Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization - Jens Peter Kofoed by Mikiozas

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									                 Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization



                                          Jens Peter Kofoed
                                    Aalborg University
                              Department of Civil Engineering
                               Wave Energy Research Group




Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                                          Background
     • Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, consisting of three
          divisions:
           – Architectural Engineering
           – Structural Mechanics
           – Water and Soil

     • Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory
            –   Hydrodynamics
            –   Hydraulics
            –   Hydrology
            –   Coastal engineering
            –   Offshore engineering
            –   R&D within the field of wave energy since 1995
     •                         Wave Energy Research Group

Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                           Wave Energy Research Group
   At Aalborg University,
      Department of Civil Engineering,
      Division of Water & Soil
   • Staff 5-10
   • Profile:Waves, Mechanics,
             Hydro Dynamics, Control
   • Experimentiel testing in lab. and at sea
   • 2x 3-D wave tanks, wave and current flumes
   • Main operator in Nissum Bredning
   • Instrumentation for measuring “anything” 
   • Numerical modelling


Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                           Wave Energy Research Group
   • Have been involved in more than 40+
        concepts/projects over the past 10-12
        years
   •    Partner in 4 ongoing EU financed
        projects
   •    Involved in all primary Danish, and
        numerous international, concept
        developments within the sector
   •    National and international
        standardization efforts
   •    Teaching, courses (M.Sc./Ph.D./external)




Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                                          Course Program

  • Lecture 1 (JPK):
      Overview of the wave energy sector / The Wave Dragon Case
  •   Lecture 2 (JPK):
      Overview of existing wave energy converter technologies
  •   Lecture 3 (JPK):
      Hydraulic and structural evaluation and development of wave energy
      concepts
  •   Lecture 4 (JFC):
      Performance evaluation of wave energy concept prototypes
  •   Lecture 5 (JFC):
      Integration of wave energy into the grid

Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                                      Practical information

      • Course website:
           http://www.waveenergy.civil.aau.dk/OES_course_B9K_2010/
      • Lecture plan:
           http://www.ksn.bio.aau.dk/BSN/SkemaUddannelse/Kla1A_BK9.htm
      • Litt. for first lecture:
           Waveplam – State of the Art Analysis.
              Chap. 3 + App. A
           OMAE 2010 paper:
           Assessing the Global Wave Energy Potential


Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
    Overview of the Wave Energy Sector
                  •   Why care about Wave Energy?
                  •   Wave Energy Resources
                  •   How many people work with WE?
                  •   Where is the interest largest?
                  •   Some examples of interest
                  •   Who is investing?
                  •   Socio Economic & Environmental Impacts
                  •   Barriers to Overcome

Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                     Why wave energy?
  The Inconvenient Truth – Al Gore
   As with other renewable energy sources:
      • Climate change (CO2 problem)
      • The finite ressource of fussil fuels (oil,
    wonderingmind42 on youtube.com
     coal, gas, uranium)
      • Security of supply – political stability
          The World Energy Problem
      • Jobs

                    - Miguel Prado
         Never say never
                                            Lect. 1, p. 104
       1974, Risø report:
                        Slides on www.teamwork.nl
        ”Vindenergi vil aldrig kunne bidrage
      væsentligt til elproduktionen i Danmark”

                                          click ’portfolio’
        ”Vindenergi vil aldrig blive rentabelt”

Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
In one word ...                  (2007)



                              1.6 kg/day




                              0.9 kg/day
1.5 kg/day




                              2.6 kg/day



                              10 g/year



             100 W   2100 W   5.1 kg/day
And for different countries ?
    Non-Renewable Fuels in kg/day ...                                                    (2007)



                                                                      34 million t/day

                                                 5.1 kg/day
                                        23.6
                                       kg/day



                                                                                15.4
                                                                       11.6    kg/day
                                                                      kg/day
                                                6.4 kg/day

                            2.0                               1.4
                           kg/day                            kg/day

                              BR       USA         CN         IN       DE       NL
Source: BP - Statistical Review 2008
    Non-Renewable Fuels in W ...                                                     (2007)



                                                                         13.8 TW

                                                   2100 W

                                       10.2 kW


                                                                            7.4 kW


                                                                   4.9 kW


                                                 1.8 kW
                            0.9 kW                        0.4 kW

                              BR        USA       CN        IN      DE       NL
Source: BP - Statistical Review 2008
If   =               =            ...


