driving:

                          1.      Immediately shut off the vehicle engine and do not try to restart it.
                          2.      Check the wind direction by looking at the windsock.
                          3.      Get out of the vehicle and walk to a safe location generally in a crosswind
                                  direction away from the point of release.
                          4.      Inform plant operation employees of the situation.
                          5.      Do not go and investigate, leave this to operations.




February 1993 - 2.0 Plant Operations                                                                    Page 311
3.0 PRESSURE TESTING
It is essential that safe practices be observed during pressure testing, due to the potential hazards
associated with high pressure liquids and gases.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 2.100.            Work Permit System

GI 2.102.            Pressure Testing Safely

GI 2.710             Mechanical Completion And Performance Acceptance Of Plant/Unit

GI 432.00            Pipeline Hydrotest Water Disposal

GI 434.000           Pipeline Repair and Maintenance

GI 447.002           Pressure Relief Valves - New Installation, Change in Set Pressure, or Retirement
                     from Service

GI 447.003.          Pressure Relief Valves - Routine Test, Inspection, Quality Assurance And Regulation

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards:

SAES-K-001           Refrigerant Piping

SAES-A-004           Pressure Testing

SAES-A-005           Safety Instruction Sheet

SAES-A-007           Hydrostatic Testing Fluids And Lay-Up Procedures

SAES-B-55            Plant Layout

Construction Specification Manuals:

Form Saudi Aramco 2642

                     Engineering (Pressure Test Report - 11/90)

Form Saudi Aramco 2642-1

                     Engineering (Pressure Test Information Sheet - 11/90)




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Pressure Testing                                       Page 312
American Petroleum Institute Standards:

API-STD-600-91

                      Steel Gate Valves - Flanged And Butt-Welding Ends, Ninth Edition

API-STD-620-90

                      Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks, Eighth
                      Edition

American National Standards Institute:

ANSI B 16.5-88

                      Steel Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings

ANSI B 31.3-90

                      Chemical Plant And Petroleum Refinery Piping

ANSI B 31.4-89

                       Liquid Transportation Systems For Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous
                       Ammonia, And Alcohols

ANSI B 31.8-89

                      Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping System

American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standards:

Section VIII.         ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

3.1           Preparation

              3.1.1       SAES-A-004 (Pressure Testing)

                          The person in charge of hydrostatic testing should have read SAES-A-004 and GI
                          2.102, and fully understand the safety requirements and procedures involved with
                          pressure testing. All persons who will work on the pressure test must be informed
                          of the potential hazards and the necessary safety precautions. A work permit shall
                          be issued prior to commencement of hydrostatic test operations.

              3.1.2       Supports

                          Piping, vessels, supports and foundations designed for gas service shall not be
                          overloaded by the extra weight of the test liquid. Temporary supports and braces
                          may be required.




February 1993 - 3.0 Pressure Testing                                                                Page 313
              3.1.3       Vents and Drains

                          Vents of adequate capacity shall be installed at high points, to vent air / gas from
                          the item while it is being filled with the test liquid. Hazardous gases or vapors
                          must be vented clear of any area where personnel are working or where there is any
                          possible source of ignition. Drains must be installed at a suitable location to allow
                          removal of the test liquid.

              3.1.4       Valves

                          Where isolation valves are used to contain test pressures, they must be of adequate
                          rating for the pressure to be encountered. If isolation valves are used in lieu of
                          blinds, provisions shall be made to ensure that no over-pressurizing can occur in
                          equipment that is not being tested, due to possible valve leak.

              3.1.5       Pipings And Joints

                          Prior to testing, investigations shall be carried out to verify whether or not
                          temporary restraints are required to restrict the movement of pipings and joints
                          during testing; when necessary, adequate restraints shall be provided.

              3.1.6       Vacuums

                          On vessels or tanks which could collapse if subjected to a vacuum, there must be
                          sufficient vent relief capacity to assure that the vessel cannot be subjected to a
                          vacuum by draining the test fluid or by sudden cooling.

3.2           General Requirements

              3.2.1

                          Do not approach system never previously tested, corroded piping or vessels, or
                          vessels with welds never previously tested during the stepwise increase in pressure
                          to the strength test pressure. After the strength test pressure has been reached and
                          held for a specified interval, in accordance with SAES-A-004, the equipment may
                          be approached. The actual pressure at which the system under test will be
                          approached for close inspection shall be specified in the test procedure.

              3.2.2

                          Pressure relief valve(s) shall be used to prevent over pressuring of the equipment.

              3.2.3

                          Any ancillary equipment not under test must be isolated by valves (subject to part
                          3.1.4) or blind flanged and vented or disconnected.

              3.2.4

                          Only calibrated test gauges shall be used and they should be mounted in the upright
                          position. Pump discharge gauges must be visible to the pump operator for the
                          duration of the test.




February 1993 - 3.0 Pressure Testing                                                                   Page 314
              3.2.5

                          The equipment / vessel shall have adequate vacuum relief capacity to avoid
                          damage or collapse, when draining the test liquid.

              3.2.6

                          Lines should be drained and dried mechanically when the test liquid is corrosive or
                          otherwise hazardous.

              3.2.7

                          The pressure rise during a pressure test should be gradual and under control to
                          allow time for material to strain, and time for personnel to check for leaks, see
                          SAES-A-004 and GI 2.102.

              3.2.8

                          A system under test shall be depressurized (with the exception of pressure due to a
                          liquid head) before any work is done to stop leaks or repair weakness, including
                          the tightening of bolts. In tightness tests, bolts may be tightened without
                          depressurizing, if specifically approved in the written test procedure.

              3.2.9

                          A block valve is required on the line from the test pump to the equipment under
                          test.

              3.2.11

                          Air shall not be used to displace test fluid from underwater equipment unless it has
                          been determined that the equipment will not float.

3.3           Test Liquid

              3.3.1

                          Water is a normally the preferred test liquid. Alternatives must be approved by a
                          deviation from standard or they may be used if they are specifically permitted by
                          SAES-4-004.

              3.3.2

                          Salt water must not be used for testing any material subject to stress corrosion
                          cracking in the presence of chloride ions (such as stainless steel type 304 or 18.8 -
                          CrNi).

              3.3.3

                          Pneumatic (gas) testing may be required as per SAES-A-004. Pneumatic testing
                          other than as specified in SAES-A-004 may be done only with the explicit




February 1993 - 3.0 Pressure Testing                                                                   Page 315
                          permission of the Consulting Services Department. Testing with air or other gases
                          under pressure can be hazardous due to the explosion potential.

              3.3.4

                          Possible changes in pressure due to thermal expansion, contraction or hydrostatic
                          heads must be taken into account.

              3.3.5

                          Written procedures approved prior to testing shall be followed for the disposal of
                          test mediums containing chemical additives for control of corrosion or bacteria, as
                          per the requirements of GI 432.000.




February 1993 - 3.0 Pressure Testing                                                                 Page 316
4.0 CHEMICALS
There are thousands of chemicals in existence and hundreds of new ones are being developed for
commercial use every year. While almost all of these chemicals are beneficial in some way, they can be
dangerous too. In fact, of the thousands of chemicals in existence, it is difficult to find any that are
absolutely harmless.

When dealing with an unfamiliar chemical, it is always wise to assume that it is hazardous. The exposure
to hazards associated with a material depends largely on its proper identification, handling, usage,
transport, storage and disposal. In addition, materials which may be completely harmless in one
application may be deadly in another.

There are too many chemicals and too many possible combinations to deal with them individually here.
In the references listed, there are many sources of information on the identification, storage,
transportation, use, and disposal of hundreds of chemicals. In the literature there are tables of hazardous
chemical reactions. If the name of the chemical is known, the names of others with which it is likely to
react dangerously can be found. The proper identification and labeling of chemicals is a very important
safety precaution.

When dealing with a potentially harmful chemical, precautions should be taken to ensure that employees
do not swallow it, inhale it, or allow it to contact their skin. The chemical must not be allowed to
accidentally mix with other substances in transportation, storage, or use. It must not be subjected to
undue shock, pressure, or heat. When the chemical is no longer needed, it must be safely disposed of or
recycled.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 150.001.         Asbestos Regulation

GI 330.87.          Bulk Deliveries of Oil Field Treatment Chemicals from Local Vendors

GI 355.001.         Identifying, Cataloging, Ordering And Tracking Of Hazardous Materials

GI 355.002          Receiving, Storing, And Issuing Hazardous Material

GI 355.003          Disposing Of Hazardous Materials

GI 355.004          Handling And Storing Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) For disposal

GI 355.015.         Requisitioning, Receiving, Storing and Issuing Explosives

GI 355.015-1        Deterioration And Disposal Of Explosives

Refinery Instruction Manual:

No. 5.001.          Caustic And A Dip Diluting Plant 20 - Safety Regulations

No. 10.740.          LPG Plant, Salt Water Chlorination

No. 13.850.         Sulfuric Acid Safety Regulations - Air And Water Unit




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Chemicals                                              Page 317
Operating Instruction Manual:

No. 5.244.          Inhibitor, Handling Procedure

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards:

                    Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual

                    Saudi Aramco Chemical Hazard Bulletins (CHBs)

American National Standards:

ANSI 288.2.         Standard Practice for Respiratory Protection

American Petroleum Institute:

API 2202-91

                     Dismantling And Disposing Of Steel From Tanks Which Have Contained Leaded
                     Gasoline

National Fire Protection Association Standards:

NFPA 321.           Basic Classification of Flammable and Combustible Liquids

NFPA 325M.          Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Gases, Liquids, and Volatile Solids

NFPA 49.            Hazardous Chemical Data

NFPA 491M.          Manual of Hazardous Chemical Reactions

NFPA 704.           Standard System For The Identification of Fire Hazards of Materials

Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Work Environment -
American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) - Manufacturer's literature on chemicals approved by US.
Department of Labor

Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials - Dr. N. Irving Sax

4.1           Hazard Identification System

              The hazardous nature of a material is related to the manner in which it is transported, stored
              or used; the materials with which it may come in contact; and how it is disposed of or
              recycled. There is no single identification system which can briefly indicate the hazards for
              all these conditions. Saudi Aramco uses NFPA 704 Identification of Fire Hazard Materials,
              which indicates the fire hazards associated with any chemical and also describes the hazards
              which might be encountered in storage, transportation, use or disposal of the chemical.

              Many of the materials in the Chemical Section, Class 26, of the Saudi Aramco Material
              System Catalog are marked by the use of hazard identification labels. The container may not




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                                                       Page 318
              be so marked, but it is indicated in the catalog description of the chemical. The system is
              based on four different symbols or numbers arranged in a diamond pattern (see Figure V.1).

              The degree of possible injurious health effects, susceptibility of the materials to burning and
              to release of energy are rated by numbers (see Figures V.2 and V.2.A.). A zero (0) rating
              indicates little or no hazard and a four (4) indicates a high degree of hazard. It should be
              remembered that although a zero health hazard rating indicates that the material offers no
              hazards to fire fighters beyond that of ordinary combustible material subjected to fire, it does
              not mean that the material is harmless if inhaled or swallowed.

4.2           Health Hazards

              Hazards to health arise from inhaling, swallowing, or skin contact. The severity of the
              hazard ranges from nuisance chemicals that produce no injury, to chemicals that on short
              exposure can cause severe injury or death. For industrial workers, the most prominent means
              of entry of a hazardous chemical into the human body is through the respiratory tract by
              inhalation. The next most important means of entry is through skin absorption. The least
              hazardous pathway is through swallowing the chemical, as this seldom occurs in industry.
              (Reference: Chemical Hazard Bulletins.)

              4.2.1      Inhalation Pathway Hazard

                         Chemicals may be in the form of gases, vapors, dusts, or a mixture of these. The
                         senses of sight or smell cannot be depended upon to warn of chemical hazards.
                         Some gases are harmful in concentrations which cannot be detected by their odor.
                         Furthermore, some gases paralyze the sense of smell. Hydrogen sulfide, at low
                         concentrations, can very quickly paralyze the olfactory nerves so that harmful
                         concentrations cannot be detected through smell. Ordinary automotive gasoline, to
                         some extent, does the same thing.

                         When handling a volatile liquid, the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of
                         the vapor should be known and not exceeded. Where exhaust ventilation is not
                         available, good mechanical ventilation must be provided or the work must be done
                         outdoors.

                         In the case of a chemical spill, it may not be possible to control the maximum
                         allowable concentration. Therefore it is necessary to keep the worker from
                         breathing the vapor by limiting the amount of vapor through careful handling or
                         through the use of local exhaust ventilation. If the concentration of the chemical in
                         the air exceeds the threshold limit value (TLV) or MAC, then respiratory
                         protective devices are needed. It is important that the right kind of device for the
                         particular hazard be obtained. (See Breathing Apparatus, Section I.10 of this
                         Manual.)

                         Dust is a common hazard. Whenever dusty material is handled, a respiratory
                         hazard may exist. Exhaust ventilation, fans, blowers, and proper handling
                         procedures must be used to keep the dust from entering the worker's breathing
                         zone. If these methods fail, dust masks must be provided and their use enforced.

                         Fine droplets of liquid form whenever liquids are sprayed or splashed so suitable
                         precautions must be taken to prevent the fine droplets of liquid from entering the




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                                                         Page 319
                         worker's breathing zone. Ventilation is also recommended. If such methods are
                         not adequate, suitable respiratory protection must be provided.

              4.2.2      Skin Hazards

                         Skin contact/exposure hazard may not be as dangerous to life as respiratory
                         hazards, but they are far more common. Dermatitis resulting from contact with
                         harmful chemicals is a common work injury. Proper handling methods are the first
                         step in protection. The second step, in the case of materials which act rapidly on
                         the human body, such as corrosive chemicals (i.e. acids and caustics) is to provide
                         a physical barrier in the form of goggles, face shields, hoods, gloves, aprons, suits,
                         etc. The third step is to provide eyewash fountains and safety showers, which flush
                         the material from the eyes or skin.

                         The type of personal protective equipment required depends on the hazardous
                         characteristics of the chemical and the way it is used. Personal cleanliness is
                         important. Thorough washing of the hands and face before meals, daily bathing,
                         and a regular change of clothing will reduce harmful contact with chemicals.

              4.2.3      Hazards of Swallowing Chemicals

                         In industry, swallowing chemicals does not occur frequently. The main precaution
                         is to ensure that employees know that the material is hazardous if swallowed, and
                         that they must wash their hands free of harmful chemicals before smoking,
                         drinking or eating. Never store harmful chemicals in food containers or handle
                         chemicals near food.

4.3           Emergency Treatment

              4.3.1      Artificial Respiration

                         Persons overcome by harmful gases and vapors must be taken out into the fresh air
                         and, if they have stopped breathing, given artificial respiration; if there is no
                         heartbeat, commence cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Call emergency
                         assistance immediately by telephoning 110.

