Backpacking Merit Badge

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					PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTION
name, MB Counselor
Troop X, Venture Crew X, town , state
                           Let‘s Get Started!
1. The BACKPACKING, HIKING, CAMPING, and WILDERNESS SURVIVAL merit
   badge programs cover areas of scouting that are absolutely essential your outdoor
   education. They teach necessary outdoor skills, build confidence, and instill an
   awareness of outdoor ethics.

2. While some of you have already earned the camping merit badge and have done
   many campouts, there is always more to learn and there are other perspectives to
   gain and consider. Recommendation: take in all that you can! Helping others who
   don‘t know as much as you should also be your goal.
3. These four badges are all interrelated, and in some cases, they cover the same
   material. A totally inclusive program of instruction that is well thought out can make
   the task of completing these four badges very efficient. You can be signed off on
   multiple cards on some occasions and you can better keep track of what you need to
   do and when.
4. Also related to these outdoor badges is the Leave No Trace Award, an important
   concept and I feel a distinguished achievement. You might as well go for this badge
   along the way as many of the requirements call for using LNT principles.
                     These skills are all tied together
                                   Wildlife             Equipment Care
            Maps
                                                                             Navigation        Footwear
           Stoves
                                              LNT is part of everything you do                       UltraLight
Water Treatment
                                                   Wilderness Survival is needed for all
           Back Packs                                                                                     Trail Talk
                                                          Backpacking covers even more
Packing Lists
                      Planning                                    Camping covers many skill areas            Safety

  Fire building
                                                                         Hiking gives you a good start         Tents
                      Outdoor ethics


                  Gear Selection
                                                                                First Aid
                                              Weather                                               Survival
                                                                     Clothing
          Backpacking Tips
                                                                                  Cooking, sanitation, menu planning
How we are going to get these done
By systematically stepping through the requirement work, we can
chip away at all four badges plus the LNT award. When completed,
you‘ll have an very good outdoor education and you can consider
yourself and ―elite outdoorsman‖.
Lessons:
 1. First Aid (multiple badges) – scout lead instruction
 2. Leave No Trace (multiple badges)
 3. Planning (multiple badges) – scoutmaster lead instruction
 4. Water & Sanitation & Food (multiple badges)
                                                          Don‘t worry about meeting
 5. Packs, Tents, Sleeping Bags                           ―Requirement 9b2‖ or ―4c‖.
                                                          Take on these badges as a
 6. Stoves (multiple badges)                               series of lessons to learn.
                                                           If you understand what is
 7. Other Gear, Care & Storage, Clothing                  taught and participate, you
                                                          will sufficiently cover all the
 8. Navigation – scout lead instruction                     requirements. Your MB
                                                         counselor will ensure you are
 9. Weather, protection                                         fulfilling the exact
                                                             requirements per BSA.
 10. Good Hiking, conditioning – scout lead instruction
 11. Survival Skills
 12. Trails, Opportunities
                            The Hard Work- Required Activity:
           CHECK      BACKPACKING & CAMPING                                                            CHECK HIKING


                    2 mile hike w/pack                                                                 1 day                10 mile hike 1
                    3 day 15 mile trek 1                                                               1 day                10 mile hike 2
                    3 day 15 mile trek 2                                                               1 day                10 mile hike 3
                    3 day 15 mile trek 3                                                               1 day                10 mile hike 4
                    5 day 30 mile trek
While on a trek, use a map and compass to establish your position on the ground at least three times    1 day                10 mile hike 5
             1 day 4 mile backpack                                                                     1 day                20 mile hike
             Hike up a mountain
                                                                                                Explain how to get to your camping spot using a topographical map and compass.

                                                                                                               151 miles total required
             20 nights camping                                                                        For All:
                                                                                                       1. Gear check list & menu if needed
                   (5 at camp count), 1 night in self made shelter
                                                                                                       2. Trip Plan, time control plan for backpacking
             LNT service project                                                                      3. Trip Summary
             Conservation project
           Merit Badge Requirements
• The following section provides the specific requirement
  for the hiking, camping, backpacking, and wilderness
  survival badge, as well as the requirements for the LNT
  award.
• Your MB counselor will make sure you meet these
  requirements using the outline just discussed.
                                   Hiking MB Requirements
                                               Unlike the Backpacking MB, there are no camping requirements for Hiking

(Pick one of three:
 Cycling, Hiking,
    Swimming)
                      1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while
                            hiking, including hypothermia, heatstroke, heat exhaustion, frostbite,
                            dehydration, sunburn, sprained ankle, insect stings, tick bites, snakebite,
                            blisters, hyperventilation, and altitude sickness.
                      2. Explain and, where possible, show the points of good hiking practices
                            including the principles of Leave No Trace, hiking safety in the daytime
                            and at night, courtesy to others, choice of footwear, and proper care of
                            feet and footwear.
                      3. Explain how hiking is an aerobic activity. Develop a plan for conditioning
                            yourself for 10-mile hikes, and describe how you will increase your
                            fitness for longer hikes.
                      4. Make a written plan for a 10-mile hike. Include map routes, a clothing and
                            equipment list, and a list of items for a trail lunch.
                      5. Take five hikes, each on a different day, and each of 10 continuous miles.
                            Prepare a hike plan for each hike.*
                      6. Take a hike of 20 continuous miles in one day following a hike plan you
                            have prepared.*
                      7. After each of the hikes (or during each hike if on one continuous "trek") in
                            requirements 5 and 6, write a short report of your experience. Give dates
                            and descriptions of routes covered, the weather, and any interesting
                            things you saw. Share this report with your merit badge counselor.

                                                                                                                                                  y
                      *The hikes in requirements 5 and 6 can be used in fulfilling Second Class (2a) and First Class (3) rank requirements, but onl if
                      Hiking merit badge requirements 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been completed to the satisfaction of your counselor.The hikes of
                      requirements 5 and 6 cannot be used to fulfill requirements of other merit badges.
              Camping MB Requirements

1.    Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while
      camping, including hypothermia, heatstroke, heat exhaustion, frostbite,
      dehydration, sunburn, insect stings, tick bites, snakebite, and blisters.
2.    Learn the Leave No Trace principles and the Outdoor Code and explain what
      they mean. Write a personal plan for implementing these principles on your
      next outing.
3.    Make a written plan for an overnight trek and explain how to get to your
      camping spot using a topographical map and compass.
4.    Make a chart showing how a typical patrol is organized for an overnight
      campout. List assignments for each member.
5.    Do the following:
     a)   Prepare a list of clothing you would need for overnight campouts in warm weather
          and in cold weather.
     b)   Discuss footwear for different kinds of weather and how the right footwear is
          important for protecting your feet.
     c)   Explain the proper care and storage of camping equipment (clothing, footwear,
          bedding).
     d)   Explain the term "layering."
     e)   Present yourself with your pack for inspection. Be correctly clothed and equipped
          for an overnight campout.
                  Camping MB Requirements
6.        Do the following:
     a)       Describe the features of four types of tents and how to care for tents. Working
              with another Scout, pitch a tent.
     b)       Discuss the reasons and methods of water purification. Discuss camp sanitation.
     c)       Tell the difference between "internal" and "external" frame packs. Discuss the
              advantages and disadvantages of each.
     d)       Discuss the types of sleeping bags and what kind would be suitable for different
              conditions. Explain the proper care of your sleeping bag. Make a comfortable
              ground bed.
7.        Prepare for an overnight campout with your patrol by doing the following:
     a)       Make a checklist of personal and patrol gear that will be needed.
     b)       Prepare a camp menu that is right for backpacking. Give recipes and make a food
              list for your patrol. Plan two breakfasts, three lunches, and two suppers. Discuss
              how to protect your food against bad weather, animals, and contamination.
     c)       Pack your own gear and your share of the patrol equipment and food for proper
              carrying. Show that your pack is right for quickly getting what is needed first, and
              that it has been assembled properly for comfort, weight, balance, size, and
              neatness.
8.        Do the following:
     a)        Explain the safety procedures when using a:
             •      Propane or butane/propane stove
             •      Liquid fuel stove
     b)        Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different types of lightweight
               cooking stoves.
     c)        Cook for your patrol a trail meal requiring the use of a lightweight stove.
               Camping MB Requirements
9.      Show experience in camping by doing the following:
      a)      Camp a total of at least 20 days and nights. You may use a week of long-
              term camp toward this requirement. Sleep each night under the sky or in a
              tent you have pitched (long-term camp excluded).
      b)      On any of these camping experiences, you must do TWO of the following,
              only with proper preparation and under qualified supervision:
             1.    Hike up a mountain, gaining at least 2,000 vertical feet.
             2.    Backpack for at least four miles.
             3.    Take a bike trip of at least 15 miles or at least four hours.
             4.    Plan and carry out a float trip of at least four hours.
             5.    Rappel down a rappel route of 30 feet or more.
      c)      On one of your campouts, perform a conservation project approved in
              advance by the private landowner or public land management agency.
10.     Discuss how the things you did to earn this badge have taught you about
        personal health and safety, survival, public health, conservation, and good
        citizenship.
    Backpacking Merit Badge Requirements
1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while backpacking,
    including hypothermia, heat reactions, frostbite, dehydration, insect stings, tick bites,
    snakebite, and blisters.
2. Do the following:
      a. List 10 items that are essential to be carried on any overnight backpacking trek and
          explain why each item is necessary.
      b. Describe 10 ways you can limit the weight and bulk to be carried in your pack
          without jeopardizing your health or safety.
3. Do the following:
      a. Define limits on the number of backpackers appropriate for a trek crew.
      b. Describe how a trek crew should be organized.
4. Do the following:
      a. Describe the importance of using Leave No Trace principles while backpacking,
          and at least five ways you can lessen the crew‘s impact on the environment.
      b. Describe proper methods of handling human and other wastes while on a
          backpacking trek. Describe the importance of and means to assure personal
          cleanliness while on a backpacking trek.
5. Do the following:
      a. Demonstrate two ways to treat water and tell why water treatment is essential.
      b. Explain to your counselor the importance of staying well hydrated during a trek.
    Backpacking Merit Badge Requirements
6. Do the following:
     a. Demonstrate that you can read topographic maps.
     b. While on a trek, use a map and compass to establish your position on the ground
         at least three times at three different places, OR use a GPS receiver unit to
         establish your position on a topographic map at least three times at three different
         places.
7. Do the following:
     a. Tell how to prepare properly for and to deal with inclement weather while on a
         backpacking trek.
     b. Tell how to properly prepare for and deal with the human and environmental
         hazards you may encounter on a backpacking trek.
8. Do the following:
     a. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of three different types of backpacking
         stoves using at least three different types of fuel.
     b. Demonstrate that you know how to operate a backpacking stove safely and to
         handle liquid fuel safely.
     c. Prepare at least three meals using a stove and fuel you can carry in a backpack.
     d. Demonstrate that you know how to keep cooking and eating gear clean and
         sanitary while on a backpacking trek.
            Backpacking Merit Badge Hiking
                   Requirements
9. Do the following:
     a. Write a plan for a patrol backpacking hike that includes a time control plan.
     b. Show that you know how to properly pack your personal gear and your share
         of the crew‘s gear and food.
     c. Show you can properly shoulder your pack and adjust it for proper wear.
     d. Conduct a prehike inspection of the patrol and its equipment.
     e. While carrying your pack, complete a hike of at least 2 miles.

10. Using Leave No Trace principles, participate in at least three backpacking treks of
    at least three days each and at least 15 miles each, and using at least two
    different campsites.
11. Do the following:
     a. Write a plan for a backpacking trek of at least five days using at least three
         different campsites and covering at least 30 miles. Your plan must include a
         description of and route to the trek area, schedule (including a daily time
         control plan), list of food and equipment needs, safety and emergency plan,
         and budget.
     b. Using Leave No Trace principles, take the trek planned and, while on the trek,
         complete at least one service project approved by your merit badge
         counselor.
     c. Upon your return, write a report about the trek that includes a day -by-day
         description of what you did or what happened, and what you might do the
         same and what you might do differently on your next trek.
      Wilderness Survival MB Requirements
1.    1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses likely to occur in backcountry outings, including hypothermia,
      heat stroke, heat exhaustion, frostbite, dehydration, sunburn, stings, tick bites, snakebite, and blisters.

