Horizontal Monitoring of the Completion of the Goals outlined in

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					  The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark

                                  Monitoring
                  of the Implementation of the

Strategy for Danish Support to Civil Society in
                        Developing Countries


                           Catalogue for Inspiration
Table of Contents

1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 3
2. Guidelines and catalogue ....................................................................................................... 4
3. Theme 1: Rights-based approaches to development assistance, advocacy work and vibrant
and open debate.......................................................................................................................... 4
   3.1. Rights-based approaches to development assistance ...................................................... 5
   3.2. Advocacy work ............................................................................................................... 7
   1.3. Vibrant debate ................................................................................................................. 8
4. Theme 2: The harmonisation and effectiveness of development assistance.......................... 9
   4.1. Alignment ....................................................................................................................... 9
   4.2. Ownership ..................................................................................................................... 10
   4.3. Harmonisation and contextual analysis ........................................................................ 10
   4.4. Transparency and predictability.................................................................................... 11
5. Theme 3: Partnership and a representative, legitimate and locally based civil society ....... 12
   3.1. Mutuality within the partnership ................................................................................... 13
   5.2. Representation and legitimacy ...................................................................................... 13
6. Theme 4: Capacity development of civil society organisations in developing countries .... 15
   6.1. Context .......................................................................................................................... 16
   6.2. Results-orientation ........................................................................................................ 16
   6.3. Efficiency ...................................................................................................................... 17
   6.4. Network and relations ................................................................................................... 18
7. Theme 5: Fragile states and situations ................................................................................. 18
   7.1. Context and flexible conditions .................................................................................... 19
   7.2. Stabilisation................................................................................................................... 19
   7.3. Transitional assistance .................................................................................................. 20




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1. Introduction

Danish support to civil society through Danish organisations has, until recently, been
monitored through the Danish organisations’ annual reports to the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs (MFA) regarding programme and project grants. With the 2008 Strategy for Danish
Support to Civil Society in Developing Countries, the MFA wishes to monitor the
overarching tendencies in achieving the strategic goals of the Strategy – across all
organisations, programmes and activities. This intention to promote better reporting is
expressed in goal 9 of the Civil Society Strategy:

       Strengthen results-orientation on the progress of activities implemented in support of
        civil society development1, in addition to
       Report on progress in relation to the implementation of the strategic goals2.

The MFA will develop a consolidated written report on the implementation of the strategic
goals in the Civil Society Strategy on an annual basis. This annual report will primarily be
aimed at the development aid policy environment, which includes politicians, the Danida
Board, researchers, academics as well as employees and volunteers within the Danish
organisations. These are the actors who are all involved, on different levels, with the
implementation of Danish development policy. This report will focus on, to what extent the
Danish Civil Society Strategy has meant, that the activities of the Danish organisations in the
past year have contributed to creating changes within civil society in developing countries.
The annual report seeks to shed light on a key question on how Danish organisations, through
their partners or in alternative fashions, have contributed to the development of a strong,
independent and diverse civil society in the developing countries. Out of the 8 strategic goals
outlined in the Civil Society Strategy, five themes with associated questions have been
defined:

      I.      Rights-based approaches to development assistance, advocacy work, and vibrant
              and open debate
      II.     Harmonisation and effectiveness of development aid (the Paris Declaration and
              the Accra Agenda for Action)
      III.    Partnership and a representative, legitimate and locally based civil society
      IV.     Capacity development of civil society organisations in developing countries
      V.      Fragile states and situations.

For each of the five themes, there are three-four associated questions. Every year, it is
intended that a specialised overarching theme will be chosen, which will be the focus of
targeted in-depth reporting in that particular year.

Based on the annual overall reporting, the MFA will initiate feedback meetings with
representatives from the Danish organisations, with the intent to follow up on the Strategy’s
goals, assess the progress or lack thereof in the implementation of the Strategy’s themes, as
well as the learning generated through this process.




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    Page 18
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    Page 45
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2. Guidelines and catalogue

Guidelines have been developed, which describe the systems and procedures connected with
the implementation of the overall reporting requirements. The present inspiration catalogue
expands upon the context of the reporting themes, as well as exemplifies their associated
questions. This catalogue should be understood as a “work in progress”, as it will be
continuously updated in correspondence with the comments received and experience gained
after the new reporting system is implemented. The first pilot report on the 2009 fiscal year
will be particularly useful in this respect.