              4.3.2      First Aid

                         In case of accidental swallowing of chemicals, it is not wise to induce the patient to
                         vomit. The hospital must be informed of the chemical injury or chemical
                         swallowed and the person should be moved to the hospital immediately for medical
                         treatment. In the case of caustics or corrosives, drinking a large amount of water,
                         followed by medical treatment, is recommended. Telephone 877-8056, Saudi
                         Aramco Emergency Medical Services, for poison information.

              4.3.3      Showers and Eyewash Fountains

                         For skin hazards, the best treatment is thorough water washing under the
                         emergency shower or eyewash fountain. Field treatment should only consist of
                         flushing away the chemical. The patient should then be taken to the hospital for
                         treatment.




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                                                          Page 320
                         These water flushing devices are required, because working procedures and
                         personal protective equipment may fail. In the case of materials that are
                         immediately harmful to the eyes or skin, safety showers or eyewash fountains
                         should be provided. They should be within 6 meters (20 feet) of the exposure site
                         and accessible in an unobstructed straight line from the work location. Emergency
                         showers shall be properly identified with signs and color background in
                         accordance with SAES-B-55. A person who is blinded by a chemical must
                         immediately be taken to the shower or eyewash fountain. Some emergency
                         showers or eyewash fountains are designed so that standing under or near them
                         activates the water supply. Others have hinged gates which are pushed to activate
                         the shower, but all should be easily activated.

                         If the water piping to the shower or fountain is exposed to the sun, the water will
                         become so hot during summer that it could scald the user. The piping must be
                         buried, insulated or shaded from the sun or the line must be only a very short
                         branch from a main water line that is used frequently enough to keep the water
                         from overheating in the sun. Emergency showers and eyewash fountains should be
                         checked daily.

                         CAUTION:

                         There are two important points that workers must be taught about the correct use of
                         emergency fountains and shower:

                         1      Before removing goggles, face shields, or other personal protective
                                equipment, the user must get under the shower or use the eyewash fountain
                                to wash off as much of the chemical as possible.

                         2      It is a mistake to start for the hospital without first doing everything possible
                                to flush out the harmful chemical. The eyes or skin must be washed for
                                quite a long time to remove the chemical. It is necessary to wash the eyes
                                holding the eyelids open with the fingers for at least fifteen minutes to free
                                the eyes of bases or caustics. This will be painful, but it is absolutely
                                necessary. In the case of acids, water will remove the acid quickly, but it is
                                necessary to hold the eyelids open with the fingers, painful as this may be,
                                and roll the eyes around under the shower or in the eye fountain to make
                                sure that all acid is removed. At least fifteen minutes of thorough washing
                                are required in the case of acid contact to skin or eyes.

                         Caustic alkalis such as sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are much more
                         difficult to wash from the skin or eyes. Strong alkalis of this type mixed with water
                         feel slippery to the touch. The skin should be washed until the slippery feeling has
                         gone and washing should be continued for at least 15 minutes.




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                                                            Page 321
4.4           Fire Hazards

              4.4.1

                         Only the necessary amount of hazardous materials should be brought into the work
                         place, usually not more than one day's supply. Hazardous materials must not be
                         allowed to accumulate, and any extra amounts should be cleared from the work
                         area. Slop liquids or trash should be cleared away immediately. All flammable
                         materials should be stored according to the specifications of their Chemical Hazard
                         Bulletins, (CHBs) or Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).

              4.4.2

                         Smoking and the use of sparking devices near flammable liquids or finely divided
                         combustible solids must be prohibited.

              4.4.3

                         Blocking off air to a burning object is often possible in acid dip tanks or rubbish
                         containers where a cover can be provided and dropped down on the container to
                         smother the flames.

              4.4.4

                         The use of fire fighting equipment, such as fire extinguishers or water streams,
                         must be available in case all effective fire prevention measures fail to prevent a
                         fire. (See Fire Prevention, Section I.11 of this Manual). Ordinary sand is a good
                         extinguishing agent for smothering small fires. The fire hazards of most common
                         materials can be found in the references given in this section. The proper fire
                         extinguisher should be at the job site and readily available at all locations where a
                         fire hazard is possible.

4.5           Reactivity Hazards

              The manual of Hazardous Chemical Reactions, NFPA 491M, lists many of the chemicals
              which are likely to have dangerous reactions with other chemicals. As a general precaution,
              rough handling and shock should be avoided. Chemicals should not be allowed to mix with
              other chemicals unless it is known that no harmful reaction will occur.

4.6           Transportation, Storage and Disposal

              4.6.1      Transportation

                         During transportation, hazardous materials must be protected against shock,
                         accidental mixing with other materials, damage to containers, undue heat from the
                         sun or other sources, and theft, which could allow the hazardous materials to come
                         into contact with people who are unaware of the dangers.                   Specific
                         recommendations for the particular material may be obtained from the Area Loss
                         Prevention Office. The Saudi Aramco Chemical Engineering Response Team or
                         Fire Protection Department also handles spills which occur during transportation.
                         A vehicle transporting hazardous chemicals must be suitably labeled.




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                                                         Page 322
              4.6.2      Storage

                         The NFPA fire codes contain recommendations for safe storage of flammable
                         liquids, compressed gases, and typical highly combustible or explosive solids.
                         Precautions must be taken to avoid shock, undue heat, or unplanned mixing. There
                         are some cases where separating walls or specified distances are required.

                         Specific storage recommendations for hazardous materials contained in the Saudi
                         Aramco Chemical Hazard Bulletins (CHBs) and manufacturer-provided Material
                         Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) should be followed. Incompatible chemicals should
                         not be stored together.

                         A list of hazardous materials shall be kept by the contractor indicating type and
                         quantity of materials used in each case, its hazardous classification rating and the
                         quantity disposed of.

              4.6.3      Containers

                         Hazardous materials must be stored in containers that are safe for the
                         transportation and use of the material. Containers must be labeled with the
                         appropriate hazardous materials label to indicate the actual contents. All safety
                         factors must be observed when transferring material from one container to another
                         and the receiving container must be labeled to correctly describe the contents.
                         Empty containers previously used to hold hazardous material must be washed free
                         of the material or destroyed.

              4.6.4      Disposal
                         (See GI 355.003 and 355.004)

                         Hazardous/toxic waste is liquid, solid and semi-solid material, which, because of
                         the quantity involved, the concentration, and/or the biological, physical, chemical
                         or infectious characteristics, pose a hazard to human health and/or the environment
                         if it is improperly managed.

                         The following are some examples of waste materials which are considered
                         hazardous/toxic, and are to be disposed of in accordance with established Saudi
                         Aramco procedure.

                               Waste paints and related products
                               Asbestos
                               Resins
                               Wood preservative products
                               Insecticides and pesticides
                               Flushing fluids / chemicals
                               Compressed gases (acetylene, oxygen, chlorine)
                               Flammable / combustible liquids (gasoline, diesel oil)
                               Corrosive liquids (acid)
                               Cleaning fluids
                               Explosives
                               Flammable solids
                               Poisons and infectious chemicals
                               Radioactive materials




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                                                        Page 323
                               Magnetized materials
                               Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB (electrical transformer oil)

                         The disposal of hazardous material must be conducted by the contractor/user (c/u).
                         The latter is obligated to perform the following:

                         Step 1:

                         The hazardous material must be identified by composition or content. If this is not
                         possible, prior to arranging for disposal of the material the contractor/user should
                         notify the AM&RD (Al Midra and Reclamation Division). The material will be
                         provided to AM & RD in containers clearly marked "Hazardous Material" only,
                         with no other conflicting or confusing words.

                         Step 2:

                         The c/u must follow manufacturers or literature safety guidelines (Material Safety
                         Data Sheets, MSDS, Chemical Hazard Bulletins, CHBs, etc.) in addition to the
                         Saudi Aramco procedures contained here. In cases where procedures overlap, the
                         c/u should use the more conservative methods of disposal. Hazard rating codes
                         assigned to SAMS material indicate the degree of hazard. (See Figure V.2A.)
                         Obtain advice as needed from the Hazardous Materials Advisor, MHED (Materials
                         Handling Engineering Division) at telephone number 872-7419 or from individual
                         specialist units listed below:



                 Specialist Unit                                        Telephone Number
     Central Area Storehouse Dept. (CASD)                                    872-7419
             Laboratories Dept. (LP)                                         876-6725
          Loss Prevention Dept. (LPD)                                        873-8779
 Process And Control Systems Dept. (P&CSD)                                   875-3131
District Medical And Support Services (DM&SS)                                877-8425
   Industrial And Environmental Affairs Dept.                                874-1402
                    (I&EAD)
           Fire Protection Dept. (FPD)                                       874-3345

                         Step 3:

                         The hazardous waste material must be adequately sealed up in containers to
                         prevent leakage and labeled to denote composition or content.

                         Step 4:

                         Request a safety inspection of the material by the Hazardous Material Advisor.




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                                                        Page 324
                         Step 5:

                         When a large quantity of hazardous material needs to be disposed of, inform the:

                         a). Chemical Storage Segment, Material Disposal Unit, Reclamation Operations
                               Section, AM&RD.
                         b). Hazardous Materials Advisor, MHED.

                         Step 6:

                         Follow the directives of the Hazardous Materials Advisor. (See GI 355.003.)

                         Step 7:

                         Transport the hazardous material to Dhahran Reclamation Yard using own truck or
                         request suitable vehicle from the Transportation Department by following their
                         established procedure.

                         Step 8:

                         Contact Assistant Superintendent, Reclamation Operations Section (ROS), AM &
                         RD before a large volume of hazardous waste material is to be delivered. This
                         person may request that the material be delivered directly to Delivery Point Code
                         (DPC), 280 Reclamation Chemicals Storage And Handling Facility located near
                         Abqaiq GOSP 3.

                         Note:

                         See GI 355.004 for any deviation from this established procedure for the handling,
                         storage and disposal of Polychlorinated Biyphenyls (PCBs).

4.7           Work on Equipment Which Has Contained Tetraethyl Lead (Organic
              Lead Compounds)

              4.7.1      Introduction

                         Tetraethyl lead (TEL) is an organic compound of metallic lead which is used to
                         improve the octane rating of gasoline. This compound is highly poisonous. The
                         hazard with tetraethyl lead is that, being a liquid it gives off vapors which can
                         come into contact with the body by breathing or skin contact. Tetraethyl lead is
                         very hazardous as its vapors can be inhaled, absorbed through the skin, or ingested
                         through contaminated food or cigarettes. The best protection is to avoid any
                         contact.

                         To make it easier to detect spills of tetraethyl lead, it has been dyed a bright orange
                         color.




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                                                           Page 325
                         Tetraethyl lead, or sludges containing organic lead compounds, are likely to be
                         found in the following places:

                         1.     Wherever drums of the compound are transported, stored, or used. Leaking
                                drums can contaminate ships' holds, trucks, and storage areas.

                         2.     Wherever leaded gasoline is blended, handled, or stored.

                         3.     In controlled disposal sites designated to receive organic-lead-containing
                                materials.      The sludge removed from leaded gasoline tanks is
                                decontaminated by spreading and weathering prior to mixing with inert
                                solids to reduce the total lead concentration to no more than 0.5% and
                                transfer to a final burial site. Since tetraethyl lead is delivered dissolved in
                                organic solvents, it also presents a fire hazard.

              4.7.2      Precautions

                         Tanks that have once contained leaded gasoline (TEL) are considered dangerous
                         thereafter even though they may have been used in other service for years. Such
                         tanks should be permanently marked on the manholes with a sign warning that the
                         tank has contained leaded gasoline and must not be entered without special
                         precautions. Sludge pits where lead-bearing sludge from the leaded gasoline tanks
                         has been buried must be marked with permanent warning signs.

                         Before entering any tank, an inquiry should be made as to the tank's previous
                         service and a work permit obtained. Likewise, before marking excavations in or
                         around refineries or gasoline storage depots, it is wise to determine whether leaded
                         gasoline (TEL) sludge may be encountered. Work in cleaning, repairing, or
                         dismantling tanks which have contained leaded gasoline requires special training
                         and special precautions.

                         The workers must be medically certified and periodically examined before and
                         during the course of the work. Using regular monitoring of TEL workers, any
                         over-exposure to TEL should be reported to the Saudi Aramco proponent
                         department, the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department and the Industrial
                         Hygiene Services.

                         The Saudi Aramco Industrial Hygiene Services and the Loss Prevention
                         Department should be notified when work is to be done in TEL tanks or in areas
                         with TEL contaminated equipment.




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                                                           Page 326
FIGURE V.1: IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIALS BY HAZARD SIGNAL DIMENSIONS AND ARRANGEMENT




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                                Page 327
FIGURE V.2: EXPLANATION OF HAZARD RATING CODES




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                    Page 328
FIGURE V.3: IDENTIFICATION OF HEALTH HAZARD, FLAMMABILITY AND REACTIVITY




February 1993 - 4.0 Chemicals                                              Page 329
VI. Marine




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: VI. Marine   Page 330
1.0       COFFERDAMS
A cofferdam is an enclosure constructed to exclude water from a work area during construction.
Cofferdam construction ranges from simple dikes to complicated timber or steel structures. Cofferdams
must satisfy two basic requirements:

              1.    They must be strong enough to withstand the forces caused by water, soil conditions,
                    and floating debris.

              2.    They should be as watertight as practicable, although some leakage, requiring pumping,
                    must always be expected.

The most common type of cofferdam encountered in Saudi Aramco is constructed from steel sheet piling.
The piles must be driven to design and penetration specifications and must encounter the pre-specified
driving resistance. The steel piling is generally braced by a system of horizontal wales and struts which
are designed to resist external forces.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards:

Schedule 'D':       Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements

Part 19             Excavations

Part 20             Work Over Water

1.1           Design

              All cofferdams in excess of 1.2 meters (4 feet) in depth must be designed by a qualified
              engineer. Any deviations from the design encountered in the actual construction of the
              cofferdam must have the approval of a qualified engineer.

1.2           Before Work Starts
              Any cofferdam which is to be constructed in a navigable waterway or which would constitute
              an obstruction or hazard to the operation of small boats or pleasure crafts must be approved
              in advance by the Manager, Saudi Aramco Marine Department. The latter will be
              responsible for coordinating its approval with the approval of required Government agencies.

1.3           Construction

              All cofferdam construction work must be performed in strict compliance with the design
              drawings and specifications. All work must be accomplished by qualified craftsmen in
              accordance with accepted trade practices. Any unexpected soil or hydrographic conditions
              encountered during the construction must be reported immediately to the design engineer for
              evaluation and a possible modification of the structure.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - Cofferdams                                           Page 331
              1.3.1

                         If overtopping of the cofferdam by high waters is possible, means shall be
                         provided for controlled flooding of the work area.

