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					Information Technology
       and
Business Application
    Module-II
              Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to
    Software
      &
  Concept of
 Programming

            Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

     What are the
      Components
         of a
       Computer?
                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
 The Basic Components of a Computer are:
    An Input Device
    A CPU(Central Processing Unit)
    An Output Device



  Data              Process                Information




                                  Course Developed by -   KKN
     Introduction to Software / Programming
                       The Control Unit/ALU

                             MEMORY                        The Output Device
The Input Device


   KeyBoard           The Operating System                   Printer /Monitor




                   The Floppy Disk
                                     The Dard Disk Drive




                                               Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
       Components of a PC:
              Mother Board
              Bus
              Cards (LAN , VGA etc.)
              Ports
              Memory
              Hard Disk Drive
              Floppy Disk Drive
              Power Supply Unit
              CPU
             Computer Clock



                                   Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software & Concept of Programming

  Windows – It is an Operating System from the company
            called Microsoft.
   Input - Get data from the keyboard, or a file, or some other
           device for processing.

   Output - Display data on the screen or send data to a file or
          other device.




                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software & Concept of Programming
   Math - Perform basic mathematical operations
          like addition and multiplication.
   Conditional Execution - Check for certain
           conditions and execute the appropriate
           sequence of statements.
    Looping – To perform same operation repeatedly
           until the condition is met to get out of the
           loop.



                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software & Concept of Programming


          Some
      Basic/ Common
       Terminology

                                Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

 AI - (Artificial Intelligence) A program designed to respond
      "intelligently" to various situations, for example the
       computer opponent(s) in a game.
 Antivirus - Software which protects computers from viruses
        and such likes.

  Application - Software used to carry out a particular task, such
       as word processing or desktop publishing. Essentially
       another word for program.



                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

  ASCII   - American Standard Code for Information
           Interchange- An early and very basic format
          for text files.

  Attachment - A file sent by email is "attached" to the
         email. An attachment can be a picture, a word
         processor document, a program or any
         other type of file.



                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
    BASIC - A programming language, or more
            accurately a family of programming
            languages since there are many versions of
            BASIC

     Booting - Usually used to mean "start up the computer".
            Literally, the process of loading up the
            operating system and getting the computer
            ready for use.



                                        Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
    BIOS- Basic Input/Output System - A program built into
          every PC for setting up very basic things, like
          how many hard and floppy disks you have and
          what type they are; the first thing that loads when
          you start your PC.
    Bit - The smallest unit of information in a computer,
          can either equal 0 or 1. Eight bits equal one byte.

    Backup- An extra copy of your work, e.g. documents,
        pictures etc, saved onto floppy disk/CD/tape.


                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

    Bandwidth - A measure of total amount of data
                transferred over a period of time,often
                used to measure how busy a website is.


     Blog - (weBLOG) A website documenting someone's
             life and/or personal thoughts.




                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
    Bluetooth - A wireless communication system for PCs
             and other computing devices.
     Bmp - (BitMaP) A standard type of graphics/paintbrush
           file. An uncompressed format, so the files tend to
           be fairly big.
    Bps - (Bits Per Second) A measure of how quickly
          information is being transferred, usually via a
          modem or network. Divide by ten to get an
          approximation of the number of characters per
          second (cps).


                                        Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
  Broadband - Internet access over a connection much faster
              than an ordinary modem, such as ADSL or cable.

  Browser - A program used for viewing World Wide Web
             pages on the Internet. The most widely used is
             Microsoft's Internet Explorer because it is built-in
             to Windows.
   Buffer - A temporary storage area for data, often used to
            "smooth out" incoming audio or video streams.
             Several seconds worth of material is stored in the
             buffer and it is then played back from there, so that if
             there is a brief interruption in the stream your
            music or video doesn't stop.


                                           Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

  Bug – Error in a program, that has been missed in testing.
       The story goes that the original bug was an insect
       that got itself cremated inside an electrical circuit in
       an early computer, causing it to fail.

   Bulletin Board - Bulletin boards are becoming part of the
         websites.