3. Theme 1: Rights-based approaches to development assistance, advocacy work and
vibrant and open debate

In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in indicators for monitoring human
rights. This has arisen due to: a) a need to mainstream human rights in development due to
the interest in rights-based approaches to development among international organisations,
some donors and non-governmental organisations; b) need to develop indicators for
monitoring the compliance of states to their human rights obligations as part of treaty-body
monitoring etc.

A growing body of literature and indicators are now emerging from the United Nations High
Commissioner and other UN specialised agencies on indicators3. The United Nations High
Commissioner’s work proposes three types of indicators anchored in the attributes of various
rights, as defined in International Human Rights Treaties and related General Comments.

The United Nations is increasingly linking indicators with the normative aspects of human
rights, which would mean indicators are utilised in terms of what is encompassed within
diverse conventions, comments to conventions from relevant convention-based organisations,
and so forth. This literature can serve as inspiration and a basis for knowledge for civil
society organisations that work with rights-based approaches. Three types of indicators are
used here:

Structural                  Indicators that reflect the commitment of the state e.g. entry into
indicators                  force and coverage of the right to adequate food in the
                            Constitution (right to food)
Process                     Indicators that relate to the efforts of the state and the progressive
indicators                  fulfilment of a right or process of protecting rights e.g. access to
                            women and girls to adequate food within household (right to
                            food)
Outcome                     Indicators which capture results and reflect the status of
indicators                  realisation of the human rights in a given context e.g. proportion
                            of population below minimum level of dietary energy
                            consumption (right to food)

The main criteria utilised by the United Nations for developing these indicators are given as:

3
   Indicators have already been developed for the Right to food, right to health, right to life, right to judicial review of
detention, right to education, right to adequate housing, right to participate in public affairs, right not to be subject to torture,
right to a fair trial, right to work, right to freedom of opinion and expressions, right to social security, non-discrimination and
equality (draft), violence against women (draft).


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              Indicators are anchored in the normative content of the human rights;
              Indicators measure efforts of duty-bearers to meet their obligations;
              Indicators incorporate the human rights obligations to respect, protect and
               fulfil human rights;
              Indicators reflect cross-cutting human rights norms (non-discrimination,
               equality indelibility, accountability, participation and empowerment).

The main tendency in the development of indicators for rights-based programming can be
summarised as follows:

              Recognition of the importance of measuring human rights, both as a principle
               (through an official association and compliance with laws, policies and so
               forth), as well as in practice (that the rights-holders actually enjoy their rights
               and understand them);
              Monitoring process and outcome of development aid;
              Relating human rights provisions, including non-discrimination, equality,
               participation and accountability;
              Measuring the transformative change between rights-holders and duty-bearers
               (including changes in capacities of duty-bearers to meet their obligations and
               rights-holders to claim their rights);
              Measuring changes in relevant institutions/duty-bearers in terms of living up
               to their obligations;
              Measuring changes among rights-holders in terms of their capacity to claim
               their rights/have their voices heard (empowerment);
              Measuring changes in the relationship/dialogue between rights-holders and
               duty-bearers;
              Measuring the changes in accountability, participation, non-discrimination and
               equality as well as empowerment.


3.1. Rights-based approaches to development assistance

The question seeking to be answered is:

1. Capacity: In which fashion has the capacity of partner organisations and target
   groups to work in a rights-based approach been improved, with regards to reducing
   poverty and marginalisation, and reaching women, children, people with
   disabilities, indigenous peoples and other particularly vulnerable population
   groups?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    Civil society organisations have strengthened their capacity to raise the awareness
     among marginalised groups on their rights and entitlements and how to claim these
     rights.

    Civil society organisations have strengthened their internal judicial capacity, or
     developed network with human rights organisations or other judicial resource


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       organisations with a view to take action in cases of violation of rights on a national
       and international level.

    Civil society organisations have strengthened their internal capacity to undertake
     strategic advocacy, in order to engage in dialogues, monitor and/or challenge public
     institutions to ensure that they honour their commitments.

The question seeking to be answered is:

2. Human rights: To which degree has the Danish organisation’s support contributed
   to the partner organisation’s ability to respect and support human rights standards,
   particularly in terms of reaching women, children, people with disabilities,
   indigenous peoples and other particularly vulnerable population groups?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on

    Civil society organisations that have contributed to the adoption of national policies
     and legal reforms to promote compliance with international and regional human rights
     conventions and declarations.