                                                 23 TW

                           3400 W

              10.2 kW


                                                    7.4 kW


                         4.9 kW   4.9 kW   4.9 kW



     0.9 kW

      BR       USA        CN        IN      DE       NL
If   =               =             ...


                                                   36 TW

                           5400 W

              10.2 kW    10.2 kW   10.2 kW


                                                      7.4 kW


                                             4.9 kW



     0.9 kW

      BR       USA        CN         IN       DE       NL
If       =               ...


                                                     68 TW

                               10200 W

     10.2 kW   10.2 kW    10.2 kW   10.2 kW   10.2 kW   10.2 kW




      BR        USA            CN     IN        DE        NL
What about our reserves of
non-renewable fuels ?


   ?      ?      ?       ?
   Official Proven Reserves at                                                                                         (2007)
   constant production ...

                                                      131 year




                                                                              80 year                        76 year
                                60 year
         43 year




                        +                     +                      +                                   =   Total

Source: BP - Statistical Review 2008; Energy Watch Group, “Uranium Resources and Nuclear Energy”, 2006
If                 =                 =             ...




                                     80 year


                                                   49 year       47 year
                       37 year
     26 year




               +                 +             +             =   Total
If                 =                 =             ...




                                     51 year

                                                   31 year       30 year
                       23 year
     16 year




               +                 +             +             =   Total
If                =               ...




                                27 year
                  12 year                     16 year       16 year
     9 year




              +             +             +             =   Total
In one word ...
Power
(TW)
  70                   =


  60


  50


  40
                                =         =

  30
                                              =         =
  20
                                                       87% WEC (2007)
  10



        10   20   30       40       50   60       70   80   90   100     time
                                                                        (year)
So we still have 76 years without worries?
        40


        35


        30


        25
 (TW)




        20


        15

                                           ?
        10


        5


        0
        1850   1900   1950   2000   2050   2100   2150
No ...
        40


        35


        30


        25
                                            ?
 (TW)




        20
                                                  ?
        15
                                    Oil


        10                          Gas


        5                           Coal
                                    U
                                    RE
        0
        1850   1900   1950   2000          2050       2100   2150
Maybe switch to coal ...
        40


        35


        30


        25
                                                  ?
 (TW)




        20


        15
                                    Oil


        10                          Gas


        5                           Coal
                                    U
                                    RE
        0
        1850   1900   1950   2000          2050       2100   2150
Maybe switch directly to new sources ...
        40


        35


        30


        25
 (TW)




        20


        15
                                    Oil


        10                          Gas


        5                           Coal
                                    U
                                    RE
        0
        1850   1900   1950   2000          2050   2100   2150
But it takes time to switch ...
        40


        35


        30


        25
 (TW)




        20


        15
                                    Oil


        10                          Gas


        5                           Coal
                                    U
                                    RE
        0
        1850   1900   1950   2000          2050   2100   2150
Demand will increase ...
        40

                                                         = 3.4 kW    ?
        35


        30


        25
                             IEA-2006
 (TW)




        20


        15
                                    Oil


        10                          Gas


        5                           Coal
                                    U
                                    RE
        0
        1850   1900   1950   2000          2050   2100        2150
and CO2 emission constraints !
        40

                                                                = 3.4 kW    ?
        35


        30


        25
                             IEA-2006
 (TW)




        20


        15                          CO2 CO
                                    Oil
                                    CO2
                                           2  CO2
                                            CO2
                                    CO2 CO2
        10                          CO2 CO2 CO2 CO
                                    Gas            2
                                    CO2  CO2 CO     CO2    CO2
                                                2
                                    CO2  CO2 CO CO2 CO CO2 CO CO2 CO
        5                           Coal        2     2      2
                                         CO2 CO CO2 CO CO2 CO CO2
                                                                    2
                                    CO2       2      2          2
                                    U
                                    RE
        0
        1850   1900   1950   2000          2050          2100        2150
This is the Energy Problem !
       The World Energy Problem
~120.000 TW - Miguel Prado
                                          Lect. 3