2.    Describe from memory the priorities for survival in a backcountry or wilderness location.

3.    Describe ways to (a) avoid panic and (b) maintain a high level of morale when lost.

4.    Tell what you would do to survive in the following environments:
        a) Cold and snowy
        b) Wet (forest)
        c) Hot and dry (desert)
        d) Windy (mountain or plains)
        e) Water (ocean or lake)

5.    Make up a personal survival kit and be able to explain how each item in it is useful.

6.    Show that you can start fires using three methods other than matches.

7.    Do the following:
       a) Tell five different ways of attracting attention when lost.
       b) Show how to use a signal mirror.
       c) Describe from memory five international ground-to-air signals and tell what they mean.

8.    Show that you can find and improvise a natural shelter minimizing the damage to the environment.

9.    Spend a night in your shelter.

10.   Explain how to protect yourself against insects, reptiles, and bears.

11.   Show three ways to treat water found in the outdoors to prepare it for drinking.

12.   Show that you know the proper clothing to wear in your area on an overnight in extremely hot weather and extremely
      cold weather.

13.   Explain why it usually is not wise to eat edible wild plants or wildlife in a wilderness survival situation.
      LNT BSA Award Requirements
Scout and Venturer Requirements
1. Recite and explain the principles of Leave No Trace.
2. On three separate camping/backpacking trips demonstrate and
   practice the principles of Leave No Trace.
3. Earn the Camping and Environmental Science merit badges, or
   do No. 3 under the Scouter requirements. (Share with another Scouter or
   Venturing leader your understanding and knowledge of the Camping and Environmental Science
   merit badge pamphlets.)
4. Participate in a Leave No Trace related service project.
5. Give a 10-minute presentation on a Leave No Trace topic
   approved by your Scoutmaster.
6. Draw a poster or build a model to demonstrate the differences in
   how we camp or travel in high-use and pristine areas.
Requirements - First Aid




                           LESSON 1 FIRST AID
                      Question 1 (All), First Aid
                                       Symptoms                            Treatment




                                                                                       LESSON 1 FIRST AID
                  Body temperature drops below 96° F. Symptoms:
Hypothermia       Slow or irregular speech; shallow or very slow
                  breathing; f atigue; conf usion; slow pulse; weakness
                  or drowsiness; shivering; cold pale skin.
                  Severe injury f rom high body temperatures (usually
                  greater than 104ºF.) that cause damage to many
                  organs. Two categories: exertional-exercising in
Heat stroke       excessively warm conditions; classic-remaining in
                  warm environments too long. Symptoms: Same as
                  heat exhaustion plus conf usion, hallucinations,
                  bizarre behavior, seizure, coma.)
                  Body encounters excessively high temperatures
                  that it can‘t manage. Body temperatures that are
Heat exhaustion   very high, but usually less than 104ºF. Symptoms:
                  Signs of dehydration, weakness, headache, and
                  nausea.)
                  Frostbite is, literally, f rozen body tissue - usually
                  skin but sometimes deeper - and must be handled
                  caref ully to prevent permanent tissue damage or
Frostbite         loss. Symptoms: White, waxy skin that f eels numb
                  and hard. It requires immediate emergency medical
                  attention.


                   Body does not have enough f luids to f unction
Dehydration       properly. Of ten caused by f luid loss (improper
                  intake, vomiting, diarrhea or excessive urination).
                     Question 1 (All), First Aid
                                     Symptoms                            Treatment




                                                                                     LESSON 1 FIRST AID
Sprained Ankle

                 The two greatest risks f rom most insect stings and
                       bites are allergic reaction (which may
Insect Stings          occasionally be f atal) and inf ection (more
                       likely and less serious). Symptoms:
                       Reddening of bite area. Painf ul.
                 (Ticks are small insects that live areas, and
                        seashores. They attach their bodies host and
                        pref er hairy areas such as the scalp,
Tick Bites       and groin, and also between f ingers and muscle
                        aches, joint pain and swelling).


                 It is important to be able to recognize poisonous
                         snakes f or anyone who spends time in the
                         outdoors. Prevention of bites is the best
Snake Bite               treatment of all. Symptoms: Presence of f ang
                         marks, usually two, associated with
                         immediate pain and rapid swelling.
                       Question 1 (All), First Aid
                                        Symptoms                          Treatment

                    Minor sunburn is a 1st-degree burn that turns the




                                                                                      LESSON 1 FIRST AID
                    skin pink or red. Prolonged sun exposure can
                    cause blistering and a 2nd-degree burn. Repeated
Sunburn             over exposure can cause skin cancer. The lighter
                    your skin, the greater chance of sunburn.
                    Symptoms: Dark painf ul reddening of the skin.
                    Skin of ten peels of f in patchy layers.
                    Usually caused by excessive rubbing of skin,
                    rashes, burns, or reactions to insect bites.
                    Symptoms: White f luid-f illed bumps on skin,
Blisters            causing no pain unless they rupture, exposing
                    tender skin underneath. Itching f rom the irritated
                    skin immediately surrounding the blister.




Hyperventilation



Altitude Sickness
                      Requirements - Leave No Trace
             1. Describe the importance of using Leave No Trace principles while backpacking,

             2. Describe at least five ways you can lessen the crew‘s impact on the environment.




                                                                                                   LESSON 2 LNT
             3. Describe proper methods of handling human & other wastes while on a
             backpacking trek.

             4. Describe the importance of and means to assure personal cleanliness while on a
             backpacking trek.

             5. Learn the Leave No Trace principles and the Outdoor Code and explain what
             they mean. Write a personal plan for implementing these principles on your next
             outing.

             6. Explain and, where possible, show the points of good hiking practices including
             the principles of Leave No Trace,

             7. LNT Award: Recite and explain the principles of Leave No Trace.
B4, H2, C2
               Leave No Trace- Importance
•   The Leave No Trace principles might seem unimportant until you consider
    the combined effects of millions of outdoor visitors. One poorly located
    campsite or campfire may have little significance, but thousands of such




                                                                                LESSON 2 LNT
    instances seriously degrade the outdoor experience for all. Leaving no
    trace is everyone‘s responsibility.
•   Instilling values in young people and preparing them to make ethical
    choices throughout their lifetime is the mission of the Boy Scouts of
    America. Leave No Trace helps reinforce that mission, and reminds us to
    respect the rights of other users of the outdoors as well as future
    generations. Appreciation for our natural environment and a knowledge of
    the interrelationships of nature bolster our respect and reverence toward
    the environment and nature.
•   Leave No Trace is an awareness and an attitude rather than a set of
    rules. It applies in your backyard or local park as much as in the
    backcountry. We should all practice Leave No Trace in our thinking and
    actions—wherever we go.
1. Plan Ahead and Prepare
- Know the regulations and special concerns f or the area you'll visit.
- Prepare f or extreme weather, hazards, and emergencies.
- Schedule your trip to avoid times of high use.
- Visit in small groups. Split larger parties into groups of 4-6.
- Repackage f ood to minimize waste.
- Use a map and compass to eliminate the use of marking paint, rock cairns or f lags.           7 Principles

2. Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces                                               5. Minimize Campfire Impacts
- Durable surf aces include established trails and campsites, rock, gravel, dry      - Campf ires can cause lasting impacts to the backcountry. Use a




                                                                                                                                                                 LESSON 2 LNT
  grasses or snow.                                                                      lightweight stove f or cooking and enjoy a candle lantern f or light.
- Protect riparian areas by camping at least 200 f eet f rom lakes and streams.      - Where f ires are permitted, use established f ire rings, f ire pans, or
- Good campsites are f ound, not made. Altering a site is not necessary.               mound f ires.
     In popular areas:                                                               - Keep f ires small. Only use sticks f rom the ground that can be
       - Concentrate use on existing trails and campsites.                             broken by hand.
       - Walk single f ile in the middle of the trail, even when wet or muddy.       - Burn all wood and coals to ash, put out campf ires completely,
       - Keep campsites small. Focus activity in areas where vegetation is absent.     then scatter cool ashes.
     In pristine areas:
       - Disperse use to prevent the creation of campsites and trails.               6.   Respect Wildlife
       - Avoid places where impacts are just beginning.
                                                                                     - Observe wildlif e f rom a distance. Do not f ollow or approach them.
                                                                                     - Never f eed animals. Feeding wildlif e damages their health, alters
3. Dispose of Waste Properly                                                           natural behaviors, and exposes them to predators and other
                                                                                       dangers.
- Pack it in, pack it out.
                                                                                     - Protect wildlif e and your f ood by storing rations and trash securely.
- Inspect your campsite and rest areas f or trash or spilled f oods.
                                                                                     - Control pets at all times, or leave them at home.
- Pack out all trash, lef tover f ood, and litter.
                                                                                     - Avoid wildlif e during sensitive times: mating, nesting, raising
- Deposit solid human waste in catholes dug 6 to 8 inches deep at least 200 f eet
                                                                                       young, or winter.
  f rom water, camp and trails. Cover and disguise the cathole when f inished.
- Pack out toilet paper and hygiene products.
- To wash yourself or your dishes, carry water 200 f eet away f rom streams or       7. Be Considerate of Other Visitors
   lakes and use small amounts of biodegradable soap. Scatter strained dishwater.
                                                                                     - Respect other visitors and protect the quality of their experience.
                                                                                     - Be courteous. Yield to other users on the trail.
4. Leave What You Find                                                               - Step to the downhill side of the trail when encountering pack stock.
                                                                                     - Take breaks and camp away f rom trails and other visitors.
- Preserve the past: examine, but do not touch, cultural or historic structures      - Let nature's sounds prevail. Avoid loud voices and noises
  and artif acts.
- Leave rocks, plants and other natural objects as you f ind them.
- Avoid introducing or transporting non-native species.
- Do not build structures, f urniture, or dig trenches.
      5 Ways to reduce impact on Environment
A few ideas from reading the principles:
•     Minimize group size
•     After camping, ―freshen up‖ site




                                                                           LESSON 2 LNT
•     Don‘t ―use bathroom‖ close to streams or trails
•     Stay on designated trails when possible; camp in designated sites
•     Stay quite, respect others
•     Avoid building open fires unless needed for survival
•     Of course, pack in, pack out everything
•     Leave what you find
•     Filter gray water, pack out residual or if necessary, bury
•     Pick up any waste you find from others (always carry an extra bag)
•     What else from knowing the 7 principles?
                                         Requirements - Planning
                            (Just do a written plan and a journal report for all of your hikes)
                     1.   Make a chart showing how a typical patrol/trek crew is organized for an overnight
                          campout. List assignments for each member.




                                                                                                                          LESSON 3 PLANNING
                     2.   Define limits on the number of backpackers appropriate for a trek crew.

                     3.   Make a checklist of personal and patrol gear that will be needed for an overnight
                          campout.

                     4.    Prepare menus, give recipes and make a food list for your patrol. Plan two breakfasts,
                          three lunches, and two suppers. Cook 1 meal for patrol.

                     5.    Make a written (trip) plan for a 10 mile hike, an overnight trek, and the 5 day backpacking
                          trek. Your plan must include a description of and route to the trek area, schedule
                          (including a daily time control plan), list of food (including trail lunch), clothing, and
                          equipment needs, safety and emergency plan, and budget.

                     6.    After each of the 10 and 20 mile hikes and the 5 day backpacking hike, write a short after -
                          action journal report of your experience. Give dates and descriptions of routes covered,
B9,11; H4,7;C3,5,7




                          the weather, and any interesting things you saw. Include a day-by-day description of what
                          you did or what happened, and what you might do the same and what you might do
                          differently on your next trek. Share with MB counselor.