                                            Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

  Burn – A term used frequently for creating a CD or
         DVD.

   Byte -A basic unit of measurement for pieces of
          information; the space required to store one
          character. The units commonly used are
         Bit, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte
         etc.




                                        Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

  Cache- A temporary storage area for frequently or recently
         used data, either in memory, on your hard disk or the
         internet.

    CAD - Computer Aided Design- Software used to produce
          complex technical drawings by designers and
          engineers.




                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
    CMOS- Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
        - A special type of memory which retains its
          data when the PC is switched off, used to
          store settings for things like what type of
          hard disk you have, and how much memory
          it has. The settings are accessed via the BIOS.
    Console - Originally meant a terminal connected to a
            mainframe computer.
    COBOL - Common Business-Oriented Language; a
          programming language.


                                        Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

  Code - The actual text of the programs you write, before you
        compile them. Also called source code, or just source.
  Compile -To convert source code into object code.
  Cookie - A small data file stored on your computer by a
        website, to "remember" your preferences, but in
        practice mostly used to track which adverts you have
        seen.




                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

   CPU - Central Processing Unit - The nerve centre of
         the computer : everything flows through it.
         Often just called "the processor".
    Crash -When a computer program or operating system
           stops working and it can be used unless the fault
          is rectified. It may be due to Hard Disk Failure, it is
          said to have "crashed". When a computer crashes
          it usually needs to be rebooted/or repaired before
          it can be used again.



                                            Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
 Data -Any information stored or created by the user, such as
       documents, pictures or sound recordings.
 Database -A program used for organizing any kind of
      information on a computer into a searchable form,
      anything from a list of contacts to a complex stock
      control system.

  Desktop -A computer designed to sit on a desk (as opposed to a
       laptop).



                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
  Debug - To find and correct errors and problems in
           your programs.
   Debugger - A special program which lets you run your
           programs one line at a time, and keep track
          of everything that's going on in them, to help
          you identify and correct errors and problems.
   Directory -An area on a disk for storing files,
           particularly in DOS. In Windows it is called a
           folder .



                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   Disk - Generic term for a type of storage device, such as a
         hard disk or a floppy disk (diskette).
   Domain -An internet address owned by a company,
       organisation or individual, such as yahoo.com,
       indiatimes.com
   DOS - Disk Operating System - DOS was the standard
          operating system for PCs until Windows 95 came
          out, now pretty much obsolete.
   Driver -A small program used by the operating system
           to control hardware such as a sound or video
           card.

                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
  Editor - A program (much like a simple word processor)
           which you use to write your programs. It can be
           any text editor, or part of a programming
           environment.
    Ethernet - The most popular system used to connect a
            computer to a network, including most broadband
            internet connections. The computer needs to be
            fitted with a suitable expansion card, usually
            called an Ethernet card.


                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
  E-commerce -Conducting business over the internet,
             and particularly the World Wide Web.
  Excel - The most popular spreadsheet program for PCs,
          is part of the Microsoft Office suite.
   exe (or .exe) – EXEcutable - A file which is usually the
            main part of a program. A program may consist
            of just an exe file and nothing else, or there
            may be dozens of files, including more exes.




                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   FAQ- Frequently Asked Questions -A document on a
         website which gives answers to common problems
         and questions.
    FAT- File Allocation Table- A sort of index where
          data is stored on a hard disk, used by the operating
          system.
    File -All information on a computer is stored in files,
          whether it is part of a program, a document created
          by a user, a picture, or anything else. Most software
          is made up of dozens, sometimes hundreds, of
          different files.


                                           Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
  File Server -A type of computer used on networks to
              provide files and other services to other
              computers. Often just called a server.

  Firewall -Originally a dedicated computer /Software
            between you and the internet, preventing hackers,
            spammers and similar undesirables from taking
            over your PC.




                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

    FTP -File Transfer Protocol - A way of transferring
         files to or from an internet server.
     GHz -Gigahertz - billions of cycles per second. Often
          used as a measurement of a PC processor chip's
          speed and power, with bigger numbers meaning
          a bit more speed, and a higher price.
          1000 MHz = 1.0 GigaHertz.