                         Slides on www.teamwork.nl
                               click ’portfolio’




Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
What renewable sources
does our planet have?
What renewable sources
does our planet have?
               Tidal




                         Geothermal
  Solar
    Tidal Energy

                                             3.2 TW
                                              (20% of WEC)




                                0.5 TW
                                   (3% of WEC)




                                                          Atmospheric Tides
                                                                  Earth Tides
                                                                 Ocean Tides


Source: Munk et al., “Abyssal Recipes II: energetics of tidal and wind mixing”, Deep Sea-Research Part I, Vol. 45, 1998
   Geothermal Energy


                       30-44 TW
                               (2-3 x WEC)




                                                                                        60-85 mW/m2




Source: Ahrens, T. J. “Global Earth Physics – A Handbook of physical constants”, 1995
   Solar Energy


                   174000 TW
                             (11000 x WEC)




                                                                                        1366 W/m2




                                  63 MW/m2


Source: Ahrens, T. J. “Global Earth Physics – A Handbook of physical constants”, 1995
What happens to all this
Solar Energy ?
    30% is reflected ...




                                                                                                                                        30%


                                                                     100%                                                  52.000 TW
                                                                                                                             (3300 x WEC)




Source: Goode, P. R. et .al., “Earthshine Obsevations of the Earth’s Reflectance”, Geographical Research Letters, 28 (9), pp. 1671-1674, 2001
                              Infrared
70% absorbed and reradiated
back to space...
                                               70%
                                         122.000 TW
                                          (7700 x WEC)




                  100%
The balance of the solar
energy flux ...
                                        70%
                                  122.000 TW
                                   (7700 x WEC)




                           100%
                                   30%
The absorbed Solar Energy before leaving ...
                    Ocean Waves
      Wind          and Currents            Hydropower




  Oceanic Biomass           Terrestrial Biomass
In old civilizations, the Sun
meant “Source of life” ...




           Inti                 Aten
           (Inca)               (Egyptian)
Today it seams to mean only
“good weather” ...
How does Life gets its
energy ?
At the Land ...
In the Ocean ...
And deep in the Ocean ?
Life also uses energy for
heating ...
How humans get 87% of
theirs energy ?
In one word ...




                  122000 TW


                               2 TW




                       14 TW
Are we able to join our
planet ?




               122000 TW


                            2 TW




                    14 TW
                      Annual gross theoretical average wave energy flux (kW/m)
                                          (WorldWaves Grid Points)

Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                              The Wave Energy Resource




Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
            Annual net theoretical coastal power worldwide
            (excluding contributions where P ≤5 kW/m and
                     potentially ice covered areas)
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                            Ocean Energy Potential
                 •   Waves – 3.0-3.7 TW (TW ~ 1012 W)
                 •   Ocean Currents – 0,05 TW
                 •   Tidal – 0,2 TW
                 •   Ocean Thermal – 3,8 TW
                 •   Osmotic – 2,3 TW

                 • World energy consumption ~ 15 TW
                     (140 x 1012 kWh/y) (El. ~ 10 % hereof)
                 •   (2005)
                 •   OBS: Global solenergi: 120.000 TW - ca. 8.000 gange verdens forbrug!



Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
             Wave energy potential, regional
  • El. comsumption, DK: 3,7 GW
  • At the Danish west coast (offshore):
     – up to 25 MW/km
     – Average ca. 16 MW/km
     – ~150 km available ~ 2,4 GW
  • Nordatlantic european coasts: 25 - 75
    MW/km
  • Mediterranean Sea: 4 - 11 MW/km
  • European net potentiale: ~ 286 GW

                                          European Wave Energy Resource
                                                    [kW/m]
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                               Wave Energy Potential, DK
                                           11
                                      14


      24
                                                0,4
                                           7          1



                               16
                                     12    7




Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                                          An example
      • IDA2030:
            – Wave power delivers 5 % of DK
              electricity consumption (35
              TWh/y) through 500 MW installed
              WEC capacity.
            – Assumptions:                                         14
                                                                        11