    Civil society organisations that have mediated complaints over violations of human
     rights, have filed cases, and/or reported instances of human rights violations to
     national, regional or international human rights agencies, particularly in terms of
     women, children, people with disabilities, indigenous peoples and other particularly
     vulnerable population groups.

    Civil society organisations that have supported the capacity development of
     governmental and non-governmental actors, in order to promote the implementation
     of human rights standards on a local and national level, particularly in terms of
     women, children, people with disabilities, indigenous peoples and other particularly
     vulnerable population groups.

    National, regional and international networks that work to protect human rights
     activists from assault and injustice.

    Civil society organisations that have contributed to the adoption of reforms (policies,
     legislature, and/or administrative systems and procedures) to promote compliance to
     international and regional human rights conventions and declarations, particularly in
     terms of women, children, people with disabilities, indigenous peoples and other
     particularly vulnerable population groups.

The question seeking to be answered is:

3. Access to services: In which way has the support of the Danish organisation
   resulted in the partner organisation improving the target group’s (women, children,
   people with disabilities, indigenous peoples and other particularly vulnerable
   population groups) access to services and resources from the public sector or other
   actors?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

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    Civil society organisations that, through advocacy and lobby campaigns, have
     contributed to an increased prioritisation and/or use of public local and national
     resources and services to the poor in general, as well as particularly vulnerable
     population groups (e.g. an increase in the local government budget for service
     delivery to people with disabilities, indigenous peoples, minorities, women and so
     forth).

    Other important duty-bearers, such as private corporations, who play an important
     role within natural resource management, where significant advocacy work is aimed
     at making private economic resources (such as lumber firms) responsible for investing
     a part of their profit to improving the livelihood of the local population.

    Civil society organisations, who have contributed to promoting changes in public
     service delivery, in order to make it more accessible and non-discriminatory towards
     particularly vulnerable population groups (e.g. people with disabilities, women, and
     indigenous peoples.).

    Civil society organisations that have ensure access of particularly vulnerable
     population groups to public service delivery.


3.2. Advocacy work

The question seeking to be answered is:

4. Potential for change: To which degree has the support of the Danish organisation
   resulted in the strengthening of the partner organisation and target groups’
   advocacy work and network, with regard to creating political change at a national
   and local level, influencing legislation or the passing of already existing
   legislation, as well as the distribution and use of public assistance?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    Civil society organisations that have developed competencies and methodologies to
     plan and implement strategic advocacy processes, and thereby have put strategic plans
     for advocacy work in place, use of relevant advocacy tools, actively engage in
     networks, and apply strong negotiation skills and demonstrate leadership in political
     processes.

    Advocacy on all levels: local, national, regional and international. Efforts to link the
     complex global agendas to poor people’s experiences, actual and expected life
     conditions.

    Civil society organisations that have increased and strengthened their networks and
     alliances on a local, national and international level, in order to impact on policy
     change, influence legislation, improve implementation of existing legislation, and/or
     ensure a better distribution and disbursement of public resources.

    Civil society organisations that have strengthened their capacity to link the
     experiences and issues of the poor to the national and global agendas and campaigns.

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The question seeking to be answered is:

5. Influence on areas of policy: In which way has the support of the Danish
   organisation resulted in the partner organisation and target groups (reaching
   women, children, people with disabilities, indigenous peoples and other
   particularly vulnerable population groups) participating actively and intending to
   influence the public, political and cultural decision-making processes and
   structures on both a central and local level?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    Civil society organisations that have formulated or contributed to policy proposals
     and action plans that are discussed in the media, by parliamentarians, in the
     Parliament and/or in local government.

    Civil society organisations that have strengthened the capacity of particularly
     vulnerable population groups (such as women, indigenous peoples, and people with
     disabilities) to participate in and influence decision-making processes and structures
     on a local, national and/or international level.

    Civil society organisations and target groups that have ensured participation or
     participate actively in institutionalised dialogues or decision-making mechanisms, in
     order to increase the influence of particularly vulnerable population groups in their
     own development.