              1.3.2

                         Emergency evacuation warning signals shall be provided and procedures
                         developed. Notices shall be posted at the entrance to the job site, and throughout
                         the area.

              1.3.3

                         Walkways, ramps or bridges on cofferdams shall have at least two exit points.
                         These shall be provided with standard guardrails.

1.4           Potential Hazards

              The construction and the use of cofferdams have three primary hazards which merit special
              consideration.

              1.4.1      Structural Collapse

                         Cofferdam structures may collapse as a result of the imposition of unexpected
                         structural loads or the failure of the soil inside the cofferdam structures as
                         evidenced by an upward heave or "blow-out" of the bottom. Such failures often
                         occur with little or no warning, therefore a means of rapid exit from the enclosed
                         cofferdam structures must be provided for all workmen engaged in work inside the
                         structures.

              1.4.2      Overhead Loads

                         Sump pumps, equipment, and machinery shall be mounted on a cantilevered
                         platform outside of a cofferdam. This will eliminate overhead obstructions, which
                         could present a hazard to the workmen engaged in construction within the confines
                         of the cofferdam.

              1.4.3      Dislodgment of Struts and Wales

                         All internal supporting structures must be secured against accidental dislodgment.
                         The use of locking devices on wedges will prevent their accidental removal and the
                         resulting collapse of the structure.

1.5           Inspection

              1.5.1

                         General inspection should be carried out daily or after any weather condition or
                         incident which might affect the safety of the cofferdam.




February 1993 - 1.0 Cofferdams                                                                     Page 332
              1.5.2

                         The security of all wedges should be carefully checked at the start of each shift.

              1.5.3

                         Leaks can indicate a movement of the piles. Serious leaks should be reported at
                         once to the engineer in charge of operations.

              1.5.4

                         Pump intake fastenings and the pumping sump should be carefully checked at the
                         start of each shift.

1.6           Leaks

              1.6.1

                         Small leaks can be sealed by lead caulking in the clutches from the inside of the
                         cofferdam. Minor leaks over a large area can be sealed by dropping light granular
                         material into the water surrounding the cofferdam. The material will be sucked
                         into the gap between the piles where it will form a seal.

              1.6.2

                         Where large leaks are encountered which cannot be sealed as described above or
                         there is an indication that the piling has moved, the cofferdam area shall be
                         immediately evacuated of all personnel and the problem brought to the attention of
                         the design engineer for correction.




February 1993 - 1.0 Cofferdams                                                                         Page 333
2.0 MARINE OPERATIONS
This section, Marine Operations, is only concerned with the transportation of material, equipment, and
personnel to off-shore job sites. This is carried out through the Saudi Aramco Marine Department by
using company-owned and/or contractors' crafts.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions :

GI 6.020.           Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water

GI 1185.003.        Death or Injury Aboard Seagoing Vessels

GI 1186.502.        Marine Craft Fueling, Tanajib or West Pier

GI 1186.504.        SAG Regulations and Practice as Applied to All Types of Marine Craft at the Port of
                    Ras Tanura

GI 1187.001.        Collision & Damage By or To Marine Equipment or Craft

GI 1192.001.        Operating Practices for Harbor Tugs, Offshore Vessels and Launches, Including Safety
                    Rules

GI 1192.002.        Operating Procedures for Barges Including Safety Rules

GI 1192.502.        Operating Procedures for Marine Oil Recovery and Storage Barge/Vessel, Including
                    Safety Rules

GI 1193.001.        Marine Port Information and Regulations

GI 1193.002.        Navigation Warnings

GI 1194.001.        Requesting, Assigning and Dispatching Pollution Control Vessels, Tugs, Launches and
                    Barges

GI 1196.001.        Whistle Signals for Use Between Tugs and Barges or Tugs and Self-Propelled Vessels
                    When Berthing

GI 1198.001.        Rig/Barge Moving

GI 1199.001.        Safe Operation of Self-Propelled Jack-Up Barges

2.1           Other Publications

              US. Coast Guard - 257

              International Maritime Organization - Safety of Life at Sea

              International Labor Office - Accident Prevention on Board Ship, at Sea, and in Port.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - Marine OperationsPage 334
2.2           General

              All safety precautions that are applicable onshore apply and must be enforced while offshore,
              including the wearing of personal safety equipment. In addition, life vests must be worn
              while working on, over or near the water. Work over water may be either offshore or on a
              site connected to the shore. The hazards and the precautions for both situations are similar.

2.3           Behavior on Floating Craft

              Personnel embarked on floating craft must obey the instructions of the person in charge of
              the vessel. In particular they must not obstruct his view or movements. They must travel in
              the passenger designated areas. They should not enter or climb on top of the pilot house and
              machinery space are similarly out of bounds. Personnel are expected to act in a responsible
              manner at all times.

              2.3.1

                         Unexpected movements of the vessel even in good weather must be anticipated and
                         guarded against. Personnel should keep away from the ship's side and make use of
                         handrails at all times.

              2.3.2

                         Life vests must be available for all personnel. Each person shall wear and know
                         how to inflate a life vest (see Figure VI.1).

2.4           Preparation for Transportation by Sea

              2.4.1

                         Loose and movable parts of material and equipment must be properly secured
                         against movement. Such material and equipment must always be prepared as if for
                         very rough weather. Sea conditions can change rapidly. Even with no wind, a
                         swell can produce violent movement. Lashing must be adequate. Tank
                         compartments being transported should be either empty or completely full.
                         Tarpaulins or plastic coverings must be of adequate strength and well secured.

              2.4.2

                         The Marine Department must be informed in advance so that they may prepare for
                         the transportation of any hazardous cargo (acids, explosives gases, etc.) or cargoes
                         with special characteristics (e.g., sensitive to water, delicate, or pilferage).
                         Information on weights and measurements must be included for any shipment that
                         requires a manifest (Saudi Aramco Form 9063).

              2.4.3

                         Although the actual loading may be performed by another department, the Marine
                         Department carries the ultimate responsibility for the safe loading and distribution
                         of cargo on the floating craft under its jurisdiction.




February 1993 - 2.0 Marine Operations                                                                Page 335
2.5           Tide and Sea Effects

              During pile driving and general offshore work, allowance must be made for wave action and
              the rise and fall of the tide, especially when erecting stages and platforms. Tidal predictions
              and weather forecasts are not completely accurate so a generous safety margin must be
              allowed.

2.6           Care of Tools and Equipment

              2.6.1

                         Protective coatings reduce the corrosive effects of salt water and salt-laden air on
                         tools and equipment. Nuts, bolts, and threads should be covered with grease or a
                         similar protective coating.

              2.6.2

                         Electrical and radio equipment must not be left exposed. When not in use, they
                         should be protected by being returned to their boxes or being covered.

              2.6.3

                         Objects that are dropped from any height can cause injury or damage, and they
                         may be impossible to recover. For this reason, small hand tools should be secured
                         by lanyards when working over or near water.

2.7           Housekeeping

              Because of the confined space frequently encountered in Marine Operations, housekeeping is
              even more important offshore than onshore.

              2.7.1

                         Tools must not be scattered around. Any spilled grease or oil must be cleaned up.
                         Fire hose and rope must be coiled or flaked down clear of passageways. Doors
                         and drawers should be kept closed.

              2.7.2

                         Rags, papers, cigarette butts, and scrap must be properly disposed of. Proper
                         disposal does not mean throwing the unwanted items overboard, thus polluting the
                         environment. Trash cans and ashtrays should be used.




February 1993 - 2.0 Marine Operations                                                                Page 336
FIGURE VI.1: IF YOU WORK OVER, ON OR NEAR WATER




February 1993 - 2.0 Marine Operations             Page 337
3.0 DIVING OPERATIONS
Accidents involving divers and their equipment are generally serious, because diving operations are
undertaken in an element unnatural to man. What would be considered to be a minor incident on land
could cause crippling injury or even death in a diving operation.

Due to the extreme hazards of this occupation, divers must rely on their training, experience, and
initiative to avoid accidents. For this reason, the strictest compliance with regulations, standards, and
instructions must be observed at all times in order that everything possible is done to minimize the
possibility of an accident.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS

Saudi Aramco General Instructions:

GI 1197.001           Procedures and Safety Rules for Diving Operations (See Appendix G)

The US. Navy Diving Manual is to be used as the standard for all Saudi Aramco diving operations.

US. Navy Diving Manual:

NAVSHIPS 0994-001, March 1970

British Admiralty Diving Manual:

B.R. 181, 1972

United Kingdom Statutory Instruments

S.I. NO. 1229         Offshore Installations (Diving Operations) Regulations, 1981

Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards

Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual

TM 6.1                 Medical Diving Emergencies (Technical Memorandum - Saudi Aramco Medical
                       Services Organization {SAMSO})

3.1           Employment of Qualified Divers

              All divers shall be at least twenty-one (21) years old.

              3.1.1

                          Divers must be qualified and experienced in all aspects of underwater inspection,
                          construction, repairs, and salvage works, including oxy-arc cutting, thermal
                          lancing, and the use of pneumatic and hydraulic tools.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Diving Operations Page 338
              3.1.2

                          Divers shall be fully conversant with the use and operation of US. Navy
                          Decompression Tables, recompression chambers, and therapeutic decompression
                          procedures.

              3.1.3

                          Familiarity with the use of SCUBA, Hookah, and surface supplied helmets
                          (Swindel, Aquadyne, Kirby-Morgan, etc.) and knowledge of their maintenance and
                          repair is required.

              3.1.4

                          Divers will be required to show evidence of their training and experience by
                          providing certificates from a competent authority.

              3.1.5

                          All divers must be fluent in both reading and writing the English language and be
                          able to depict the results of an underwater inspection by the use of sketches.

              3.1.6

                          Evidence of medical fitness in accordance with 3.4 must be produced at the
                          prescribed intervals.

3.2           Diving Equipment

              All equipment used in connection with diving and submarine operations shall be produced
              by a reputable manufacturer. They must be of good quality and constructed of sound
              material, in accordance with appropriate and accepted standards. Equipment should be able
              to operate efficiently in the prevailing high temperatures of the Arabian Gulf.

              3.2.1       Compressors

                          Compressors for supplying breathing air must be fitted with adequate filtration and
                          purification devices. They must be able to provide the air at a rated pressure and
                          capacity to cover the maximum depth required during the operation.

                          3.2.1.1

                                        The air intake of compressors shall be remotely located with reference
                                        to any exhaust system in the area to prevent contaminants from
                                        entering the compressor intake.

                          3.2.1.2

                                        All the safety devices and relief valves on high pressure compressors
                                        must be operating properly.




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations                                                                 Page 339
                          3.2.1.3

                                        Detergent lubricating oils or oils with viscosity less than SAE 30 must
                                        not be used. Care must be taken not to overfill.

                          3.2.1.4

                                        Compressed air supplied for breathing shall be certified Compressed
                                        Gas Association grade D or better.

              3.2.2       Reserve Air Supply

                          A reserve supply of air must be provided, maintained, and immediately available in
                          the event of a primary air supply failure, whether in the form of a standby
                          compressor or high pressure cylinders (or volume tanks) on the surface. If the
                          reserve is in the form of high pressure cylinders (or volume tanks), it should be of
                          sufficient capacity to enable the diver or divers to reach the surface safely while
                          carrying out any necessary decompression step on the way. Reserve supply for
                          recompression chambers should be sufficient to allow required surface
                          decompression to be carried out.

              3.2.3       Bail-Out Equipment

                          In case there might be a ruptured, cut, or irretrievably fouled hose, each diver
                          should be equipped with "bail-out" equipment, either in the form of a "bail-out"
                          cylinder, a diver's life vest, or a pneumo hose.

              3.2.4       Maintenance

                          All plant (including safety) and diving equipment must be regularly maintained.
                          Correct records must be kept of this maintenance.

                          3.2.4.1

                                        All SCUBA tanks, recompression chambers, volume tanks, high
                                        pressure cylinders, and storage vessels must be regularly checked and
                                        tested at the prescribed intervals in accordance with the manufacturer's
                                        instructions and Saudi Aramco regulations.

                          3.2.4.2

                                        As indicated in the Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual, air cylinders
                                        not in sea water use are to be inspected internally and hydrostatically
                                        tested, at intervals not to exceed five years. They should be
                                        appropriately stamped to denote this inspection.

                          3.2.4.3

                                        Each item of plant and diving equipment should be regularly inspected
                                        by a competent person at periodic intervals, and after the equipment
                                        has been modified. The maximum period between inspections should
                                        be three months.




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations                                                                   Page 340
                          3.2.4.4

                                        All hoses used for carrying compressed air or other gases must be
                                        checked for wear and abrasion and subjected to test pressures at least
                                        once every three months.

                                        Hose, fittings and connections should be of the screw thread type and
                                        properly fitted to the hoses. Hoses used in oxygen breathing systems
                                        must be grease and oil free.

                          3.2.4.5

                                        Any pressure gauge showing an error of more than two and one half
                                        percent (2.5%) must be adjusted or replaced.

                          3.2.4.6

                                        Communication systems must be checked for correct operation. Every
                                        wire must be checked for continuity and, if they are combined with the
                                        life line, for wear.

                          3.2.4.7

                                        A supply of suitable protective clothing such as diving suits, coveralls,
                                        gloves, and hoods must be available at all times. Insulated gloves
                                        shall be provided to divers performing welding and burning
                                        operations.

                          3.2.4.8

                                        Gas cylinders taken under water shall be hydrostatically tested,
                                        inspected and stamped every two years.

3.3           Safeguards

              When divers are preparing to enter or leave the water, or are in the water, or diving
              operations are underway, the International Code Flag "A" ("I have a diver down, keep well
              clear of area and maintain a low speed.") must be flown. (See Figures VI.2 and VI.3.)

              Communications - A two-way voice communication system shall be used between:

              1.    Each surface-supplied air or mixed-gas diver and a dive team member at the dive
                    location.

              2.    Two-way communication system shall be available at the dive location to obtain
                    emergency assistance.

              In addition, special lights and day marks for "vessels engaged in surveying or underwater
              operations" should be shown in accordance with Maritime Regulations (Figure VI.3).




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations                                                                    Page 341
              3.3.1

                          Any person involved in an activity which could be a hazard to divers in the
                          vicinity, such as those in charge of submarine blasting or masters of vessels about
                          to move, start propulsion engines, or operate pumps, must be forewarned.

              3.3.2

                          Adequate arrangements must be made to provide a safe means of access to and
                          egress from the water. It must be kept in mind that a diver may be unconscious as
                          a result of an accident.