                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

   Graphics -A catch-all term for anything involving
            drawing images on a PC screen.

    GUI - Graphical User Interface- means that a program's
          controls are represented pictorially, with symbols,
          buttons and so forth, and mostly controlled by
          pointing and clicking with a mouse rather than having
          to type in text commands.




                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   Hacker -Person who uses computers to access ("hack")
           systems they are not supposed to have access to,
           e.g. other people's financial details, personnel
           files, military secrets etc.
   Homepage -A page (main) on the World Wide Web.

    Hotspot -A location where a computer can connect to a
             wireless network (Wi-Fi is an example of that).



                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   HTML - HyperText Markup Language - The system used
         for creating World Wide Web pages, ordinary
         text with commands for special effects like
         pictures, colour and links enclosed between < >
         symbols.
    http - HyperText Transfer Protocol - The protocol used to
           send web pages over the internet.

    Hyperlink -Any kind of link on a webpage.



                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

   Intranet -A private miniature internet which allows limited
             access to the internal staff e.g. to allow easy sharing
             of confidential files within a company or
             corporation.

   IP -Internet Protocol- A protocol (computer language) which
             computers use to communicate with and over the
              internet.




                                            Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   IP address - Internet Protocol address- A unique number
               assigned to every computer connected to the
               internet, in the format 255.255.255.255.
               Each of the four blocks of numbers can be
               any value from 0 to 255.
              They can either be assigned permanently
              ("static IP") or per session ("dynamic IP").
              Most ISPs assign them dynamically, i.e. when
               you connect to the internet.



                                        Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

    ISDN -Integrated Services Digital Network - An early
          high speed internet connection system mainly
          aimed at business, now largely obsolete. Requires
          a special type of modem called a Terminal
          Adaptor.
     ISP- Internet Service Provider- A company which
          provides a connection to the internet, or internet
          services.




                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   JPEG, jpg - Joint Picture [Experts] Group- A standard type
              of compressed graphics file, widely used on the
              WWW. Particularly good for photographs.
   LAN -Local Area Network- A network of computers
        connected together, usually in a single department or
        building.
   Linux -A rival PC operating system to Microsoft
        Windows, but unlike Windows it is "open source",
         which means that anyone can create their own version
         of it without having to pay royalties.



                                        Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

  MPEG- Motion Picture Experts Group-A set of standards for
        compressing video and audio files, and the committee
        that came up with them. Also, often used to mean
        movie files created to the MPEG standard.

   Network- A way of linking several computers together so that
          their users can share resources such as printers and
         documents, often via a central computer called a
          server.




                                        Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
  NIC - Network Interface Card- An Expansion card which lets
        a PC communicate with a network or use a broadband
        internet connection.
 PCI -Peripheral Component Interconnect- A standard for PC
       expansion cards, currently the most popular.
  PCMCIA- Personal Computer Memory Card International
     Association- A type of PC expansion card, the size of an
     ordinary credit card, mainly intended for use with
     notebooks.



                                       Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   PDA- Personal Digital Assistant- A small handheld
        computer used for taking notes on the move,
        keeping contact information and so on.

   PDF -Portable Document Format- A popular
       document format, used mainly for online
       computer manuals, which retains the look of a
        printed book onscreen. PDFs are created using
       Adobe Acrobat, but can be read and displayed
       by many different programs including Internet
        Explorer.


                                       Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   Pixel- Picture cell- All computer screen or printed images
         are made up of pixels, small square dots - the smaller
         the pixels, the higher the image quality.
   Platform-independent - If something is platform-
         independent, you don't need a particular type of
         computer or particular software to use it. Perhaps the
         best example is the internet, which you can access
         from a PC, Mac or just about any other type of
         computer, and using a huge range of different
         software.




                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

   Plug'n'play - Plug and Play- A system where Windows
                 automatically detects any new hardware that
                 is plugged into the PC and adjusts to it
                 without human intervention.