3.3. Vibrant debate

The question seeking to be answered is:

6. Public Debate: To which degree has the public debate been influenced by the
   efforts of the partner organisations’ of the Danish organisation, particularly in
   regards to promoting the needs of reaching women, children, people with
   disabilities, indigenous peoples and other particularly vulnerable population
   groups?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    Civil society organisations that have contributed to growing positive media coverage
     in individual and collective rights, as well as other topics of democratic relevance,
     particularly in countries that do not comply with the principles of the rule of law.

    Civil society organisations that have developed systems and competencies for
     strategic communication, internally as well as externally.

    Civil society organisations that have implemented civic education campaigns on
     rights and democracy, for example in collaboration with local, national and
     international strategic partners and on a mutual basis.


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4. Theme 2: The harmonisation and effectiveness of development assistance

4.1. Alignment

Alignment is the bearing principle for the Paris Declaration and the Accra Agenda for
Action, and sustains the principle of promoting ownership within development work. To
ensure that partners embody true ownership of the programmes and activities, it is necessary
for Danish organisations to base their support on the strategies of their partners. Development
and implementation of strategies, programmes and activities should be based on the partner’s
own structures, management, annual planning, performance management, procurement,
procedures and financial systems. This places high demands on both partners. The Danish
organisations must work to ensure that sufficient flexibility is maintained within their own
requirements, procedures and reporting, to allow their partner’s systems to be the point of
departure for collaboration. The partner organisation must in turn, work to ensure that their
strategies, systems and procedures are of a sufficiently high calibre and transparency, that a
true alignment can be achieved.

The balance lies in working towards alignment and long-term sustainability without
compromising the quality of the development work. An important task for the Danish
organisations is therefore, to support their partners in developing their systems and
procedures to a sufficiently high level to become solid foundations for the partnerships. A
necessary part of achieving an alignment to the partners’ structures, is maintaining focus on
the measurement of the partner’s results, and how these results feed back into the partner’s
decision-making and learning processes.

The question seeking to be answered is:

7. Alignment: Which initiatives, methods and tools has the Danish organisation used
   in order to promote alignment with the systems and procedures of their partner
   organisations, both in terms of their own internal requirements and reporting, as
   well as in terms of the development of the systems and procedures of the partner
   organisation?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    A status overview regarding to which extent the partnership is based on the partner
     organisation’s strategies, annual plan and budget, systems and procedures, as well as
     performance measurements.

    A review of the initiatives, methods and tools that the Danish organisation uses in
     order to promote alignment with the partner organisation’s systems and procedures,
     both in terms of their own internal requirements, as well as in terms of the capacity
     development of the partner’s systems and procedures.

    Which challenges has the organisation met by promoting alignment with and use of
     the partner’s performance measurements?




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4.2. Ownership

Ownership is the key principle, around which the Paris Declaration and the Accra Agenda
for Action centres. In order to live up to this goal, Danish organisations must ensure that their
partner’s have ownership over those development processes being supported. This means,
that the activities must build on the partner’s own vision, goals and strategies as much as
possible, while the Danish organisation provides financial assistance and technical support to
specifically defined elements of the interventions or in terms of strengthening the partner.

Ownership by the Southern partner can be exceptionally difficult to ensure, not to mention
measure. Many partners are very weak, and only have short-term goals. In some situations,
the Danish organisation is responsible for the implementation of activities, which can lead to
little true ownership existing with the local partner apart from the target group benefitting
from the interventions, if at all they are actively involved in developing the project. But no
matter the difficulties in terms of a partner’s strength and competence, the goal is always to
increase the partner’s ownership of the development process, as this is a prerequisite for
sustainable development.

The question seeking to be answered is:

8. Local Ownership: Which initiatives, methods and tools has the Danish
   organisation used in order to promote the partner organisation’s ownership to the
   joint development intervention?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    A status overview on the extent of ownership within the partner relations.

    A review of the initiatives, methods and tools the Danish organisations uses to
     promote the partner’s ownership of the development process.

    Which challenges the organisation has met in promoting the partner’s ownership.


