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					    159.235 Graphics & Graphical
            Programming
     Lecture 26 - Visible & Hidden Surface
                 Determination



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            Hidden Surface Removal
• Inventing renderers led to geometric models, a call for
  more realism and therefore lots of polygons.
• All this led to intense interest in finding efficient
  algorithms for hidden surface removal.
• Some algorithms are more correctly called visible
  surface algorithms but the two names are used
  interchangeably.
• Today we’ll look at several out of many generated
  during the period of intense interest (around late 60s to
  late 70s).

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           Visibility of primitives
• We don’t want to waste time rendering primitives
  which don’t contribute to the final image.
• A scene primitive can be invisible for 3 reasons:
  – Primitive lies outside field of view
  – Primitive is back-facing (under certain
    conditions)
  – Primitive is occluded by one or more objects
    nearer the viewer
• How do we remove these efficiently?
• How do we identify these efficiently?

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          The Visibility Problem.
Two problems remain:
  (Clipping we have covered)
• Removal of faces facing away from the viewer.
• Removal of faces obscured by closer objects.




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           Visible Surface Algorithms
Hidden/Visible Surface/Line Elimination/Determination
• Requirements
   – Handle diverse set of geometric primitives
   – Handle large number of geometric primitives
Classification: Sutherland, Sproull, Schumacher (1974):
• Object Space
   – Geometric calculations involving polygons
   – Floating point precision: Exact
   – Often process scene in object order
• Image Space
   – Visibility at pixel samples
   – Integer precision
   – Often process scene in image order
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                      Back Face Culling
• We saw in modelling, that the vertices of
  polyhedra are oriented in an
  anticlockwise manner when viewed from
  outside – surface normal N points out.
• Project a polygon.
   – Test z component of surface normal.
      If negative – cull, since normal
      points away from viewer.
   – Or if N.V > 0 we are viewing the
      back face so polygon is obscured.
• Only works for convex objects without
  holes, ie. closed orientable manifolds.



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            Back Face Culling
• Back face culling can be applied anywhere in the
  pipeline: world or eye coords, NDC, image space.
• Where is the best point? What portion of the scene
  is eliminated, on average?
   – Depends on application
• If we clip our scene to the view frustrum, then
  remove all back-facing polygons – are we done?
• NO! Most views involve overlapping polygons.


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   How de we handle overlapping?




How about drawing the polygons in the “right order” so that we
get the correct result ( eg. blue, then green, then peach)?
Is it just a sorting problem ? Yes it is for 2D, but in 3D we can
encounter intersecting polygons or groups of non-intersecting
polygons which form a cycle where order is impossible (later).
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          Simple Z-buffering
• Simple to include in scanline algorithm.
• Interpolate z during scan conversion.
• Maintain a depth (range) image in the frame
  buffer (16 or 24 bits common ).
• When drawing, compare with the currently
  stored z value.
• Pixel given intensity of nearest polygon.
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                Implementation
• Initialise frame buffer to background colour.
• Initialise depth buffer to z = max. value for
  far clipping plane, ie. LHCS
• Need to calculate value for z for each pixel
     – But only for polygons intersecting that pixel.
     – Could interpolate from values at vertices.
• Update both frame and depth buffer.

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             Determining Depth
Use plane equation :
Ax  By  Cz  D  0
                           If at ( x, y ), z value evaluates to z1 ,
                           at ( x  Δx,y) , now value of z is :
     D  Ax  By
 z                                   A
          C                       z1  (x)
                                      C

-Only one subtraction needed
-Depth coherence.


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  Why is z-buffering so popular ?
Advantage
• Simple to implement in hardware.
   – Add additional z interpolator for each primitive.
   – Memory for z-buffer is now not expensive
• Diversity of primitives – not just polygons.
• Unlimited scene complexity
• Don’t need to calculate object-object intersections.
Disadvantage
• Extra memory and bandwidth
• Waste time drawing hidden objects
• Z-precision Errors
• May have to use point sampling
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      Z-compositing                            Colour photograph.



  Can use depth other than
  from polygons.
                                         Laser range return.
      Reflected laser power




Data courtesy of UNC.


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                      Ray Casting
 • Sometimes referred to as Ray-tracing.
 • Involves projecting an imaginary ray from the centre of
   projection (the viewers eye) through the centre of each
   pixel into the scene.