               • 40 % load factor
                                                         24
               • 10 % overall efficiency (farm layout)
               • 15 MW/km average available wave                        7

                      power
            – Result:                                         16
                                                                   12   7

               • Use of 133 km
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                 Where is the interest ?
                 • Ireland
                 • Scotland
                 • Portugal
                 • England
                 • Spain
                 • Korea
                 • New Zeeland
                 • Australia
                 • Denmark
                 • USA
                 • Canada
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                                                     96 WE companies world wide....
        COMPANY                                      TECHNOLOGY                                              COUNTRY BASE   49   Muroran Institute of Technology                  Pendulor                                             Japan
   1    Able Technologies L.L.C.                     Electric Generating Wave Pipe                           USA            50   Neptune Renewable Energy Ltd                     Triton                                               UK
   2    Applied Technologies Company Ltd             Float Wave Electric Power Station                       Russia         51   Neptune Systems                                  MHD Neptune                                          Netherlands
   3    Aqua Energy / Finevara Renewables            Aqua Buoy                                               USA            52   Norwegian University of Science and Technology   CONWEC                                               Norway
   4    Aquamarine Power                             Oyster                                                  UK             53   Ocean Energy Ltd                                 Ocean Energy Buoy                                    Ireland
   5    Atmocean                                     Atmocean                                                USA            54   Ocean Motion International                       OMI Combined Energy System                           USA
   6    AW Energy                                    Waveroller                                              Finland        55   Ocean Navitas                                    Aegir Dynamo                                         UK
   7    AWS Ocean Energy                             Archimedes Wave Swing                                   UK             56   Ocean Power Technologies                         Power Buoy                                           UK / USA
   8    Balkee Tide and Wave Electricity Generator   TWPEG                                                   Mautitius      57   Ocean Wave Energy Company                        OWEC                                                 USA
   9    BioPower Systems Pty Ltd                     bioWave                                                 Australia      58   Ocean Wavemaster Ltd                             Wave Master                                          UK
   10   Bourne Energy                                OceanStar ocean power system                            USA            59   Oceanic Power                                    Seaheart                                             Spain
   11   Brandl Motor                                 Brandl Generator                                        Germany        60   Oceanlinx (formerly Energetech)                  Denniss-Auld Turbine                                 Australia
   12   Caley Ocean Systems                          Wave Plane                                              UK/Denmark     61   Offshore Islands Limited                         Wave Catcher                                         USA
   13   Checkmate Seaenergy UK Ltd.                  Anaconda                                                UK             62   Offshore Wave Energy Ltd                         OWEL Energy Converter                                UK
   14   College of the North Atlantic                Wave Powered Pump                                       Canada         63   ORECon                                           MRC 1000                                             UK
   15                                                Direct Drive Permanent Magnet Linear Generator Buoy /                  64   OWWE (Ocean Wave and Wind Energy)                Wave Pump Rig                                        Norway
        Columbia Power Technologies                  Permanent Magnet Rack and Pinion Generator Buoy /       USA
                                                     Contact-less Force Transmission Generator Buoy                         65   Pelagic Power AS                                 PelagicPower                                         Norway
   16   C-Wave                                       C-wave                                                  UK             66   Pelamis Wave Power                               Pelamis                                              UK
   17   Daedalus Informatics Ltd                     Wave Energy Conversion Activator                        Greece         67   Renewable Energy Holdings                        CETO                                                 AUS / UK
   18   Delbuoy                                      Wave Powered Desalination                               USA            68   Renewable Energy Pumps                           Wave Water Pump (WWP)                                USA
   19   DEXA Wave UK Ltd                             DEXA Wave Energy Converter                              USA            69   Sara Ltd                                         MHD Wave Energy Conversion (MWEC)                    USA
   20   Ecofys                                       Wave Rotor                                              Netherlands    70   SDE                                              S.D.E                                                Israel
   21   Ecole Centrale de Nantes                     SEAREV                                                  France         71   Sea Power International AB                       Streamturbine                                        Sweden
   22   Edinburgh University                         Sloped IBS Buoy                                         UK             72   Seabased AB                                      Linear generator (Islandsberg project)               Sweden
   23   ELGEN Wave                                   Horizon Platform                                        USA            73   Seawood Designs Inc                              SurfPower                                            Canada
   24                                                                                                                       74   SEEWEC Consortium                                FO3 device, previously as Buldra                     UK
   25   Embley Energy                                Sperboy                                                 UK             75   SeWave Ltd                                       OWC                                                  Faroe Islands
   26   Energias de Portugal                         Foz do Douro breakwater                                 Portugal       76   Sieber Energy Inc                                SieWave                                              Canada
   27   Float Inc.                                   Pneumatically Stabilized Platform                       USA            77                                                    Generator utilizing patented electroactive polymer