4.3. Harmonisation and contextual analysis

Harmonisation is understood as the process whereby both multilateral and bilateral donors,
supporting the same local or national civil society organisations, coordinate their efforts.
Optimally, harmonisation should not be necessary, as all donors or organisations will align
themselves to their partner’s strategies and formats, in accordance with the partner’s
ownership over its activities. This is an idealised situation that rarely occurs, though it is
important to strive for. Therefore all partners to an organisation should coordinate and use the
same formats. Optimally this entails that all involved parties will contribute to one
programme or one project that has been formulated by the partner. The various partners will
further contribute with different competencies, such as advocacy in the North, organisational
development, specific technical competencies, and so forth.

Harmonisation depends on a proper contextual analysis. Danish organisations work with
projects and programmes in a local area, within a sector (i.e. health or education), a
delineated geographic area, and so forth. It is vital to map which other actors are within these
same areas. For example, who else is working with education in the area? What are their

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goals and objectives? How do the competencies and goals of the different organisations
overlap, and where could the organisations complement each other? This analysis must
involve all indicated actors: the government, the local government, the institutions, the multi-
and bi-lateral donors, the international organisations, local organisations and so forth.
Efficient development assistance will be ensured, when the Danish organisation fulfils its
role and navigates in the often complex political space in conjunction with the other actors.

The question seeking to be answered is:

9. Harmonisation and contextual analysis: How and with what results has the Danish
   organisation increased the level of harmonisation, coordination and cooperation
   between the international civil society organisations/donors working with the same
   partner, in order to coordinate or complement the work of other actors?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    The degree of harmonisation between the international organisations/donors, who are
     working with the same partner.

    Mutual partnership agreements, in cases where more actors work with the same local
     partner in a geographic area and/or within the same thematic sector (i.e. food security,
     HIV/AIDS, building local democracy.)

    Harmonisation with other actors that work within another thematic area as a
     prerequisite for creating a successful intervention within the organisation’s own
     thematic work area.

    The presence and sharing of a thorough context analysis mapping the other actors
     present within the operational area, as a prerequisite for mutual agreement with other
     actors.


4.4. Transparency and predictability

The principle of accountability is included in the Paris Declaration and the Accra Agenda
for Action, and involves promoting ownership by partner organisations. Accountability has
two dimensions:

    Accountability between the Danish organisation and their partner.
    Accountability between partners and their members or others represented by the
     partner.

Transparency is a prerequisite for keeping one another accountable. This applies between
partners (between Danish and local organisations), but also holds true in terms of the
organisation and its own respective constituency/membership. Transparency has both
financial and political elements involved. In order for transparency to ensure accountability,
the free flow of information must be ensured for all relevant target groups. For instance, a
partner could have a board outside of its office, upon which all details concerning income,
expenditures and activities are displayed. A Danish organisation ought to have its information
publicly available on a website, in addition to ensuring that all information is provided to
their target groups in a relevant format.

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Financial transparency requires that both the Danish organisation and the partner have
ensured transparency in the actual budget for the partnership, as well as in the combined
budgets of the organisations. This should include income made available from other sources.
Transparency should include:

    What is the combined budget, and how is it disbursed between the activities?
    Who is being supported and from whom are funds being received?
    How much money is going to activities, salaries, administration, investments?

Transparency in the decision-making processes entails both the Danish organisation and its
partner to be transparent regarding how decisions regarding collaboration are made,
particularly with regard to “stop” and “go” mechanisms for the project.

Predictability regarding the length of partnerships should be striven after, so that partners
can plan with a long-term perspective, and implement their more long-term visions and
strategies. Therefore partnerships that incorporate financial and other types of assistance
should aim to operate within a long-term time frame. From the organisations’ perspective, a
time-frame of 3-4-5 years could be a realistic aim. However, this time frame will be
dependant upon the strength of the partner organisation. The Danish organisation’s ability to
ensure predictability within their partnership will also be dependant on their own funding
grants (type, duration).

The question seeking to be answered is:

10. Transparency and predictability: How is the mutual accountability (transparency
    and predictability) in the partnership as well as between partners and their
    respective constituencies managed?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    An assessment of the status of the mutual accountability in the partner relations.

    A review of the initiatives, methods and tools used by the Danish organisation to
     promote the mutual accountability between partners and their respective
     constituencies.

    An account of the challenges the organisation has faced in promoting mutual
     accountability.


5. Theme 3: Partnership and a representative, legitimate and locally based civil society

It is desirable that partnership should be measured both in terms of accountability within the
partnership, as well as in popular foundation. Diversity is a central value within civil society,
which entails that there must be room for both small and large civil society organisations as
well as both broadly popularly founded and more specialised civil society organisations as
partners in the Danish support to civil society.