              3.3.3

                          Proper surface support and other facilities for the safe conduct of diving operations
                          must be provided.

              3.3.4

                          In all cases of emergency, the diving supervisor, the foreman diver, or the person
                          in charge of a diver or divers must be the sole arbiter as to action to be taken. All
                          personnel, whether connected with the diving operation or not, should take
                          instructions from him.

              3.3.5       Safe Operation of Divers

                          3.3.5.1

                                        Bottom time and decompression time will be controlled by the diving
                                        supervisor or person in charge of diving.

                          3.3.5.2

                                        On all work requiring four divers or more, a diving supervisor shall be
                                        present to facilitate coordination between divers and the surface.

                          3.3.5.3

                                        All diving operations requiring more than two divers (using air for
                                        breathing) in water of a depth greater than 30 meters (100 feet),
                                        require the presence of a diving supervisor.

              3.3.6

                          At all times when a diver is in the water, a stand-by diver must be on deck with a
                          stand-by rig, fully dressed and ready to dive.

              3.3.7

                          No diver working in water 9 meters (30 feet) or less shall be required to work
                          longer than a twelve (12) hour shift without having a proper rest except for
                          emergencies.




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations                                                                  Page 342
              3.3.8

                          Repetitive diving should not be done as a routine. If the task necessitates the use
                          of "repeats", efforts should be made to obtain additional divers. When this is
                          impracticable, the tables must be strictly adhered to in order to avoid
                          decompression sickness, which could require therapeutic treatment and could
                          endanger the health of divers and delay operations.

              3.3.9

                          Therapeutic decompression must take precedence over all other operational
                          requirements.

                          3.3.9.1

                                        Divers must remain in the vicinity of a recompression chamber for a
                                        period of twelve (12) hours after the last dive.

                          3.3.9.2

                                        In the case of therapeutic decompression the period in 3.3.9.1 shall be
                                        extended to twenty-four (24) hours.

                          3.3.9.3

                                        In mild cases of decompression sickness which have been treated
                                        under Tables 1, 1A, 2, 2A and 5 (US. Navy Diving Manual), a diver
                                        can be returned to work at the discretion of the diving supervisor.

                                        After treatment for a case of "bends" under Tables 3, 4, 6 and 6A, a
                                        diver will not be permitted to dive again until he has been examined
                                        and passed as fit by a physician.

                          3.3.9.4

                                        Each diver will maintain a personal logbook. Entries shall include but
                                        are not limited to the following:

                                           Diver's name.
                                           Name and address of the employer of divers.
                                           Date.
                                           Name of the Diving Supervisor.
                                           Name of the vessel, barge, or installation from which the diving
                                            operation is carried out.
                                           Maximum depth reached on each occasion.
                                           Time he spent under water on each occasion.
                                           Type of equipment used by the diver.
                                           Work carried out by him on each occasion.
                                           Details of decompression sickness or other illness/injury suffered
                                            by the diver.
                                           Any other factor relevant to health.
                                           Each daily entry will be signed by the diver and also by the diving
                                            supervisor.




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations                                                                  Page 343
                                           Divers must retain their logbooks for a period of not less than two
                                            years from the date of the last entry in the logbook.

              3.3.10      Recompression Chamber

                          A recompression chamber must be on site during all diving operations in excess of
                          18.5 meters (60 feet). Whenever a recompression chamber is not available, only
                          "no decompression" dives are permitted.

                          3.3.10.1

                                        The maximum rate of ascent is 18.5 meters (60 feet) per minute in the
                                        case of air decompression and 7.6 meters (25 feet) per minute in the
                                        case of oxygen decompression.

                          3.3.10.2

                                        Only necessary articles are allowed in the recompression chamber. No
                                        tobacco or any ignition source, including electrical shall be allowed in
                                        the chamber. Smoking shall never be permitted in the chamber
                                        whether under pressure or not.

                          3.3.10.3

                                        The chamber shall be kept clean and dry.

                          3.3.10.4

                                        Personnel in a chamber under pressure shall ensure that both they and
                                        all loose materials are kept clear of all atmosphere inlet and exhaust
                                        openings. The exhaust, which is under pressure, is especially
                                        dangerous because it subjects anything near it to a high suction pull
                                        capable of causing extreme bodily harm .

              3.3.11      SCUBA Special Care

                          The use of SCUBA equipment in water over 18 meters (60 feet) in depth should be
                          restricted.

                          3.3.11.1

                                        SCUBA equipment shall not be used to depths greater than 45 meters
                                        (150 feet).

                          3.3.11.2

                                        SCUBA equipment should never be used for dives requiring
                                        decompression.




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations                                                                   Page 344
                          3.3.11.3

                                        In open water, SCUBA divers shall always be attached to a clearly
                                        visible float by a life line. In no case shall SCUBA divers be allowed
                                        to swim free.

                          3.3.11.4

                                        In enclosed or restricted water such as beneath structures, either a
                                        lifeline or the "buddy" system must be used. There will be no
                                        untethered solo diving.

                          3.3.11.5

                                        When using SCUBA equipment, divers will always wear an inflatable
                                        life jacket of the approved type.

                          3.3.11.6

                                        No SCUBA diving should be carried out during darkness.

3.4           Physical Fitness

              All divers must be physically fit for diving and have a certificate to this effect issued by a
              qualified medical practitioner: one who has experience and knowledge of the medical
              requirements for diving.

              3.4.1

                          The medical certificate should state "Fit for Diving" and be not more than twelve
                          months old.

              3.4.2

                          Doctors carrying out medicals for divers should be aware of the importance of the
                          condition of heart, lungs, chest, ears, nose, throat, and teeth. An EKG and chest X-
                          ray are mandatory on an annual basis, while a long bone X-ray should be
                          performed every three years.

              3.4.3

                          For British divers, a current British Diving Fitness Register is acceptable and,
                          likewise, any recognized fitness register for other nationalities.

              3.4.4

                          All divers should be trained in First Aid/CPR, and on all diving operations, there
                          should be an approved First Aid Kit suitable for use under hyperbaric conditions
                          on site as recommended in the US. Navy Diving Manual.




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations                                                                 Page 345
3.5           Medical Diving Emergencies: Procedures and Responsibilities

              Every incident/accident involving diving personnel shall be reported on Saudi Aramco
              Form 3208 with the responsible supervisor submitting a follow-up report on Saudi Aramco
              Form 681. Offshore emergency response procedures are given in Appendix B. Specific
              responsibilities are as follows:

              3.5.1       Sports Divers

                          All divers must have an experienced person in charge with good knowledge of
                          decompression sickness. He has to know the following two diving emergencies
                          numbers to call if requiring help: 678-1248 from 6 a.m. until 6 p.m. 7 days per
                          week; and 378-3691 from 6 p.m. until 6 a.m. 7 days per week. He should state his
                          exact location and follow the instructions given to him by the coordinator
                          answering the number.

              3.5.2       Commercial Divers

                          The diving supervisor will immediately arrange recompression according to the
                          appropriate table and report the incident to the coordinator manning the diving
                          emergencies numbers.

              3.5.3       Coordinator, Diving Emergencies

                          The coordinator, on call at either of the above numbers, will receive the
                          information on diving medical emergencies. In the case of sports divers, he will
                          direct them to the nearest available recompression chamber and alert its operator.
                          He shall also inform the duty diving medical consultant who can be at the Saudi
                          Aramco Preventive Medicine Services Division on 877-8916 (after work hours on
                          878-1697 or 878-0890).

                          In commercial diving incidents, the coordinator may elect to proceed with
                          treatment using the appropriate table without notifying the diving medical team in
                          cases of minor decompression sickness. In all type II bends and possible gas
                          embolism cases, the duty diving medical consultant shall be notified immediately.

                          He shall send a monthly report of all incidents involving therapeutic
                          decompression to the senior Occupational Medicine specialist.

              3.5.4       Diving Medical Team

                          This will come under the jurisdiction of the director of Preventive Medicine
                          Services and will be a multi-disciplinary group headed by the senior Occupational
                          Medicine specialist. It will be comprised of a group of physicians with an interest
                          and training in hyperbaric medicine who shall rotate as duty diving medical
                          consultants. Nurses with special training will also be integrated in this group
                          which shall constantly keep abreast with current practices. The diving medical
                          team will provide this service to the Marine Department.




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations                                                                Page 346
              3.5.5       Marine Department

                          The Marine Department is responsible for the provision, maintenance, and
                          manning of the recompression chambers.

3.6           Personnel Transfer at Sea

              The following is to be used as guidelines for the transfer of persons at sea from vessel to
              vessel or from vessel to platform (or structure).

              A.      Personal Flotation Devices. These references are pertinent items from Loss Prevention
                      Department GI 6.020 - Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water.

              3.          Requirements.

                          3.1.          Wearing of personal flotation devices are required as follows:

                                        3.1.7

                                        When working or riding on the deck of a marine vessel or craft during
                                        rough seas at the discretion of the person in charge of the vessel or
                                        craft.

                                        3.1.11

                                        When transferring to or from any water craft or to or from one water
                                        craft to another.

                                        3.1.17

                                        At any time when deemed necessary by the boat skipper, ship captain,
                                        supervisor, or the person in charge of the marine vessel, installation or
                                        craft.

                                        4.1.3

                                        Marine craft skippers, ship captains and aircraft pilots shall enforce
                                        the wearing of personal flotation devices in their vessels or aircraft.
                                        Failure of an employee to heed the instructions given by the person in
                                        charge of the marine craft or aircraft shall require the passenger to be
                                        removed from the craft with disciplinary action to follow by the
                                        employee's department.

                                        4.1.4

                                        Supervisors or persons in charge of personnel in facilities,
                                        installations, or work activities shall be responsible for having their
                                        personnel follow the requirements regarding the wearing of personal
                                        flotation devices.




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations                                                                    Page 347
                                        4.2.

                                        Contractors shall provide (fully functional, no defect) personal
                                        flotation devices for each of their personnel. They shall also provide
                                        their personnel with the necessary instructions or training on the
                                        proper way of wearing personal flotation devices. The proponent
                                        Saudi Aramco organization shall be responsible for ensuring that
                                        contractors comply with the applicable requirements of this GI 6.020.

              B.    Saudi Arab and contractor vessel crews shall also be issued with proper working
                    uniforms and personal protective equipment such as shoes, gloves, glasses and hard
                    hats. The Marine Department expects all Saudi Aramco and contractor personnel
                    working around marine facilities to strictly adhere to Company safety rules and
                    regulations.




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations                                                                 Page 348
FIGURE VI.2: INTERNATIONAL CODE FLAG "A"




FIGURE VI.3: SIGNALS




February 1993 - 3.0 Diving Operations      Page 349
Appendix A




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Appendix A   Page 350
INDEX TO APPENDIX A
This Appendix contains the following information:

*         Project Management And Contractor's Safety Competition Site Registration Form;
*         Contractor Safety Competition, Rules Of Competition;
*         Contractor's Competition Job Safety Evaluation;
*         Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements;
*         Hazard Identification Plan (H.I.P.).




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Index to Appendix A                            Page 351
A.1          PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONTRACTOR'S
             SAFETY COMPETITION SITE REGISTRATION FORM
To: Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department                               Date: ____________________________


      Name Of Contractor:                       Contractor's Address:                   Contractor's Phone Number:


         Job Description:                            Job Number:                              Starting Date:

                                                                                        Estimated Completion Date:

                                                    B.I. Number:                        Peak Number Of Employees:


Contractor Site Representative:              Saudi Aramco Site (PMT)                    Project Mgmt. Department:
                                                    Engineer:



       Telephone Number:                        Telephone Number:                              Org. Code:


  Name Of Contractor's Safety                 Contractor's Site Phone                         Site Location:
       Representative:                              Number:




Signed:____________________________________________________(Contractor's Representative)

Job Title:__________________________________________________

Company:__________________________________________________

Date:_______________________________________________________

Saudi Aramco Proponent Department:____________________________________________________

This form is to be completed and sent to the local Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Office with a copy to
the designated senior Project Engineer, who is a member of the proponent Project Management Team
(PMT).

Signed:________________________________________
        Saudi Aramco Project Manager




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Safety Competition Site Registration Form                          Page 352
A.2        CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION, RULES OF
           COMPETITION

                     CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION JOB SAFETY EVALUATION

                                                  RULES OF COMPETITION

             1.      The competition shall be run over a six-month period (January to June and July to
                     December) and shall be assessed according to the requirements of Schedule 'D' of the
                     contract documents.

             2.      A contractor on a Budget Item (BI) who meets the following criteria shall be registered
                     in the competition by the responsible Proponent (PMT).

                          a.      Contractor and related sub-contractor exceed 50 for the entire six month
                                  period.
                          b.      Estimated completion time exceeds the competition time period.

             3.      An unscheduled site inspection will be carried out by the Loss Prevention Department
                     once before the 25th day of every even month. A contractor shall have a minimum of
                     three ratings within the six month period. The Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention
                     representative will report to the site office before he starts his inspection.
                     Representatives of Project Management and the contractor shall be invited to
                     accompany the Loss Prevention representative during the inspection. If it is
                     inconvenient for a member of the Project Management Team or contractor's personnel
                     to accompany the Loss Prevention representative during the inspection, the Loss
                     Prevention representative will conduct the inspection alone - awarding appropriate
                     scores. These scores shall be final. If during the inspection there is a difference of
                     opinion over the points awarded, then the Loss Prevention representative will make the
                     final decision.

             4.      The Saudi Aramco Project Management Team shall receive a copy of the inspection
                     sheet, and they should distribute it to the appropriate contractor. Remedial steps shall
                     be taken to rectify faults and improve the score rating. At the end of the competition, a
                     copy of the six-month summary sheet will be provided to any contractor.

             5.
                          a.      A contractor working on one BI at one location shall be evaluated, scored
                                  and ranked separately.
                          b.      A contractor working on more than one BI shall have an entry in the
                                  competition for each BI.
                          c.      A contractor working on the same BI at separate sites shall be evaluated by
                                  site but the final score will be averaged.
                          d.      Multiple contractors working on the same BI shall be entered, evaluated,
                                  scored and ranked separately. (This also applies to consortium partners -
                                  provided they meet requirements in 2 above.)

                          e.      For those rare cases where there are multiple sites and multiple contractors
                                  on a BI, each site under the BI will be scored separately but averaged with
                                  all sites for that BI by contractor.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Contractor Safety Competition Rules                        Page 353
                     Exceptions to the above guidelines shall be reviewed by Project Management Team
                     and Loss Prevention during initial registrations.

