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Kein Folientitel

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 34

									Dr. Samuel Pfeifer
Klinik Sonnenhalde, CH-4125 Riehen, Switzerland




When
Sensitivity
turns into
illness
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The term „sensitivity“




Jane Austen (18th century)
Sense and Sensibility
Rationality vs. Sensitivity

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The salt of the earth


„The exalted and
deplorable family of the
highly sensitive is the salt
of the earth“
                 Marcel Proust
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Highly sensitive people




                                            Diana
      Marilyn Monroe




                       Yves Saint Laurent



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Highly sensitive people

Henry Nouwen
  – The Return of the
    Prodigal Son
  – Life of the Beloved
  – In the name of Jesus




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Vincent van Gogh




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„I am very sensitive“ - POS

 finely tuned to others, tender hearted
 understanding, susceptible
 intensive emotions
 deep perceptions and passions
 touched by the beauty of nature, music, art, poetry,
  film, relationships.
 not hardened against the suffering of other people
 sensitive for the transcendent.


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I am overly sensitive – negative 1

   overreacting
   vulnerable – easily hurt
   reads between the lines
   thinks to much - ruminates
   introverted and shy
   anxious, fearful
   not robust / no power reserves
   at my limits
   everything is coming too close
   defenseless

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I am overly sensitive – neg 2

   often so overwhelmed that I cannot speak
   negative perceptions of other people
   tendency to overreact
   touchy, irritable , moody
   easily exhausted
   feelings cause physical discomfort
   etc.

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„The highly sensitive person“

        – German psychiatrist W. Klages 1978



 Existence between normal psychology and
  psychopathology.

 beyond the psychologically understandable,
  but do not reach the degree of psychiatric
  illness.

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Sensitive perceptions

          – causing intensive feelings and reactions
   smell
   taste
   auditory sense





                                                       according to Klages
    visual sense
   touch
   synaesthesia
   pathological startle reflex

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Peculiarities of highly sensitive persons

   Intensive struggle with verbal expression
   increased exhaustion
   frequent mood swings, irritability
   sexuality and inhibition




                                                according to Klages
   paranormal sensitivity




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When sensitivity turns into illness

  – negative impact on


 ability to enjoy
 relationships
 ability to work


                     „Neurosis“
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The changing meaning of „neurosis“

 until 1979: Definition based on the possible
  causes (mother, early trauma, sexual
  conflicts)
 DSM-III (1980): description of symptoms,
  the term „neurosis“ is dropped
 New term: „Disorder“: e.g. „anxiety
  disorder“, „obsessive-compulsive disorder“,
  „dysthymia“
BUT: Problems have remained the same
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Descriptive definition of „neurosis“

 psychological disorder with anxiety, obsessions,
    mood swings, increased sensitivity
   inhibition, insecurity, conflictuous
   reality testing is intact
   disorders of somatic functions
   reduced performance at work or social role
   „difficult“ relationships
   symptoms persist or recur
   not a transient reaction to stress


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Common features

                    Ambivalence


   Impaired
    contact                           Inhibitions




   Vegetative                         Emotional
   Complaints                          lability

                      Reduced
                      ability to
                      perform


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New terms

   subclinical disorders
   atypical depressions
   “masked” depression
   subsyndromal disorders
   Spectrum Disorders
   Subthreshold Disorders



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Spectrum Disorders

                       Depression


     Bulimia-                              OCD
     Anorexia




     Panic-                               Social
     Agoraphobia                         Phobia


                       Migraine -
                    gastro-intestinal

                                              evtl ADHD?
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Criteria of Spectrum Disorders

 Criteria for the classic disorder are not fully
  present.
 Symptoms are either limited or isolated, however
  combined with depressive mood.
 Symptoms lead to impairment in social relations,
  work performance or other important areas of life.
 Symptoms lead to “emotionally loaded
  relationships” with dependence and social conflict.



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Spectrum


      healthy aspects

                                             Disorder
      threshold                              suffering

      subthreshold                atypical   classic syndrome



    • Personality problem                         Core
    • isolated symptoms                      syndrome


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Course



                                        chronic
     illness phase



           Vulnerable personality


         Stress, Trigger



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Development
           Personality                     Psychosocial
          Temperament                      environment




                     „Vulnerable“
                      Personality

 Stress

                   Sensitive Crisis




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Sensitive Syndromes




                                                                 Somatic
Somatization                                                     Syndromes
Emotional                                                        Migraine
Instability                                                      Gastro-
            Depression                                Anorexia   intestinal
            Exhaustion                                           disorders
                         Ansiety                      Bulimia
                                         Obsessive-
                         Disorders       Compulsive
                         Phobias         Disorders
                                                      ILLNESS

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Sensitivity and faith


 Sensitivity for the spiritual world
 Over-sensitive conscience
 Anxious towards God and other persons.
 Living with tensions



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Areas of tension
                    IDEALS
Inner               I want to do what is right
Experience          and good, pleasing to God.
                    *** other ideals ??




 Needs, desires                                  (Sub)cultural
 Drives, Impulses                                    rules und
 Emotions                                          limitations




                    REALITY
                    “Why do I have to suffer?”   External
                    General life situation -
                    Social network – Physical    Framework
                    /emotional constitution
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Highly sensitive people

Henry Nouwen
  – The Return of the
    Prodigal Son
  – Life of the Beloved
  – In the name of Jesus




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Henri Nouwen

 Political sensitivity – Speaking out against
   injustice in the world.
 Restlessness – struggle for inner peace.
 Withdrawal into the world of handicapped
   persons (L„Arche community).
 Questioning identity in the middle of his life.

 Severe crisis and depression.
 New beginning.

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The Wounded Healer

„Oh that I cannot control my feelings and my inner
passions! Often I have to let them run their course and
just hope that they would not dominate me for too long.“

„I love Jesus, but I would like to keep my independence,
although this independence does not grant me real
freedom.
I love Jesus but I would not want to lose the respect of
my fellow professors, although I know that their respect
will not contribute to my spiritual growth.“

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Henri Nouwen

“His words spoke with special sensitivity to
those who had emotionally suffered in their
lives. He discovered that he could reach out
from his own wounds to the hurts of other
people.“




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 Coping with
high sensitivity
                                            Kapitel 15

Protecting yourself

1. Find a balance between overactivity and regression!
2. Learn to understand your body„s language!
3. Accept the limitations of your sensitivity!
4. Do not take everything too personal!
5. Take time to relax and to enjoy!
6. Do not take too much responsibility!
7. Explain your condition to others!
8. Recognize your shadow and work at improving your
    weaknesses.

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A prayer for positive sensitivity
 Lord, open my mind and fill me with
    your wisdom and guidance.
   Lord, take out all my fussies and frownies
    and fill me with your love.
   Lord, open my eyes to see all the beautiful
    things you have made.
   Lord open my nose Lord, help me to be
    a sweet fragrance for you.
   Lord, help me always speak your
    words of love and kindness.
   Lord, let me be a light to others
    for you have filled me with your light.

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Literature

   Aron E.N. (1996). The Highly
    Sensitive Person. How to thrive
    when the world overwhelms you.
    New York: Broadway.
   Aron E.N. (2000). The Highly
    Sensitive Person in Love. New
    York: Broadway.
   Aron E.N., & Aron A. (1997).
    Sensory-processing sensitivity and
    its relation to introversion and
    emotionality. Journal of Personality
    and Social Psychology 73:345–368.
   Pfeifer S. (2002). Der sensible
    Mensch. Leben zwischen Begabung
    und Verletzlichkeit. Haan:
    Brockhaus.




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