    POP3 - Post Office Protocol version 3 - A protocol for
           transmitting and receiving email, but mostly used
           just for receiving. (Transmitting is still mostly
           handled by it's less powerful predecessor, SMTP).



                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   Port -A socket on the back (usually) of a computer which
         allows you to plug in extra hardware such as a
         printer or modem.
   Portal – A virtual gateway between computer systems, or
            a website that provides links to lots of useful
            sites on a particular theme, e.g. shopping or news.
    ROM -Read Only Memory- Memory whose contents are
         preset and cannot (usually) be changed by the
         user.
    Router -A device used to connect networks together, so
           that several PCs can share the same resources.


                                           Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
    Search Engine- A website directory which indexes as
                   many websites as it can and allows you
                   to search its database for sites on
                   particular subjects.
    Serial Port -A socket for plugging devices into the
            computer. Most PCs have two, called COM1
            and COM2.
     Server -A computer at the centre of most networks
            which provides files and other services to other
             computers. Also known as a file server.


                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   SMTP -Simple Mail Transfer Protocol- The original
           method of transmitting and receiving email on
           the internet. Still often used for transmitting, but
           has been widely replaced by POP3 for receiving.
    SP2 - Service Pack 2- A major enhancement to Windows
         XP, particularly its security vulnerabilities,
         downloadable as a free patch from Microsoft's
          website.




                                           Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
    Spam – Originally a name for mass postings to Usenet
           newsgroups advertising products or services,
           regardless of their relevance to the newsgroup.
          (The name comes from a famous Monty Python
           sketch in which every conversation is
           interrupted every few seconds by people
           shouting "spam spam spam" at the top of their
           voices). Now generally used to describe bulk
           commercial advertising emails (UCE).



                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

   Spyware - Programs, typically installed by stealth, which
             record what you do on your PC and send reports
             to criminals, allowing them to steal your bank
            details, passwords and so on.
   Storage- The generic term for any method of storing
            information which is not lost when the computer
            is switched off; the most common types are hard
           disks, CD ROMs, and floppy disks.



                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

   Surfing - In a computer context, wandering around the
             World Wide Web.
   System Tray -An area on the right hand end of the
            Windows Taskbar which displays icons
            representing TSRs presently running,
            usually at least a loudspeaker which
            represents the volume control for the
            soundcard, and a clock.



                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   TCP/IP - Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol- A
            common protocol (language) which a
            computer can use to communicate with other
            computers, particularly on the internet.
   TFT -Thin Film Transistor- A technology used mainly in
         laptop screens for giving a sharp and vibrant
         colour display.
     Touchpad- A pressure-sensitive pad which replaces the
           mouse on most laptop computers.



                                        Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
    TSR -Terminate and Stay Resident- A program,
         usually loaded automatically on startup,
         which remains in memory to provide
         particular functions such as connection to a
         network or protection against viruses. In
         Windows 95/98 TSRs presently running are
         usually represented by icons in the System
         tray, such as the small loudspeaker which
         represents the volume control for the
         soundcard.


                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
   Upload - To transfer information (files) from a user PC
            to a network or the Internet.
   URL- Universal Resource Locator- An address used to
        locate something on the internet, most often a web
        page.

    USB -Universal Serial Bus- A type of serial port (or
         connector), used to attach extra devices such as a
         scanner to a PC.




                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
  VOIP- Voice Over Internet Protocol- A system for making
        cheap phonecalls over the internet instead of via the
         telephone system.

   Virtual Machine
   A program which emulates (pretends to be) an entire computer of
   its own. Java uses a virtual machine, which allows Java code itself
   to be cross-platform, at the expense of some speed.

   Virtual Memory
   A technique whereby a computer uses part of its hard disk as temporary
   memory for a program. A way to use more memory than your computer
   actually has, but at the expense of considerable speed.


                                                  Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming

  W3C-World Wide Web Consortium- An influential group of
      interested parties who agree what is and isn't official
      HTML. Originally WWWC, but W3C is a lot easier
      to say.

   WAP- Wireless Application Protocol - A system to enable
        mobile phones to browse the World Wide Web. In
        practise the site has to be specially designed for text
        only.