             6.      Following each inspection by the Loss Prevention representative, the original copy of
                     the form SA-6710 shall be submitted to the superintendent, Central Area Loss
                     Prevention Division, Building 3121, Room 113, Dhahran, not later than the 25th day of
                     each even month. In cases of holidays or rescheduled days off, the first work day after
                     the 25th is acceptable.

             7.      Any contractor who experiences a job related fatality, or serious incident that results in
                     the hospitalization of five or more employees, and fire resulting in SR 10,000 worth of
                     damage on any one of their sites within the competition period, will cease to be eligible
                     for an award.

             8.      Should a registered contractor not retain an average of 50 or more employees for the
                     entire competition period, they will be dropped from the competition.

             9.      Any item of concern not specifically covered on the Evaluation Form A-6710, shall be
                     reflected in column #18 under Special Items.

             10.     Should any contractor find he has completed the project before the end of the
                     competition period due to meritorious performance or reasons beyond his control, then
                     he will still be eligible to compete in the final assessment.

             11.     Should it be found that the contractor has not entered into the required logs details
                     which at a later date are determined to have occurred, e.g. restricted duty, lost work day
                     cases, accidents, fires, etc., then he would be deemed to have broken the rules and
                     forfeit the right to be included in the awards for the duration of that competition for
                     which he was eligible.

             12.     Every hazard report Saudi Aramco Form 3744 issued and not corrected within 24
                     hours, a penalty of 500 points shall be deducted from the total score.

             13.     Should a contractor incur a second hazard report, disqualification for the rest of the
                     competition period shall result.

             14.     Violations noted during an initial inspection which have not been corrected by the next
                     general and/or follow-up inspection shall be deemed a repeat violation and a "0" score
                     will be given for the entire section under consideration.

              SCORING:

              Where a section is inapplicable to a particular site, e.g. no scaffolding, cranes, etc., then that
              section will OK from the possible percentage score.




February 1993 - A.2 Contractor Safety Competition Rules                                                 Page 354
              POINT ASSESSMENT:

              Points will be assessed based on the gravity/severity of violations encountered and will range
              from 0 to 100. Points can be given from 0 to 100, depending on the judgment of the Loss
              Prevention Department representative.

              OVERALL PERFORMANCE RATING:

                           Unsatisfactory=                     0 - 65
                               Fair=                          66 - 80
                               Good=                          81 - 95
                             Excellent=                       96 - 100

                          Overall percentage performance will be calculated as follows:
                                  Points Scored x 100 = Contractor Rating: ___________
                                  Points Possible

                          Every endeavor will be made to provide an accurate assessment at each inspection.
                          Any questions that may arise concerning this job safety evaluation may be
                          submitted to the proponent department for resolution. Any contractor who
                          persistently returns poor scores or violates the competition rules may be subject to
                          corrective action by the proponent department.

                          Please Note:
                          For more information on the Contractor Safety Competition, and for the current
                          competition rules, please contact your Area Loss Prevention Office.




February 1993 - A.2 Contractor Safety Competition Rules                                               Page 355
FIGURE A.1: CONTRACTOR'S COMPETITION JOB SAFETY EVALUATION




February 1993 - A.2 Contractor Safety Competition Rules      Page 356
FIGURE A.1: CONTRACTOR'S COMPETITION JOB SAFETY EVALUATION CONTINUED.




February 1993 - A.2 Contractor Safety Competition Rules                 Page 357
A.3        SAUDI ARAMCO SAFETY, HEALTH AND
           ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

1.            Compliance With Safety Rules - Schedule 'D'

              CONTRACTOR shall at all times comply with, and ensure that its employees, agents and
              subcontractors comply with, applicable Saudi Arab Government Safety Regulations and all
              SAUDI ARAMCO Safety and Loss Prevention rules and regulations. Specifically,
              CONTRACTOR shall comply with the provisions of the SAUDI ARAMCO Construction
              Safety Manual and SAUDI ARAMCO's publication entitled "Loss Prevention Requirements
              for Contractors", Paragraphs 5 through 27 of this Schedule (which supplement but do not
              limit the requirements of the Construction Safety Manual), and such other related
              requirements; specifications and standards as are made known to CONTRACTOR by
              SAUDI ARAMCO. CONTRACTOR may request copies of all applicable rules and
              regulations from SAUDI ARAMCO's Loss Prevention Department. CONTRACTOR shall
              also take, or cause to be taken, any additional measures which Company Representative may
              direct to protect against injury to or death of any person or damage to or loss of any property
              during CONTRACTOR's performance of the work. CONTRACTOR shall maintain the
              SAUDI ARAMCO Construction Safety Manual and applicable SAUDI ARAMCO GIs at the
              WORK Site.


2.            Deviations From Safety Rules

              Any deviation by CONTRACTOR from SAUDI ARAMCO's Loss Prevention rules and
              regulations must be approved in writing in advance by Company Representative.


3.            Failure To Comply

              Should CONTRACTOR fail to comply with the requirements of this Schedule 'D', SAUDI
              ARAMCO shall notify CONTRACTOR in writing. CONTRACTOR shall, upon being
              advised of its noncompliance, immediately take all corrective action required to comply.
              Such corrective action shall, unless provided otherwise in this Contract, be taken at
              CONTRACTOR's expense. If CONTRACTOR fails to take such corrective action promptly,
              Company Representative may direct CONTRACTOR to suspend all or part of the WORK
              pursuant to Schedule "A" until satisfactory corrective action has been taken. Costs incurred
              by CONTRACTOR as a result of such WORK suspension shall be for CONTRACTOR's
              account and any resultant CONTRACTOR performance delays shall not be deemed
              excusable here-under.


4.            Saudi Aramco Assistance

              CONTRACTOR may request assistance from SAUDI ARAMCO with respect to the
              implementation of its Loss Prevention requirements. Company Representative, or such party
              or parties designated by him, will assist CONTRACTOR by explaining good safety practices,
              pointing out unsafe WORK Site conditions, and by applying his/their experience and
              judgment in order to assist CONTRACTOR in improving WORK safety. It is understood,
              however, that rendition of such assistance by SAUDI ARAMCO will in no way relieve
              CONTRACTOR of its responsibilities as set forth in this Schedule 'D'.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements       Page 358
5.            Loss Prevention Program

              CONTRACTOR shall prepare and submit a Loss PREVENTION Program to Company
              Representative, for SAUDI ARAMCO's approval, not later than fifteen (15) working days
              following the execution of this Contract. CONTRACTOR shall ensure full implementation
              of the Program. CONTRACTOR shall appoint a qualified full-time Safety Supervisor
              approved by SAUDI ARAMCO, to coordinate the Program. The name and address of the
              Safety Supervisor shall be submitted to Company Representative no later than the Program's
              submission:

              The Program shall outline specific essential measures to be taken by CONTRACTOR to
              prevent injuries to persons and damage to property and to ensure compliance with this
              Schedule 'D'. The Program shall be organized and implemented by each craft or crew
              supervisor. It shall include a specific plan to hold a ten minute safety discussion organized
              and implemented by each craft or crew supervisor on at least one day in each working week.


6.            Work Permits

              CONTRACTOR shall obtain a work permit (SAUDI ARAMCO Form 924) each shift for
              any WORK to be carried out during such shift in any SAUDI ARAMCO specified
              "Restricted Area". It shall be the CONTRACTOR's responsibility to ascertain, in advance,
              whether the WORK area is designated a Restricted Area. Company Representative shall give
              guidance on Restricted Area locations. All work permit procedures shall be carried out by
              CONTRACTOR in accordance with SAUDI ARAMCO GI 2.100 (Work Permits) and GI
              6.012 (Isolation, Lockout and Use of Hold Tags), which by this reference is made part of this
              Contract.


7.            Welding And Cutting Equipment

              All welding and cutting equipment shall be of a SAUDI ARAMCO approved type and
              maintained in good condition.


8.            Personal Protective Equipment

              CONTRACTOR shall, as a minimum, provide, maintain and enforce the use of the items of
              personal protective equipment listed in SAUDI ARAMCO's Construction Safety Manual,
              other applicable GIs and Operator Instruction Manuals (OIMs).


9.            Tools And Portable Power Tools

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all tools provided by CONTRACTOR are of the best
              quality with proper safeguards and are suitable for the use intended. Electrical hand tools
              shall be properly grounded or be of the double insulated type. All tools shall be free from
              defects and maintained in good condition. Saudi Aramco will reject tools which are found to
              be defective.


10.           Cartridge Operated Tools

              Cartridge operated tools shall be used only with the prior written approval of Company
              Representative. Furthermore, CONTRACTOR shall ensure that only SAUDI ARAMCO




February 1993 - A.3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements                             Page 359
              approved tools shall be used and that they shall be maintained in good condition in
              compliance with the SAUDI ARAMCO Construction Safety Manual.


11.           Ladders

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that only metal or timber ladders of SAUDI ARAMCO
              approved type are provided and used for ingress to and egress from WORK places where
              other means of ingress and egress are not available.


12.           Scaffolding

              CONTRACTOR shall provide and cause to be used scaffolding, platforms or temporary
              floors for all WORK which cannot be done safely from the ground, from a ladder or from a
              boatswain's chair. All scaffolding shall be constructed of SAUDI ARAMCO approved metal
              components and erected to comply with the requirements of the SAUDI ARAMCO
              Construction Safety Manual.


13.           Electrical Installations And Equipment

              All material and equipment used in temporary electrical installations shall be of SAUDI
              ARAMCO approved type and maintained in good condition.

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all 120 volt single phase 15 and 20 ampere receptacle
              outlets which are not a part of the permanent wiring of any building or structure shall have
              ground fault circuit interrupters for personal protection.


14.           Cranes And Rigging Equipment

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all lifting appliances and every part thereof, including all
              working gear, and all other plant or equipment for anchoring or fixing such appliances shall
              be of good mechanical construction, sound material, adequate strength and free from defect
              and are properly inspected and maintained. All chains, hooks, slings, shackles and other
              equipment used for raising or lowering on a lifting appliance shall be of a SAUDI ARAMCO
              approved type and maintained in good condition. All mobile heavy equipment and crane
              operators must possess a valid Kingdom of Saudi Arabia heavy equipment operator's license
              and be certified by SAUDI ARAMCO to operate such equipment (GI 7.025). All cranes and
              lifting equipment must be inspected and certified by SAUDI ARAMCO before being
              permitted to operate on SAUDI ARAMCO property (GI. 7.030). Certified riggers shall be
              provided (GI. 7.030).


15.           Mechanical Equipment

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all mechanical equipment provided is of a SAUDI
              ARAMCO approved type and maintained in good condition.

              All moving parts of any equipment shall be securely guarded so as to prevent access to the
              moving parts by persons working on or passing through the WORK Site.




February 1993 - A.3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements                            Page 360
16.           Saudi Aramco Plant Operations

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that CONTRACTOR's personnel and the personnel of its
              subcontractors do not open or close any valves or electrical switches, or operate any other
              piece of SAUDI ARAMCO plant without the prior approval of SAUDI ARAMCO and then
              only under the direct supervision of the supervising operator or plant foreman.


17.           Transportation

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that passengers shall travel only in vehicles that are provided
              with SAUDI ARAMCO approved passenger seats. This requirement shall apply while
              traveling to and from the WORK Site and during travel on the WORK Site. Seat belts shall
              be installed and used in all vehicles carrying personnel (except in the case of buses where
              seat belts are mandatory only for the driver).


18.           Injury And Damage Reporting

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that an immediate oral report is made to Company
              Representative in the case of all:

                   Fatal injuries;
                   Injuries requiring medical attention which result in lost time;
                   Damage over SR 10,000 to CONTRACTOR's plant or equipment;
                   Damage, in any amount, to SAUDI ARAMCO's equipment or property;
                   Fire;
                   Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI. 7.026).

              For accidents involving CONTRACTOR employee fatalities, serious injury to five or more
              CONTRACTOR employees, or damage to SAUDI ARAMCO equipment or property, a
              written report shall be submitted promptly to Company Representative. In addition, SAUDI
              ARAMCO may convene an engineering review or investigation committee in accordance
              with the requirements of GI 6.001 and GI 6.003..

              CONTRACTOR shall maintain, in a format approved by Company Representative, a current
              record showing all:

                   WORK injuries
                   Fires
                   Incidents of property damage over SR10,000
                   Motor vehicle collisions
                   Incidents involving damage to SAUDI ARAMCO equipment and property
                   Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI 7.026)

              This record shall be available for inspection at all reasonable times and shall be submitted to
              SAUDI ARAMCO on request.


19.           Excavations

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that any excavation work carried out during the course of the
              WORK is done according to the requirements of SAUDI ARAMCO GI 1021.010 and
              OIM. 1.108 which are by this reference made part of this Contract.




February 1993 - A.3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements                               Page 361
20.           Work Over Or Adjacent To Water

              Adequate lifesaving and rescue equipment shall be provided by CONTRACTOR on every
              seagoing vessel, and at every work station where WORK is being carried out over or
              adjacent to water. Life vests shall be worn by CONTRACTOR's personnel when working
              over water as prescribed in SAUDI ARAMCO GI 6.020, which by this reference is made
              part of this Contract.


21.           Fire Prevention

              CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain in good working order adequate fire fighting
              equipment. All CONTRACTOR's personnel shall be properly trained in the use of such
              equipment. Store yards shall be laid out in accordance with SAUDI ARAMCO Standards
              (SAES-B-7A, SAES-B-7C) and NFPA 231 A with respect to spacing of rows, fire lanes and
              compatibility of materials.


22.           Formwork

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all formwork supports are constructed to SAUDI
              ARAMCO approved standards. As far as practicable, steel units shall be used.

              Where the WORK requires a timber supporting structure, the timber shall be of suitable
              quality and of adequate strength. CONTRACTOR shall obtain prior written approval from
              Company Representative before any timber supporting structure is erected.

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that prior to any concrete being poured into any supported
              formwork structure, approval is obtained from Company Representative.


23.           Ionizing Radiation

              CONTRACTOR shall ensure that radioactive sources shall be used in compliance with the
              "General Rules and Regulations for the Use and Handling of Radioactivity and
              Radioisotopes" as promulgated by the Saudi Arabian Atomic Energy Department and with
              prior written approval of SAUDI ARAMCO. Where the WORK requires the use of ionizing
              radiation either by the CONTRACTOR or by some other organization approved by SAUDI
              ARAMCO, CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all employees are made aware of the
              precautions to be taken.


24.           First-Aid Facilities

              The CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain first-aid facilities at the WORK Site in
              accordance with Articles 134 and 135 of the Saudi Labor Laws. When a CONTRACTOR
              employs 50 or more workmen at a WORK Site the CONTRACTOR shall provide a qualified
              nurse and a dedicated emergency vehicle (ambulance), properly supplied and marked, to
              transport injured personnel to the nearest health care facility.