                     7.   Explain how to get to your camping spot using a topographical map and compass.
LESSON 3 PLANNING
 Leave a copy of your written plan
behind with someone responsible. It
        should also include:

INFORMATION TO LEAVE BEHIND




                                        LESSON 3 PLANNING
1.   When you are leaving, returning
     and/or checking in
2.   Where you are going, tentative
     parking and trail you are taking
3.   How many people, who
4.   Contact information of travelers
     for emergencies
5.   How someone can contact you!
6.   If you are going into
     backcountry, get permit from
     rangers. Contact someone and
     make plan for when they should
     expect you to call in.
LESSON 3 PLANNING
LESSON 3 PLANNING
LESSON 3 PLANNING
                    High Adventure Team Backpacking
                             Planning Guide
1.    Parents notified of hiking route.
2.    Committee approval of hiking route.
3.    Adequate transportation to and form hiking area.
4.    All drivers meet minimum safe limits as shown on BSA Local Tour Permit.
5.    All cars have minimum California insurance cover-age as shown on BSA Local Tour Permit
6.    Adequate menu for hike providing balanced diet for everyone
7.    Everyone shall meet the unit's group/personal equipment list requirements
8.    Tour permits requested and received.
9.    U.S. Forestry fire permits obtained if required.
10.   Northern California fire permit issued on a year-to-year basis if no dangerous fire conditions exist.
11.   Leader knows location of closest Ranger Station, its phone, and where closest Hospital or emergency center is located
12.   Leader knows who to contact for help: (a) Sheriff's dept. (b) Highway Patrol (c) Mountain Rescue (d) Others
13.   Itinerary written out so one can be given to: someone at: (a) Unit level at home (b) Ranger (c) Filed with awards application if required.
14.   Any and all special permits requested for and obtained prior to taking the trek (i.e., Wilderness, National Park, etc.)
15.   Adequate group First Aid Kit for trek.
16.   Have plans for advancement on hike been established and included in the hike plan.
17.   Type of hike: rain, snow, sunny desert, mountain, beach etc. Are you prepared for these?
18.   What troop/group equipment do we need for this hike.
19.   What patrol/crew equipment do we need for this hike.
20.   Are we within the maximum group size for the area the hike is in?
21.   Do we have two 21 year or older adults minimum for the group ( recommended one adult for each 10 youths minimum 2 adults per group
22.   Roster with name, address, phone number of each member going on trek and who to notify in case of an emergency.
23.   Does each youth have an Emergency Medical Release form signed by his parents or guardian — one on his person and one in his personal First Aid Kit in pack?
24.   Does unit have Emergency Medical Release forms for each youth in the unit/group in the unit/group First Aid Kit?
25.   Leader or some other adult has a standard and current First Aid and CPR Card.
26.   Have two means to purify water (i.e. Pump and chemical). Have a back up if one fails.
27.   Leader of other adult completed a BSA approved Basic Backpack Awareness Course.
28.   Any special equipment needed for this trek (i.e. snow shoes, climbing rope, ice axe, etc.)?
29.   No one on the trek is carrying or has firearms or alcoholic beverages in his or her possession.
30.   All pets left at home.
31.   Everyone is familiar and checked out on the usage of the unit/group backpacking equipment (stove, cell phone, GPS etc.)
32.   All members of trek are current registered members of Scouting programs in BSA.
33.   All members of the trek have durable individual identification on them.
34.   All members of the trek are familiar with the Council's Emergency Notification Plan and Form.
35.   All members of the trek have had a medical exam (maximum 4 months prior to the long term trek)
36.   All members of trek requiring medication have two supplies of medication (one they carry and one supplied to trek leader).
                                        Food & Water
How much food should I carry?
•   Backpacking burns a lot of energy. Plan on a tasty diet of 3,000 to 4,000 calories a
    day, including high-energy snacks to eat while you're walking or during breaks.
    Long distance hikers may need to eat more—the typical male burns 5,000-7,000
    calories a day. However, novice backpackers often make the mistake of carrying
    too much food. Many hikes have ended in misery and injury because of packs that
    were too heavy. When deciding how much food to carry for your trip, keep these
    tips in mind for an enjoyable trip:
     –   1 1/2 to 2 lbs. per day is ample lightweight backpacking food.
     –   In cold weather, when you need more calories to stay warm, carry 2 1/2 lbs. per day.
     –   If you are hiking in the winter or early spring, carry food for an extra day or two in case you are stranded
         by a snowstorm.
     –   Extreme exertion during the first day or two of a hike may actually decrease your appetite.

     –   Many lightweight backpacking staples can be purchased at a grocery store; you need not rely on
         expensive prepared ―backpacking food‖ sold at camping stores.

     –   Dehydrating your own food can provide you with nutritious, tasty and lightweight meals and snacks, but is
         labor- and time-intensive.
                          Food & Water
• What sort of food should I take?
   – If you're out for the day or the weekend, you can probably pack along
     whatever foods you like best—even fresh vegetables and fruits. But
     since these spoil quickly and are heavy (due to their high water
     content), they're not good for extended backpacking trips. Whatever
     food you choose, be sure to pack out all your garbage, including items
     such as apple cores and orange peels. Don't burn garbage in a
     campfire; it rarely burns completely.
   – Backpackers generally carry dried foods such as pasta that they boil
     and prepare on their portable stoves. Don't rely on fires. Not only is it
     more convenient and easier in wet weather, it minimizes your impact on
     the wilderness around your camp.
   – Go cold when it's hot. In summer months at low altitude, experiment
     with food that requires no cooking. Reduce your pack weight by leaving
     your stove, fuel, and pots at home. (Don't try this in cold weather or in
     higher elevations with exposed areas, where hot drinks may be needed
     to arrest hypothermia.)
             Pack Your Pack to Pack Your Body
The One Pan Gourmet
By Don Jacobson

Carbon-f iber tent poles or aluminum? How much sleeping bag is enough? High-tech tentage or a tarp? Modern trekkers live by one core
principle … that packing light makes the journey right. Enlightened hikers realize that ultralight equipment technology allows them to reduce
overall weight but still carry more f uel f or the human engine that drives them up the mountain and down the trail — f ood.

Food is the one item you cannot skimp on, or all the money you have spent going high-tech will go right down the drain. Your 10-mile
Sunday return jaunt will turn into the last leg of an enduro. The savvy trekker pays as much attention to the inner technology of the f ood he
or she packs as to the bag that holds it.

You need about 3,500 calories per day to keep your body‘s f urnace stoked on an average hike through moderate terrain. You can hit that
f igure by eating seven bologna sandwiches. But that‘s hardly the right choice. Forget the style points lost by munching on three slices of
beige meat in a meal only a 1950s sitcom mom could love. The nutritional value makes the sandwiches a miserable choice f or any athlete,
with about 60 percent of the calories generated by f at.
If you are as serious about f ood technology as you are about your gear, consider this: A three-day-trip will require you to carry about
10,000 calories just to keep you going. How that energy is composed … well, that‘s up to you. You can purchase f reeze-dried f ood in a
bag, and some of that‘s f ine. But if you take a little time to really cook, you can create some toothsome outdoor delicacies that really pack
some punch, in taste and nutrition. Plan to eat three meals, either hot or cold. And add to your calorie load by snacking on ―pocket f oods‖
like trail mix or Hudson Bay Bread as you walk. But take this ratio into account when you are planning your total menu: 50-30-20.
Carbohydrates should account f or about 50 percent of your calories. Your body burns carbs f irst … and keeps burning them. That means
you need to replenish them throughout the day or you will bonk! Feast on complex carbs f ound in f oods like breads, beans, rice, pasta, and
starchy vegetables. Fruit can f ill out your carb load.

Generate another 30 percent f rom f at. Fats are the mother lode of concentrated energy (9 calories/gram as opposed to 4 calories/gram f or
bread), but take longer to convert. Eat f ats earlier in the day! Make sure your trail diet is high in ―good‖ f ats (mono and polyunsaturated)
and low in ―bad‖ f ats (saturated and trans f ats). Include walnuts, avocados, f ish, and lean meats.

The f inal 20 percent should be f ound in protein. Protein is really not a power source f or your daily activities. Your body will convert only
about 10 percent of the protein you eat into energy. The rest (150 grams or less) will be used to rebuild muscle, up to a point. Lef tovers will
be dealt with by your kidneys. Protein-rich f oods include lean meats (especially skinless chicken and f ish), beans, and peanut butter.

High-tech or paleo-tech — it‘s your choice. Just keep in mind that the quality of your outdoor experience will come as much f rom inside as
what you carry on the outside. The scenery will be all the more breathtaking if you have the power to lif t your head and open your eyes
af ter a 12-mile, 6,000-vertical-f oot day. The only way you will have that energy with you is if you planned f or it long bef ore you loaded your
pack and started up the trail.
                          Menu Planning
     Prepare Menus, give recipes and make a food list for your patrol. Plan
    two breakfasts, three lunches, and two suppers. Cook 1 meal for patrol.
Breakfast 1                          Breakfast 2




                                                                              LESSON 3 PLANNING
• Hot food (& recipes):              • Hot food:

•   Cold food:                       •   Cold food:

•   Beverage:                        •   Beverage:

•   Fruit:                           •   Fruit:

•   Cooking Supplies:                •   Cooking Supplies:

•   Cooking utensils:                •   Cooking utensils:
                          Menu Planning
Lunch 1                   Lunch 2                 Lunch 3
• Hot food (& recipes):   • Hot food:             • Hot food:




                                                                          LESSON 3 PLANNING
•   Cold food:            •   Cold food:          •   Cold food:

•   Beverage:             •   Beverage:           •   Beverage:

•   Snack:                •   Snack:              •   Snack:

•   Cooking Supplies:     •   Cooking Supplies:   •   Cooking Supplies:

•   Cooking utensils:     •   Cooking utensils:   •   Cooking utensils:
                        Menu Planning
Supper 1                      Supper 2
• Hot food:                   • Hot food:




                                                      LESSON 3 PLANNING
•   Cold food:                •   Cold food:

•   Beverage:                 •   Beverage:

•   Dessert:                  •   Dessert:

•   Cooking Supplies:         •   Cooking Supplies:

•   Cooking utensils:         •   Cooking utensils:
              Trek Size & Patrol Assignments
     Group size is always limited by rules set forth by area to hiking. If few visitors and/or
     large waste disposal facilities, sturdy vegetation, wider trails, etc., this may support
     larger crews. Find out restrictions and plan accordingly.




                                                                                                 LESSON 3 PLANNING
     If you’ve check and no other restrictions:
     4-6 would be optimal, if someone gets hurt, two can go for help while others stay with
     injured person. 6 would be good in splitting up troop equipment. Small numbers
     minimize human waste, trail/campsite wear, obstructive to other hikers (including noise).

     LNT guidelines suggest splitting larger groups into smaller groups of 4-6.

     If solo hiking – hiking alone on well used trailed is one thing, but never hike alone in
     desolate areas where no one can find you.

Personnel Assignments:                              What else can you assign?
• SPL or scout troop leader                         • Hiking/Camping partners
• Scribe/Historian                                  • Splitting of troop gear
• Quartermaster                                     • Cooking/Cleanup duties
• Cook                                              •
• Route Planner                                     •
• Principal Navigator/Pathfinder                    •
• What else?
      What makes a good campsite?:
1.    Near water source (but 200 ft away)




                                                           LESSON 3 PLANNING
2.    Not in a streambed or depression
3.    Not on a trail or likely game path.
4.    Wind protection
5.    No dead trees around
6.    Sturdy ground that can hold up to traffic
7.    Flat surface
8.    Located on map near obvious features
9.    Away from cliffs with falling objects
10.   If you must build a fire, ample fire wood & sturdy
      place to build a fire that can be ―cleansed‖
                          Requirements – Packs, Tents, Bags




                                                                                                                    LESSON 4 PACKS, TENTS, BAGS
                 1.   Show you can properly shoulder your pack and adjust it for proper wear.

                 2.   Conduct a pre hike inspection of the patrol and its equipment. Present yourself with your
                      pack for inspection. Be correctly clothed and equipped for an overnight campout.

