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					    Week 3 - Literature      Review

 The role of the Literature Review in the
  Project
 Identifying and using sources for your
  research
 How to read
 referencing your work



                                             1
 The   proposal (reminder)


 » Introduction - Problem question/hypothesis


 » Topic (literature) review

 » Research methods
 » conclusion
 » Timetable
 » References & Bibliography
                                                2
            The Literature Review

   carry out search of relevant literature &
    provide a critical review of the material

   Written up as a early chapter
    » provide an understanding of topic area in
      terms of theory

   Should build on prior knowledge
    » It locates relevant literature and shows
      you can apply the knowledge exposed to
                                                  3
                    Purpose

   Frame the problem under scrutiny
   identify relevant concepts, methods,
    techniques & facts
   Identify best practice
   position the study - what new angle is your
    study exploring ?
   links other peoples work with your own
    empirical work
   ensures you answer the right questions

                                                  4
Literature review > structures the research
problem and positions the study


   Expose yourself to a variety of sources,
    » active questioning, frame the question .

   Systematic search
    » looking for relevant contributions/sources

   Mapping the problem
    » think about past conceptualizations.

   Must include evaluation & critique!!!          5
           Evaluation & critique

   word is `critical’ > appraising books &
    papers
    » strengths & weaknesses
    » Show how references agree/disagree


   Providing a framework
    » repeating and extending work of others,
    » pioneering new territory

                                                6
   Find references that disagree (more
    interesting)
    » compare points of view
    » look at book reviews
    » recent articles that discuss past papers


   Using evaluation & critique
    » provide a coherent argument
    » Should not be a summary without analysis
                                                 7
             The Literature Review

   general broad overview - a guide to the
    reader

   key areas covered - (see major textbooks)

   specific areas chosen and explored

   questions identified - original treatment:

   summary - bridge to empirical work           8
   An Example - Leadership
`Negotiation skills training can be used
    to develop managers as leaders’
  » Overview of leadership (Mullins)-
    Trait, style situation
  » Other aspects relevant to the project
    (journals & specialist books)- importance of
    organisation, Negotiation skills training etc.
  » But concentrate on those relevant to
    research area
  » Start to develop research questions
                                                     9
 When should I be reading - What
      sources should I use
 Now, during data collection, during data
  analysis, during final write up
  Sources:
 textbooks,
 tutor ,
 shelf browsing,
 journal indexes ,
 specialist reading lists
 databases - see library computers, CD ROMS
 Internet
                                               10
               Doing the work

   read the original
   find critical views
   what are latest developments?
   has anybody applied the theory in a similar
    situation?
   has anybody worked with a different theory in
    a similar situation?
   allow enough time (interlibrary loans take 2-3
    wks)

                                                     11
     Remembering what you have read

   A5 cards: side one - reference & summary
               side two - 2 or 3 quotes
   subject based colour code
   Computers - use directories & files etc.
   Begin to identify themes
     » Suppose you have 3 themes & have read
      3 books



                                               12
            Example
         Themes
Refer.        A            B        C
Brown     Original     Standard Muddled
          research     view     superficial
Smith     Disagrees    Good     Nothing
          with         summary
          Brown
Jones     no           Nothing   Repeats
          evidence               standard
          for                    view
          assertions

                                              13
                 How to do it

   get the structure of the review clear
    » write what you want to say ignoring quotes
    » concentrate on the overview not the detail


   take a view, develop an argument,
    impose a structure
    » Based on the above activity you should
     start to state the criteria for what to include
     in the review.
                                                       14
   be analytical

   support the argument with quotes

   show clearly how the questions you ask
    are derived from the literature


                                             15
              How not to do it

   write everything you know about the subject
   list a string of authors quoting extensively
   be descriptive
   give your own views unsupported by the
    literature
   be unclear as to the links with the rest of the
    project


                                                      16
      Structure & overall Result
   Introduction
     » what you are going to say

   Sub-headings
    » outlining main theories relevant to project
      (textbooks)
    » start with general and get more specific
      (journals)


                                                    17
   Conclusion
    » sum up what has been said clearly
    » show how the literature leads to the
      research question
   Result -
    » Forms questions used to gather data
    » justifies concepts used in analysis &
      provides comparisons for discussion
    » lends weight to argument & supports conc.
                                                  18
     How to read for research
What happens when you read?
 Surface reading-memorise facts/no sign.
 Deep reading - understand underlying ideas
4 types of reading:-
 Receptive - listening to author, feel for
  subject (quick & relaxed)
 Reflective -analyse/compare/reflect (slower)
 Skimming - rapid reading, general
  impression of material
 Scanning - looking for something
                                                 19
                     SQ3R
    Assume you`ve selected a chapter

   Survey -
    » sub-headings etc.
   Question
    » What is the question it might answer?
   Read -
    » quickly, grasp overall contents
    » don`t make notes - divide into manageable
      notes & read thoughtfully -

                                                  20
   Recall -
    » take notes,
    » after each section stop, make sure you
      know what its about, put into your own
      works (helps memory) occasional quotes

   Review -
    » check over process skim the ch.

                                               21
              Reading process

   Speeds - can increase by 50%
     » av. light read.speed 200-300 wds per min>
       650
   recognition span
     » line of print, see 1-2 wds either side, rest
       blurred, but able to see. enough to fill in
       general meaning
     » further you can extend this, faster you
       become

                                                      22
   Speeding up
     » take a ruler move down text quickly >
       confidence
   sub-vocalisation-
     » Don`t read every word!
   Regression-
     » slow reading, lose content - better to read
       twice than slow -
   Spend 10-15 mins a day practicing
                                                     23
         References & citations

 Must cite references throughout the text
 Place in brackets directly after cited
  material:-
 Authors name, date of publication (&
  page no. if quoted directly)

The event was a success ..........(Smith,1990)


                                                 24
                         or...
 “the end is coming” (Smith,1990,p3.)


   The name need not be repeated in citation if
    mentioned in text

As Smith, 1990 explained. .....


   If more than one author consulted

    This was a success... .(Smith,1994;Red,1950 )
                                                    25
            Citations (continued)
   Have 2 or more pieces from same author in
    same yr.-label in order of appearance:-
      (Smith 1969a)

   If source has more than one author, include
    all in first citing then:-
        (Smith et al)

   If authors have same name use initials
        (A.Jones,1992)                            26
    References & citations (continued)

 Conclude with bibliography or
  reference section -(Harvard System)
 Book
    Smith, H (1987) Brown Book, (2nd Edition)
     Macmillan


   Periodical
    Smith, J. & Jones, B. (1987) “Brown Book”
     Personnel Today vol 26, pp. 720- 730
                                                27
    References & citations (continued)


   Articles in a book :-
    » Author of book, title of paper (in
     quotation marks) detail of book & page nos

Smith A. (1990) “Research Methods” in Brown E. (ed.)
  The Way Forward Penguin, pp4-10

   See Student Series


                                                       28
          Internet & other sources

   Internet             Use CD-Roms -
     » use login I.D &    Anbar abstracts,
                          British Humanities
       password
                           Index
     » See Netscape,      European Business
       bookmarks,
                          Fame
       homepages,
                         Also
       WWW & gopher
                          Library handout on
       etc.                research methodology


                                                  29
                      Sources
   Employee Relations         Use other libraries
    Bibliography &
                               Scheme to use
    Abstracts
                                other London
   Statistics & Market
    Research - a guide to       libraries
    current Periodical         etc.
    articles, compiled by
                              Happy Hunting!!
    Business Information
    Department,
    Birmingham PL.
   Social Trend s
   Key British Enterprises
                                                      30

				
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