Brand switching by mnmgroup

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                     Major Project Report


    “Study on Brand Switching In Consumer Products”


Serial No.          Major Heads                         Page No.
   01         Executive Summary                          7-10
   02         Research Methodology                      10-11
  03          Insights of Consumer Behaviour            12-16
  04          What is a Brand                           17-21
  05          Brand Switching                           22-34
  06         Consumer Diagnostics:-
               Brand Duplication Analysis

               Brand Switching Analysis                25-28

               Buyers Retention & Migration Analysis   28-30

  07             Brand Positioning Analysis             36-40
  08              Tabulation and Evaluation
                     Cross Tabulation(Age via Reason)
                     VALS Framework                           41-46

  09             Reason Behind Brand Switching                 46-47
  10              My Brand Switching Table                     47-49
  11            Celebrity Endorsements and Resultants          50-56
  12               Analysis and Findings                       57-59
  13         Questionnaire, Data Interpretation & References   60-66

                      Executive Summary

Consumer decision to purchase a product brand different from that previously or
usually purchased. Brand switching can be instigated by price promotions, in-store
displays, superior availability, perceived improvements or innovations in competitive
brands, desire for novelty, number of available brands, perceived risk, frequency of
purchase, changes in quality, or level of satisfaction with the most recent purchase.
Brand switching is most common with products that have no great perceived
variation in quality across brands such as bottled water, dairy products, or paper

As the product life cycle and the price increase for most durable products,
consumers tend to be highly involved and become more rational in their purchase.
These factors, combined with others, such as the prevalence of global marketing and
the reduction of international trade barriers, have resulted in highly competitive
markets for durable products. In today's free and competitive markets, consumer
preferences and key attributes of products have become so diversified that
companies that can meet these customer expectations will prosper and grow, while
those that fail to do so will decline. Allenby (1989) and Kannan & Wright (1991)
suggest that the design of successful marketing strategies requires a thorough
understanding of the structure of the product market and the patterns of competition
within those markets. Thus, it is crucial to collect market data to analyze market
structures, especially for durable goods that have entered their mature stage,
characterized by maturing product technologies, lack of product differentiation and
similarity in product qualities. The increasing competition, brand image and attitude
toward brands will greatly impact on the purchase decisions of customers. In order to
position its products and brands, the manufacturer needs to comprehend the
consumer's attitude towards these factors. Therefore, it is essential to have a better
understanding of brand loyalty.

It is also useful to segment the market based on brand loyalty and to understand the
needs of loyal customers and potential brand switchers, as well as their attitude
towards key brand attributes. Based on such findings, corporations can find ways to
increase their market share by fulfilling the needs of repeat buyers. In addition,
corporations can convert brand switchers into loyal customers by focusing on certain
key factors.

Thus, the intent of this study is to provide insights of the needs of two groups of
customers, repeat buyers and brand switchers, in order to help corporations develop
appropriate marketing strategies. This study was carried out in two stages: (1)
segmenting the market into the two consumer groups; and (2) Analyzing the
differences of the two groups based on the key factors that affect consumption

Literature review

Definition of brand and brand loyalty:-
The American Marketing Association defines brand as 'a name, term, sign, symbol,
or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one
seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors' (Kotlei
1995). Aaker (1995) defines a brand on different levels, stating that a brand is not
merely the physical product, but is also composed of brand attributes, symbols,
brand--consumer relationships, benefits of self-expression, customer profiles,
associations with the culture of the country of origin, and corporate identity. In
essence, the brand provides a simple means for the customer to distinguish it from
its peers. Padberg stated that in the marketing process, a brand provides a means of
communicating economic information; it facilitates product recognition and protects
the customer from the risks associated with buying an unknown brand.
De Chernatony & McDonald (1998) stated that 'A successful brand is an identifiable
product, service, person or place augmented in such a way that the buyer or user
perceives relevant, unique added values which match their needs most closely.

Furthermore, its success results from being able to sustain these added values in the
face of competition.' Successful brands deliver benefits to satisfy customer needs.
These needs include rational needs (such as features, packages or the price of a
brand) and emotional needs (such as prestige, distinctiveness, style or the social
reassurance of a brand).

Brand loyalty refers to the consumer's behavior of repeatedly purchasing a specific
brand over a certain period of time. This is based on past behavior, and the local
consumer is highly likely to purchase the products of a specific brand currently and in
the future. According to Aaker (1995), a powerful brand enjoys a high degree of
brand loyalty. Related brand choice theories claim that, in order to increase the sales
volume or marketing shares of a particular brand of products, it is necessary to either
strengthen the brand loyalty of existing customers or try to persuade the consumers
of other brands to switch. The former is called inertia or brand loyalty, and the latter,
brand switching.

Previous studies concluded that a person's attitude toward a brand is relevant to the
degree of their brand loyalty. Brand awareness and brand association are linked to
consumers' brand preferences. Ehrenberg asserted that salient brands are high in
both intentions to buy the brand and brand loyalty. Ehrenberg stated that since the
selling brand tends to be copied quickly by competitors, competitive brands lack
variation between each other. Similar brands have different market shares because
of the different number of people to whom each brand is salient. Ehrenberg further
argued that the main function of advertising is to reinforce an existing consumer's
propensity to buy a particular brand.

There are many theories that are available to explain how consumers make product
and/or brand choices. The 'expectance-value model' argues that consumers assign
scores to two parameters and make a mental calculation before making a decision.
The first parameter is the degree to which consumers expect a pleasurable outcome.
The second parameter is the value the consumers ascribe to a favorable outcome.
This model is insufficient to explain the phenomenon because people have limited
brand information and limited mental processing capabilities.

The economist's view of consumer behavior hypothesizes that consumers seek
information until the marginal value that is gained is less than the cost of securing
knowledge of the product.

This model is also not acceptable since in many cases consumers are unable to
acquire 'perfect' information De Chernatony and McDonald propose a more accepted
model for brand buying behavior. It argues that the making of a brand purchase is
determined by 'consumers seeking and evaluating small amounts of information.
Consumer relies only on few piece of information with which they feel confident to
help them decide how the brand might perform.' The amount of information that
consumer seek may be determined by various factors such as time pressure,
previous experience, advice from friends and the level of involvement in the brand

In recent years many researchers have studied brand choice and switching. The
scope of these studies not only includes the analysis of the factors that affect the
consumer's brand choice and switching, but it also helps to analyze the future
demand situation.
There has been always a shift in consumer brand loyalty and favours it can be
because of lack of consistency in quality, high cost of raw materials or profit motives
so as to increase the sales figure. Whatever it may be but a marketer can not
certainly overlook this things as he also drives with some expectation that his
product will get required recognition in market people will have a corner of support
for it and they will persist to it at least for some period of time and if it not happens
marketer becomes bound to think what really hampers the success of their product
and how they can differentiate their product in market and how they can restructure
their brand building strategy so as to gain the long term benefit and advantage.


