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Multi-mode Hands Free Automatic Faucet - Patent 7690395

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Multi-mode Hands Free Automatic Faucet - Patent 7690395 Powered By Docstoc
					


United States Patent: 7690395


































 
( 1 of 1 )



	United States Patent 
	7,690,395



 Jonte
,   et al.

 
April 6, 2010




Multi-mode hands free automatic faucet



Abstract

A hands-free faucet comprises a proximity sensor, a logical control, a
     handle, a spout, and a touch control operably coupled to at least one of
     the spout and the handle.


 
Inventors: 
 Jonte; Patrick B. (Zionsville, IN), Rodenbeck; Robert W. (Indianapolis, IN), Burke; David M. (Taylor, MI), Marty; Garry R. (Fishers, IN) 
 Assignee:


Masco Corporation of Indiana
 (Indianapolis, 
IN)





Appl. No.:
                    
11/641,574
  
Filed:
                      
  December 19, 2006

 Related U.S. Patent Documents   
 

Application NumberFiling DatePatent NumberIssue Date
 10755581Jan., 20047150293
 11325128Jan., 2006
 60662107Mar., 2005
 

 



  
Current U.S. Class:
  137/624.11  ; 137/551; 251/129.04; 4/623
  
Current International Class: 
  F16K 31/02&nbsp(20060101); G05D 7/06&nbsp(20060101)
  
Field of Search: 
  
  





 137/613,624.11,801,551 251/129.04 4/623
  

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  Primary Examiner: Lee; Kevin L


  Attorney, Agent or Firm: Baker & Daniels LLP



Parent Case Text



CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION


This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser.
     No. 10/755,581, filed Jan. 12, 2004, now U.S. Pat. 7,150,293 and U.S.
     patent application Ser. No. 11/325,128, filed Jan. 4, 2006, which claims
     priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/662,107,
     filed Mar. 14, 2005, the disclosures of which are all expressly
     incorporated herein by reference.

Claims  

The invention claimed is:

 1.  A faucet comprising: a faucet body hub;  a manual valve handle movably coupled to the faucet body hub to control a manual valve, the manual valve handle being
electrically coupled to the faucet body hub;  a spout coupled to the faucet body hub by an insulator so that the spout is electrically isolated from the faucet body hub;  a capacitive sensor having an electrode coupled to one of the faucet body hub and
the manual valve handle;  and a controller coupled to the capacitive sensor, the controller determining which of the manual valve handle and the spout is touched by a user based on an output signal from the capacitive sensor.


 2.  The faucet of claim 1, wherein the capacitive sensor is a timer having an input coupled to the electrode and an output coupled to the controller.


 3.  The faucet of claim 1, wherein the controller uses the output signal from the capacitive sensor to distinguish between when the manual valve handle is tapped by the user, when the manual valve handle is grabbed by the user, when the spout is
tapped by the user, and when the spout is grabbed by the user to control operation of the faucet in different modes.


 4.  The faucet of claim 1, further comprising a proximity sensor coupled to the controller to operate the faucet in a hands-free mode of operation.


 5.  The faucet of claim 4, wherein the proximity sensor has an active state and an active state, the controller being programmed to selectively operate the faucet in one of a first mode in which the proximity sensor is inactive and a second mode
in which the proximity sensor is active, the controller also being programmed to change the faucet between the first mode and the second mode in response to detecting with the capacitive sensor a user touching at least one of the spout and the handle.


 6.  The faucet of claim 5, wherein the controller is programmed to change the faucet between the first mode and the second mode in response to substantially simultaneous touching of the spout and the handle by the user.


 7.  The faucet of claim 5, further comprising a mode indicator configured to provide an indication of at least one of the first mode and the second mode.


 8.  The faucet of claim 5, wherein the first mode is a manual mode such that positioning of the handle toggles water flow on and off.


 9.  The faucet of claim 5, wherein the second mode is a hands-free mode such that changes in the state of the proximity sensor toggles water flow on and off.


 10.  The faucet of claim 1, wherein the spout includes a removable spray head which is electrically isolated from the spout.