February 1993 - A.3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements                       Page 362
25.           Handling, Transportation And Disposal Of Hazardous Materials And Waste

              25.1

                          When a CONTRACTOR, in the course of performing his obligations under the
                          Contract, handles hazardous materials, the CONTRACTOR shall ensure that the
                          handling of such materials is performed in accordance with currently accepted
                          industry practices for the handling of such material. CONTRACTOR shall ensure
                          that in handling of hazardous materials, especially liquids, such material is
                          properly containerized and labeled in accordance with SAUDI ARAMCO GI
                          355.001.

              25.2

                          Subject to any specific requirements in Schedule "B", CONTRACTOR shall
                          include in its Loss Prevention Program its procedure for the disposal of solid and
                          liquid wastes. The procedure shall detail specific locations for the disposal of each
                          type of waste (construction, chemical, sludge, sanitary, scrap and sewage) and shall
                          also identify the steps to be taken to treat the wastes or otherwise prevent them
                          from polluting the ground water or the sea or from becoming a public nuisance.
                          SAUDI ARAMCO shall approve such procedure before disposal of any waste by
                          CONTRACTOR.

              25.3

                          In addition to the requirements of sub-paragraph 25.2 above, where the
                          CONTRACTOR is required to dispose of wastes determined to be hazardous, the
                          CONTRACTOR shall:

                          25.3.1

                                        Follow Saudi Arab Government regulations in disposing of hazardous
                                        waste materials. CONTRACTOR must provide SAUDI ARAMCO
                                        proof that the hazardous wastes have been properly disposed of at a
                                        licensed hazardous waste disposal facility.

                          25.3.2

                                        CONTRACTOR shall also provide SAUDI ARAMCO proof of an
                                        established land treatment/disposal program which is designed to
                                        ensure that hazardous constituents placed in or on the
                                        treatment/disposal zone are degraded, transformed or immobilized
                                        within the treatment zone to prevent migration to ground and/or
                                        surface waters. The CONTRACTOR shall submit this program to
                                        SAUDI ARAMCO for approval prior to the disposal of any hazardous
                                        material by the CONTRACTOR.


26.           Explosives

              CONTRACTOR shall promptly advise Company Representative of any requirements for
              explosives and only use such explosives after the written approval of Company
              Representative. Contractor shall comply with the general rules and requirements for the




February 1993 - A.3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements                                 Page 363
              handling and use of explosives issued by the Ministry of the Interior and all Saudi Aramco
              requirements per the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual for the storage,
              transportation and use of explosives.


27.           Sandblasting

              CONTRACTOR shall comply with SAUDI ARAMCO GI 6.021 and Construction Safety
              Manual requirements on sandblasting.




February 1993 - A.3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements                          Page 364
A.4       HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN (HIP)
INTRODUCTION

              In reviewing the safety requirements for our design and construction activities (i.e. new,
              modified or rebuilt plants or facilities), it is difficult for even the most experienced engineer
              and/or contractor to identify all the potential safety hazards that may be encountered unless a
              systematic potential-hazard review is conducted as a part of a Hazard Identification Plan
              (HIP).

              The attached Hazard Identification Plan (HIP) provides the method for conducting such a
              review. The hazards identified are classified as A, B or C according to their degree of
              potential human impact considering severity and probability (i.e. from most severe and
              probable to least severe and probable) during the initial design phase. This allows for a
              change in the methodology or operating procedure in the direction of reducing the risk
              associated with the hazard to an acceptable level, or eliminating it altogether.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Hazard Identification Plan                                 Page 365
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN:

              Brief description of work to be accomplished.

               I.          Conduct Hazards Identification Review.
                           (To include on-site tour)

                           Record hazards identified on location map.

               II.         List Potential Hazards

                                 Each hazard will be classified A, B, or C.
                                 Statement of corrective action to be taken.
                                 Hazard areas identified on a location map and color coded.
                                 Contractor will submit this list to Saudi Aramco representative.

                           Consideration will be given to the following potential hazards:

                                  Potential hazards to P.M.T. and contractor personnel.
                                  Potential hazards to the general public.
                                  Incompatible interface with existing plants, facilities, procedures,
                                   regulations, engineering specifications, ground condition, etc.
                                  Potential hazards that may be encountered from outside sources.
                                  Hazardous materials identification/handling/storage.
                                  Potential fire / electrical hazards.

               III.        Hazard Classification

                           Once the hazards are identified, they are classified as Class A, B, or C.

                                  Class "A" Hazards:

                                          A condition or practice likely to cause permanent disability, loss of
                                          life or body part and/or extensive loss of structure, equipment or
                                          material.

                                  Class "B" Hazards:

                                          A condition or practice likely to cause serious injury or illness
                                          (resulting in temporary disability) or property damage that is
                                          disruptive, but less severe than Class "A".

                                  Class "C" Hazards:

                                          A condition or practice likely to cause minor (non-disabling) injury or
                                          illness or non-disruptive property damage.




February 1993 - A.4 Hazard Identification Plan                                                            Page 366
               IV.         Corrective Action

                           List all hazards identified in the HIP outline, and determine what corrective action
                           should be taken.

                           Example: "A" Hazards

                                          Overhead electrical power lines over building site

                                                Electrical power rating, (KV)
                                                Show power lines on location map.

                           Corrective Action

                           Example: "A" Hazard. "Overhead Power Lines"

                           Corrective Action:

                                                Obtain work permit before starting any work under or near
                                                 electrical power lines.
                                                No activity in area under power line until power lines have been
                                                 disconnected and/or relocated.

                           Following are examples of typical hazards that can be encountered:

                           1)             Above Ground Potential Hazards

                                                Overhead power lines, list KV rating
                                                Bridges, by-passes
                                                Micro wave / communication towers
                                                Houses
                                                Traffic flow
                                                Facilities close-by
                                                Aircraft flight path
                                                Trees, poles
                                                High cliffs / dangerous overhangs
                                                Fuel / chemical / pressure vessels and systems

                           2)             Ground Level Potential Hazards

                                                Electrical wires
                                                Roadways
                                                Ditches
                                                High water table
                                                Tie-downs
                                                Obstruction
                                                Unstable soil
                                                Fences/walls
                                                Traffic flow
                                                Guide wires
                                                Nearby buildings, schools, houses
                                                Possible flood or wash out areas
                                                Adverse weather conditions




February 1993 - A.4 Hazard Identification Plan                                                           Page 367
                                                Hazards from nearby plants or operations, etc.

                           3)             Underground Potential Hazards

                                                Buried utilities
                                                High water table
                                                Building foundations
                                                Underground water waste
                                                Unstable soil
                                                Chemical / trash dump area
                                                Voids in the earth (caves)
                                                Underground fuel / chemical / pressure systems and vessels

                           4)             Interface Potential Hazards

                                                Existing emergency evacuation plans
                                                Emergency communication system
                                                Traffic flow
                                                Special personnel
                                                Protective equipment requirements
                                                Hazardous waste disposal
                                                Hazards from other outside operations
                                                Escape routes
                                                Evacuation alarms
                                                Access control
                                                Flammable liquid / chemical / pressure vessel storage
                                                Gas release into proposed area

                           5)             Off-Shore Potential Hazards

                                                High wind / sea conditions
                                                Night time operations
                                                Inclement weather conditions
                                                      Fog
                                                      Rain
                                                      Lightning
                                                Marine vessels and materials adrift
                                                Electrical hazards




February 1993 - A.4 Hazard Identification Plan                                                            Page 368
Appendix B: Emergency/Disaster
             Planning And Response




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - Appendix B: Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response   Page 369
B.1        SEARCH AND RESCUE PROCEDURES
This Appendix outlines Saudi Aramco search and rescue procedures for on- and off-shore facilities.
Included in this appendix are the following:

         Control of Remote Area Travel And Search And Rescue Procedures (GI 6.025);

         Offshore Emergency Response;

         Fire and Other Serious Emergency Response Procedures (Supplement No. 1-503-1).

Any further questions on search and rescue procedures should be forwarded to your area Loss Prevention
Department office or the Saudi Aramco contract proponent.

Effective emergency planning requires that employees be familiar with emergency procedures before a
crisis. It is the responsibility of management to ensure that all employees are familiar with the proper
response to fire and other serious emergencies.




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Search And Resuce Procedures                        Page 370
B.2       EMERGENCY/DISASTER PLANNING AND RESPONSE
It is the responsibility of every contractor employee to become familiar with emergency response
procedures for both offshore and onshore operating facilities.

The following Operating Instructions Manuals (OIMs) give facility-specific emergency response
guidance/procedures:

Saudi Aramco Operating Instruction Manual (OIM):

OI 1.501            Overall Disaster Control Procedure - Safaniya/Tanajib Area

OI 1.501-1          Tanajib Disaster Control Center Commander

OI 1.501-2          Safaniya Support Personnel Assignment

OI 1.501-3          Disaster Control Command Center - Tanajib Personnel Assignment

OI 1.502            Onshore Control Unit - Safaniya Producing

OI 1.503            Offshore Disaster Control Plan - Safaniya Producing

OI 1.503-1          Offshore Emergency Response

OI 1.503-2          Offshore Emergencies Only

OI 1.503-3          Safaniya Offshore Jack-Up Test Barge/Well Platform Disaster Control Plan

OI 1.503-4          Safaniya Offshore - Offshore Casualty Evacuation

OI 1.503-5          Personnel Accountability Offshore Facilities

OI 1.527            Safety Zones and Safety of Navigation Around Offshore Installation

OI 10.011           Work Around Offshore Producing Facilities

General guidelines for preparing emergency response plans can be found in the following Saudi Aramco
Loss Prevention Department publication:

GI 70.500           Disaster Contingency Plan, Dhahran Area

Guidelines for Preparing Emergency Response Plans, October 1989

Other references include:

Saudi Aramco Corporate Loss Prevention Manual (CLPM)

Mobil Oil Corporation - Guidelines for Emergency Response and Disaster Contingency Planning for
Saudi Aramco, May 1991

The potential for emergencies and disasters exists at all construction sites and facilities and their
associated costs can be devastating in terms of employee casualties, business interruption, loss of capital




February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - B.3: Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response         Page 371
investment, etc. These events cannot be avoided but the contractor can reduce their frequency of
occurrence and severity of damage with effective preparation/planning. This can be accomplished by
developing emergency response plans that address immediate concerns within the contractor's operations
and which also interface, as required, with emergency response procedures developed by Saudi Aramco
organizations.

The following guidelines (B 3.1 and B 3.3 and Figures) are extracted from the publication "Guidelines
For Preparing Emergency Response Plans". These are generally used by Saudi Aramco operations as a
framework for plan development. Contractors should refer to these guidelines for developing their own
plans as appropriate, paying particular attention to the need for interfacing with local Saudi Aramco
emergency planning procedures. Contractor's plans will need to be tailored to their specific operations
and resources and the nature of their work with Saudi Aramco.

B.2.1        General Provisions

             1.     The purpose of the emergency plan is to provide guidance on the following:

                         A facility/site emergency response organization's structure and responsibilities
                         Development of credible emergency/disaster scenarios and their consequences
                         Establishment of emergency control resources (human, equipment, etc.) and
                          procedures
                         Emergency response training and drills

             2.     Ensure that the emergency plan with the latest issue date is being used and it
                    incorporates all amendments to date. It must have provision for any future amendments
                    as addendum or reissues.
             3.     The emergency reporting instructions must be provided in the front of the plan.
             4.     The emergency telephone numbers must be provided in the front of the plan.
             5.     The disaster preparedness policy must be provided in the front of the plan.

B.2.2        Definitions

             1.          Emergency:

                         An emergency is an abnormal incident posing a threat to the safety of workers,
                         residents, the environment or property at a facility or site and which can be brought
                         under control using the resources and procedures for emergency response in place
                         for the facility or site.

             2.          Disaster:

                         A disaster is an emergency which poses a more serious threat to the safety of
                         workers, residents, the environment or property at a facility or site and which
                         cannot be brought under control using the resources and procedures for emergency
                         response in place for the facility or site. Whether an emergency becomes a disaster
                         depends on the following:

                                 the type of facility;
                                 the hazards of the facility operations;
                                 the proximity of neighboring communities or other facilities;
                                 the capabilities of emergency personnel; and
                                 mutual aid capabilities of outside agencies.




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                          Page 372
             3.          Emergency Planning:

                         This involves the development of a specific plan which details actions to be taken
                         by trained personnel during an emergency in an effort to efficiently control it and
                         minimize its net negative impact on workers, residents, the environment or
                         property at a facility or site. This type of planning also extends to developing
                         emergency control strategies and instituting training and drills for all facility
                         personnel.

             4.          Disaster Command Center (DCC):

                         The location where the Emergency Manager and support staff assemble to respond
                         to an emergency. It is a centralized location for monitoring the facility response
                         and also serves as a command center for coordinating all communications,
                         including the allocation and distribution of information. (This will also remain an
                         onshore centralized location for an offshore emergency response episode.) During
                         an offshore search and rescue (SAR) operation, this will become the SAR control
                         center. A designated helicopter pilot will report to SAR control center to act as a
                         search coordinator. Staffing from pertinent technical and support groups assures
                         accessibility to all required resources for an overall effective emergency response.

             5.          Disaster Command Post (DCP):

                         A designated safe location near the emergency site from which the Incident
                         Commander directs emergency control efforts. He directs operations and
                         coordinates fire fighting, rescue and medical treatment activities during the
                         emergency episode.

                         At some onshore facilities, the DCP is a specially equipped vehicle outfitted with
                         facility maps, communication equipment and support information similar to a
                         DCC. This equipment provides the means for contact with the DCC and for field
                         coordination. At offshore facilities, the DCP would be a safe location designated
                         by the Incident Commander which should be equipped with a telephone, radio
                         communication and personal protective/identification equipment, at a minimum.

             6.          Table Top Exercise:

                         This is a disaster management simulation where key personnel face a hypothetical
                         disaster situation developed by a skilled moderator. Weaknesses are identified by
                         evaluating the results of the exercise and corrected by revising the plan.

             7.          Planning Committee:

                         A planning committee is a body comprising of members from key functional
                         groups within the organization. This is set up to develop an emergency plan using
                         the broad expertise of its members.

             8.          Planning Coordinator:

                         An individual who is qualified to develop an emergency plan to direct its
                         development through a planning committee. This individual is required to process
                         great depth of knowledge of emergency response and disaster control practices and




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                         Page 373
                         procedures, and manpower organizational capabilities for his facility or site. He
                         can review and use Saudi Aramco approved emergency plans from other similar
                         facilities or sites in the development or modification of his facility/site plan.