It’s imperative that any type of organisation in the present environment needs
Systematic supply of information coupled with tool of analysis of for making sound
Decision which involves minimum risk.
A research design is purely and simply the framework or plan for a study that guides
The collection and analysis of the data.


     Through surfing the concerned web portals and sites.
     Through questionnaires and interacting with people.


Considering the constraints, it was decided to conduct the study based on sample
size of 50 respondents.

The selection was made through combined approach of random sampling and
Convenient sampling. Scientific method was not adopted in this study because of
Financial constraints and also because of lack of time, also the basic aim of doing
the research was academic, hence most convenient way was selected.


There are several methods of collecting primary data, particularly in surveys and
Descriptive research. Important are:-
    Observation method.
    Through questionnaires.
    Markov Process method.
Insights of Consumer Behaviour
           Consumer Behaviour the Unlocked Aspect

Consumer behavior is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not
buy Product It blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology
and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both
individually and in groups. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such
as demographics and behavioral variables in an attempt to understand people's
wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family,
friends, reference groups, and society in general.

Customer behavior study is based on consumer buying behavior, with the customer
playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Relationship marketing is an
influential asset for customer behavior analysis as it has a keen interest in the re-
discovery of the true meaning of marketing through the re-affirmation of the
importance of the customer or buyer. A greater importance is also placed on
consumer     retention,   customer     relationship   management,      personalization,
customization and one-to-one marketing. Social functions can be categorized into
social choice and welfare functions.

Each method for vote counting is assumed as a social function but if Arrow’s
possibility theorem is used for a social function, social welfare function is achieved.
Some specifications of the social functions are decisiveness, neutrality, anonymity,
monotonocity, unanimity, homogeneity and weak and strong Pareto optimality. No
social choice function meets these requirements in an ordinal scale simultaneously.
The most important characteristic of a social function is identification of the
interactive effect of alternatives and creating a logical relation with the ranks.
Marketing provides services in order to satisfy customers. With that in mind, the
productive system is considered from its beginning at the production level, to the end
of the cycle, the consumer

Belch and Belch define consumer behavior as 'the process and activities people
engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and
disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires'.'
The Black Box Model


  Marketing      Environmental        Buyer
                                                       Decision Process
   Stimuli          Stimuli        Characteristics

                                                     Problem recognition
              Economic           Attitudes
                                                     Information search    Product choice
Product       Technological      Motivation
                                                     Alternative           Brand choice
Price         Political          Perceptions
                                                     evaluation            Dealer choice
Place         Cultural           Personality
                                                     Purchase decision     Purchase timing
Promotion     Demographic        Lifestyle
                                                     Post-purchase         Purchase amount
              Natural            Knowledge

The black box model shows the interaction of stimuli, consumer characteristics, and
decision process and consumer responses. It can be distinguished between
interpersonal stimuli (between people) or intrapersonal stimuli (within people). The
black box model is related to the black box theory of behaviorism, where the focus is
not set on the processes inside a consumer, but the relation between the stimuli and
the response of the consumer. The marketing stimuli are planned and processed by
the companies, whereas the environmental stimulus is given by social factors, based
on the economical, political and cultural circumstances of a society. The buyers
black box contains the buyer characteristics and the decision process, which
determines the buyers response.

The black box model considers the buyers response as a result of a conscious,
rational decision process, in which it is assumed that the buyer has recognized the
problem. However, in reality many decisions are not made in awareness of a
determined problem by the consumer.
The Information Search

Once the consumer has recognised a problem, they search for information on
products and services that can solve that problem. Belch and Belch (2007) explain
that consumers undertake both an internal (memory) and an external search.

Sources of information include:

     Personal sources
     Commercial sources
     Public sources
     Personal experience

The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with information
search is perception. Perception is defined as 'the process by which an individual
receives, selects, organises, and interprets information to create a meaningful
picture of the world'

The selective perception process

Stage Description

- Selective exposure consumers select which promotional messages they will

    Expose them to.
- Selective attention consumers select which promotional messages they will pay

    Attention to
- Selective comprehension consumer interpret messages in line with their beliefs,

    Attitudes, motives and experiences
- Selective retention consumers remember messages that are more meaningful or

    Important to them

The implications of this process help develop an effective promotional strategy, and
select which sources of information are more effective for the brand.CV
Information Evaluation

At this time the consumer compares the brands and products that are in their evoked
set. How can the marketing organization increase the likelihood that their brand is
part of the consumer's evoked (consideration) set? Consumers evaluate alternatives
in terms of the functional and psychological benefits that they offer. The marketing
organization needs to understand what benefits consumers are seeking and
therefore which attributes are most important in terms of making a decision.

Purchase Decision

Once the alternatives have been evaluated, the consumer is ready to make a
purchase decision. Sometimes purchase intention does not result in an actual
purchase. The marketing organization must facilitate the consumer to act on their
purchase intention. The organization can use variety of techniques to achieve this.
The provision of credit or payment terms may encourage purchase, or a sales
promotion such as the opportunity to receive a premium or enter a competition may
provide an incentive to buy now. The relevant internal psychological process that is
associated with purchase decision is integration. Once the integration is achieved,
the organization can influence the purchase decisions much more easily.

Post Purchase Behavior

It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase
decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ―cognitive dissonance‖. The
customer, having bought a product, may feel that an alternative would have been
preferable. In these circumstances that customer will not repurchase immediately,
but is likely to switch brands next time.

To manage the post-purchase stage, it is the job of the marketing team to persuade
the potential customer that the product will satisfy his or her needs. Then after
having made a purchase, the customer should be encouraged that he or she has
made the right decision it is not affected by advertisement.
What is a brand?

A brand is a name, sign, symbol, slogan or anything that is used to identify and
distinguish a specific product, service, or business. A legally protected brand
name is called a proprietary name.

Brand is the image of the product in the market. Some people distinguish the
psychological aspect of a brand from the experiential aspect. The experiential aspect
consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is known as the brand
experience. The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image,
is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people and consists of all the
information and expectations associated with a product or service.

People engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the
brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or
service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. A brand
is therefore one of the most valuable elements in an advertising theme, as it
demonstrates what the brand owner is able to offer in the marketplace. The art of
creating and maintaining a brand is called brand management. Orientation of the
whole organization towards its brand is called brand orientation.