                 3.   Pack your own gear and your share of the patrol equipment and food for proper carrying.
                      Show that your pack is right for quickly getting what is needed first, and that it has been
                      assembled properly for comfort, weight, balance, size, and neatness.

                 4.   List 10 items that are essential to be carried on any overnight backpacking trek and
                      explain why each item is necessary.

                 5.   Describe 10 ways you can limit the weight and bulk to be carried in your pack without
                      jeopardizing your health or safety.

                 6.   Describe the features of four types of tents and how to care for tents. Working with
                      another Scout, pitch a tent.

                 7.   Tell the difference between "internal" and "external" frame packs. Discuss the advantages
                      and disadvantages of each.
HB,9; C6,7c,5e




                 8.   Discuss the types of sleeping bags and what kind would be suitable for different
                      conditions. Explain the proper care of your sleeping bag. Make a comfortable ground bed.
                                         Packing your Backpack




                                                                                                                            LESSON 4 PACKS, TENTS, BAGS
Before packing, spread everything you plan to take on the floor in front of you. Leave behind those things you may not
really need, and make sure you haven‘t forgotten any essentials. Imagine that your pack is made up of three zones:
 Zone 1 – Put light items, like your sleeping bag, at the bottom.

 Zone 2 – Pack heavy items, such as water, food, climbing gear, tent, etc. closest to your
 back. Use a sleeping pad or fleece as a buffer between sharp-cornered items and your
 spine.
 Zone 3 – Place medium-weight or bulkier items toward the top or down the front of the
 pack. Rain gear should be easy to access.
 Your objective is to avoid having a top-heavy pack, which will pull you backwards, or a
 bottom-heavy pack, which will make you feel like you are being dragged down. Packing
 heavier items close to your centre of gravity (middle of the back) will keep you balanced
 and make the load feel more natural.
 Packing tips:
 • Distribute weight evenly between lef t and right sides.
 • Place f requently used items in an easy-to-access place, such as external pockets.
 • When hiking on easy terrain, pack heavy items a little higher f or better posture.
 • On harder terrain, put heavy items lower down f or better balance.
 • Stuf f sacks allow you to quickly pack and unpack your gear and f ind what you need. The highly organized
 put each category of items (f irst aid, kitchen, etc.) in dif f erently colored bags. Try not to stuf f the sacks f ull,
 as a little play makes them easier to squeeze into gaps.
 • Use your pots as hard metal stuf f sacks to protect delicate items.
 • Pack your f ood above your f uel bottle, or place it on the outside.
 • Use your compression straps to bring the load closer to your body and keep everything in place.
10 Essential Items to Carry (Backpacking)




                                                                                        LESSON 4 PACKS, TENTS, BAGS
                      (Makes a slight dif f erence if backpacking or just day hiking)



1.    Shelter (needed to protect you from elements and help get some rest)
2.    Food (needed to provide energy, see food section)
3.    Water bottle & enough water or filter (must stay hydrated)
4.    Sleeping bag (packed in waterproof bag, must stay warm and get adequate
      rest)
5.    Rain gear (must try to stay protected from elements as serious injuries
      could occur if not prepare).
6.    Extra clothing (prevents hypothermia, clean clothing is just more
      comfortable, lets sweat evaporate quicker)
7.    First aid kit (always needed to prepare for unexpected emergenies. High
      probability of small injuries when in outdoors.
8.    Stove & cooking supplies (must take care of body energy needs. In cold
      weather, hot food/wtr helps maintain optimal body temperatures.
9.    Map & Compass (must know where you are going and how to get there,
      helps prevent you from becoming lost).
10.   Rope, flashlight, emergency whistle, knife, trowel, small light,
      matches, fires starter (survival and outdoor ethics gear needed to hike
      responsibility).
            10 Essentials per BSA (hiking)




                                                LESSON 4 PACKS, TENTS, BAGS
•   Water – Bring plenty of water and a way
    to purify water found on the trail.
•   Food – lunch, energy bars, trail-mix,
    snacks, etc…
•   Fire starter – lighter, matches in a
    waterproof container
•   Compass/GPS unit – bring extra
    batteries for GPS units.
•   Map – a map of the area and the trail you
    will be hiking.
•   First Aid Kit
•   Whistle
•   Pocket Knife, Nylon Cord
•   Clothing - Rain Jacket, Emergency
    Blanket, Extra Clothing
•   Flashlight – bring extra batteries.
               10 Ways to Reduce Weight




                                                                                       LESSON 4 PACKS, TENTS, BAGS
1.    Multi-function gear you are taking
2.    Split up group-use gear
3.    Water is heavy, plan to pump and/or forecast out public resupply points
4.    Seek out lower weight gear when buying
         - Look for the 4lb pack instead of the 7lb one, 3lb sleeping bag instead of
               the 4lb one, etc.
         - Cooking and mess equipment is one area to look at carefully
5.    Down size items (toothpaste, food, suntan lotion, etc.)
6.    Carry less stove fuel. 4 hrs on small bottle or canister
7.    Avoid heavy boots for most hikes
8.    No need for electronics, maybe cell phone and GPS
9.    Minimize books, maps – copy or cut out just pages you need
10.   Be cognizant of everything you take. Saving ounces saves pounds. Little
      things you throw in because you have room have weight!
                   Weigh Reduction– more!




                                                                                      LESSON 4 PACKS, TENTS, BAGS
           This is important, so here are a few more suggestions
11.   Leave Unnecessary gear behind. When you lighten an item you can reduce
      its weight 20%-90% but when you eliminate it you reduce it by 100%
12.   Eliminate gadgets such as 67 function multitools, cd players, epic novels,
      and lawn chairs
13.   Don’t be afraid to cut or remove extraneous parts of your pack or other gear.
14.   Remove unneeded features including pack lids, equipment accessories, and
      most importantly any trash that can be eliminated before the trip
15.   Weigh your pack and be cognizant of how many pounds you are about to
      carry. Think how you can just take off a few more ounces.
16.   Watch and learn from others.
17.   Don’t over pack clothing. Likely don’t need multiple pairs of pants.
18.   Cut off excess straps on equipment
19.   Eat heavy foods first! Foods such as, mealpack bars, fresh fruits & veggies,
      canned foods, semi-dried sausages, etc., add the most weight to your pack.
      Eat them first to lighten your load.
                 Weigh Reduction– more!




                                                                                    LESSON 4 PACKS, TENTS, BAGS
20.   Get a simple rain suit, not one with a jillion zippers, bells and whistles.
      “Frogg Toggs” is a highly recommended ultralight suit.
21.   Drink lots of and lots of water when stopped and carry less. It's easier to
      carry in your belly than on your back.
22.   Dry out things like tea bags before placing them into your trash sack.
23.   Resist Gadgets. REI and every other camp store has dozens of clever
      little gadgets to add weight. Don't buy them!
24.   Go to any “ultralight hiking” website and you might find a few more.
25.   Other Lesson learned from experience:
Pack, Tents, Sleeping Bags




                                          LESSON 4 PACKS, TENTS, BAGS
 Go to Gear Section for more discussion
             Requirements – Water and Sanitation




                                                                                LESSON 5 Water & Sanitation
            1. Demonstrate/show three ways to treat water and tell why water
               treatment is essential; (show how to boil, add chemicals, or
               pump/filter)

            2. Explain the importance of staying well hydrated during a trek.

            3. Discuss camp sanitation.

            4. Demonstrate that you know how to keep cooking and eating gear
               clean and sanitary while on a backpacking trek.

            5. Describe the importance of and means to assure personal
               cleanliness while on a backpacking trek.
H5;c6,W11
    Reasons why treating water & Staying
          Hydrated is Essential




                                                        LESSON 5 Water & Sanitation
1. ALL untreated water has a host of microscopic
   parasites including viruses, bacteria and Protozoa
   (Giardia and Crypto). These will may you
   extremely sick if exposed to them. Trail slang
   makes use of the term ―beaver fever.‖

2. Some studies have highlighted that germs are
   spread more by poor hand and foodhandling
   sanitation than by non-filtered clean water.
  On staying hydrated: water lubricates and cools
  your body. If you are not hydrated, you can be
   susceptible to heat exhaustion, dehydration,
    hypothermia, and a host of other ailments.
Methods and Ways to Treat Water




                                                                                 LESSON 5 Water & Sanitation
   1. The MIOX works through an electrically-charged chemical-
   reaction that kills bacteria, virus, and other contaminants. Batteries
   included. $130. Lightweight.

   2. Micropur MP1 tablets release chlorine dioxide, the same substance
   used in municipal drinking water plants worldwide. Does not affect
   taste (like iodine). 30 minute- 4 hr wait time. $13.50/30 tablets. 3 yr
   shelf life.
  3. Katadyn (or MSR) Pump Filter. Removes bacteria and Protozoa (Giardia
  and Crypto). Carbon core reduces chemicals and makes water taste fresh.
  Lightweight (11oz.) design is easy to pump and provides 1 quart/liter per
  minute. $69. Most popular choice.
  4. Boil water - The most certain treatment to destroy Giardia and
  Cryptosporidium is to bring water to a rolling boil for at least one minute.
  Boiling will also destroy other organisms causing waterborne disease,
  although at high altitudes you should maintain the boil 3 -5 minutes for
  an additional margin of safety.

  5. Other Chemical treatments - Add 8 drops of liquid household bleach or
  20 drops of tincture of iodine per gallon of water and let stand for 30
  minutes. Double the concentration if the water is cloudy.

  6. In an emergency, if you must drink untreated water, drink running
  water near a waterfall or rock tumble.
                           Sanitation




                                                                         LESSON 5 Water & Sanitation
Can I wash up in a mountain stream or spring?
• Please don't. Carry water from the water source in a bottle or other
  container, then wash your dishes, and yourself, away from streams,
  springs, and ponds. Don't leave food scraps to rot in water sources,
  and don't foul them with products such as detergent, toothpaste,
  and human or animal waste.

Where are the restrooms?
• Proper disposal of human (and pet) waste is not only a courtesy to
  other hikers, but is a vital Leave No Trace practice for maintaining
  healthy water supplies in the backcountry and an enjoyable hiking
  experience for others. No one should venture onto a trail without a
  trowel, used for digging a 6"-8" deep "cathole" to bury waste. Bury
  feces at least two hundred feet or seventy paces away from water,
  trails, or shelters. Use a stick to mix dirt with your waste, which
  hastens decomposition and discourages animals from digging it up.
  Used toilet paper should either be buried in your cathole or carried
  out in a sealed plastic bag. Hygiene products such as sanitary
  napkins should always be carried out.
                        Sanitation - Cleaning




                                                                                          LESSON 5 Water & Sanitation
Keeping cooking area and eating gear clean:

1. Handy to bring along some amount of paper towels and small sponge.

2. Use same biodegradable soap for hand/body washing.

3. Wash 200‘ from streams.

4. All residual food material should be strained (using field improvised strainer) and
   packed out if possible.

5. Rise everything when done with water. Don‘t leave sitting.

6. Don‘t share utensils that go into someone else‘s mouth.

7. If group camping, designate a gray water area for initial cleaning and collection of
   waste water.
                           Stoves & Cooking




                                                                                    LESSON 6 Stoves & Cooking
        1. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of three different types of
           backpacking stoves using at least three different types of fuel.

        2. Demonstrate that you know how to operate a backpacking stove safely
           and to handle liquid fuel safely (explain safety procedures). Do for a
           butane/propane stove as well as a liquid fuel stove.