                                                                                                                                 SRI International                                                                                     USA
                                                                                                                                                                                  artificial muscle (EPAMT) technology
   28   Floating Power Plant ApS (F.P.P.)            Poseidon's Organ                                        Denmark
                                                                                                                            78   Swell Fuel                                       Lever Operated Pivoting Float                        USA
   29   Fobox AS                                     FO3                                                     Norway
                                                                                                                            79   SyncWave                                         SyncWave                                             Canada
   30   Fred Olsen & Co./Ghent University            SEEWEC                                                  Norway / EU
                                                                                                                            80   Trident Energy Ltd, Direct Thrust Designs Ltd    The Linear Generator                                 UK
   31   GEdwardCook                                  Syphon Wave Generator                                   USA
                                                                                                                            81   Union Electrica Fenosa of Spain                  OWC                                                  Spain
   32   GEdwardCook                                  Floating Wave Generator                                 USA
                                                                                                                            82   University of Edinburgh                          Salter's Duck                                        N.A.
   33   Green Ocean Energy Ltd                       Ocean Treader WEC                                       UK
                                                                                                                            83   Vortex Oscillation Technology ltd                Vortex oscillation                                   Russia
   34   Greencat Renewables                          Wave Turbine                                            UK
                                                                                                                            84   Wave Dragon                                      Wave Dragon                                          Wales / Denmark
   35   GyroWaveGen                                  GyroWaveGen                                             USA
                                                                                                                            85   Wave Energy                                      Seawave Slot-Cone Generator                          Norway
   36   Hydam Technology                             McCabe Wave Pump                                        Ireland
                                                                                                                            86   Wave Energy Centre (WaVEC)                       Pico plant                                           Portugal
   37   Independent Natural Resources                SEADOG                                                  USA
                                                                                                                            87   Wave Energy Technologies Inc.                    WET EnGen™                                           Canada
   38   Indian Wave Energy Device                    IWAVE                                                   India
                                                                                                                            88   Wave Energy Technology                           (WET-NZ)                                             New Zealand
   39   Ing Arvid Nesheim                            Oscillating Device                                      Norway
                                                                                                                            89   Wave Power Group                                 Salter Duck, Sloped IPS                              UK
   40   Instituto Superior Tecnico                   Pico OWC                                                Portugal
                                                                                                                            90   Wave Star Energy ApS                             Wave Star                                            Denmark
   41   Interproject Service (IPS) AB                IPS OWEC Buoy                                           Sweden
                                                                                                                            91   Waveberg Development                             Waveberg                                             Canada
   42   JAMSTEC                                      Mighty Whale                                            Japan
                                                                                                                            92   WaveBob Limited                                  Wave Bob                                             Ireland
   43   Joules Energy Efficiency Services Ltd        TETRON                                                  Ireland
                                                                                                                            93   Wavegen (Siemens)                                Limpet                                               UK
   44   Lancaster University                         PS Frog                                                 England
                                                                                                                            94   Wavemill Energy                                  Wavemill                                             Canada
   45   Langlee Wave Power                           Langlee System                                          Norway
                                                                                                                            95   WavePlane Production                             Wave Plane                                           Denmark
        Leancon Wave Energy                          Multi Absorbing Wave Energy Converter (MAWEC)           Denmark
                                                                                                                            96   WindWavesAndSun                                  WaveBlanket                                          USA
   46   Manchester Bobber                            Manchester Bobber                                       UK
   47   Martifer Energia                             ONDA 1                                                  Portugal
   48   Motor Wave                                   Motor Wave                                              Hong Kong




Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                                          49 in Europe...




Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
       Installed Capacity: What has been installed?