Careful brand management seeks to make the product or services relevant to
the target audience. Therefore cleverly crafted advertising campaigns can be highly
successful in convincing consumers to pay remarkably high prices for products
which are inherently extremely cheap to make. This concept, known as creating
value, essentially consists of manipulating the projected image of the product so that
the consumer sees the product as being worth the amount that the advertiser wants
him/her to see, rather than a more logical valuation that comprises an aggregate of
the cost of raw materials, plus the cost of manufacture, plus the cost of distribution.
Modern value-creation branding-and-advertising campaigns are highly successful at
inducing consumers to pay, for example, 50 dollars for a T-shirt that cost a mere 50
cents to make, or 5 dollars for a box of breakfast cereal that contains a few cents'
worth of wheat.
Brands should be seen as more than the difference between the actual cost of a
product and its selling price - they represent the sum of all valuable qualities of a
product to the consumer. There are many intangibles involved in business,
intangibles left wholly from the income statement and balance sheet which determine
how a business is perceived. The learned skill of a knowledge worker, the type of
metal working, the type of stitch: all may be without an 'accounting cost' but for those
who truly know the product, for it is these people the company should wish to find
and keep, the difference is incomparable. Failing to recognize these assets that a
business, any business, can create and maintain will set an enterprise at a serious

A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition.
When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass of
positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand franchise.
One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the name of the
company present. For example, Disney has been successful at branding with their
particular script font (originally created for Walt Disney's "signature" logo), which it
used in the logo for

Consumers may look on branding as an important value added aspect of products or
services, as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic (see
also brand promise). From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or
services also command higher prices. Where two products resemble each other, but
one of the products has no associated branding (such as a generic, store-branded
product), people may often select the more expensive branded product on the basis
of the quality of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner.

Brand Awareness

Brand awareness refers to customers' ability to recall and recognize the brand under
different conditions and link to the brand name, logo, and jingles and so on to certain
associations in memory. It helps the customers to understand to which product or
service category the particular brand belongs to and what products and services are
sold under the brand name. It also ensures that customers know which of their
needs are satisfied by the brand through its products. (Keller)
Brand Salience

Brand salience measures the awareness of the brand."To what extent is the brand
top-of-mind and easily recalled or recognized? What types of cues or reminders are
necessary?" (Keller)

How do customers remember?

The tendency of a brand to be thought of in a buying situation is known as ―brand
salience‖. Brand salience’s is ―the propensity for a brand to be noticed and/or
thought of in buying situations‖ and the higher the brand salience the higher it’s
market penetration and therefore its market share. Salience refers not to what
customers think about brands but to which ones they think about.

Brands which come to mind on an unaided basis are likely to be the brands in a
customer’s consideration set and thus have a higher probability of being purchased.
Advertising weight and brand salience are cues to customers indicating which
brands are popular, and customers have a tendency to buy popular brands. Also, an
increase in the salience of one brand can actually inhibit recall of other brands,
including brands that otherwise would be candidates for purchase.

It is widely acknowledged that buyer’s do not see their brand as being any different
from other brands that are available. They buy a particular brand because they are
more aware of it, not because it is more distinctive, or has a point of difference. We
now know that all decisions made by humans involve memory processes to a greater
or lesser extent. Incoming information from the external environment travels by the
sensory memory into the short-term (or working) memory (STM) but if it is not acted
upon in a very short time the brain simply discards it.
But salient information that is important and received on a regular basis through
different channels is passed to the long-term memory (LTM) where it can be stored
for many years. Memories are stored or filed via connections between new and
existing memories in the different parts of the memory. They are laid down in a
framework making some memories easier to access than others. Recall is the
process by which an individual reconstructs the stimulus itself from memory,
removed from the physicality’s of that reality.

Global Brand

A global brand is one which is perceived to reflect the same set of values around the
world. Global brands transcend their origins and create strong, enduring
relationships with consumers across countries and cultures.

Global brands are brands which sold to international markets. Examples of global
brands include Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Marlboro, Levi's etc.. These brands are used
to sell the same product across multiple markets, and could be considered
successful to the extent that the associated products are easily recognizable by the
diverse set of consumers.
Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior

Social Factors

Groups                                               Family

Membership                                            Husband, wife, kids

Reference                                             Influencers, users, buyer

Roles and Status

Social Class

People within a social class tend to exhibit similar buying behavior.

   •   Occupation
   •   Income
   •   Education
   •   Wealth

Personal Influences:-

Age and Family Life Cycle Stage                       Occupation

Personality & Self-Concept                          Economic Situation

Lifestyle Identification

Activities                           Opinions

What is Brand Switching?

Consumer decision to purchase a product brand different from that previously or
usually purchased. Brand switching can be instigated by price promotions, in-store
displays, superior availability, perceived improvements or innovations in competitive
brands, desire for novelty, number of available brands, perceived risk, frequency of
purchase, changes in quality, or level of satisfaction with the most recent purchase.
Brand switching is most common with products that have no great perceived
variation in quality across brands such as bottled water, dairy products, or paper

Brand Switching Matrix

A two-way table that indicates which brands a sample of people purchased in one
period and which brands they purchased in a subsequent period, thus highlighting
the switches occurring among and between brands as well as the number of persons
who purchased the same brand in both periods.

Here we can the site the Markov Process analysis to understand the market moves
and customer brand switching that leads to loosing for one and gain for other player
of their prospective customers.
Markov processes

Consider the following problem: company K, the manufacturer of a breakfast cereal,
currently has some 25% of the market. Data from the previous year indicates that
88% of K's customers remained loyal that year, but 12% switched to the competition.
In addition, 85% of the competition's customers remained loyal to the competition but
15% of the competition's customers switched to K. Assuming these trends continue
determine K's share of the market:

        In 2 years; and
        In the long-run.

This problem is an example of a brand switching problem that often arises in the sale
of consumer goods.

In order to solve this problem we make use of Markov chains or Markov
processes (which are a special type of stochastic process). The procedure is given

Solution procedure

Observe that, each year, a customer can either be buying K's cereal or the
competition's. Hence we can construct a diagram as shown below where the two
circles represent the two states a customer can be in and the arcs represent the
probability that a customer makes a transition each year between states. Note the
circular arcs indicating a "transition" from one state to the same state. This diagram
is known as the state-transition diagram (and note that all the arcs in that diagram
are directed arcs).

Given that diagram we can construct the transition matrix (usually denoted by the
symbol P) which tells us the probability of making a transition from one state to
another state. Letting:

        state 1 = customer buying K's cereal and
        state 2 = customer buying competition's cereal

We have the transition matrix P for this problem given by
    To state 1       2

From state 1 |0.88 0.12 |
               2 |0.15 0.85 |

Note here that the sum of the elements in each row of the transition matrix is one.
Note also that the transition matrix is such that the rows are "From" and the columns
are "To" in terms of the state transitions.

