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					Data and Information
    Computer Applications 2


     Facilitator: Una Dooney
    Marketing and Languages 2
              2004-5
               Data


• Difference between Data and
  Information
  – Data is recorded raw facts and figures




                   Computer Applications 2   Slide No 2
           Data
– Employee hours worked by each
  employee last week
– Grades achieved by each student in
  Computer Applications in Summer ’04
  examinations
– No of umbrellas sold on 1 Sept this year
  by Pennys
– These are FACTS or DATA

                Computer Applications 2   Slide No 3
         Information

• Data that is processed into something
  that is meaningful
  – Analyse the employee data and we can find
    out how overtime is affecting our wage bill
  – From the student data we can get averages
    of student performance
  – From the umbrella data if we can make
    decisions about inventory levels needed

                    Computer Applications 2   Slide No 4
     Information as a
        Resource
• Information is data placed within a
  context
• The data has been processed or
  analysed in some way
• Information can reduce the
  uncertainty in business decision-
  making
• Information can help identify
  problems
                 Computer Applications 2   Slide No 5
Information Levels in
      Business
• The levels of information in
  business follow the same pattern
  as the managerial levels in an
  organisation ie:
  – Strategic
  – Tactical
  – Operational

              Computer Applications 2   Slide No 6
 Strategic information

– Relates to long-term planning
  policies
  • Population studies, foreign investments,
    government economic policies
  • Concerned with the mission, objectives
    and overall goals of the business
    – What markets to serve
    – What products/services to produce/provide

                    Computer Applications 2   Slide No 7
    Tactical information
• Medium-term planning
  – Data arising from current activities
  – Sales analysis and forecasts, cash flow
    projections etc
  – Reaching and achieving the set goals and
    objectives
    • Keeping within budget
    • Maintaining product/service quality
    • Identifying changes in the market

                       Computer Applications 2   Slide No 8
Operational information

 • Based on the hourly, daily
   transactions of a business
   – Record keeping of everything that
     occurs on an hourly, daily basis
   – Stocks in hand
   – Overdue orders
   – Work in progress
   – Recording sales and purchases
                 Computer Applications 2   Slide No 9
Qualities of Information

  • Regardless of the level at
    which information is used it is
    only valuable if it is available
    when needed, in the right
    format, is accurate and up-to-
    date
  • Here is a list of qualities that
    good information possesses
                Computer Applications 2   Slide No 10
  Qualities cont/
• Timeliness
  – Available when needed
• Relevance
  – Relevant to decision to be taken
• Accuracy
  – Must be error free
• Current
  – Needs to be up-to-date

               Computer Applications 2   Slide No 11
    Qualities cont/
• Economical
  – The benefits from collecting the
    information need to be greater than
    the cost of collecting it
• Complete
  – Need to have all the relevant
    information
• Correct Format
  – Presented in a format the user can
    understand Computer Applications 2 Slide No 12
     Qualities cont/

• Scope
  – Not too broad or narrow. Too much
    information it is difficult to find what
    is relevant.
• Verifiable
  – Facts and figures may be confirmed



                  Computer Applications 2   Slide No 13

				
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