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5.1. Mutuality within the partnership

Mutuality within the partnership is expressed by civil society organisations in developing
countries having influence on joint developmental efforts, both on the level of actual
activities, projects and programmes, as well as on the long-term strategy for partnership
development.

The questions seeking to be answered are:

11. Mutual accountability I: How and with what result has the Danish organisation
    contributed to the strengthening of a mutual and active partnership?

12. Mutual accountability II: In which way and with what result has the Danish
    organisation brought its own experiences and capacity into the partnership?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    Civil society organisations in the developing countries have achieved influence on
     mutual goals, strategies and methodologies in relation to the activities in question.

    Civil society organisations in developing countries have identified efforts and
     problem areas through dialogue with the Danish organisation.

    Civil society organisations in developing countries have influence on the development
     of the long-term strategy for the partnership.

    Transparency understood as mutual insight regarding budgets, accounting, and project
     documentation.

    The Danish organisation supports civil society organisations in the developing
     countries in their own strategic development.

    Both partner organisations have profited from the partnership, in terms of their own
     development and learning.

    The Danish organisation’s added value and experience: The idea is to capture what
     the Danish organisation brings to the partnership, being an active part of the vibrant
     Danish civil society with experiences in mobilising population groups in political
     processes, self-organising, and imparting best practices from their own specific
     context (e.g. disability) or technical expertise from specific sectors (e.g. health or
     education), which can strengthen the same areas in the South.


5.2. Representation and legitimacy

A civil society organisation’s popular foundation and representation is often determined on
central parameters such as membership figures, membership fees, and own fundraising.
However, these parameters seem to be less relevant to apply in a Southern context, and it is
therefore more appropriate to take a broader approach to capture the conditions for a
democratic foundation and governance of Southern organisations.


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When referencing popular organisations fighting for a specific group’s rights and conditions,
the legitimacy of a civil society organisation can be defined in terms of their contact to the
target group and their ability to engage the group, both in terms of the historical and present
track record. Besides this, many civil society organisations have a status for being more
single-issue oriented in their focus, which would mean that their legitimacy cannot
necessarily be defined in relation to their members or target group, but rather be determined
from their “cause” and the legitimacy conferred from, for example convention-based cases
and rights (watchdog organisations) or the actual theme (nature, climate etc.).

The question seeking to be answered is:

13. Representation and legitimacy: In which way has a representative, legitimate and
    locally based civil society been strengthened, and how has the Danish
    organisation contributed to this?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

Representation:

    Membership contributions, membership fees and own fund raising.

    Representation of the target group (men, women, social groups, ethnicity, religion) in
     the board and daily management.

    Civil society organisations that have strengthened their representation and legitimacy
     in their respective constituency and among their membership. Membership numbers
     and high membership participation in meetings and activities.

    The organisation of regular democratic elections at all levels of the organisation, in
     compliance with the organisation’s constitution.

    Transparent and democratic nomination of candidates standing for election at all
     levels of the organisation.

    How the organisation works within the partnership to increase participation and
     engagement within the local context (a different cultural, historical, economic,
     religious reality than the Danish norm).

    Communication to members regarding new initiatives through newsletters, local
     branches, committee work and so forth.

Legitimacy:

    Structures for democratic influence (general assembly, board, council)

    The organisation’s dialogue with the target group and/or beneficiaries on solving local
     problems.

    The organisation’s involvement of the target group and/or beneficiaries in the
     organisation’s work.


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    The organisation’s systems to capture feedback from the target group and other
     stakeholders in regards to the effect of the projects/programmes.

    The openness and transparency of the organisation in terms of the target group’s
     access to annual accounts, reporting, and other similar documents.


6. Theme 4: Capacity development of civil society organisations in developing countries

Measuring the capacity development of civil society organisations is interesting, not only in
terms of the output or result, e.g. the number of courses held, but also in regards to the
outcome in terms of what the civil society organisations have accomplished with their
presumed increased capacity. It is desirable to measure a civil society organisation’s
organisational capacity in terms of:

      Good governance
      Extent of delegation and division of labour
      Popular foundation
      Involvement of target groups and members
      Ensuring and taking responsibility and ownership to activities
      Involvement in networks
      Technical capacity within the organisation’s focus areas
      Ensuring economic sustainability.