             9.          Emergency/Disaster Response Organization:

                         The Emergency/Disaster Response Organization is a structured working group
                         whose function is to control an emergency or disaster. The structure of this group
                         is typified in Figure B.1. The organization is basically comprised of the following
                         positions with their delegated responsibilities.

                         A.            Key Positions

                                       (a) Emergency Manager

                                       The Emergency Manager is responsible for the overall organization
                                       and strategy of the emergency response, coordinates logistical efforts
                                       and has the authority for the final decision in any emergency action.
                                       He is usually, but not always, the senior management person at the
                                       facility. His specific responsibilities are to:

                                            (1)   assume control of the DCC
                                            (2)   implement the Emergency Plan
                                            (3)   receive updates on control measures taken by the Incident
                                                  Commander
                                            (4)   assess the situation and direct actions to minimize damage
                                                  and loss of life
                                            (5)   maintain contact with upper management
                                            (6)   declare the emergency "under control" and authorize the "all
                                                  clear" signal

                                       (b) Incident Commander

                                       The Incident Commander is responsible for suppression and control
                                       tactics at the site. The Shift Superintendent usually fills this position
                                       and provides direction to all personnel at the scene, including the
                                       senior fire officer. His specific responsibilities are to:

                                            (1.) establish the Disaster Control Post (DCP) at a safe location
                                                 near the emergency site
                                            (2) develop and implement control tactics
                                            (3) approve use of all emergency related resources
                                            (4) keep the Emergency Manager informed
                                            (5) evaluate mutual aid needs, and request assistance through
                                                 the Emergency Manager
                                            (6) coordinate mutual aid personnel and equipment
                                            (7) determine the need for evacuation

                                       All normal plant functions and emergency support services report
                                       directly to one of the above positions according to their reporting
                                       relationships given in Figure B.1.




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                            Page 374
                         B.            Emergency/Disaster Support Staff/Teams

                                       (a) Fire Protection/Rescue

                                       This function is usually performed by a combined team of facility/site
                                       fire protection personnel. They take directions from the Incident
                                       Commander through the appointed senior fire officer at the DCP. The
                                       responsibilities of the senior fire officer are as follows:

                                                  Fire-Fighting

                                             (1)   provide initial evaluation to the Incident Commander
                                             (2)   deploy fire fighting personnel and equipment
                                             (3)   advise Incident Commander of the need for outside
                                                   resources
                                             (4)   keep Incident Commander current on fire control status
                                             (5)   direct outside fire fighting organizations
                                             (6)   clean-up and restore fire protection equipment and supplies

                                                  Rescue

                                             (1)   locate and rescue missing persons
                                             (2)   render essential first aid and life support
                                             (3)   remove victims to designated safe locations for medical
                                                   treatment

                                       (b)    Process

                                       This function is usually performed by an operations representative
                                       who is responsible for advising the Emergency Manager in the
                                       following areas:

                                             (1)   operations, hydrocarbon movement, unit isolation and
                                                   emergency shutdown activities
                                             (2)   special fire protection needs
                                             (3)   materials or process in the affected area
                                             (4)   actions taken affecting the process
                                             (5)   process equipment involved in the control of the incident

                                       (c) Maintenance

                                       This function is usually performed by a maintenance representative
                                       who is responsible to:

                                             (1)   assemble maintenance manpower in the maintenance shops
                                             (2)   assist operators in isolating and shutting down units as
                                                   directed
                                             (3)   repair of emergency equipment
                                             (4)   assist utilities personnel in bypassing or repairing critical
                                                   utility components




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                            Page 375
                                            (5)   provide fuel for emergency vehicles and firewater pump
                                                  engines
                                            (6)   transport foam and other emergency supplies

                                       (d) Engineering

                                       This function is usually performed by an operations engineering
                                       representative whose responsibilities are as follows:

                                            (1)   provide mechanical and process related information
                                            (2)   keep the Emergency Manager, Incident Commander, and
                                                  Process Coordinator advised of factors influencing
                                                  emergency activities.
                                            (3)   assign an engineer to serve as an emergency events recorder
                                            (4)   prepare damage assessment reports
                                            (5)   collect and preserve evidence for the incident investigators
                                            (6)   perform post-incident engineering for repair work

                                       (e) Security

                                       This function is usually performed by the facility Security Supervisor
                                       whose responsibilities are as follows:

                                            (1)   ensure integrity of the plant perimeter
                                            (2)   provide necessary staffing to control use of emergency gates
                                            (3)   prevent entry of unauthorized personnel
                                            (4)   direct the flow of traffic away from the disaster scene
                                            (5)   direct emergency resources to the appropriate staging area
                                            (6)   provide escorts for emergency vehicles when requested
                                            (7)   advise Incident Commander on security matters
                                            (8)   act as liaison between the Frontier Force, the Incident
                                                  Commander and Government Affairs

                                       (f) Loss Prevention

                                       This function is usually performed by the Loss Prevention
                                       Advisor/Engineer whose responsibilities are as follows:

                                            (1)   help evaluate hazardous situations and materials
                                            (2)   recommend actions and equipment necessary to protect
                                                  personnel
                                            (3)   direct Loss Prevention staff to perform gas testing or other
                                                  emergency/disaster services and interface as needed with
                                                  Industrial Hygiene
                                            (4)   assign Loss Prevention staff to record or log
                                                  emergency/disaster activities for future use
                                            (5)   coordinate with services as necessary regarding safety
                                                  equipment




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                          Page 376
                                       (g) Services

                                       This function is usually performed by a staff engineer who coordinates
                                       support services and obtains a cost code from the area Finance
                                       representative to account for all financial, purchasing, and cost
                                       analysis aspects of the incident. His responsibilities are as follows:

                                            (1)   contact the on-call Area Representative who will provide
                                                  safe and sanitary food, potable water, and field sanitation
                                                  facilities on request of the Incident Commander
                                            (2)   purchasing and contracting requirements
                                            (3)   coordinating claims actions
                                            (4)   providing necessary accommodations for emergency
                                                  response personnel

                                       (h) Medical

                                       This function is usually performed by district medical personnel whose
                                       responsibilities are as follows:

                                            (1)   establish a triage area at the scene
                                            (2)   provide on-site emergency medical care
                                            (3)   advise the Emergency Manager of the number of injured and
                                                  any need for additional medical assistance
                                            (4)   notify appropriate hospitals and clinics of the anticipated
                                                  number of casualties
                                            (5)   advise the Emergency Manager of special medical
                                                  transportation needs
                                            (6)   keep records of victims and their treatment

                                       (i) External Relations

                                       This function is usually performed by the area Government Affairs
                                       representative whose responsibilities are as follows:

                                            (1)   establish and maintain communications with civil authorities
                                            (2)   communicate the incident status to government
                                                  organizations as appropriate
                                            (3)   request approval from the Emergency Manager for any
                                                  government inspections and/or investigations during the
                                                  emergency
                                            (4)   inform community leaders of incident status, potential
                                                  dangers which might require evacuation and recovery efforts

                                       (j) Operations/Utilities

                                       This function is usually filled by plant/site foremen who direct the
                                       activities of plant operators. Their responsibilities are as follows:

                                            (1)   account for personnel by head count procedures
                                            (2)   report missing persons




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                          Page 377
                                            (3)   implement the facility emergency operating plan for a
                                                  specific situation (i.e. isolation and shutdown unit(s) as
                                                  instructed and stabilize units not involved)
                                            (4)   await further orders after the units have been shutdown and
                                                  secured
                                            (5)   assign an operator to check firewater mains pressure and
                                                  start fire pumps
                                            (6)   control the plant air systems, steam systems, and other
                                                  utilities and advise the Incident Commander on their status
                                            (7)   inform the Incident Commander and Maintenance of system
                                                  failures
                                            (8)   evacuate personnel if instructed by the Incident Commander

                                       (k) Communications

                                       This function is usually performed by an operations employee who
                                       reports to the DCC to manage radio transmissions, telephone lines,
                                       operate special equipment such as DVD, EARS, etc., and record all
                                       message traffic.

                                       (l) Environmental

                                       This function is usually performed by an assigned environmental
                                       specialist whose responsibilities include providing environmental
                                       monitoring services and spill containment/recovery advice to the
                                       Emergency Manager and Incident Commander.

B.2.3        Plan Development Action Items

             Task 1: Assign (or Establish) Planning Coordinator (or Team)

                         1.       A planning coordinator must be assigned; or

                         2.       A planning committee/coordinator team must be established.

             Task 2: Establish Scope and Objectives

                         3.       A scope and written objectives must be developed for the site.

             Task 3: Identify Emergency/Disaster Scenarios

                         4.       Develop emergency/disaster scenarios specific to the facility or site as
                                  follows. (Use Figure B.2 for scenario development):

                                       Planning Coordinator/team to identify emergency/disaster situations.
                                       Group these situations into generic scenarios (e.g. tank fires, pump
                                        fires, liquid releases, vapor releases, explosions, natural disasters,
                                        etc.)
                                       For each generic scenario, select the credible worst case
                                        emergency/disaster situation to represent that scenario (e.g. the
                                        largest tank fire) and fill out Part A (Description) and Part B
                                        (Possible Causes) of the Scenario Analysis Sheet (Figure B.2).




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                          Page 378
                                        Similarly, describe all scenarios on separate sheets and assign a rank
                                        order to each in Part E (Evaluation) based on likelihood of
                                        occurrence. (The "consequences" of Part E will be developed as part
                                        of Task 4, "Assess the Consequences of Scenarios".)

                         The following information is useful in identifying emergency/disaster situations
                         (initiated on-site or off-site) within each generic scenario:

                              Fire

                               Fires are generally caused as a result of ignition of a gas (or liquid)
                               hydrocarbon leak under pressure. Unburned liquid hydrocarbon pools in the
                               ground and fuel the fire to increase its intensity and spread. All situations
                               within this scenario can lead to disasters if fire spreads beyond the
                               capabilities of the fire fighting systems/personnel in place. Generally, this
                               occurs if the response is not quick to contain the fire to a manageable limit
                               before it approaches a disaster level. Some examples of potential
                               emergency/disaster situations for the fire scenario are:

                                       congested multiple process unit area fire
                                       flammable liquid tank storage area fire
                                       wharf loading and unloading area fire

                              Explosion

                               Flammable vapor releases are one of the most significant sources of
                               explosions and the potential for casualties and property damage is high.
                               Some examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the explosion
                               scenario are:

                                       boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) of storage,
                                        sphere, bullet or process vessel
                                       runaway (exothermic) process chemical reaction
                                       gas explosion from a large volume release of refrigerated LPG
                                       unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) from a flammable vapor
                                        release

                              Flammable Vapor Release (FVR)

                               In the petroleum industry, the possibility of release of flammable vapor poses
                               a great risk. Some examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for
                               the FVR scenario are:

                                       failure of piping connection to pressurized storage sphere (or bullet),
                                        or refrigerated tank
                                       tank overfill
                                       LPG tanker accident resulting in containment failure
                                       high pressure gas pipeline rupture

                              Toxic Vapor Release (TVR)




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                           Page 379
                               Toxic materials may or may not be flammable but could be in a high enough
                               concentration to pose a health risk when released as a vapor. Some examples
                               of potential emergency/disaster situations for the TVR scenario are:

                                       rupture of pipeline or well blowout releasing H2S vapor
                                       rupture of storage container releasing chlorine/ammonia vapor
                                       rupture or leak of amine regenerator overhead accumulator
                                        piping/flange to release H2S vapor
                                       failure of H2S compressor seal releasing the vapor

                              Hazardous Materials Spill

                               Hazardous materials are used as solvents, reagents, and catalysts in various
                               processes. A likely situation for a hazardous material spill is from the tanker
                               vehicle transporting it to the facility or during its transfer from the tanker
                               vehicle to its process usage or storage point. Other examples of potential
                               emergency/disaster situations for the Hazardous Materials Release/spill
                               scenario are:

                                       TEL/TML gasoline antiknock compound liquid release
                                       rupture of storage container or associated piping releasing
                                        chlorine/ammonia liquid
                                       rupture of storage container or associated piping releasing sulfuric
                                        acid liquid

                              Natural Disaster

                               Each facility or site is susceptible to natural disasters (e.g. high winds,
                               flooding, etc.). The impact of natural disasters to cause other related process
                               disasters should be recognized in the planning stage. Historical data on
                               disasters at similar facilities or sites coupled with weather data can help in
                               predicting the frequency of natural disasters for the area. Another source of
                               such information is the Saudi Aramco Risk Analysis Manual.

             Task 4: Assess the Consequences

                         5.       Complete each scenario analysis sheet started in Task 3 by describing the
                                  incident size, duration and effect on operations.

                         6.       Enter an estimate of the magnitude of potential consequences in Part E
                                  (Evacuation) of the Scenario Analysis Sheet (Figure B.2) after considering
                                  the following factors for each scenario:

                                       Size (including explosive potential, maximum fire areas, maximum
                                        spill volume and area, maximum vapor cloud volume).
                                       Growth spread of impact area resulting from the spread of a fire,
                                        toxic vapor cloud, or other undesirable product of the
                                        emergency/disaster episode.
                                       Amount of advance warning.
                                       Impact (including severity of potential damage, potential casualties,
                                        effect on surrounding population, domino effect of sequential
                                        explosions, and total duration).




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                          Page 380
                                       Controllability of incident based on level of emergency/disaster
                                        training of personnel and adequacy of equipment available within a
                                        facility or site.
                                       Reaction (or response) time and effectiveness of facility resources to
                                        control incident.

                                  After the Scenario Analysis sheets have been completed for each scenario,
                                  assign a rank order in Part E based on consequences. The plan coordinator
                                  selects the scenario which represents the most likely event with the severest
                                  consequence(s) as the basis for developing the emergency response plan.
                                  This choice should be approved by Contractor management.

             Task 5: Review Emergency Control Needs

                         7.       Use the Disaster Control Tasks Checklist to determine all tasks required
                                  (see Figure B.3).

                         8.       Assign a team member to develop the facility's response.

                         9.       Develop and document the assigned response.

             Task 6: Available/Needed Resources

                         10.      The methods to identify, estimate, and establish available needed resources
                                  are as follows:

                                  (a)   Develop an inventory list of critical supplies and equipment needed
                                        to control the emergency disaster scenarios in Tasks 3 and 4.

                                  (b)   Ensure that these critical items are stored together at one easily
                                        accessible location (or the critical items store itself if accessible).

                                  (c)   Display the list of critical items on the entrance to the critical items
                                        store.

                         11.   Identify and list the entities responsible for supplying food, water, shelter,
                               transportation, emergency equipment, additional manpower, external mutual
                               aid, medical support and cost accounting.

                         12.      Determine that the resource needs in item number 10. (above) have been
                                  met List contingencies to cover failure of any of those entities indicated in
                                  item 11. to supply the needed items.