        3. Prepare at least three meals using a stove and fuel you can carry in a
           backpack.
B8;C8
                              Stoves




                                                                           LESSON 6 Stoves & Cooking
General Info:
    • Always carry both matches and a lighter in stove bag
    • Put old sock around pump to keep it clean and control leakage
    • Could be crew gear to split up
    • In cold weather, keep the canister warm by putting it in your
        sleeping bag with you. May need to shake canisters to keep fuel
        blended and burning properly.
    • May need to shake canisters to keep fuel blended and burning
        properly.
    • Wind affects performance, use a foil wind screen or your body to
        block.
    • Ensure stove is placed on a stable surface, particularly if larger
        pots are to be used.
Safety:
    • Never operate a liquid fuel stove in or near a tent. Recommend
        also not using canister in a tent. If you have to cook, do in
        partially open vestibule, but do consider an escape plan.
                                   Stove Types
                                  Advantages/Disadvantages




                                                                                       LESSON 6 Stoves & Cooking
                         – Multi-fuel (primarily white gas)
                            • Use liquid white gas unless unavailable
                            • Refillable
                            • Burns well at all temperatures and altitudes
                            • Field Serviceable
                            • Heavier
                            • Expensive
                            • Needs occasional maintenance

                         – Canister
                            • Small, lightweight, cheaper
                            • Simmers well, no pumping
                            • Not recommended for winter camping (below 40
                              degrees)
                            • Hard to tell how full canisters are and not refillable
                            • Can be less stable than multifuels
MSR Pocket Rocket is
                            • Fuel canisters to dispose
lightweight and highly
recommended
                         – Other (next page)
           Other Stoves




                                                                                                           LESSON 6 Stoves & Cooking
                                                            Propane Stove

Esbit® Pocket Stove $10 (Campmor)
Runs on saf e, ef f icient, non-toxic Esbit® solid f uel. Compact, lightweight, f old-down, ef f icient
cooking appliance. Plated tensile structured steel with designed air f low slits in the base to
provide a stronger f lame. Supporting side projections help direct heat and can be adjusted to
stabilize pots or cups. Solid f uel tablets.


Vargo Triad™ Titanium Alcohol Stove $30 (Campmor)
 The ultralight titanium Triad™ weighs 1 ounce and burns denatured alcohol or alcohol stove
 f uel. It is extremely compact and simple to set up... just unf old the legs and pot supports, f ill it
 with alcohol and it's ready to go. Also by f lipping the stove over it can serve as a base to burn
 f uel tabs. The Triad™ is one of the lightest most versatile ultralight stoves on the market.
 - 15 minute burn time
 - Fuel capacity 1.75 oz.
 - Boils 1.5 cups of water in 7 minutes (alcohol)
 - Boils 1.5 cups of water in 10 minutes (esbit f uel tab)



Sierra Zip Woodburning Camping Stove $60 (Campmor)
 Burns twigs, bark, pine cones, scrap wood or charcoal. Heats like a blacksmith's f orge. Easy heat
control - adjustable draf t. Runs on 1 AA battery.
                  How long do the canisters last?
                                                                                                   80/20 blend of isobutane and propane




                                                                                                                                           LESSON 6 Stoves & Cooking
•   Important to know so you can plan how many to carry
     – 8 oz MSR (and other brands)
     – 4 oz MSR

•   Testimonials:
     –   On a recent trip with temperatures in the 50s and 60s, I got 12 full boils from a 4oz canister.
     –   However, it should be mentioned that the Pocket Rocket produced bubbles and steam as soon as 30 seconds into the
         boil. "Soft" boils, with large bubbles and obviously disturbed water surface (hotter than you'd want to drink!), occurred
         at around 1:15. If your water is filtered, treated, or reliable, this is all you would need, potentially giving you up to 20 or
         so "soft boils" on one canister!

     –   The greatest variable that does appear to affect this stove is wind. It can double and triple fuel consumption and boil
         times - an incredible performance drop. This can be mitigated, however, by choosing a spot that is well ventilated but
         sheltered from the wind. The other variable that you can control is the temperature of the canister. As the temperature
         decreases, the pressure of the canister also decreases, leading to an increase in boil times.

     –   "I used this stove while hiking the Long Trail in Vermont. The 4oz canisters worked great for me. They lasted about a
         week cooking freezed dried meals."

     –   ―I got about 2 hours of burn out of an 8oz container. 3.5m boil time (34 boils) – OR

     –   Per MSR: In general one 8 oz. canister of MSR IsoPro fuel will be sufficient to boil water for two people over four days
         in summer. Wind, low temperatures and longer cooking times will increase fuel consumption. (Eight days of summer
         cooking in the larger container per person). (so 4 days for the 4 oz).



         White gas: 1 pint (small cylinder) of fuel should boil 29 qts. of water.
         2 hrs, 16 mins burn timer per pint. Best thing about these is you
         always know how much fuel you have left!
Discuss how to protect your food against bad
     weather, animals, and contamination.




                                               LESSON 6 Stoves & Cooking
– Bad Weather (including dampness)
– Animals
  • Bears
  • Mice

– Contamination
  • Hand to hand germs

             Where to cook?
     It is best not to cook in or near your
    tent. At night when the critters prowl,
         they will seek out those odors.
   Carry a lightweight bear bag and hang
       your food 25-30ft away from your
                  sleeping area.
                            Care of Equipment




                                                                                                        LESSON 7 Other Gear and Care
•   Explain the proper care and storage of camping equipment (clothing, footwear,
    bedding).
     –   Always, always, the very first thing you should do (even before kissing mom) is to take your
         tent out, hang it and the rainfly (wet side out) on hooks in your garage or basement. If you
         used a ground cloth, hang that out to. Hose off if very dirty.
     –   When dry, brush off dirt.
     –   Clean off stakes, examine poles for dirt/condition
     –   Hang sleeping bag out on line (especially if clothes you slept in smell like smoke)
           • Use special soap available for down bags if you need to wash.
     –   Store sleeping back loose (not in packing bag)
     –   Store tent loose
     –   Store inflatable material (like Thermarest) with value open (filled) and unpacked.
     –   Clean up pots and pans, all eating utensils.
     –   Dispose of LNT refuse packed out.
     –   Brush off shoes, let dry. Recondition if needed.
     –   When done cleaning and storing equipment, examine yourself for ticks one more time!
     –   Additional tent care – avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight and wind stress. Take down tent
         when not being used. Make repairs when needed, don‘t want. Carry small amount of duct
         tape & needle and polyester thread for repairs.
                                           Clothing




                                                             LESSON 7 Other Gear and Care
Wilderness Survival
        Show that you know the proper clothing to wear
        in your area on an overnight in extremely hot
        weather and extremely cold weather.
Camping
5. Do the following:
              a. Prepare a list of clothing you would need
              for overnight campouts in warm weather and
              in cold weather.
              b. Discuss footwear for different kinds of
              weather and how the right footwear is
              important for protecting your feet.
              c. Explain the proper care and storage of
              camping equipment (clothing, footwear,
              bedding).
              d. Explain the term "layering."
              e.
                Requirement 6 – Navigation
                               (and Camping Requirement 3)
6. Do the following:
    a. Demonstrate that you can read topographic maps.




                                                                                   LESSON 8 Navigation
    b. While on a trek, use a map and compass to establish your position on the
    ground at least three times at three different places, OR use a GPS receiver
    unit to establish your position on a topographic map at least three times at
    three different places.
CAMPING
3. Make a written plan for an overnight trek and explain how to get to your
camping spot using a topographical map and compass.

                Primary highway                     Overpass - Underpass
                Secondary highway                   Buildings
                Light-duty road                     School -- church
                 Unimproved road                    Woodland
                 Trail                              Orchard
                 Railroad: single track             Scrub
                 Railroad: double track             Well water – spring
                 Bridge                             Rapids
                 Tunnel                             March (swamp)
                 Footbridge                         Falls
Requirement 6 – Navigation




                             LESSON 8 Navigation
    Requirement 6 – Navigation
It‘s July. Let‘s suppose you‘re starting a hike at A and heading for Q.




                                                                          LESSON 8 Navigation
                                   Questions
1.   For local information or in case of emergency would you go to B, C, or D?
     Why?
2.   The Wahootchee River flows NW to SE. To paddle downstream, would it




                                                                                                                              LESSON 8 Navigation
     be safer to launch canoes at E or F. Why?
3.   Would you cross the river at G or H? Why?
4.   Where would you most likely find firewood – I or U? Why?
5.   Which trail would you take – J or K? Why?
6.   Which is the easier way to reach P – Trail L or M? Why?


                       The closer contour lines of M show a steeper climb.                                               6.
                       K. J goes through a swamp.                                                                        5.
                       At I. Because I is scrub woods. U is an orchard.                                                  4.
                       Use the footbridge at G. H is a railroad bridge.                                                  3.
                       Launch them at F. The map shows rapids between E and F.                                           2.
                       C has telephone lines next to it. B is a school and probably closed in summer. D is a cemetery.   1.
           Requirement 7 – Weather & Hazards




                                                                             LESSON 9 Weather & Hazards
7. Do the following:
    a. Tell how to prepare properly for and to deal with inclement weather
    while on a backpacking trek.
    b. Tell how to properly prepare for and deal with the human and
    environmental hazards you may encounter on a backpacking trek.

       •    Check weather at ranger‘s station
            before you embark.
       •    Don‘t camp in stream beds
     If caught in lighting/thunder storm




                                                          LESSON 9 Weather & Hazards
1.   Pack away hiking poles, umbrellas.
2.   Put rain gear on as soon as you can.
3.   Do not hike in clusters, spread out and stay low.
     Get off high spot in trail (or ridge line), stop
     hiking until storm passes if feasible. Take refuge
     in lower rocky/forest area if possible.
4.   Remove backpack and metal objects from
     pockets.
5.   Squat as near as possible to ground.
6.   Do not take shelter near large promontories or
     trees.
    Cloud Formations, what they signal

• Expand page with pics/discussion
                         Good Hiking Practices




                                                                                                        LESSON 10 Good Hiking Practices
2. Explain and, where possible, show the points of good hiking practices including:
Choice of footwear:
     1.      In general the lighter the better. 1lb on feet is like 5lb on back.
     2.      Match to conditions, warm heavy boots in winter.
     3.      Leather boots (as light and sturdy as possible) on rugged terrain.
     4.      Condition boots properly (minx oil or other waterproofing)
     5.      Break boots in before any long trip.
            1.    Wear in shower, let dry, recondition.
            2.    Wear doing yard work
            3.    Should have wiggle room, heal should not slip up.
     6.      Good comfortable socks are essential.
Proper care of feet and footwear:
     1.      Let feet rest when done hiking, bring camp sandals.
     2.      Massage feet, treat to water bath.
     3.      Clip nails before starting.
     4.      Examine blister trouble areas, treat early.
     5.      Change socks daily. Put clean socks on in sleeping bag. Always try to clean and dry used
             socks in case you need an emergency pair.
     6.      On average, your feet will carry you through 10,000 steps a day, and more than 100,000
             miles in a lifetime. Be Kind to Them!
                      Good Hiking Practices




                                                                                                  LESSON 10 Good Hiking Practices
Courtesy to others:
     1.    Always say hello to other hikers. Hiking brings you into contact with like-minded
           people from all over the world, often it is easy to strike up a conversation…what to
           look for, where are they from, where are they planning to go, other ideas.
     2.    Yield trail to whoever has best location to take a step off trail.
     3.    Horses and mules can be spooked by hikers, step to the downhill side, be quite, and
           be still as they pass. Also step aside and let bikes passes.
     4.    Hiking courtesy also extends to how you treat others in the group. Go as fast as the
           slowest hiker. Don‘t push if people need rest. No one should be left behind or shut
           out of the fun.
     5.    When lead hikers rest, don‘t start up again when the slowest hikers catch up. Give
           them a chance to rest as well!
     6.    Be alert for faster moving groups behind you, let them pass. Don‘t push yourself to
           stay ahead. Enjoy YOUR hike and don‘t let actions of others distract what you came
           seeking.
     7.    Share your excitement, be positive always (even on that long trek back!)
     8.    Dogs should be leashed and not allowed to approach other hikers.
     9.    Share good rest and lunch stops. Welcome company of others.
                               Good Hiking Practices