       • Wave ~ 3 MW
                    • Limpet, Islay – 0.5 MW
                    • Pelamis, Portugal – 3x 0.75 MW
                    • Indian device, Pico Azores, Sweedish Götenburg
       • Tidal ~ 266 MW
                    • Barrage – 240MW La Rance; 20MW CA; 5MW China
                    • Current – 1MW, MCT, IE; 0.5MW, Verdant, USA Hammerfest,
                       Norway
       • OTEC ~ 0.2 MW
                    • Hawaii, USA
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                             European Test Site Locations




Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                              How many works with WE?
      • Full-time jobs in the sector (Denmark):
      • Inventors: Wave Star 15, Wave Plane 4, Wave
           Dragon 3…
      •    Universities: AaU 7, DtU 1
      •    Utillities: DONG 3
      •    Private Companies: ~10. Balslev, Niras, KK, …….
      •    The sector is small but still something like 100 full
           time jobs in Denmark.
      •    A guess on the global number of people working
           within the sector could be 2000.
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
      Socio Economic & Environmental Impacts:

      • 10-20 jobs per MW installed
      • Mainly in Remote Areas

      • Requirement for more Energy Storage

      • Environmental Impact on the Ocean
      • Totally New way of using the Ocean
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
   Some Examples of Interest for Ocean Energy
   • Oil Companies become Energy Companies
   • Growing interest from media and public. WERG has often
        journalists/television visitors.
   •    Still new inventions coming out every year
   •    Increased demand for courses on the subject.
   •    Minister, COP15 host, visiting.
   •    Companies calling asking for good projects to invest in.
   •    IEC / DS /BS Standardisation
   •    Danish Industrian Association www.weia.dk
   •    European Industrian Association www.eu-oea.com
   •    INORE www.inore.org
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                                                           Check targets!




                                          Contact Information:
                                          Tel : +32 (0)2 400 10 40
       July 22, 2008                      Fax: +32 (0)2 791 90 00
                                              WREC
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                                      Who is investing ?

      •    National Governments
      •    EU
      •    Private Companies without knowledge of the sector
      •    Private Companies with knowledge of the sector
      •    Utillities
      •    Universities

      • 40-60% public money.
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
    • There are ready Wave Energy Technologies out there.
    • In spite of the very high expectations on Wave Energy, present
         costs are high (~0.5 euro/kWh like PV ) and limited
         operational experience is available today.
          – Today a realistic guess on cost is 2-3 dkr/kWh.
          – Wind industry cut prices from 3 dkr/kWh to 0.3-0.6 dkr/kWh in 10-20
            years.
    • Incentives to create investments are needed. Market
         development is essential and the subsidised tariff is the most
         important mean to finance the development
          – The timescale for development is estimated to be large
    • Lots of reasons exist for development of a Wave Energy sector.
                   In the long run Wave Energy seems even to become
                                  economical competitive


Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                Kyoto 1997:
                • 2008-2012 global CO2 reduction 5.2% relative to 1990
                • EU accepted 8% reduction
                • USA accepted 7% reduction
                • Canada & Japan 6% reduction
                • 3 world contries 0%
                • Market for ROCs (USA idea to market for pollution)

                Haag 2000:
                • Example of breakdown of negotiations

                Copenhagen 2009: Practically a breakdown as well!
Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
       Barriers to overcome:

       • Legal Framework
       • Long term politics
       • Feed-in tarifs to create incentives for
         investments that can bring costs down
       • Re-organisation of the Energy Sector


Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                                          Change of focus
                             Political wish for securing supply

                             Creatiion of jobs (financial crisis)

       Focus on technology (especially hydraulic performance)

            Focus on a of technology, organisation and finansiing

             Seen from outside the lack of organization
              is a significant barrier for many developers

Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization
                                Current Danish initiatives

      • Structural Design of Wave Energy Devices –
           www.sdwed.civil.aau.dk
      •    DanWEC – www.danwec.com
      •    Partnerskab for Bølgekraft
      •    Alliancen for Grøn Offshore Energi –
           www.greenoffshore.dk/
      •    Lindoe Offshore Renewables Center – www.lorc.dk



Introduction to Wave Energy Utilization

								
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