                                       Scene



Eyepoint


             Window

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    Computing Ray-Object Intersections
   • The heart of ray tracing.
   • E.g sphere ( the easiest ! ).
                                                          Expand, substitute for x,y & z.
Express line in parametric form.
                                                          Gather terms in t.
x  x0  tx ; y  y  ty ; z  z  tz                  Quadratic equation in t.

                                                          Solve for t.
Equation for a sphere:
                                                          -No roots – ray doesn’t intersect.
( x  a ) 2  ( y  b) 2  ( z  c ) 2  r 2
                                                          - 1 root – ray grazes surface.
                                                          - 2 roots – ray intersects sphere,
                                                                      (entry and exit)

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            Ray-Polygon Intersection
•         Not so easy !
     1.      Determine whether ray intersects polygon’s plane.
     2.      Determine whether intersection lies within polygon.
•         Easiest to determine (2) with an orthographic projection
          onto the nearest axis and the 2D point-in-polygon test.

                               z

                                                   Ray

                                               x


                     y
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                   Ray Casting
• Easy to implement for a variety of primitives – only need a
  ray-object intersection function.
• Pixel adopts colour of nearest intersection.
• Can draw curves and surfaces exactly – not just triangles !
• Can generate new rays inside the scene to correctly handle
  visibility with reflections, refraction etc – recursive ray-
  tracing.
• Can be extended to handle global illumination.
• Can perform area-sampling using ray super-sampling.
• But… too expensive for real-time applications.

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Examples of Ray-traced
images.




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Painters Algorithm (object space)
• Draw surfaces in back
  to front order – nearer
  polygons “paint” over
  farther ones.
• Supports transparency.
• Key issue is order
  determination.
• Doesn’t always work
  – see image at right.

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   BSP (Binary Space Partitioning) Tree
•One of class of “list-priority” algorithms – returns
ordered list of polygon fragments for specified view
point (static pre-processing stage).                                            5

•Choose polygon arbitrarily
                                                            2
•Divide scene into front (relative to normal) and
back half-spaces.                                                         3
                                                             1                      4
•Split any polygon lying on both sides.

•Choose a polygon from each side – split scene
again.

•Recursively divide each side until each node              View of scene from above
contains only 1 polygon.


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   BSP Tree                                                                 5
•Choose polygon arbitrarily                                            5a
                                                      2                         5b
•Divide scene into front (relative to
normal) and back half-spaces.
                                                                   3
                                                      1                         4
•Split any polygon lying on both sides.

•Choose a polygon from each side – split
scene again.

•Recursively divide each side until each node
                                                      front    3            back
contains only 1 polygon.
                                                          1              4
                                                          2             5b
                                                          5a


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   BSP Tree
                                                                                      5
                                                                                 5a
                                                        2                                 5b
•Choose polygon arbitrarily

•Divide scene into front (relative to                                        3
                                                          1                               4
normal) and back half-spaces.

•Split any polygon lying on both sides.

•Choose a polygon from each side –
split scene again.
                                                         front           3            back
•Recursively divide each side until each                         2                 4
node contains only 1 polygon.                         front
                                                                                  5b
                                                         5a          1

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   BSP Tree
                                                                                      5
                                                                                 5a
                                                        2                                  5b
•Choose polygon arbitrarily
                                                                             3
•Divide scene into front (relative to                     1                                4
normal) and back half-spaces.

•Split any polygon lying on both sides.

•Choose a polygon from each side – split
scene again.                                                             3
                                                         front                        back

•Recursively divide each side until                              2                4
                                                      front
each node contains only 1 polygon.
                                                         5a          1                5b

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   BSP Tree
                                                                                      5


                                                      2
•Choose polygon arbitrarily
                                                                                  3
•Divide scene into front (relative to                  1                                  4
normal) and back half-spaces.

•Split any polygon lying on both sides.