Now we know that currently K has some 25% of the market. Hence we have the row
matrix representing the initial state of the system given by:

   1     2
  [0.25, 0.75]

We usually denote this row matrix by s1 indicating the state of the system in the first
period (years in this particular example). Now Markov theory tells us that, in period
(year) t, the state of the system is given by the row matrix st where:

st = st-1(P) =st-2(P) (P) = ... = s1 (P)t-1

We have to be careful here as we are doing matrix multiplication and the order of
calculation is important (i.e. st-1(P) is not equal to (P) st-1 in general). To find st we
could attempt to raise P to the power t-1 directly but, in practice, it is far easier to
calculate the state of the system in each successive year 1, 2, 3... t.

We already know the state of the system in year 1 (s1) so the state of the system in
year two (s2) is given by:

s2 = s1P

= [0.25, 0.75] |0.88 0.12 |
                 |0.15 0.85 |
= [(0.25) (0.88) + (0.75) (0.15), (0.25) (0.12) + (0.75) (0.85)]
= [0.3325, 0.6675]

Note that this result makes intuitive sense, e.g. of the 25% currently buying K's
cereal 88% continue to do so, whilst of the 75% buying the competitor's cereal 15%
change to buy K's cereal - giving a (fractional) total of (0.25)(0.88) + (0.75)(0.15) =
0.3325 buying K's cereal.

Hence in year two 33.25% of the people are in state 1 - that is buying K's cereal.
Note here that, as a numerical check, the elements of st should always sum to one.

In year three the state of the system is given by:

s3 = s2P

= [0.3325, 0.6675] |0.88 0.12 |
                     |0.15 0.85 |

= [0.392725, 0.607275]

Hence in year three 39.2725% of the people are buying K's cereal.

Now it is plainly nonsense to suggest that we can predict to four decimal places K's
market share in two years time - but the calculation has enabled us to get some
insight into the change in K's share of the market over time that we otherwise
might not have had.

Package solution

The above problem was solved using the package, the input being shown below.
The output is shown below, first after a single time period (year in this case), then for
after two time periods.

Brand duplication Analysis

Duplication analysis

This approach isolates buyers of a particular brand over a total year. It then
quantifies the proportion of them who buy other brands at some

Gain & Loss Analysis

This analysis identifies the source of change in a brand’s share, volume or value
over 2 identical time periods. The 4 possible sources of a brand’s volume change
    New category buyers
    Added to repertoire
    Increased purchasing
    Switching

    The most important source of volume is usually the Switching component, which
    consists of the volume directly stolen by or lost to other brands.
    Repeat/lapsed/new buyers analysis

    If the objective of the analysis is to understand which brands have my brand
    gained from, the focus would be on the new buyers. Comparing their brand
    purchasing behavior to average brand shares will highlight brand ―gainers‖.
    Conversely by looking at lapsed buyers the analysis provides an indication of
    who my brand has lost to.

    Expert Analytics

    There is a wide range of expert analytics. But the Consumer Panel provides a
    very wide range of analytical possibilities that we as well offer as customized
    solutions for your questions. Below you find some of the most common ones:

    Category Expandability
    Could I get consumers to buy more of my category?
    If shoppers buy more will they consume faster?
    Is my market more expandable than others?
    If a consumer is persuaded to buy a larger pack will they use it at the same rate?
    What are the best pack sizes to encourage faster use?
    What are the best promotional mechanics to encourage faster use?
    Are certain pack formats better at encouraging expandability?
    Marketing Mix

    Here we analyze the contribution of all Marketing factors for your brand
    performance to help you optimize your marketing activities:
    Understanding product positioning
    Understanding pricing
    Understanding promotions
    Understanding placement


1. Understand what the shopper is looking for in your category in order to work out
     what needs your range has to meet
2. Build up a portfolio of skus starting with the absolute essentials, then adding to
     drive incremental sales
3. Identify skus in your range which aren’t adding anything to your brand and could
     be rationalised
4. Identify your ―ideal range‖ and calculate the impact on your brand and on the
     category if you list this rather than what you currently offer

    Category Manager

    Offers insight into category performance so you can highlight your opportunities
    within the category and gain information on your competitive threats. Understand
    the dynamics behind your consumers' behavior, identify the measures that
    contribute to store loyalty and analyze lost expenditure from individual stores at
    brand, sector and category level.
     Brand Switching Analysis

A simple indicator of consumer satisfaction in a competitive market is the buyers’
repeat purchase rate over time. Brand switching analysis is also useful to forecast
the brand dynamic evolution. This approach is based on the analysis of purchase
Consider the market share development of brands A, B and C shown in Figure below

                                   Figure Web 5.1
                    The Dynamics of Market Share Movements

                                           Brand B

    Market Share                                  Brand A

                                         Brand C


The stability of brand A's market share can be interpreted in two very different ways:-
• A fixed number of consumers buy the same quantity of brand A at regular intervals.
• The number of consumers dropping brand A is equal to the number of consumers
 Adopting brand A; entry rate then compensates exit rate exactly.
On the basis of aggregate market data, it is not possible to decide which the true
state is. Similarly, one could give the following explanations for brand B’s growth:
• Brand B has a fixed number of loyal buyers to whom new buyers are added at a
 Regular pace,
• Entry rate is higher than exit rate,
• The number of brand B's buyers remains unchanged, but some of them are
  Purchasing an increased quantity per buying occasion.

Here again, the available information does not permit us to discriminate between
these possible explanations.
To keep the analysis simple, let us limit ourselves to a market composed of two
competing brands. As shown in Figure Web 5.2 each particular purchasing act,
viewed in a dynamic perspective, can be described in terms of three origins and
three destinations.

For each brand, we can thus define a loyalty rate and an attraction rate as follows:

• The loyalty rate is the percentage of buyers who, having purchased brand A in the
  Previous period (t-1), continue to buy brand A in the current period (t).

• The attraction rate is the percentage of buyers who, having purchased a
  Competing brand in period t-1, purchase brand A in period t.