It is both the internal and external capacity that should be measured. Organisations are
complex organisms that are constantly changing. An organisation’s overall capacity to
accomplish its mission should be understood in regards of:

      Demand and pressure from the external environment (Context)
      The organisation’s results and performance (To do)
      The organisation’s internal functionality (To be)
      The organisation’s relations (To relate)

                  Internal                     Programme
                  organsation:                 performance:
                  ”To be”                      ”To do”




                         External linkages:
                         ”To relate”


                     Context




                                              15
6.1. Context

In order to fulfil its vision and mission, a civil society organisation must be capable of
decoding its surrounding environment, thinking strategically and acting appropriately and
tactically in a complex political and social environment.

The question seeking to be answered is:

14. Context: How and with what result has the partner organisation been supported
    to respond to its external demands in a relevant manner?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    Demand and pressure from the surrounding environment, to which the civil society
     organisation is subject and must act in accordance with.

    The organisation is capable of collecting data, analysing and acting in accordance
     with the demands and pressures from its external surroundings.

    The organisation has the capacity to learn and adjust to circumstances.

    Well-defined target group that supports the organisation’s political mission and is
     actively engaged in the organisation’s practice and fulfilment of its mission.

    A clearly defined institutional frame exists for the organisation.

    A donor strategy is developed and updated.


6.2. Results-orientation

This area – to create results – is the calling and mission of civil society organisations in terms
of the work that the organisation implements. This could, for example, be rights-based work,
health or education. Creating results includes a series of competencies within project-
management, technical-professional skills, knowledge and experience within the
organisation’s core focus, research-related competencies, policy work, as well as knowledge
of advocacy and lobby work.

The question seeking to be answered is:

15. Results-orientation: How and with what result has the efforts of the Danish
    organisation strengthened the ability of the partner organisation to achieve results
    compliant with the indicated plans and strategies?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    Development of the organisation’s capacity, which occurs and is expressed as
     changes in the organisation’s practice and behavioural pattern.

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    The partner organisation’s performance on programme level.

    The organisation delivering results compliant with indicated plans and strategies.

    The organisation has the capacity to carry out advocacy and lobby work, to arrange
     campaigns, organise members and other stakeholders, negotiate as well as formulate
     and promote legislature proposals and policies, and so forth.


6.3. Efficiency

There is a difference between the competence of an individual and of an organisation. For
capacity building to be successful, it is imperative to focus on the “bridge” between human
resource competency and organisational capacity, in the North and in the South, as well as
in terms of the connection between the Danish organisation and its partners in the South. In
order for an organisation to be built up to effectively implement a programme and attain its
own mission, it requires a strong vision of what it is seeking to accomplish. This vision
should be based on an organisation’s core values, effective leadership, a comprehensive and
exhaustive strategy, appropriate internal systems and a competent staff.

The question seeking to be answered is:

16. Efficiency: How and with what result has the partner organisation been
    supported to function appropriately through the establishment of efficient and
    suitable internal systems and procedures?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    The build up of organisational capacity, expressed through systematic and well
     designed programmes and interventions.

    Appropriate internal systems and functions that enable the organisation to respond to
     the demands and challenges of the surrounding environment.

    Distribution of roles and responsibilities between the political leadership, executive
     management, staff and volunteers is clearly described, accessible to all and
     implemented in practice.

    Authority and delegation between the different levels of the organisation is clearly
     described and implemented in practice.

    Management and control of resource administration within the organisation is
     centralised, and clear procedures implemented regarding management and financial
     administration. Appropriate accounting systems and resource management.

    The organisation is capable of raising funds for projects and activities from
     international donors and public institutions. Income is balanced with expenditure.




                                             17
6.4. Network and relations

An effective civil society organisation needs positive and supportive external relationships
with other organisations and institutions.

The question seeking to be answered is:

17. Network and relations: How and with what result has the Danish organisation
    supported the partner organisation to engage in external networks and relations?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    Civil society organisations in developing countries collaborate locally, regionally,
     nationally and internationally with other relevant stakeholders from civil society,
     media, authorities, researchers and private sector. The scope and quality of such
     collaboration and networks.

    The Danish organisation collaborates locally, regionally, nationally and
     internationally with other relevant stakeholders from civil society, media, authorities,
     researchers and private sector.