                                                                                                                                LESSON 10 Good Hiking Practices
Hiking safety in the daytime and at night:
     1.     Always be prepared, proper trip planning, bring essential equipment.
     2.     Watch weather constantly. Don‘t hesitate to change plans for safety reasons. Thunderstorms at high
            elevations are common.
     3.     Make sure everyone is capable of the hike you are planning. Discuss alternative plan everyone agrees to
            if you decide at some point it is too hard. ‗
     4.     Even in daylight, bring a flashlight! Never know if you‘ll have an emergency that keeps you out latter.
     5.     When hiking roads, single file on left (towards traffic). Never hitchhike. Light color and reflective clothing if
            possible. Put a white tee-shirt on when walking.
     6.     Stay hydrated, Watch for frost bite in winter. If you‘ve hiked for a while and boots are saturated, may
            make sense to find a camp site.
     7.     Stream crossing – a few options – if large group, human chain across, you might want to hand packs
            across. You could also do a three man crossing for stability. Also, remove hiking boots, try wearing extra
            socks for traction. Hiking sticks come in handing for stability. If you know you will be crossing streams,
            plan ahead, carry water shoes (double as camp sandals). ALWAYS UNFASTEN HIP BELT when
            crossing stream. You don‘t want your pack dragging you underwater.
     8.     Winter hiking – try to hike areas with familiar landmarks.
     9.     Avoid hiking (and camping) in stream beds. Stay alert for flash floods.
     10.    Night hikes – be aware of predators, animal and human. Keep a safe distance.
     11.    If caught out on a trail at night, particularly if people are tired, it may make sense to stop for the night.
            Use your good sense. Trail hiking at night when tired and visibility is low is extremely dangerous.
     12.    Headlamps on at night if appropriate. Use red lens to keep your night vision as keen as possible.
     13.    Be alert and stay together.
                     Hiking Conditioning




                                                                                        LESSON 10 Good Hiking Practices
Explain how hiking is an aerobic activity. Develop a plan for conditioning yourself
for 10-mile hikes, and describe how you will increase your fitness for longer hikes.

Aerobic means ―with oxygen.‖ Aerobic activities increase the rate of your breathing
and your heart beat and push your body to use oxygen more efficiently. Aerobic
training can strengthen your circulatory and respiratory systems, add mass to
muscles and bones, burn excess fat, and lead to improvements in overall fitness.
For aerobic activities to be effective, you must take part in them for half and hour
or more at least three times a week, maintaining enough intensity to break a light
sweat. Success lies in finding training activities you like so you participate
regularly and you push yourself each time to achieve a little more.

-Easy ideas: walking to school or store rather than riding, walk up stairs instead of
elevator, walk pet more often,

Hiking – begin with short trips to build up your stamina. Stretch before you set off.
       How to Stay Warm When it's Cold
•   To keep your entire body warm, your blood must circulate freely to provide an adequate supply of
    glycogen to all muscles. Dehydration of the body causes thickening of the blood; a 10% water loss
    corresponds to a 30% to 40% decrease in the body's ability to control temperature. When the outside
    temperature is very cold, the relative humidity is low, around 8% to 25%. This allows water to escape
    through your skin and lungs faster than during warmer weather. Bottom line: in cold weather, you need to
    consume more water that you do normally. One early indication of dehydration is chapped lips. Another is
    the darkening of the urine (dark yellow).
•   A sudden intake of carbohydrates (starches and sugars) does not necessarily produce the warming or
    energy boost that you may expect from it. The muscle's enzyme system must convert glucose (what the
    liver makes from carbohydrates) into muscle glycogen. The glycogen is used by the muscles to do work
    and produce heat. The thing to realize is that if carbohydrates are consumed at a rate too fast for the
    liver/enzyme system to handle, then the excess is converted to body fat, which does not contribute to
    warming.
•   So, how do you increase your muscle glycogen. . . no surprise, exercise! Being in good physical condition
    is your best defense against getting too cold — all else being equal.
•   Foodstuffs to eat in an emergency to increase body heat include butter, margarine, corn oil, cod liver oil
    — in other words, fats. Fats contain an average of 2.25 times as much heat energy as carbohydrates.
    Some studies in the Arctic regions indicate that heat energy is released faster from fats than from
    carbohydrates (30 to 60 minutes, depending upon conditions).
•   Though it may sound strange, in extremely cold situations, you should hold your urine for as long as
    possible. The steam you see rising after urinating proves that a considerable amount of heat is carried
    out of the body with your urine. (Of course, you can't hold it forever.)
•   If your hands or feet are cold, add wraps to your head and neck or wear a hat and scarf (assuming you
    have already put on socks and gloves). Body heat lost through the head will draw heat away from the
    extremities (hands and feet). Also, you may be able to withstand temperatures 10 to 25 degrees lower if
    you keep your body clean. The grease and oil which accumulates on your skin reduces its ability to
    regulate temperature.

    Acknowledgement: Bert Stevens
                         Wilderness Survival




                                                                                              LESSON 11 Wilderness Survival
•   With survival and attitude in mind, we learned the acronym STOP:
     –   Stop
     –   Think
     –   Observe
     –   Plan
•   As soon as you notice something wrong, stop. If you‘ve lost your way and become
    disoriented or come into bad weather or any other situation, you and your party
    should stop moving immediately. You don‘t want to worsen the situation.
•   Think about your predicament. Where were you last sure you were on the trail? Do
    you have alternate exits available? That sort of thing.
•   Observe your surroundings, assets, yourself, and the rest of your party. Are there
    obvious landmarks (maybe to help re-orient yourself)? Do you have more clothing or
    cover available if caught in a snowstorm? Perhaps most importantly, how are you and
    the rest of your group doing—physically and mentally?
•   Come up with a plan. Between the think and observe steps you can collect a lot of
    information to help make informed decisions about how to best proceed. Certainly,
    this could be the toughest step—survival priorities like water might have to take a
    back seat to fire, just for a moral booster. (And hopefully hypothermia hasn‘t set in —
    impaired judgment!)
                   Wilderness Survival Basics




                                                                                                                   LESSON 11 Wilderness Survival
2. Describe from memory the priorities for survival in a backcountry or wilderness location.

3. Describe ways to (a) avoid panic and (b) maintain a high level of morale when lost.

4. Tell what you would do to survive in the following environments:
         Cold and snowy
         Wet (forest)
         Hot and dry (desert)
         Windy (mountain or plains)
         Water (ocean or lake)


6. Show that you can start fires using three methods other than matches.

7. Do the following:
        Tell five different ways of attracting attention when lost.
        Show how to use a signal mirror.
        Describe from memory five international ground-to-air signals and tell what they mean.

10. Explain how to protect yourself against insects, reptiles, and bears.


13. Explain why it usually is not wise to eat edible wild plants or wildlife in a wilderness survival situation.
              Avoiding the Outdoor Emergency




                                                                                              LESSON 11 Wilderness Survival
      Research has shown that most outdoor emergencies are the result of one or more
      of the following factors:
1.    Little or no planning (including failure to anticipate problems).
2.    Improper clothing including footwear.
3.    Fatigue
4.    Thirst
5.    Hypothermia or hyperthermia (body temperature management)
6.    Lack of skill for the specific activity
7.    Poor physical condition and/or lack of motivation
8.    Inadequate or Improper food
9.    Lack of leadership
10.   Failure to file a trip plan or itinerary
11.   Failure to recognize a particular problem or threat (physical, mental, environmental)
12.   Weather (most often, failure to consult forecasts)
13.   Terrain (failure to learn the area beforehand).
      The most successfully handled wilderness emergency is the one that is prevented.
      Prevention is the result of good preparedness – thorough planning and having the
      proper equipment and training.
                                Signaling




                                            LESSON 11 Wilderness Survival
Ground to air visual signals:

     Require Assistance
     Require Medical Assistance
     No or negative
     Yes or affirmative
     This way
                              Improvised Shelters




                                                                                                      LESSON 11 Wilderness Survival
8. Show that you can find and improvise a natural shelter minimizing the damage to the environment.

9. Spend a night in your shelter.
               Requirement 5 - Survival Kits




                                                                                                          LESSON 11 Wilderness Survival
               Remember – the more you put in it, the heavier it gets!
•   Some things you might consider putting in your survival kit:
•   First-Aid - Band-Aids, gauze pads, tape, butterfly strips, moleskin, Betadine™ or Neosporin™,
    safety pins, aspirin/Tylenol™, bandana
•   Shelter - Large plastic bag, space or emergency bag/blanket, or poncho
•   Large plastic bag - wind breaker, rain coat, or sleeping bag (add leaves for insulation)
•   Small plastic bags - Carry food or water, rain hat, insulate head, hands, feet
•   Signaling - Matches, magnesium/flint sparker, candle, tinder, wax paper, cotton ball with Vaseline,
    dryer lint, aluminum foil (as mirror), whistle, bandana, flashlight
•   Water - Chlorine/pills, plastic bags, heavy aluminum foil (make into cup for boiling water, cooking
    food) or metal can
•   Food - fishing line, hooks, sinkers; snare
•   Knife or saw
•   2 quarters - in case you find a telephone
•   String, artificial sinew, or parachute chord - shelter, repairs
•   Duct tape - first aid, repairs
•   Plastic tie wraps - repairs
•   Paper and pencil - messages, notes, plans
•   Survival manual
•   Wilderness medicine manual
                 Survival Kits

• Here‘s what you have to think about –
  – Most survival situations don‘t last more than
    24 hours,
  – You likely don‘t need a live-of-the-land Johnny
    Rambo kit.
  – Think through the predicaments you can find
    yourself in and plan accordingly.
        WISDOM & GEAR TALK

  Obviously gear does not need to be new and the best available to go
hiking. This discussion is meant to expose the scout to products available
  and recommendations if resources permit. It is also meant to highlight
early in their gear acquisition quests that WEIGH is something to really be
                               concerned about.

 While I believe in the old adage that a good carpenter never complains
about his tools…being out in a freezing cold rainstorm with the right gear
                     sure makes a bad situation better.
                             Backpacking Tips
1. Weigh is all important (as is good outdoor ethics!)
2. Make sure rain gear is easily accessible. You don‘t want to unpack in the rain.
3. Store food in pots if it can be damaged. Otherwise, put pot(s) on end(s) of sleeping
   bag. If you are part of a group, split up the weight of large items (a tent, for instance)
   with other group members. Don't make 1 person become an involuntary packhorse.
4. Cluster related small items (such as utensils and kitchen items) in color-coded stuff
   sacks to help you spot them easily.
5. Minimize the number of items you strap to the outside of your pack. Gear carried
   externally may adversely affect your balance. Secure any equipment you carry
   outside so it doesn't swing or rattle.
6. Make sure the cap on your fuel bottle is screwed on tightly. Position it below your
   food inside your pack in case of a spill.
7. Carry a packcover. Backpacks, though made with waterproof fabric, have vulnerable
   seams and zippers. After a few hours of exposure to persistent rain, the items inside
   your pack could become wet—and thus much heavier.
8. Quick repair tips: Wrap strips of duct tape around your water bottles; in case a strap
   pops or some other disaster occurs, a quick fix could keep you going. Take along a
   few safety pins in case a zipper fails.
9. Sleeping bags – my advice is get two bags: A 0 degree bag for fall, winter, spring
   hiking and a lightweight 40-50 degree bag for the summer. Don‘t be fooled into the
   20F/other bags – these are survival temperatures, not comfort. They don‘t pack much
   tighter either.
                           Backpacking Tips
10.   A (small, thin, flexible) plastic placemat has much utility. It weighs practically
      nothing, yet has many potential uses. You can use it as a sit pad, a ―clean area‖
      for food prep, a place for dirty boots in the tent, and to stand-on while washing
      yourself. Other potential uses include as a sunshade, stove windscreen, fly
      swatter, and umbrella.
11.   Sleep with hat on head to keep heat from dissipating.
12.   Carry a small mess bag (use it to hold something during day), fill with clothing to
      use as pillow.
13.   While a little heavy, small peal top cans of vegetables and sauces are often worth
      their weight. Cook and serve right in can.
14.   Once dry, repack sleeping bag in your pack inside a plastic bag
15.   Carry small ―Wisk‖ type laundry bottle with you in case you need to urinate at night
      and conditions are not good to leave tent.
16.   Best ground cloth/tent protection: sheet of Tyvek. Folds small, lightweight, can trip
      to size, shake off water, dispose and replace once too far gone. Especially good
      for tarp shelters.
17.   Pack tip: If a larger pack fits your body, you‘ll be better off getting that extra space.
      Try to find something at least 4000 cubic inches weighting approximately 3.5 lbs.
18.   You can save POUNDS of weight by carefully selecting the right pack, but it still
      has to be comfortable for YOU. Like footwear, don't mindlessly sacrifice personal
      comfort for raw weight savings.
               Tautline How-To                                     Bowline How-To
This is the knot you use for all tent lines, hanging canopies,




                                                                                            Two Knots absolutely Essential
  pretty much anything that requires tension adjustment.