•Choose a polygon from each side – split        5     back
scene again.                                              4       back
                                                                                               Alternate
•Recursively divide each side until each                           3                          formulation
                                                      front
                                                                                              starting at 5
node contains only 1 polygon.                                 1            back
                                                                       2

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            Displaying a BSP Tree
• Once we have the regions – need priority list
• BSP tree can be traversed to yield a correct priority list for
  an arbitrary viewpoint.
• Start at root polygon.
     – If viewer is in front half-space, draw polygons behind root first,
       then the root polygon, then polygons in front.
     – If polygon is on edge – either can be used.
     – Recursively descend the tree.
• If eye is in rear half-space for a polygon – then can back
  face cull.

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                    BSP Tree
• A lot of computation required at start.
     – Try to split polygons along good dividing plane
     – Intersecting polygon splitting may be costly
• Cheap to check visibility once tree is set up.
• Can be used to generate correct visibility for
  arbitrary views.
 Efficient when objects don’t change very
  often in the scene.
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            Warnock’s Algorithm
• Elegant hybrid of object-space and image-space.
• Uses standard graphics solution:- if situation too
  complex then subdivide problem.
• Start with root window:
     – If zero or one intersecting, contained or surrounding
       polygon then scan convert window
     – Else subdivide window as quadtree
     – Recurse until zero or one polygon, or some set depth
     – Depth may be pixel resolution, display nearest polygon
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          Warnock’s Example




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  Warnock Performance Measure
• Warnock’s algorithm:
     – Screen-space subdivision (screen resolution, r = w*h)
       hybrid object-space & image-space algorithm good for
       relatively few static primitives, precise.
     – Working set size (memory requirement): O(n)
     – Storage overhead (over & above model): O(n lg r)
     – Time to resolve visibility to screen precision: O(n*r)
     – Overdraw (depth complexity – how often a typical
       pixel is written by rasterization process): none
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          BSP Performance Measure
• Tree construction and traversal (object-space
  ordering algorithm – good for relatively few static
  primitives, precise)
• Working set size (depends on application): O(1),
  O(lg n)
• Storage overhead: O(n2)
• Time to resolve visibility to screen precision:
  O(n2)
• Overdraw: maximum

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          Z-buffer Performance
• Brute-force image-space algorithm scores best for
  complex scenes – not very accurate but is easy to
  implement and is very general.
• Working set size: O(1)
• Storage overhead: O(1)
• Time to resolve visibility to screen precision: O(n)
• Overdraw: maximum
• But even O(n) is now intolerable!
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     Example Architectural scenes
          Here there can be an enormous amount of occlusion




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          Occlusion at various levels




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      Cells & Portals (object-space)
                                                 D       F

Model scene as a graph:                  C       B       E

• Nodes: Cells (or rooms)                        A       G
• Edges: Portals (or doors)

Graph gives us:
• Potentially visible set
• Superset of visible polygons                       A
• Room to room visibility
• Not a complete solution !                          B

                                             C       D       E

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Example Application : Quake game engine

 • Calculates visibility separately for
   environment and objects.
 • Environment
      – Use portals to determine potentially visible set
      – Use BSP-tree to order polygons front-back.
      – Scan-convert polygons maintaining order.



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    Example : Quake Game Engine
 • Scan converting polygons
      – Maintain front-back ordering.
      – Use visibility mask on scanline.

           F          - Create active edge list for polygons F & B.
Scanline              - Write in front-back order.
                      - Mask values once written to buffer.
                      - Write colour to framebuffer
                 B
                      - Write z to z-buffer


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   Example : Quake Game Engine
• Calculates visibility separately for environment
  and objects.
• Environment
     –    Use portals to determine potentially visible set
     –    Use BSP-tree to order polygons front-back.
     –    Scan-convert polygons maintaining order.
     –    Maintain colour and z buffers.
• Objects.
     – Use Z-buffer from environment stage.

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                 Other Applications

• Outdoor environments:
     – Urban regions, forests, natural scenes in general
• Or very complex assemblies: mechanical
  CAD parts (Boeing 777 engine block)
• Molecular visualization

          Very hard and still not solved problem
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          Z-Buffer & BSP Not Only
                Approaches
• Other approaches:
     – Depth sort – Newell, Newell & Sancha
     – Scan-line algorithms
     – Weiler-Atherton subdivision on polygon edges




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          Visible Surfaces - Summary
• Visible and Hidden Surfaces
• Z-Buffering
• BSP

• Acknowledgments - thanks to Eric McKenzie, Edinburgh, from whose
  Graphics Course some of these slides were adapted.




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