                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
    WAV file, Wave - A basic computer sound recording.
            WAV files tend to be very large, so sound
             recordings are often compressed into MP3s
             on the internet, giving a slightly lower quality
             but much smaller files.
    Weblog -A website documenting someone's life and/or
             thoughts, also known as a blog.
     Webserver- A computer which fetches or stores World
             Wide Web pages and provides them over the
             internet on request.


                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
    Webspace -The storage on an internet server where
            websites are kept. Webspace can be hired
            from a commercial provider.
     Wi-Fi - WIreless Fidelity- A method of connecting
     computers together in a network without cables, using
     small transmitter/receivers connected to ordinary PCs,
     printers, broadband modems etc.
    Zip drive -A special drive for removable data
    cartridges, often used for making backups as the
    cartridges can hold a lot more data than a floppy disk.


                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming



        What
         is
     Programming?
                                Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
    Some Thoughts
    -Programming is breaking a task down into
    small
     steps.
    -Programmers think in an unnatural way.
    -Computers are very, very stupid.
     -Programming really can be fun.



                                   Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Soft ware & Concept of Programming
       Some More Thoughts
          •Programmers make lots of money.
          •Programming is very intellectually rewarding.
          •Programming makes you feel superior to other peop

          • Programming gives you complete control over
          an
            innocent, vulnerable machine.




                                    Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Programming
What is Programming –
 Programming may be defined as a set of instructions
 written in a language that is understood by the
 computer to perform a pre-decided task.
 A program is a sequence of instructions that
 specifies how to perform a computation.




                                     Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Programming
A Program may be written for :-
 -Solving a Mathematical Problem e.g. system of
    equations finding the roots of a polynomial

 - Symbolic computation - searching and replacing
     text in a document interpreting a program




                                  Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
 Who can be Programmer –
  Anybody can become a programmer provided he has
  following traits:
          •Logical
          •Patient
          •Perceptive
          •At least moderately intelligent
           •Enjoys an intellectual challenge




                                    Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software/ Programming
What is involved in Programming –
 The actual steps involved in developing Software/ Programs are:

               1. Write a program.
               2. Compile the program.
               3. Run the program.
               4. Debug the program.
               5. Repeat the whole process until the program is finished




                                              Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
 Let us take each one of these one by one –
 Write a Program – For writing a program one has to learn a Programming
 language –
   So what is Programming language – A programming language is a
  language in which the sequence of commands /steps are written to
  perform certain task.

  Incidentally, the stuff you type to create a program is usually
  called source code, or just code. Programmers also sometimes
  call programming /coding.




                                             Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
            Compile the program
   In order to use a program, One has to compile it first.
  When you write a program (in a programming language,
  using a programming environment), it's not yet in a form
  that the computer can use. The program needs to be
  compiled (meaning to translate into Machine language) to
  enable the computer to understand the language.




                                       Course Developed by -   KKN
    Introduction to Software / Programming
      Run the Program
      Now that you've compiled the program into a form that the
      computer can use, you want to see if it works as per your set
      of instructions. This is called running the program, or
      sometimes called executing the program.
      Just the same as how a car isn't much use if you don't drive it,
3
      a program is not of much use if you don't run it. The
      programming environment will enable you to run your
      program and you can see if it works.



                                             Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
  Debug the program.
   You've probably heard the term "debug" before. It means
   fixing of errors and problems in the program.
   Once again, you need the same programming environment
   to debug your programs.
   Debugging is done by going over the program (step by step)all
   over again to find out the bug.Once the bug is found debugging is
   not a problem.
  Programming errors are called bugs. The process of tracking
  them down and correcting them is called debugging.




                                              Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
   Repeat the whole process until the program is
   finished.
    A program is checked for bugs/improvements unless it works
    in a perfect manner.

    It is also true that nothing is perfect – therefore even if a
    program works without any bugs, the scope of improvement
    is always there , and that is what a programmer always tries.

   These improvements lead to release versions after versions.




                                               Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
   A word about Scripting.
    The word Scripting is commonly used by the
    Programmers. Terms like VB Script, Java
    Script etc. are used commonly.