                                                                 Also useful on occasion:




                                                                   Clove hitch




                                                                             Timber hitch
                                                             Sheet bend
                           Tighten the loops. Be
                           careful to keep the knot
                           neat while doing this, and
                           tighten it enough so that it
                           will grip the standing part
                           reliably, but not so tight
                           that it can't easily slide.
BACKPACKS
The Backpack – Three(+) Types
 External Frame
   •   The classic backpack design
   •   A pack bag attached to a metal or composite f rame
   •   More stable and better weight distribution/carry
   •   Cheapest and most expensive                           Ultralight Pack
   •   More packing options with the external f rame
   •   More Adjustable                                       What is an Ultralight Pack?
   •   Some say f or trail hiking only                       An ultralight pack is one that is specialized in being
   •   Tends to be a heavier option                          light weight, usually they are meant to carry at most
                                                             25 pounds of weight.
 Internal Frame                                              Advantages
   •   Frame is sewn into the pack bag                       Really light weight.
   •   Less stable but more maneuverable                     Because things like a robust suspension system,
   •   Better f or more technical trails, bushwhacking       f rame etc. aren't needed, they are usually quite a bit
       or climbing                                           cheaper then any other pack.
   •   Can be a lighter weight option                        Ultralight packs can be very versatile, they can be
   •   Usually middle cost to expensive                      used f or backpacking and day hikes very easily.
   •   Protects gear better                                  Disadvantages
   •   Less adjustable but more of a custom f it             Ultralight packs usually have no f rame, so they have
   •   Could be hotter due to way it wears closely to back   to be packed with care, so that the load itself
                                                             Use sleeping pad rolled up as pack support.
 Frameless Rucksack                                          becomes its f rame.
   •   Daypacks, but now becoming an ultralight option       Because many ultralight packs have no pack sheet if
   •   Weight is usually 0-3lbs                              they aren't packed right you can easily have
   •   Price is usually under $100                           something poking you in the back.
   •   Can only carry up to 25 lbs comf ortably              Can only be used with light loads.
   •   Can only carry a minimal amount of gear
                                           Pack Weight




                                                              –     Lighter Weight
     •      Base Pack weight (without food or water)                   • If I need it and don’t have it, than I don’t need it
                                                               –    Heavier Weight
             – Ultralight 0-12 lbs                                     •   Better to have it and not need it
             – Lightweight 12-25 lbs < what you should strive for
             – Middleweight 25-35 lbs < where you‘ll likely be
             – Heavyweight 35-55 lbs < you‘re crazy
             – Ultraheavy 55+ lbs
Acknowledgement: Some
 information culled from
  work done by Michael
      Porter at OSU
           Pack Comparison – 3 Day Hike

Pounds:                Done with Care   Done Without
Pack                        3.5              7
Shelter                      4              7.5
Sleeping Bag/Mat             4               6
Food                         3               4
Water (filter,water)         1               3
Stove/Cooking                2               5
Other                        5              7.5         My Pack:
                                                       Gregory Z,
Total                       22.5            40         3550 cu.in.
                                                        3 lb, 8oz.
                                                          $150
                                    Packing Your Backpack
How to Pack Your Backpack
What's the smartest way to get all that gear into your backpack? It depends on what you're carrying (internal -f rame pack or external) and
where you're going (on-trail or of f ).


Internal-Frame Packs
Whether you're traveling on- or off-trail, keep your heaviest items close to your
back, centered between your shoulder blades.
For on-trail travel, keep heavy items higher inside your pack. This helps focus
more of the weight over your hips, the area of your body best equipped to carry a
heavy load.
For off-trail exploration, reverse the strategy. Arrange heavier items lower in the
main compartment, starting again from the spot between your shoulder blades.
This lowers your center of gravity and increases your stability on uneven terrain.
Stuff your sleeping bag into its lower compartment first. Squeeze in any
additional lightweight items you won't need until bedtime (pillowcase, sleeping
shirt, but nothing aromatic). This will serve as the base of the main compartment,
which you'll fill next. Tighten all compression straps to limit any load-shifting.
External-Frame Packs
As with an internal, keep your heaviest items close to your back, near your
shoulder blades. Externals are recommended for on-trail travel only. Load
heavier items high inside your pack and close to your body. Doing so centers the
pack's weight over your hips and helps you walk in a more upright position.

Pack your sleeping bag in its stuff sack. Finish loading your main packbag, then
strap the bag to the lash points on the bottom of the packbag. If rain seems likely,
consider stuffing your sleeping bag inside a second stuff sack or wrapping it in
plastic.

Credit: REI
SHELTERS
Four Basic Types of Shelters
     •   Tent ($100-$250, 3-6 lbs, mesh for bugs, rainfly)
     •   Tarp ($5-$50, <1 lb, no mesh)
     •   Hammock ($30-$200, <1 lb, mesh)
     •   Bivy Sack (sleeping bag protection, mesh for
         head. $100-$200, < 1lb).
                          Tents
•   The big decisions in tent selection is in size (one or two man),
    pole configuration (and whether it is freestanding), and
    durability/seasonality. Cost is usually always a factor as well.
•   Size > you need to figure out if you want a solo tent (with not
    much room for gear, it stays under fly vestibule) or a 2-3
    person tent. The bigger the heavier.
     – Pole choices are numerous, but I like the 2 pole, exterior
        clip system for fast setup. Poles also have to be strong.
     – Usage > summer use only or 3 to 4 season? Makes a big
        difference in weight. Summer tents have a lot of mesh for
        weigh reduction and comfort. 3 season tents bring you into
        the 5-7lb. range. These can be used in winter weather as
        long as you understand their limitations and prepare
        properly. Issue is weight bearing capacity for snow.
     – Fabric > you want something durable. The new silicon
        impregnated nylon fabric is ultralight weight but not time
        tested.
               What Makes a Good Tent?
Exterior easy clip 2 simple pole                      REI Half Dome
design for quick setup**
                                         Ventilation Louvers (very
                                         low condensation)
                                                                     window
                                   Rainfly can
                                   be pitched
                                   separately
                                   if no tent
                                   needed

                                                              Bathtub bottom
                                                 Gear storage vestibule
2 person, 5lb, 8 oz. - $150
  Lightweight Shelters

– Tarps and Hammocks
  • Light weight, packs small
  • Can be inexpensive
  • Can use trekking poles, poles, or natural objects for set
    up
  • Spacious, can hold more people & gear
  • A little more challenging to set up than a free standing
    tent
  • Less protection from weather and insects
  • Have to consider flooding, where pitched
  • May be a little less comfortable

        You hang hammock securely and with no impact to trees with
        these inexpensive specially designed ropes
UltraLight
     One example:
     The MSR Hubba is light, spacious and
     easy to set up. Ultralight materials like a
     ripstop sil-nylon fly, DAC Featherlite SL
     aluminum poles and super light Hubs
     make the Hubba roomy for 1 but very
     light. 2 hubs join 5 poles to make a single
     pole set that attaches to the tent in
     seconds via post and grommet and clips.
     At 3.5 lbs. the Hubba even has a large
     vestibule for stowing excess gear and wet
     boots. It is also versatile as it can be set
     up with a fly only pitch with or without the
     optional nylon ground cloth. $239.
SLEEPING GEAR
              Sleep System – Bags & Pads
– Synthetic or Down?
   • Down                                                                                • Rigid
        –   Lighter weight                                                                         –   Lightweight, provides good insulation
        –   More Compressible                                                                      –   Fairly comf ortable
                                                                                                   –   Cheaper
        –   Feel and Warmth
                                                                                                   –   Durable and can double as a sitting surf ace
        –   Does not insulate when wet                                                             –   Can serve as a f rame or padding f or
        –   Lof t doesn‘t last as long                                                                 backpack
        –   Expensive (look f or sales)                                                            –   Sometimes bulkier
                                                                                                   –   Can be circled in UltraLight packs to provide
        –   Requires special care                                                                      pack support
        –   Fill rating (quality) 600-900 f ill
        –   My pref erence                                                               • Inflatable
                                                                                                   –   Comf ortable, provides better insulation
                                                                                                   –   Self inf lating
   • Synthetic                                                                                     –   Somewhat heavy
                                                                                                   –   More expensive
        –    Slightly heavier                                                                      –   Can pop in backcountry
        –    Slightly bulkier                                   I have a hard time sleeping on
        –    Works even when wet                                a hard surface. I have tried all
                                                                 types of pads. This one I just
        –    Does not lose lof t as f ast                         bought from Campmor – Big
        –    Relatively cheaper                                  Agnes, 20 oz. and packs to a
                                                                   small, compact 3.75" x 8"
        –    Easy to maintain                                     about the size of a Nalgene
        –    Dif f erent types of synthetics                              bottle. $54.

                   » Polarguard HV/3D/Delta, Hoof I/II,
                       Primalof t 1/2, Qualof ill, Microlite,
                       Thermolite, etc