These proportions, known as transition probabilities, can be estimated through
survey or on the basis of panel data. To illustrate, the transition probabilities
observed in the Belgian market among six makes of heavy trucks are presented in
Table Web 5.1.
                                           Table Web 5.1
                                Example of Brand Switching Analysis:

The Heavy Duty         Brands Purchased in Period (t+1)
Truck Market
Replaced Brands in
Period (t)
Daf                    Mercedes       Renault          Scania        Volvo       Others    Market
                                                                                           share in t
Daf                    55.2         15.3          1.3       2.3          11.4      13.5     7.6%
Mercedes               8.2          59.5          2.4       2.3          11.1      15.5     15.3%
Renault                9.0          9.2           53.0      5.0          1.2       22.6     3.2%
Scania                 8.1          13.3          0.0       65.6         5.1       5.9      3.3%
Volvo                  15.5         12.9          1.2       1.7          60.0      7.7      5.2%
Others                 11.7         17.1          4.8       2.9          10.3      53.2     63.4%
Market share in t+1    14.6%        23.2%         5.3%      4.8%         13.2%     38.9%    100.0%

      These transition probabilities allow the market analyst to explain market share
      movements over time, to describe the underlying competitive dynamics and to
      formulate predictions on market developments assuming that the observed transition
      probabilities will remain unchanged within a reasonable planning horizon.

      t+1 will be,

                              MS (t+1) =      (t) + β [1 - MS (t)]

      Brand A’s long-run or equilibrium market share, MS (e), can be calculated from the
      following expression,
                                           (1-α) + β
Note that equilibrium market share is independent of the initial market share. It
describes the brand's trajectory, assuming constant transition probabilities. This type
of dynamic analysis is particularly useful at the launching stage of a new product.
Βαβ+−=−=) (1rate) n (attractio+rate) loyalty 1(rate Attraction’s (e)

Retention and Migration Analysis

Retention analysis answers two important questions: 1) are the customers you're
acquiring good ones (meaning they stay customers for a long time), and 2) is the
contact strategy you're using maximizing the maintenance of your customer file (in
other words, are you contacting your customers enough)?

Migration analysis pays particular attention to how customers interact with your
business over the course of time. Once a catalog buyer, always a catalog buyer, and
only a catalog buyer? Maybe, but probably not. Migration analysis aims to examine
how customers interact with your business over time and should be examined in
conjunction with an analysis of the overall contact strategy.

The goal is to gain insights into customer behavior and to then overlay that behavior
with a communication plan. Many multichannel merchants today believe that
customers acquired online don't need print catalogs. They may be right — but they
also may be leaving significant revenue on the table. They can't know for sure
without comprehensive testing. The pinnacle of this analysis is to link a
communication plan to a set of customer behaviors by channel and to increase
retention by communicating with customers in the right channel with the right
message at the right time.

Setting up a retention and migration table shouldn't be difficult but may be somewhat
time consuming. To conduct the analysis, identify all of the customers from period A,
the prior period, by channel. Your choices could include catalog, Web, retail, and
multichannel, for example, but should represent the customer's purchase(s) only in
the prior period.

From that customer set, tap into your database to identify the customers who have
come back in period B, the current period, and in which channel(s) they purchased.
For the current period you'll also want to include columns for new-to-file customers,
reactivated customers who hadn't purchased in the prior period, and inactive, who
had purchased in the prior period but not the current. Each cell in the table should
include two pieces of data: number of customers and total sales dollars.

Once complete, this table illustrates how well your contact strategy performed at
bringing back your most recent customers or how well you retained your active buyer
file. (For the sake of benchmarking, the average business-to-consumer cataloger will
see about 40% of its 12-month file return the following year.) Also, you'll see how
your customers migrated from channel to channel and the spending habits that were
associated with the shifts.
                            Brand Positioning Analysis

Product positioning is an important strategy for achieving differential advantage.
Positioning reflects the "place" a product occupies in a market or segment. A
successful position has characteristics that are both differentiating and important to

Every product has some sort of position — whether intended or not. Positions are
based upon consumer perceptions, which may or may not reflect reality. A position
is effectively built by communicating a consistent message to consumers about the
product and where it fits into the market — through advertising, brand name, and

Positioning is related with market segmentation, you can not define your positioning
to be good until you have divided your segments as unique and different.
                 Product Positioning Process

           Generally, the product positioning process involves:

    1. Defining the market in which the product or brand will compete (who the
       relevant buyers are)
    2. Identifying the attributes (also called dimensions) that define the product
    3. Collecting information from a sample of customers about their perceptions of
       each product on the relevant attributes
    4. Determine each product's share of mind
    5. Determine each product's current location in the product space
    6. Determine the target market's preferred combination of attributes (referred to
       as an ideal vector)
    7. Examine the fit between:
          The position of your product
          The position of the ideal vector
    8. Position.

The process is similar for positioning your company's services. Services, however,
don't have the physical attributes of products - that is, we can't feel them or touch
them or show nice product pictures. So you need to ask first your customers and
then yourself, what value do clients get from my services? How are they better off
from doing business with me? Also ask: is there a characteristic that makes my
services different?

Write out the value customers derive and the attributes your services offer to create
the first draft of your positioning. Test it on people who don't really know what you do
or what you sell, watch their facial expressions and listen for their response. When
they want to know more because you've piqued their interest and started a
conversation, you'll know you're on the right track.
                         Positioning Concepts

More generally, there are three types of positioning concepts:

    1. Functional positions
          Solve problems
          Provide benefits to customers
          Get favourable perception by investors (stock profile) and lenders
    2. Symbolic positions
          Self-image enhancement
          Ego identification
          Belongingness and social meaningfulness
          Affective fulfillment
    3. Experiential positions
          Provide sensory stimulation
          Provide cognitive stimulation

                         Repositioning a Company

In volatile markets, it can be necessary - even urgent - to reposition an entire
company, rather than just a product line or brand. Take, for example, when Goldman
Sachs and Morgan Stanley suddenly shifted from investment to commercial banks.
The expectations of investors, employees, clients and regulators all need to shift,
and each company will need to influence how these perceptions change. Doing so
involves repositioning the entire firm.
This is especially true of small and medium-sized firms, many of which often lack
strong brands for individual product lines. In a prolonged recession, business
approaches that were effective during healthy economies often become ineffective
and it becomes necessary to change a firm's positioning. Upscale restaurants, for
example, which previously flourished on expense account dinners and corporate
events, may for the first time need to stress value as a sale tool.

Repositioning a company involves more than a marketing challenge. It involves
making hard decisions about how a market is shifting and how a firm's competitors
will react. Often these decisions must be made without the benefit of sufficient
information, simply because the definition of "volatility" is that change becomes
difficult or impossible to predict.

Nokia Brand Positioning

Nokia was named the 5th Best Global Brand in 2007          and has been one of the 10
best global brands for almost a decade. So what makes Nokia Brand so valuable
and what is Nokia’s value proposition? As Tam Harbert of Electronic Business
magazine has put it: "If Nokia Corp. were a person, it would be young, sexy,
sophisticated, hip and generally "with it"". Nokia newly released high-end phones
aimed at both the consumer and business user and is showing strength in both
emerging and mature markets.