                         13.      Survey alternate outside sources to determine their ability to supply
                                  resources which may be in short supply.

                         14.      If a mutual aid agreement has been established, develop an inventory of
                                  equipment and supplies that any mutual aid entity is expected to bring with
                                  them when they respond.

                         15.      Establish a telephone and personnel list of 24-hour contacts at all mutual
                                  aid entities.




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                            Page 381
                         16.      Determine and document that the equipment and supplies provided through
                                  mutual aid are compatible with emergency/fire protection equipment at the
                                  site.

                         17.      Measure the response/travel time needed by all mutual aid entities to
                                  respond to an emergency/disaster at the site. Establish the needed time
                                  range for all outside resources to reach the site.

                         18.      List and detail all high cost items and their corresponding authorization
                                  levels.

                         19.      List emergency response skills required to control all scenarios selected in
                                  Tasks 3 and 4.

                         20.      Compare required skills with available skills of construction/site personnel.

                         21.      Establish a Disaster Command Center (DCC).

                         22.      Consider the need to provide an alternate location for the DCC in case the
                                  original location is rendered unusable.

                         23.      Supply the DCC (and alternate) with:

                                       telephone, fax, and other radio communication/alarm equipment
                                       emergency power and lighting
                                       reference materials (e.g. emergency response manuals, call out lists,
                                        Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), drawings, photographs, maps,
                                        etc.) and emergency equipment (e.g. flashlights, spare batteries,
                                        camera, battery powered megaphones, etc.
                                       office equipment (e.g. dictating machines, tapes, flip charts,
                                        stationery items, etc.)

                         24.      Establish a Disaster Command Post (DCP) vehicle/safe location near the
                                  emergency site..

                         25.      Ensure that the DCP is set up with supplies similar to the DCC (except on
                                  offshore facilities where the DCP may only have a telephone, radio
                                  communication and personal protective/identification equipment).

                         26.      Additionally, ensure that the DCP also has the following:

                                       self-contained breathing air
                                       megaphone
                                       binoculars
                                       safety/environmental monitoring equipment
                                       means of identification (vest, hat)

             Task 7: Emergency Response Organization

                         27.      Establish an emergency/disaster response organization.




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                           Page 382
                         28.      Ensure there are sufficient personnel to fill all assigned positions and
                                  alternates/substitutes identified and on standby to fill critical positions
                                  should it become necessary.

                         29.      Ensure that each assigned position has a documented detailed description
                                  of its responsibilities. Such a description must include:

                                       duties of the position
                                       reporting relationship
                                       reporting location

                         30.      Verify and document that all assigned individuals are aware of their
                                  responsibilities.

                         31.      Develop a physical method to identify each individual in the organization
                                  chart by position (ID. badges, vests).

             Task 8: Develop Emergency Response Procedures

                         32.      Ensure that the planned facility/site emergency response procedures are
                                  structured according to the logical progression of action items given in
                                  Figure B.4.

                         (a)           Reporting Emergencies:

                                       (1.) Report to senior operations person in control room using radios,
                                            telephones, manual pull box alarms, or public address systems.
                                            (Emergency telephone numbers or local 110 instructions should
                                            be posted near or on all telephones.)

                                       (2.) Determine how significant does an incident have to be to be
                                            reportable.

                                       (3.) Suggested wording for reporting emergencies (or drills) is shown
                                            in Figure B.5 (Emergency Reporting Instructions). Also see
                                            section VII.A (Reporting Emergencies) of the plan (see Task 9:
                                            Write the Plan).

                                       (4.) Details of the telephone and radio systems (i.e. different dialing
                                            and radio frequencies) should be in the appendix of the plan.

                         (b.)          Initiate The Alarm:

                                       All emergency related signals (i.e. "stop-work", "evacuation", and "all
                                       clear") and expected actions relating to each signal alarm must be
                                       established and followed.

                                       Authority and criteria for sounding the different alarms must be clearly
                                       stated in the plan.




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                           Page 383
                         (c.)          Assess The Situation:

                                       The Incident Commander must follow-up on every emergency
                                       declared by reporting to the incident site to assess:

                                            the emergency response actions taken or being taken
                                            additional actions and resources required to control the situation
                                            extent of damage to property and harm or negative impact to life.
                                            existing hazardous conditions and their likelihood to escalate.

                         (d.)          Mobilization Of Resources:

                                       1.    Actions are taken by facility/site personnel to mobilize the
                                             facility's internal resources (human, equipment, etc.) and, if
                                             needed, contact external groups to mobilize their resources to the
                                             scene as developed in Task 6 (Available/Needed Resources).

                                       2.    Plant personnel assigned to the emergency response organization
                                             are to proceed to their preassigned locations and await
                                             instructions from the Emergency Manager or Incident
                                             Commander, as applicable.

                                       3.    Non-essential plant personnel are to be evacuated to preassigned
                                             assembly areas at a safe distance from the incident scene.
                                             Supervisory or assigned personnel are to take head count and
                                             DCC is to organize search and rescue for any missing personnel.

                                       4.    Support groups such as Security, Medical and Fire Protection are
                                             to report to their preassigned locations and must commence any
                                             preauthorized emergency response related actions.

                                       5.    At least two methods of in-plant communication should be
                                             available (e.g. radio and telephone). One in-plant radio channel
                                             is reserved as the main communication link between the
                                             Emergency Manager and Incident Commander. At least two
                                             methods of communication are necessary for external contacts
                                             (e.g. telephone, radio, Direct Voice Dispatch - DVD, Emergency
                                             Alert and Response System - EARS, etc.).

                                             A telephone number with a pre-recorded message providing
                                             essential up-to-date information on the incident (e.g. 113 in
                                             Dhahran) will be established.

                         (e)           Suppression/Control Of Incident:

                                             A separate control procedure must be written for each generic
                                             incident scenario developed in Task 3 (Identify Emergency
                                             Scenarios). This procedure is based on facility operating
                                             instructions detailing the rapid and safe sequential shut down of
                                             process units/equipment involved or affected by the particular
                                             incident scenarios.




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                           Page 384
                         (f)           Post Incident Actions:

                                             There are follow-up actions needed once an emergency is
                                             declared under control by the Emergency Manager. These
                                             actions are:

                                       1.    Stand Down And Fire Watch

                                             The Emergency Manager gives the "stand down" order to
                                             emergency response personnel. At this time, some personnel are
                                             released from duty, some are assigned to gather evidence, on the
                                             emergency episode and others are to maintain a fire watch if
                                             there is danger of reignition. The fire watch is set up by Fire
                                             Protection following consultation with the Emergency Manager.

                                       2.    Investigate And Report

                                             Incident investigation of causes and reporting can be made
                                             according to prescribed procedures. GI. 6.001 (Notification
                                             Requirements For Incidents) and GI 6.003 (Guide For
                                             Committees Investigating Major Incidents) are two sources
                                             which provide guidance for developing such procedures.

                                       3.    Restore Operations

                                             This covers all post-emergency control actions which must be
                                             followed to restore normal operations at the facility. This
                                             includes, but is not limited to:

                                                 demands of caring for injured and homeless
                                                 repairing damaged equipment to bring process equipment
                                                  on-line
                                                 collecting evidence for the reporting requirement
                                                 determining secondary hazards that may have developed

                                       4.    Revise The Plan

                                             All new information gained as a result of the incident should be
                                             analyzed to determine what improvements could be made to the
                                             facility's Emergency Response Plan. These improvements
                                             should be integrated into the Plan and all emergency response
                                             personnel should be retrained and drilled to ensure that they are
                                             familiar with and proficient in following upgraded procedures.

                         33.      Develop     procedures for the           following    emergencies/disasters
                                  (onshore/offshore as applicable):

                                       emergency unit shutdown
                                       individual equipment isolation
                                       process unit fire
                                       tank farm fire
                                       marine dock fire
                                       off-site pipeline leak




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                          Page 385
                                       personnel rescue
                                       medical emergencies
                                       toxic/flammable/corrosive gas leak
                                       evacuation from units and buildings
                                       process upsets
                                       breaches of security (including terrorism or sabotage)
                                       For more information refer to the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention
                                        Department "Guidelines for Preparing Emergency Response Plans"
                                        manual.

                         34.      Complete the emergency reporting form given in Figure B.5 and follow the
                                  instructions contained therein to report such event(s).

             Task 9 - Write the Plan

                         35.      Ensure that the plan has a Corporate Policy Statement on
                                  emergency/disaster preparedness, and is prepared in conformance with the
                                  format and instructions presented in the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention
                                  Department "Guidelines for Preparing Emergency Response Plans"
                                  manual.

                                  A typical Emergency Response Plan will follow the outline given in Figure
                                  B.6.

                         36.      The plan manual must be reviewed and signed off by all outside mutual aid
                                  entities expected to respond to an emergency at this site.

             Task 10 - Emergency Response Training and Drills

                         37.      Develop, document and follow the emergency response training/drill items
                                  given below to ensure that all personnel expected to participate in
                                  emergency response are proficient in its theory and practice.

                                       table top exercise
                                       classroom training of personnel
                                       simulation of DCC operations during an emergency
                                       field simulations/drills of credible scenarios

                         38.      Ensure that alternates (or standby) personnel are also trained and drilled on
                                  emergency response

                         39.      Train and familiarize all personnel with the provisions of your emergency
                                  response manual.

                         40.      (a)   develop a document and drill schedule in your manual

                                  (b)   ensure that these include full scale disaster simulations

                         41.      Hold and document critique sessions following all drills, simulations
                                  and/or actual incidents.




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                           Page 386
                         42.      Establish a procedure to ensure that all suggestions from the critique
                                  sessions are incorporated into your manual.

             Task 11 - Review and Revise the Plan

                         43.      Provide for regular reviews (e.g. documented tickler date) and update the
                                  plan at least once a year through the plan coordinator.

                         44.      Keep a record of all amendments and maintain it in the front of the plan
                                  document manual.

                         45.      Keep a current list of all document manual holders and periodically
                                  forward them copies of any amendments.




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                       Page 387
FIGURE B.1: TYPICAL EMERGENCY ORGANIZATION CHART




                                                             EM ERG ENCY MA NAGE R
                                    (DCC)




                                                                    LOS S
                          PRO CES S                   ENG IN EERING          ME DIC AL
                                                                  PRE VENTION




                                                                           EXTE RNAL
   MA INT ENANC E                       SER VIC ES                                       CO MM UNICATIONS
                                                                           RELA TIO NS




                                                             IN CID ENT CO MMA NDER
                                    (DCP)




                                                                                         OP ERATIONS /
                       SEC URIT Y
        FIRE PROTE CTION                                                ME DIC AL A DVISOR
                                                                                           UTIL ITIES




                        LOS S PR EVEN TIO N
                                                                               ENV IRO NM ENTAL
                          ENG IN EER




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And ResponsePage 388
FIGURE B.2: SCENARIO ANALYSIS SHEET FOR (LOCATION)

Unit/Equipment: ____________________________________ Scenario No.: _________

Type of Emergency:
               ______Fire
               ______Explosion
               ______Flammable Gas
               ______Toxic Gas
               ______Hazardous Materials Spill
               ______Natural Disaster

             A.     Description of the Scenario:
                    __________________________________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________

             B.     Possible Causes:
                    __________________________________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________

             C.     Expected Size or Duration:
                    __________________________________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________

             D.     Effect on Operations:
                    __________________________________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________

             E.     Evaluation and Ranking:
                    __________________________________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________

                   Likelihood: (1 = most likely)
                                                                             No.____of____scenarios

                   Consequences: (1 = most severe)
                                                                             No.____of____scenarios

            F. Location/equipment-specific notes:
          ________________________________________________________________
             __
          ________________________________________________________________
             __

Reviewed by: _________________________________                         Date: ____________




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And ResponsePage 389
FIGURE B.3: EMERGENCY/DISASTER CONTROL TASKS CHECKLIST


1.            Warning

                  Alarm/communication systems to alert employees and local community of an
                   emergency/disaster.

                  "Alert", "Evacuation" and "All-Clear" signals must be recognized by all affected
                   population, and they must know how to proceed in each case.

2.            Pre-impact Preparation

              If time permits, facility personnel must do the following to minimize negative impact of an
              emergency/disaster:

                   Notify emergency response organization.

                   Call for all available material reserves and resources.

                  Contact appropriate resource for weather data and other emergency/disaster information

                   Evacuate all affected areas.

3.            Evacuation

                  Evacuation of persons from affected areas and non-essential workers from adjacent areas
                   lowers the risk of casualties.

                  Evacuation system testing and training.

                  Control of access and exit points.

                  Dead count requirements.

4.            Mobilization and Utilization of Human and Material Resources

              The effectiveness of an emergency response depends on the quality and supply of human and
              material resources. These resources must be:

                  Known in advance.

                  Available on demand.

                  Compatible with each other.

                  Used in an organized and controlled manner.

5.            Incident Suppression/Control

                  Selective use of assembled resources.




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                      Page 390
                  Training and experience of emergency response team (especially Incident Commander).

6.            Search and Rescue

                  Identify likely search and rescue situations from generic scenarios.

                  Establish resources (qualified personnel and equipment) and procedures to locate
                   victims - and transport them to safety.

7.            Care for Casualties

              Factors to be addressed in the care, treatment and relocation of casualties are:

                  Access of medical personnel to site.

                  Temporary hospital facilities and equipment.

                  Transportation to move casualties to such facilities.

8.            Communications

              Efficient and accurate communications are a necessary part of effective emergency response
              actions.

                  Communication equipment/system in place.

                  Back-up communications equipment/system.

                  Compatibility of facility communication equipment with that used by mutual aid
                   organizations.

9.            Continuing Assessment

                  Continuing assessment of the situation by knowledgeable observers to redirect
                   emergency/disaster response actions as needed.

10.           Coordination

                  Coordination of call-out personnel and staging of resources to ensure proper level of
                   support is available where needed.

11.           Control and Authority

                  System of overall control and distribution of authority by chain of command.

                  Call-out list for management personnel.

                  Personnel responsible to contact outside agencies and/or mutual aid organizations.




February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response                                        Page 391
12.           Security

              Adequate security personnel/system be in place to:

                  Control traffic.

                  Control access to scene of emergency/disaster.

13.           Continuity of Operations

                  Plan to continue operations unaffected by emergency/disaster by manpower
                   reassignment.

                  Ensure that sufficient manpower/equipment is on standby to handle escalation of
                   emergency/disaster to other units.

14.           Outside Community Order

              Request Government Affairs representative to contact appropriate law enforcement
              authorities and community leaders to address the following:

                  Evacuation, traffic and crowd control, guarding property and patrolling dangerous a