    Where a stocking cap when you sleep to retain heat and keep your head out of the bag.
CLOTHING
                                              Clothing
General rules about clothing
    1.   No cotton (with exception of dry,               - T-Shirts
         hot hiking)                                           • Coolmax or similar material
    2.   Use the layer system                                  • Lightweight
                                                               • Wicks and dries fast
    3.   Always have ‗something‘ dry to
         change into                                           • Relatively cheap
                                                         - Zip offs
    4.   The scout uniform is not the best
         choice for a backpacking trek                         • Same features as trekker
                                                                  pants except convertible
    5.   Extra clothes should be packed in
                                                               • Convenient and dual
         a waterproof place (Ziploc bags,                         functional
         tight garbage bags, or stuff sack)
                                                               • Shorts can be very short
    6.   With quick dry fabrics, usually                       • Make sure legs have zipper
         don‘t need multiple pairs of heavy                       cuffs to put on over boots
         pants.                                          - Polyprop long underwear (not
    7.   Always carry raingear (rain suit,                   shown) a good option for winter
         poncho, or umbrella)                                camping,
                    Outer Clothing
– Soft Shells
     •Designed like rain gear
     •Not waterproof but water resistant
     •Allows for better breathablity\
     •Windproof
     •Can be extremely lightweight
     •Can be a good substitute for pants – Rain Jacket/Pants
                                                • Outer shell of layering system
– Thermal Layers                                • Waterproof/Breathable best material
    • Fleece                                    • Gore-Tex not necessarily best for
    • Warm, especially under a windproof          backpacking
      layer                                     • Lightweight jackets available
    • Will keep you warm even when wet          • Make sure not to stow in stuff sack or
    • Can be very packable and lightweight        pocket
                                                • Core vents, pit zips, best for
– Insulated Parkas                                ventilation
    • Filled with either synthetic or down fill • Substitute for a wind layer also
    • Can be very lightweight and               • But - minimize the amount of zippers
      compressible                                and feature – just adds weight
    • Windproof & warm
                      Footwear
– Boots
   •    Always been the standard
   •    Usually leather but can be fabric also   – Sandals
   •    Can use waterproof membrane                  •   Should always bring
   •    Heavy                                        •   Very lightweight
   •    Expensive                                    •   Quick drying
   •    Offers limited ankle protection              •   Gives feet a rest
   •    Can put stress on ankles and knees           •   Can slip on quick if
                                                         have to leave tent
– Shoes
    •   Many outdoor specific shoes              – Socks: Standard is the
    •   Mostly trail runners                       double layer, Single
    •   Very lightweight
                                                   Layer OK
                                                     • Thin liner sock to rub
    •   Quick drying
                                                       against thick wool sock,
    •   Waterproof or breathable                       prevents blisters
    •   Cheaper                                      • Makes for a larger shoes
    •   Comfortable                                    size, hot
Hats & Umbrellas
 – Hat
    •    Necessary for high altitude
    •    Good for keeping sun off neck and ears
    •    Can also serve as a rain break
    •    Cotton ok for hats
 – Umbrella
    • Many seasoned hikers recommend
    • Extremely valuable piece of rain gear
    • Can keep a torrential downpour out while
      not having to put on any extra clothes
    • Fast to get out
    • Lightweight
    • Temporary shelter
    • Can also serve as shade and relief from
      heat
    • Not something to use on a mountain top
      in a lighting storm.
               Hydration & Electronics
                                                                      See: geocaching.com
 - Water Bottles                                    • GPS
      • Nalgenes nearly indestructible                  – Excellent navigation and logistic
      • Have measurements for cooking                     tool
      • Filters fit around opening                      – Moving map great feature
      • Slightly heavy (but rugged)                     – NEVER a substitute for
      • Used spring water bottles work well               map/compass and related skills
         and disposable                                 – Limited battery life and
                                                          moderately heavy
- Hydration Systems
     • Camelbak, Platypus, Ultimate, MSR, etc       • Cell phone
     • Drink on demand                                  – Good safety tool
     • Keeps water cooler                               – Becoming light weight
     • Recently have become very durable
                                                        – Not to be relied on
     • Can be kept closer to center of gravity in
         pack                                           – Not to be used except for
     • Filters don‘t fit well on them                       emergencies and planned
     • Harder to clean                                      usages
     • Need to be kept in a waterproof liner            – Solar batteries available (REI)
         (trash bag) just in case
Other Recommended Equipment
   – Pack Towels are very useful, quick drying
             – REI multi-towel is nice, you can tuck in hat as anti sun/bug shade
   – Hygiene Kit
             – toothbrush, biodegradable soap, lip balm, sunscreen, toilet
               paper, trowel
   – Trekking Poles (I don’t use)
             –   Good for uphill and downhill stability
             –   Can be used for tent poles
             –   Takes some strain off the knees
             –   Heavy/cumbersome to carry when not needed
   – Knife
             – should be a tool big enough to function in the woods
             – Multitools generally unnecessary
             – No hatchets, axes, saws, projectiles unless doing trail work
   – Repair Kit
             – Duct tape, electrician quick holds, rope, wire

   – Bear Bag for food storage
   – Pack Cover
   – LED Head Lamp
  Cooking & Cleaning
– Cooking Utensils
        – Pot big enough for crew, should have top
        – MSR BlackLite Classic cook set is not a bad set to split
          up among crew (1lb, 2 oz). Inexpensive, no-stick, sturdy
        – Unnecessary for solo trekking

– Small lightweight bowl very useful

– Spork (you already have a knife)

– Soap to clean up and lightweight sponge (or plan to use finger)
        – Soap is multi-use, pots and person
        – Bring along some paper towels, lightweight & handy

– For solo trekking, get something like Snow Peak‘s titanium cook
  set ($50, lightweight & durable)
Trail Talk
  NORTHEAST                             Northville-Lake Placid Trail
                                        Distance: 133 miles

                                        The Northville-Lake Placid Trail (NLPT) transects the 6 million acre
                                        Adirondack Park. Constructed in 1922 by the Adirondack Mountain
                                        Club, the NLPT follows a low-elevation route through the heart of the
                                        Adirondacks, passing through Silver Lake, West Canada Lake, Blue
                                        Ridge, and High Peaks wilderness area. Only four roads cross the trail.
                                        It is almost exclusively a valley route, traveling along rivers and
                                        streams, and visiting nearly two dozen lakes and ponds along the way.
                                        Views are limited, though three side trails lead to fire lookout towers.
                                        Isolation and the abundant fish-filled waterways are the primary
                                        attraction.
                                        Hiking the Trail: An extensive network of lean -tos – 41 at last count –
                                        are situated throughout the trail, and camping is permitted just about
                                        anywhere. The trail can be very wet in places. The NYS Dept of
                                        Environmental Conservation manages the trail. www.adk.org.


                                        The Long Path
                                        Distance: 326 miles.

                                        It begins from the western end of the George Washington Bridge, with
                                        the Manhattan skyline in the background. Heading north along the
                                        escarpment of Palisades Interstate Park, the Long Path (LP) skirts over
                                        bluffs rising 300-500 ft above the mighty Hudson as it runs the length of
                                        the Palisades crest. In New York‘s Harriman State Park, the LP
                                        encounters the Appalachian Trail, which can be utilized for 45 miles to
                                        connect to the Shawanagunk Ridge Trail (SRT).
                                        Constructed in the Early 1990‘s, the SRT provides a scenic cliff-top
                                        alternative to the original LP route through Orange County, today a 50-
                                        mile road walk. After touching the sky from the Gunks‘ numerous vistas,
                                        hikers rejoin the LP and head north through the Catskills for 90 miles,
                                        traversing 11 peaks over 3,500 ft. Past 30-mile-long Schoharie Valley
                                        and beyond the ―Endless Mountains.‖ The LP reaches the end in the
                                        town of Altamont.
                                        Hiking the Trail: While sections of the trail are ideal for backpacking,
                                        fewer than 100 hikers have hiked the LP end -to-end. Nearly 20 shelters
                                        are located en route, and camping is permitted throughout state land in
                                        the Catskills. Thru-hikers will need to use family campgrounds and
                                        motels in some sections. The New York- New Jersey Trail Conference
                                        maintains the trail. www.nynjtc.org.
Credit: AMC Outdoor Magazine, XX 2006
NORTHEAST
                           Long Distance Hiking Trails
   Pacific Crest Trail
      Length: 2,655 miles
Route: Crest of the Sierra Nevada    Continental Divide Trail
 and Cascade mountain ranges,                Length: 3100 miles                                        Appalachian Trail
       Completion: 100%              Route: Crest of the Rocky Mountains                                 Length: 2,175 miles




                                                                                                                                  LESSON 12 Trails
                                      Completion: 70%—uncompleted                                      Route: Ridgelines of the
                                    segments are mostly through BLM land                               Appalachian Mountains
                                        in New Mexico and Wyoming.             Long Trail              Time to hike: 6 months
                                                                               Length: 267miles
                                                                           Route: bottom half is AT,
                                                                            runs N-S entire state of
                                                                                   Vermont
                                                                            Time to hike: 30 days
The International Appalachian Trail
                     The IAT is the idea of Dick Anderson, a f isheries
                     biologist and f ormer commissioner of Maine's
                     Department of Conservation. Dick had a dream, much
                     like Benton MacKaye's dream of the Appalachian Trail.
                     Dick dreamed of connecting the bioregion of the
                     Northern Forest, on both sides of the US-Canada
                     border.

                     The idea was f irst proposed to the public on Earth
                     Day, 1994. Since 1995, the trail has been extended
                     northward twice. First, it was extended f rom the
                     original end at Mont Jacques Cartier to the east end of
                     the Gaspé Peninsula at Cap Gaspé. Then, in 2002,
                     upon a request f rom a Newf oundland delegation, the
                     trail was extended through the Appalachians of
                     Newf oundland to Belle Isle.

                     The trail is now approximately 1400 miles long. More
                     than 40 of f icial campsites, consisting of tent platforms,
                     lean-tos or cabins, are now in place along the trail.
                     Since 1998, a known total of 86 people have thru-
                     hiked the trail f rom Katahdin to Cap Gaspé and 11 of
                     those hikers have f inished the hike at Belle Isle,
                     Newf oundland. While many hundreds of hikers hike on
                     the trail annually, only a f ew complete the whole trail
                     and those that have describe it as a spectacular hike.
                                High Adventure Camps
                                                                                    Northern Tier
      Double H High Adventure Base                                                  Northern Tier of f ers more wilderness camping (3
      Double H High Adventure Base is a new national base that                      million acres) than any other opportunity in
      became operational in 2004 and is located in Datil, New Mexico.               Scouting. Northern Tier is so remote that nesting
                                                                                    bald eagles abound, the portages between the
                                                                                    lakes are moose trails, and the humans are just
       Philmont Scout Ranch                                                         visitors. This is the land where the French-
       The Boy Scouts of America's premier high-adventure base                      Canadian voyageurs traded f or beaver pelts with
       challenges Scouts and Venturers with more than 200 square                    the native populations, and you can still see the
       miles of rugged New Mexico wilderness. Backpacking treks,                    ancient Indian pictographs on the sheer rock
       horseback cavalcades, and training and service programs                      f aces.
       of f er young people many ways to experience this legendary
       country.                                                                     Maine High Adventure Area
                                                                                    Maine High Adventure is a challenging outdoor
       Florida Sea Base                                                             program of f ered by the Boy Scouts of America.
       The Florida National High Adventure Sea Base is                              Each summer hundreds of Scouts and Venture
       headquartered in the heart of the f abulous Florida Keys, on                 Crews enjoy unique backcountry experiences in
       an island (Lower Matecumbe Key) 75 miles south of Miami.                     northern Maine. The area encompasses Mount
       Scouting's most complete aquatic f acility of f ers a complete               Katahdin, the Allagash Waterway, a portion of
       variety of water activities f rom SCUBA diving to sailing "Tall              the Appalachian Trail and the Penobscot
       Ships". All participants have the opportunity to swim,                       watershed - more than 10,000 square miles of
       snorkel, and f ish among the most beautif ul coral reef s in the             the north Maine woods which remains much as
       northern hemisphere.                                                         Henry David Thoreau saw it 140 years ago. A
                                                                                    highly prof icient guide is assigned to help each
                                                                                    crew enjoy a successf ul adventure.



Summit Base
Summit Base is located at Curtis S. Read Scout Reservation in the Adirondack Park of New York State.
The six million acre Adirondack Park is comprised of breathtaking mountain ranges, inspiring valleys, thousands of pristine
lakes and miles of rivers and trails. The 'North Country' is an abundance of opportunities f or an individual to test oneself
physically, mentally and emotionally against country as rugged and untamed as it is beautif ul.
Mountain Ranges
(subranges of the Appalachian Mtns)


                                                                Baxter
                                                                  SP

                                                         Longf ellows




                                                Whites

                                       Greens
                        Adirondacks




                          Catskills


                          Shawangunk

              Poconos
Notes to Other Merit Badge Counselors who would like to use this presentation:

1.   It is important that young scouts signs up for these badges as soon as they join the troop (even better,
     you sign them up - it is difficult for a young scout to realize how important (relatively speaking) it is to
     start these early). Per BSA, NOTHING COUNTS (for MB purposes) unless a blue card is filled out first.

2.   I found it easy to make copies, 3 to a page (2 sided), of merit badge cards on blue paper and put these
     in a tabbed 3 ring binder. I have one for every scout.

3.   This is a lot to ask of an advancement chair so having a willing merit badge counselor assume these
     duties gets something necessary done and with focus.

4.   The purpose of this presentation is to offer a training aid to project with a computer DLP while leading
     scouts through discussions on these four badges (if not teaching outdoors). I also print this document
     out 2 slides to a page, cut to size, spiral bind, and handout to the scouts for future reference. This
     gives them a quick reference for completing the merit badge requirements, but more importantly, it
     provides them with a comprehensive (I hope) document for future backpacking and hiking reference
     needs. The ½ size allows them to carry this in their packs. The concept comes from the US Army
     Ranger Handbook.

5.   The Backpacking Merit Badge Pamphlet is actually quite good, I would recommend at least reviewing
     this as a MB counselor.
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