Nokia has been successful in differentiating itself in the crowed and highly
competitive mobile communication industry and its newly targeted battle of internet
industry. Nokia emphasizes technology innovation, fun spirit, design, and ease of
use   to build a ―trusted relationship‖ with customers. The brand has lived up to the
vision of its ―Connecting people‖ and ―Human technology‖ slogan.
Nokia’s strategy can be easily spotted on company’s corporate website: Nokia’s
strategy is to build trusted consumer relationships by offering compelling and valued
consumer solutions that combine beautiful devices with context enriched services.
Example would be Nokia phone’s faceplates and different colours that suit user’s
personality, mood and lifestyle. By owing the ―human‖ dimension of mobile
communications, Nokia has taken the best position for itself, leaving its competitors
behind pondering what to do, what strategy to adopt to position yourself in the

According to Pertti Korhonen, Chief Technology Officer, Nokia, a 'consumer-first
mindset' remains at the core of everything at Nokia. This approach is communicated
down to Nokia’s employees including designers who sketch a new mobile phone
concept and hardware engineers who design complex technology enablers such as
multiradio and video sharing.
Nokia offers mobile phones in five categories: broad appeal, lifestyle products, entry,
CDMA and Vertu. Nokia ensures that every phone it offers can answer customers’
  Cross Tabulation (Showing Motives to Switch)

  Age           Switching           Earlier Brand        Switched Brand     Switch Rate
Category        Reasons                                                     (In Percentage)

    15-21       Protein and          Complan             Horlicks           40-60%

    21-30       Quality & Effect    Lifebuoy Soap        Dettol Soap        28-45%

    30-45       Service Quality     BSNL                 AirTel             50-70%

    45-60       Claim & Trust       Oriental Insurance   LIC Policies       40-70%

60 and above    Service &           Air India            Kingfisher         20-40%

From the above given table we can make the estimates and can withdraw the
conclusion that any brand which has failed to deliver the expected service and has
not shown consistency in product or service quality the customers have switched to
other brands or there has been a fall in his buying frequency of him/her.

So any other brand doesn’t matter how powerful it is or how much it is spending over
its advertisement or sales promotion until and unless is not delivering good quality
better service as it expected from the customer prospective switch rate between
brand has been very high.
                With Japan-VALS, businesses can:

   Monitor lifestyle trends and forecasts and interpret significant changes
    in the consumer environment—for example, they can spot consumption
    trends by monitoring the behaviour of innovative Japan-VALS segments.
   Identify unfilled consumer needs and generate new product
    ideas. Thinking about Japan-VALS types leads to striking new strategies,
    concepts, ideas, package designs, and line extensions.
   Segment the market. Japan-VALS is an ideal method to answer such
    questions as "To whom should I market my product?" "What should the main
    benefit be?"
   Differentiate a brand. Determining the Japan-VALS profile of a product in
    comparison with that of its competitors demonstrates unfilled positioning and
    helps to set the brand apart through sales-promotion activities, packaging,
    and advertising.
   Develop more effective, targeted selling tools and strategies. Examining
    the attitudes and behaviour of a selected segment can lead to startling
    insights about how to make merchandising and promotions more efficient.
      Communicate effectively with the target audience. Marketers need to have
       a feel for their prospective market beyond broad demographics. Japan-VALS
       provide the understanding of people's psychology necessary to develop
       advertising that talks to them in their own language.

       VALS FRAMEWORK with reference to Mobile Handsets & Services

                                                  High Resources High Innovation
Primary Motivation

       Videocon                   Achievers                IDEA

       Thinkers                   Nokia                    Experience
       IDEAl                                               s

                                  TATADocomo               Reliance
                                  Strivers                 Makers

                                                   Low Resources Low Innovation

1. Innovators – Sophisticated, high self esteem, upscale and image is

2. Thinkers – Conservative, practical, income allows many choices, look for

3. Achievers – Goal oriented lifestyle, image is very important.

4. Experiencers – Like ―cool stuff,‖ like excitement and variety’ spend a high
   proportion of income on fashion.

5. Believers – Conservative, like familiar and established brands.

6. Strivers – Trendy and fun loving, money defines success, concerned about
   the opinion of others.

7. Makers – Practical people, do it yourself, unimpressed by material
   possessions, prefer value to luxury.

8. Survivors – Few resources, buy at a discount, very modest market, little
   motivation to buy.
        Reasons behind Brand Switching:-

 Customers find it uncomfortable if product quality starts falling.

 Unavailability of product brand and variant which they have demanded for.

 Customer often switches to other brand if he gets variety and uniqueness in
  other brands.

 Price escalation or hike also leads to brand switching that can be because of
  availability of other brand at competitive price or his purchasing power not
  allows to him to pay beyond a limit.

 Low research and development which not provide improvisation in product
   quality and standards.

 Inconsistent Brand positioning of the product and brand.

 Customer did not possess the desired satisfaction level which lures his
  attention towards alternatives available in the market.

 Kleptomaniac customers who don’t believe in brand loyalty they just wish to
  taste and consume every kind of product and utility possession.

   “According to estimates made by American marketing
   Association it takes 4 times more expenditure to get a
   new customer then retaining a potential customer”
Table Representing My Brand Switching Motives
Product           Earliest Brand   Switched Brands   Motives

Bath Soap         Lux               Dettol           Fragnence,Ingredients

Toothpaste        Colgate          Close-up          Taste & Freshness

Hair oil          Parachute        Hair n Care       Dandruff &

Mobile handsets   Nokia            Apple             Creativity & Life style



                  Faa              Axe

Face Cream        Fair N Lovely    Fair n Handsome   Ad Influence
Undergarments         Teen Ekka            Gen X                 Comfort

Computer System       LG                   Compaq                Technical Sharpness

Tooth Brush           Colgate              Oral B                Brushes

Shaving Cream         Old Spice            Axe                   Smoothness

This is how I have shifted between various brands and products with accordance to
my needs and life style to keep it flowing with comfort and glory. Somewhere
advertisements have also grabbed my attention because of that I have shifted to
other brand from earlier brand.