   Scripting is nothing but a Programming. The
   language may be any , but the programming done
   in that language is also known as Scripting.




                                     Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
   Some facts about Scripting:
      •It is essentially a type of programming

      •Scripting languages have a few minor technical differences

      •Scripting languages tend to be interpreted rather than
      compiled, which means that you don't need to compile
      them - they're compiled "on the fly" (i.e. when necessary,
      right before they're run).




                                                 Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
     •The fact that scripting languages are interpreted
     generally makes them slower than programming
     languages for intensive operations (like complex
     calculations)

     •Scripting languages are often easier to learn than
     programming languages, but usually aren't as
     powerful or flexible .




                                       Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
 Some Common Programming Languages are:
    - Ada
    A programming language, used commonly for defense
    applications (particularly in the UK). A fairly common choice
    as a first language in university computer science courses (
    in the UK). Named after Ada Lovelace, a very clever lady
    who was one of the first ever programmers.
     - API
     An Application Programming Interface. An API is a kind of
     predefined standard for how you should write certain types of
     programs, and commonly refers to a standard for how to write
     programs which interact with other programs.




                                              Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
   Perl
   A programming language originally created for Unix
   computers. Very powerful for manipulating text, and very
   popular for writing programs to help run web sites.

   PROLOG
   PROgramming in LOGic; a programming language.
   PROLOG was the first of many languages designed to
   use so-called "logical programming" techniques.




                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
 Other Common Programming
    Languages are:
         - BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN (used earlier)
         - Visual Basic
         - Developer 2000
         - C, C++ , Visual C++
          - Java




                                 Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
  Structured Programming
  Definition - A technique for organizing programs in
               which a hierarchy of modules is used, each
               having a single entry and a single exit point,
               and in which control is passed downward
               through the structure without unconditional
               branches to higher levels of the structure.
               Three types of control flow are used:
                sequential, test, and iteration.



                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
   Some Salient Features:
  The Fundamental Principle of Structured Programming is
  that at all times and under all circumstances, the
  programmer must keep the program within his intellectual
  grasp. This can be achieved by following :
                1. Top-down design and construction
                2. Limited control structures
                3.Limited scope of data structures
                                                      …….contd.




                                     Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
   Some Salient Features:
    Structured Programming is done by-
         - Limiting the scope of variables
         - Explicitly declaring all variables
         - Using meaningful data names, and
         - Using hierarchical Data Structures.

                                                    …….contd.




                                     Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
 Some Salient Features:
 Reusable Software: A good programmer writes Software
         that can be reused, even if he doesn't see a reuse
         immediately .
          His experience assures him that someone from the
          next door, anytime, may be asking, "Do you have a
          module that...." He also knows that writing reusable
          program will help him in faster development of
         Software where he can use his reusable programmes.




                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
Limitations of Structured Programming
  "Structured programming" works in discipline
  that helps you avoid confusing logic in the
  programs. One cannot go wrong if he uses this
  technique properly, but it becomes difficult to
  use it in case of large Software Developments
  requirements, because of the limitation in
  keeping everything under check.




                                    Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

        What is
 Object Oriented
     Programming?
                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

  Object Oriented Programming(OOPs)
  came as a big help to Programmers. OOPS is
  both a model and a philosophy for developing
  computer code that is becoming central to the
  computer Software Industry.




                                   Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
Object-oriented programming is a natural extension of the
scientific approach to Application development.
In an object-oriented code, the design is linked directly to the
implementation.
Objects are based on the natural hierarchy of data and these
objects are organized naturally based on their behavior. The
focus then shifts to the data that is to be manipulated, not
the operations of manipulation.




                                               Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
The salient features of OOPs are, it:
      • allows rapid code development;

      • simplifies internal and external communications,
        both between developers and code structures;
      • makes the code look like the algorithm.




                                        Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

 In an object-oriented design, each programming
 structure is a self-contained object.
 An object is made of members, which can be
 either objects or functions.
 Each object looks after itself; its internals are not
 relevant to the rest of the code .