    The Danish organisation supports civil society organisations in developing countries
     to build up their capacity to participate in networks.

    Organisations are capable of participating in networks, strategically manage own
     relationships and collaboration with other civil society organisations, public
     authorities, donors and other actors.

    The organisation is acknowledged and represented in relevant agencies (committees,
     commissions, and so forth).

    The organisation undertakes policy development and develops programmes and
     action plans that are publicised in national or local media.



7. Theme 5: Fragile states and situations

Fragile states and situations will generally be characterised by a high degree of international
presence. The local organisations have the potential to take on a large role in terms of service
delivery where the state is not able to provide it; through their local foundation to function as
the bridge between phases of humanitarian assistance and development aid; as well as to
undertake tangible efforts to promote peace and the respect of human rights, and to contribute
constructively and critically to the build up of the state. The role of the Danish organisations
will be to contribute to increasing the capacity of the local partners, in order to allow for
implementation of tasks in the best way possible.

As both the Danish Humanitarian Strategy and Civil Society strategy have a focus on fragile
states and situations, a better opportunity has been created for organisations already operating
in these situations to progress from working solely with humanitarian assistance to work with
development assistance, provided they have the proper competency to do so.

                                               18
7.1. Context and flexible conditions

When working within fragile states and situations, a thorough context analysis is
unavoidable. A context analysis which deals with fragile states and situations is in principle
no different that the context analysis done in terms of non-fragile developing countries and
situations. However, a specific risk analysis must be undertaken, which takes its point of
departure in a scenario which addresses to which extent a project is ready and flexible enough
within its design to adjust to the changes that will inevitably arise in a fragile state or
situation. The context analysis has an underlying focus on mutual accountability, and those
weaknesses and risks that might be associated to this context, as well as a “Do no harm”
perspective.

The question seeking to be answered is:

18. Context and flexible conditions: How and with what results has the Danish
    organisation sought to influence the context of the current fragile situation?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    At a national governmental level, the interventions of the private organisations are
     carved by conditions such as payment of local taxes, competition around qualified
     local work force and so forth, which will have positive or negative consequences.

    At the local level, the demands of the context analysis will focus on areas such as:
         o What do the people and smaller communities themselves, perceive as the
             largest threats and challenges to their personal safety and to their livelihoods?
         o Who does the population itself perceive as the most vulnerable groups?
         o What do people, local communities and local authorities do to promote
             security and predictability in the local environment?


7.2. Stabilisation

The activity areas that substantially separate this theme from the other themes in the Civil
Society strategy, is the prominent focus on conflict prevention, stabilisation and
reconciliation.

The question seeking to be answered is:

19. Stabilisation: In which way and with what result have the efforts of the Danish
    organisation contributed to conflict prevention, stabilisation (stabilising service
    delivery) and reconciliation?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    Civil society organisations that have increased their own direct engagement and/or
     other groups’ engagement in reconciliation and hearing processes with public
     authorities.

                                              19
    Other types of activities can also have positive effects, such as:
        o Food distribution
        o Coordination in relation to humanitarian interventions (such as with UN
            clusters and other international and local organisations)
        o Establishment of networks
        o Capacity building and organisation development of repressed or very weak
            civil society organisations.


7.3. Transitional assistance

The interesting factor of including fragile states and situations in the Civil Society strategy is
that it is now formally possible to focus on the transition from humanitarian to development
assistance, also referenced as Early Recovery, the grey zone and “linking relief and
rehabilitation to development”.

It is therefore, to a large degree, up to the implementing partners to take advantage of the
opportunity to undertake this transition. This puts higher demands on the organisations’ long-
term plans from project to programme activities, including the phasing out of humanitarian
assistance in favour of longer term assistance, just as it requires acceptance of risk, flexibility
within partnerships and ability to enter into new partnerships. It also demands flexibility of
donors in terms of budgeting and reporting.

The question seeking to be answered is:

20. Transitional assistance: Which scenarios (possibilities and risks) is the
    organisation working with, in terms of transition to long-term development
    assistance?


Examples of narratives and cases that the Danish organisations can report on:

    Effectiveness within the organisation and in the funding mechanisms.

    Flexibility within the organisation and in the funding mechanisms.

    Adaptability within the organisation and in the funding mechanisms.




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