In real customers also not is always interested to switch to other brands, but its
situation and market factors which pushes his thought process and he switches to
other brand. Apart from it a customer always not enjoys after switching to other
brands like once I have switched to Bajaj Almond drop hair oil from hair and care and
I didn’t enjoyed doing so finally I switched back to my earlier trusted brand and felt

So this is how things goes sometimes you enjoy after switching to other brands , but
many a times you starts criticizing yourself for opting a decision to leave your loyal
brand and switching to other brand and that can effect your brand portfolio your taste
and preferences. So its good that first you critically evaluate every other factor and
market condition along with your earlier brands experience before leaving your
trusted brand and adopting a new brand or sometimes adopting a new brand.
Celebrity Endorsements and Resultants

A brief introduction
Endorsement is a channel of brand communication in which a celebrity acts as the
brand’s spokesperson and certifies the brand’s claim and position by extending
his/her personality, popularity, stature in the society or expertise in the field to the
brand. In a market with a very high proliferation of local, regional and international
brands, celebrity endorsement was thought to provide a distinct differentiation. But
over the years, many aspiring brands in Asia have jumped on to this celebrity
endorsement bandwagon. Even though endorsements have taken on a quasi-
industry stature, there is hardly any hugely successful collaboration as those of
Nike’s. There are many reasons for such a happening. The next section addresses
this issue.

Essentials of celebrity endorsements
Even though to an observer it may seem that Nike’s success is totally based on
Tiger Wood’s association with the brand, nothing can be far from the truth. As a
brand, Nike has established a very strong brand identity and a brand personality
over the years. What Nike did was to use celebrity endorsement as one of the main
channels of communicating its brand to a highly focused set of customers. So, Nike’s
association with Tiger Woods was one of the parts of an entire branding process that
Nike has been practicing consistently. Contrary to this, most of the brands in Asia
that have used celebrity endorsements have used it as the main brand building tool.
Before any brand signs on a celebrity, they should consider three main aspects.

      Attractiveness of the celebrity: This principle states that an attractive
       endorser will have a positive impact on the endorsement. The endorser
       should be attractive to the target audience in certain aspects like physical
       appearance, intellectual capabilities, athletic competence, and lifestyle. It has
       been proved that an endorser that appears attractive as defined above has a
       grater chance of enhancing the memory of the brand that he/she endorses.
      Credibility of the celebrity: This principle states that for any brand-celebrity
       collaboration to be successful, the personal credibility of the celebrity is
       crucial. Credibility is defined here as the celebrities’ perceived expertise and
       trustworthiness. As celebrity endorsements act as an external cue that enable
       consumers to sift through the tremendous brand clutter in the market, the
       credibility factor of the celebrity greatly influences the acceptance with

      Meaning transfer between the celebrity and the brand: This principle
       states that the success of the brand-celebrity collaboration heavily depends
       on the compatibility between the brand and the celebrity in terms of identity,
       personality, positioning in the market vis-à-vis competitors, and lifestyle.
       When a brand signs on a celebrity, these are some of the compatibility factors
       that have to exist for the brand to leverage the maximum from that

Even though these three major principles must be adhered to by companies,
practically it might be difficult to find celebrities that satisfy all these three conditions.
Depending on the nature of the brand and the kind of product being used,
companies can selectively emphasize one factor over the other.

Celebrity endorsements – Do’s and Don’ts

All brands must be aware of some of the important aspects of celebrity branding as
discussed below:

      Consistency and long-term commitment: As with branding, companies
       should try to maintain consistency between the endorser and the brand to
       establish a strong personality and identity. More importantly, companies
       should view celebrity endorsements as long-term strategic decisions affecting
       the brand.
   Three prerequisites to selecting celebrities: Before signing on celebrities
    to endorse their brands, companies need to ensure that they meet three basic
    prerequisites, namely the endorser should be attractive, have a positive image
    in the society, and be perceived as having the necessary knowledge
    (although it might be difficult for a celebrity to meet all three prerequisites)

   Celebrity–brand match: Consistent with the principles discussed earlier,
    companies should ensure a match between the brand being endorsed and the
    endorser so that the endorsements are able to strongly influence the thought
    processes of consumers and create a positive perception of the brand.

   Constant monitoring: Companies should monitor the behaviour, conduct
    and public image of the endorser continuously to minimize any potential
    negative publicity. One of the most effective ways to do this is to ensure that
    celebrity endorsement contracts are effectively drafted, keeping in mind any
    such negative events.

   Selecting unique endorsers: Companies should try to bring on board those
    celebrities who do not endorse competitors’ products or other quite different
    products, so that there is a clear transfer of personality and identity between
    the endorser and the brand.

   Timing: As celebrities command a high price tag, companies should be on
    the constant lookout for emerging celebrities who show some promise and
    potential and sign them on in their formative years if possible to ensure a win–
    win situation.

   Brand over endorser: When celebrities are used to endorse brands, one
    obvious result could be the potential overshadowing of the brand by the
    celebrity. Companies should ensure that this does not happen by formulating
    advertising collaterals and other communications.

   Celebrity endorsement is just a channel: Companies must realize that
    having a celebrity endorsing a brand is not a goal in itself; rather it is one part
    of the communication mix that falls under the broader category of sponsorship
      Celebrity ROI: Even though it is challenging to measure the effects of
       celebrity endorsements on companies’ brands, companies should have a
       system combining quantitative and qualitative measures to measure the
       overall effect of celebrity endorsements on their brands.

      Trademark and legal contracts: Companies should ensure that the
       celebrities they hire are on proper legal terms so that they don’t endorse
       competitors’ products in the same product category, thereby creating
       confusion in the minds of the consumers.

These guidelines are intended to provide companies a useful framework that they
can use while deciding on the celebrities to endorse their brand.


The important aspect that companies must note is that celebrity endorsements
cannot replace the comprehensive brand building processes. As branding evolves as
a discipline companies must be extra cautious to utilize every possible channel of
communication rather than just a celebrity endorsement. When all other steps in the
branding process is followed and implemented, then channels such as celebrity
endorsements can provide the cutting edge as it did for Nike.
Table Showing impact of Celebrity Endorsements:-

Former Brand           Adopted Brand       Brand Ambassador          Reason

Dollar Club            Micro Men           Hrithik Roshan            Follow Up

Reebok Bat             MRF                 Sachin Tendulkar          Inspiration

Lamborghini Car        Ferrari Car         Michael Schumakar         Motivation

Banful Tel             Navratna Oil        Amitabh Bacchan           Adaptability

Coca Cola              Thums Up            Akshay Kumar              Sportiness

Addidas                Nike                Michael Jordon            Role Model

Maruti        Suzuki Hyundai Santro        Shahrukh Khan             Fan Following
Lux Inner Ware         Dollar Club         Salman Khan               Macho look

Local DTH              Tata Sky            Amir Khan                 Fan Following

Local Hair Remover     Veet                Katrina Kaif              Beauty Quotient

Tanisk                 Nakshatra           Aishwarya Rai             Inspiration

In above given brand switching and adopting different brand we can see and assume
how celebrity endorsement and advertisement campaigns are influencing the
television watchers and loyal and potential customer of any braded product and due
to this they often changes their brands and adopts new brand of product. Even I after
looking at Hrithik Roshan wearing Micro men premium innerwear’s started buying
and using that product brand and even its really a nice product at competitive price
so thanks to company to offer a wonderful product and that too endorsing it by one of
the most dashing actor Hrithik Roshan.
NIKE –Brand Possession and Celebrity Endorsements

Nike is known around the world for being one of the most iconic brands. It was
recently ranked as the world’s 31st most valuable brand in terms of its brand value –
USD10.8 billion – by the annual Business Week’s global top 100 brand survey. In
spite of many market maneuvers (such as the recent merger between Adidas and
Reebok), Nike has remained the leader in its category. Nike is also very well known
for another aspect and that is its consistent use of celebrities to endorse the brand.
In fact one of the most successful collaborations between a brand and a celebrity is
that of Nike and Michael Jordan.