                                        Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
 Since objects are self-contained, they can easily be reused with
 no modification. It is rare for an object to be completely general
 or static, many objects can be constructed from simpler objects,
 and this carries the object's designed advantages through the
 entire chain of development.
 Often, these objects can be tested separately, too, leading both to
 simpler debugging and greater confidence that the final code will
 run without difficulty.
 These Software are also called Components.



                                              Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
 Object-Oriented Development :
 Therefore the software needs to be treated as
 software "components“, the way engineers think
 of silicon chips as black boxes whose insides can
 be largely ignored.
 These small pieces of Software in the GUI
 atmosphere are termed as COM/DCOM etc.




                                     Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

Object-Oriented Development :
  The basic feature of OOPs is that it hides the details of how
  a function is implemented and what data it needs.
  The programmer need only know the external interfaces to
  the module: the definition of what it does. The
  implementation of the module can change at any time as
  long as the external interfaces remain the same




                                             Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
  Object-Oriented Development :
    The Programming languages like C++ and Java make it
    easier by providing programming constructs to
    explicitly define interfaces and hide data (attributes)
    and functions (methods). The good news is that object-
    oriented designs can be implemented in almost any
    programming language or system.




                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
 Object-Oriented Approach:
  An object is a unit that combines both
  the Data and the Functions that operate
  on the data. This can be done using an
  Object Oriented language .




                                  Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

Characteristics of an O-O Language:
  Object – An object can be physically seen e.g.
          a Table , a chair etc., therefore all types of tables
          or chairs have similar characteristics.
          In Computer terminology these are known as
          instances i.e. an individual entity.




                                               Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
Characteristics of an O-O Language:
 Class – An object is an instance of a class i.e.
 similar type of objects form a class.
  Example – Esteem, Honda,BMW,Mercedes
  share certain similar features and hence can
  be grouped to form the objects of the class CARS.




                                           Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
Characteristics of an O-O Language:
 Inheritance –It is the process of creating a new class,
                called derived class (from the existing
                class) known as base class.
 An Analogy – Motocycles , Cars and Trucks have
                 certain properties – all have Wheels,
                 Engines, Horns etc.
                 Thus these can be grouped under a class
                 of Automobiles.



                                              Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
Characteristics of an O-O Language:
 Reusability – The concept of inheritance provides
                 an important feature to the object-oriented
                 language i.e. Reusability.
                 For creating another object , the Programmer
                generally picks the existing object ,modify it
                and use it. Thus, lesser efforts are involved if
                the objects are reused.




                                               Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
Characteristics of an O-O Language:
   Polymorphism – This term is derived from two latin words
                     i.e. poly (many) and morphos(forms).The
                     concept of using operators or functions in
                     different ways ,depending on what they are
                     operating upon, is called Polymorphism.




                                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
Advantages of Object –Orientation
  There are three main reasons:
       1. Realistic Modeling
         We deal with Objects day in and day out i.e.
         All around we see objects be it office or home.
         Thus it is easy for us to relate and understand.




                                     Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
Advantages of Object –Orientation
  2. Reusability – Duplication of efforts can be
                  minimized.Once an Object is
                 developed and perfected, one
                 can easily use it as it is or with
                 required modifications.




                                       Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
Advantages of Object –Orientation
3. Resilience to Change – This is similar to Reusability
            concept but with minor difference i.e.in this case
            the object should be designed and developed in a
            way that, it can add more features/functions and
            both can co-exist and work independently without
            disturbing the original or others functioning.
             An example could be that a Software package
            developed for a company will work with changes
            in certain parameters, while the base will remain intact.




                                            Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming


   What is
      an
Operating System?

                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
  Definition:
   - An operating system (OS) is a Computer/
     Software program that manages all other
     programs on the machine. This is the first
     program that gets activated on switching
     on the machine. It continuously monitors
      the functioning of the Computer systems.




                                   Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

                     The Functioning of
                     Operating System
                     showing interaction
                     /controlling various
                     peripherals.