So successful was the collaboration that Nike and Jordan launched a new brand
variant called the Air Jordan line of sport shoes. Nike pulled off a very similar coup in
the sports industry when it joined forces with the ace golfer Tiger Woods to enter the
golf category with its apparel, equipment and accessories. Nike had no experience in
golf before. Moreover, golf being a very elite game, it was generally considered that
a brand like Nike would not be very successful. This might have probably been true
had Nike chosen the traditional path to building its equity in the golfing arena. But
Nike chose to associate with the best golfer in the world and have him endorse the
brand. As is known today, Nike has emerged highly successful in golf.
                        Analysis and Observation:-

After analyzing all the constraints and factors we come to know that majority of the
customers switch between brands in today’s scenario and that is not because they
seek thrill in doing, so instead sometimes they suffer to in the form of not getting the
expected quality and output from utilization of newly adopted or switched brand.

The main constraints behind brand switching is manufacturers who are not able to
keep their promise to deliver better product at competitive price, marketers not able
to put or expose their product in better way and part of those producers who are not
delivering the qualitative product which makes customer looking at other brands or
adopting different brands to cater their needs.

Jack Trout and Al Ries has rightly said that it is all up to you what positioning and
brand image your products possess and that reasonably depends how you segment
your product for varied market locations and core competency of product which only
can repeat the consumer buying process and if customer does it twice he is loyal to
your brand and depends to your product performance hardly he will try to other
brand unless your products quality falls it looses its standard or you became more
profitability oriented. So its always better that you keep eyeing the customer
prospective need sets and your competitors strategy if you are successful in doing
so your set of potential customers will be more and brand loyalty for your product will
sustain long lasting.

Above all exceptional cases are always there you will find n number of customers
who believes in brand switching its like a passion for them and that’s because they
are intended to taste all possible set of brands and they get thrill in doing so
switching between brands having different-2 taste and different-2 exposure which too
is somehow related to luring of marketers and advertisements and sales promotion
campaigns organized by different-2 marketers to bring the attention of customers
towards their brand and respective product.
               Findings of this study:-
 Consumer behaviours understanding are very necessary to be a successful
   player in the market.

 Marketers who often becomes focused more about their profitability and goals
   fails to deliver the expected quality product and that betrayed them from their
   potential customers.

 Price of your product, your competitor, quality essence in your product and its
   availability in the market this all decides whether customers will strict to your
   brand or they will switch to other brand.

 Celebrity endorsements and theirs fan following relationship deepens the rate
   of brand switching.

 Positioning of your product and advertisement play the important role in
   getting your brand set of loyal customers.

 In today’s competitive age level of research and development required is very
   high perhaps it can be the key for you.

 Market factors like demand supply up and downs helps the marketer to
   estimate his market share and presence.

 Market share of any product or brand solely depends upon the brand loyalty
   shown by the prospective customers if there will be more loyal customers of
   your brand sales volume of your product will be high.

 Buying frequency analysis helps to determine the range of loyal customers.

 Brand duplication and fraudulent trade practices are spoiling the image of
   different brand as well as its capturing the market share of players.
              Questionnaire and Data Interpretation Analysis

Dear Sir/Madam

I most humbly request you to please respond to my certain questions which will help me to depict
conclusion for study conducted by me on topic entitled...

‖Study on Brand Switching in Consumer Products‖

I sincerely assure you about keeping your valuable opinions and relevant information provided by you
will be kept confidential and safe.

Further I will appreciate your cooperation and help to let me complete my respective report.

Name of the

Age (Yrs)……………….                         Gender Male                  Female


Contact Number


Que1. Does it really matter for you to be brand conscious?

       Yes                          No

Que2. What does a brand mean to you?

   (a). Assured Quality                  (b). Unique Product

   (c).Costlier Stuff                     (d). After Sales Services

Que3. Do you Believes in Brand Loyalty?

      Yes                      No
Que4. Which is your favourite brand?

   Please Specify

Que5. How often you switch between brands?

   (a).   Slowly                               (c). Moderately

   (b). Rapidly                                (d). Didn’t Switch

Que6. What is unique about your liked brand?

   Please Specify

Que7. If you have switched to another brand what was the reason behind that?

    (a) Price factor                   (b) Bad Quality

     (c) Unavailability                (d) after sales services

Que8. Any Product brand you would say has consistently sustained its all essence of a perfect brand?

   Please Specify

Que9. Which brand you think has transformed itself through Change/Transformation?

   Please Specify

Que10. Any tagline or punch line of any brand whenever comes which brand your mind recalls?

   Please Specify

Que11. Any recommendation from your side to bring in your brands portfolio?

       Please Specify………………………………………………………………………………………..

                              THANKS Allot

Note: - Opinions and Information provided by you will be kept confidential.
             Data Analysis and Interpretation

Sample Size Taken 40
1. Does it really matter for you to be brand conscious?

              Yes                    NO

              88%                    12%

                          No. of respondents


            50%                                No. of

                    Yes         No

2. What does a brand mean to you?

                                  No. of respondents


                                                  After Sales Services
3. Do you believe in brand loyalty?

    Yes                    NO

    78%                    22%

                    No. of respondents


   4. How often you switch between brands?

Opinions                        No. of respondents
Slowly                          45
Rapidly                         55

                No. of respondents


                                         No. of
   20%                                   respondents

           Slowly     Rapidly

Someone has nicely said in today’s scenario wireless technology and internet is
playing a very important role that is unleashing the information creating its sharing
and to make the task easier and sophisticated.

So I too can’t get it away without the help of some good website and web links it
would not have been easier to prepare any report required.

Books consulted are given below:-

Damodar N Gujrati

Philip Kotler

Websites consulted are listed below:-

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