                          Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

   OS – is the most important program that runs on
   a computer. Operating systems perform basic
   tasks, such as recognizing input from the
   keyboard, sending output to the display screen,
   keeping track of files and directories on the disk,
   and controlling peripheral devices such as disk
   drives and printers.




                                      Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

     OS is a Software that controls the overall
     operation of a multipurpose computer system,
     including such tasks as memory allocation,
     input and output distribution, interrupt
     processing, and job scheduling.




                                  Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
    OS is a a set of software programs used by a
    computer to manage its own resources such as
    the screen, keyboard, and hard disk, and to
    communicate with the user.
    Examples of operating systems are DOS,
    Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000,
    Mac OS 8, Linux, and Unix.




                                 Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

   OS is also known as the Master Control
   Program (e.g. Windows) that manages a
   computer's internal functions and
   provides a means to control the
   computer's operations and file system.




                                  Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

   OS is the base of any computer system. Operating
   systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing
   input from the keyboard, sending output to the
   display screen, keeping track of files and
   directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral
   devices such as disk drives and printers.




                                     Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
  The OS is responsible for allocating system resources,
  including memory, processor time, disk space, and
  peripheral devices such as printers, modems, and the
  monitor.
  All application programs use the OS to gain access to
  these system resources as they are needed. The OS is the
  first program loaded into the computer as it boots, and it
  remains in memory at all times thereafter. DOS,OS/2,Win
  9x & 2000, Unix and Sun Solaris are all Common
  Operating Systems.




                                            Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
  What an operating system does?
   A better question might be, What it doesn't do?
      -It works as an Interpreter between you and the
       Computer( in totality) like an interpreter helps
       communication among foreign diplomats, the OS
       translates your commands ("open file") into the
       1s and 0s the computer can understand.




                                   Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

    If you're running two applications on your PC
    at the same time, the OS juggles the
    computer's resources, such as the "thinking
    time" that each application demands from the
    main processor, so that your spreadsheet can
    keep crunching numbers in the background
    while you open a word file .




                                   Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
  The OS controls internal components, such
  as –
            - Memory etc.
           - External devices e.g.
                             - Monitors
                             - Printer
                             - Modems
                             - Storage Devices etc.




                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming


     Types
       of
Operating Systems

                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
   There are variety of OS’s available, but the most
   common are:
            - DOS
            - Windows 9x(95, 97,98)
            - Windows2000/NT
            - Macintosh OS (for Apple Computers)
            - Novell Netware
            - IBM Corp.'s MVS
            - Unix (alongwith various flavours of Unix)
            - Linux and the various "flavors" of Unix
   Different OSs are designed for different kinds of
   computers; Windows runs on PCs, whereas MVS runs
   on mainframes.




                                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
Important distinction to note:
A desktop OS, such as Windows 98, runs on a single
computer; a network operating system (NOS), such as
Windows 2000 or Novell NetWare, controls how
groups of individual computers and other devices
communicate.
A NOS allows users to share files across a network and
to access shared devices such as printers, scanners,
servers and gateways .



                                    Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

  Larger the Computer e.g.mainframe, larger /
  greater are the responsibilities of the OS.
  It works as traffic cop.It ensures that different
  programs and users running at the same time do
  not interfere with each other.
  The operating system is also responsible for
  security , ensuring that unauthorized users do not
  access the system.



                                     Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming

    Classification
          of
  Operating Systems


                         Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
 Operating systems can be classified as follows:
 •Multi-user : Allows two or more users to run programs at the same
                time. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even
                thousands of concurrent users.
  •Multi-Processing :Supports running a program on more than one
                     CPU.
 · Multitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently.

 · Real- time: Responds to input instantly. General-purpose operating
              systems, such as DOS is not a real-time OS.




                                           Course Developed by -   KKN
Introduction to Software / Programming
    Thus Operating systems provides a Software
    Platform on top of which other programs,
    called Application programs can run/
    executed.
    The Application programs must be written to
    run on top of a particular Operating System.
    For PCs, the most popular operating systems
    are DOS, OS/2, and Windows.




                                   Course Developed by -   KKN
Thank You

				
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