 11.  The faucet of claim 1, wherein the faucet is a single hole mount faucet.


 12.  The faucet of claim 2, further comprising a battery power source coupled to the timer.


 13.  The faucet of claim 12, wherein the timer is coupled to earth ground and to a ground of the battery power source.


 14.  The faucet of claim 2, wherein the timer is coupled through a capacitor the electrode of the capacitive sensor.


 15.  The faucet of claim 1, wherein the electrode is coupled to the faucet body hub and the faucet body hub is also electrically coupled to a manual valve handle.


 16.  The faucet of claim 15, wherein the faucet body hub is electrically coupled to a manual valve handle by metal-to-metal contact between the faucet body hub and the manual valve handle.


 17.  The faucet of claim 1, wherein the spout is rotatable relative to the faucet body hub.


 18.  The faucet of claim 1, wherein the spout is fixed relative to the faucet body hub


 19.  The faucet of claim 2, wherein the faucet body hub provides sufficient capacitance to earth ground for the timer to oscillate.


 20.  The faucet of claim 1, wherein spout is capacitively coupled to the faucet body hub by the insulator to provide about a 10-15 pF capacitance therebetween.


 21.  The faucet of claim 15, wherein when the manual valve handle is touched by a user, the capacitance to earth ground is directly coupled so that the capacitive sensor detects a larger capacitance difference when the manual valve handle is
touched by the user compared to when the spout is touched the user.


 22.  The faucet of claim 1, wherein the controller compares a detected frequency shift to a baseline frequency to determine whether the user touched the manual valve handle or the spout to enable the controller to make water activation
decisions.


 23.  The faucet of claim 22, wherein a larger frequency shift occurs when the manual valve handle is touched by a user than when the spout is touched by the user.


 24.  The faucet of claim 23, wherein the frequency shift when the manual valve handle is touched by a user is about 50% greater than when the spout is touched by the user.


 25.  A faucet comprising: a faucet body hub;  a manual valve handle movably coupled to the faucet body hub to control a manual valve, the manual valve handle being electrically coupled to the faucet body hub;  a spout coupled to the faucet body
hub by an insulator so that the spout is electrically isolated from the faucet body hub;  a capacitive sensor having an electrode coupled to one of the faucet body hub and the manual valve handle;  means coupled to the capacitive sensor for determining
which of the manual valve handle and the spout is touched by a user based on an output signal from the capacitive sensor;  and means for controlling the faucet in different modes of operation based on an output from the determining means.
 Description  

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


1.  Field of the Invention


The present invention generally relates to the field of automatic faucets.  More particularly, the present invention relates to an automatic faucet that uses both proximity and contact sensors in conjunction with logic that responds to various
actions to provide easy and intuitive operation.


2.  Description of the Related Art


Automatic faucets have become popular for a variety of reasons.  They save water, because water can be run only when needed.  For example, with a conventional sink faucet, when a user washes their hands the user tends to turn on the water and let
it run continuously, rather than turning the water on to wet their hands, turning it off to lather, then turning it back on to rinse.  In public bathrooms the ability to shut off the water when the user has departed can both save water and help prevent
vandalism.


One early version of an automatic faucet was simply a spring-controlled faucet, which returned to the "off" position either immediately, or shortly after, the handle was released.  The former were unsatisfactory because a user could only wash one
hand at a time, while the later proved to be mechanically unreliable.


A better solution was hands-free faucets.  These faucets employ a proximity detector and an electric power source to activate water flow, and so can be operated without a handle.  In addition to helping to conserve water and prevent vandalism,
hands-free faucets also had additional advantages, some of which began to make them popular in homes, as well as public bathrooms.  For example, there is no need to touch the faucet to activate it; with a conventional faucet, a user with dirty hands may
need to wash the faucet after washing their hands.  Non-contact operation is also more sanitary, especially in public facilities.  Hands-free faucets also provide superior accessibility for the disabled, or for the elderly, or those who need assisted
care.


Typically, these faucets use proximity detectors, such as active infrared ("IR") detectors in the form of photodiode pairs, to detect the user's hands (or other objects positioned in the sink for washing).  Pulses of IR light are emitted by one
diode with the other being used to detect reflections of the emitted light off an object in front of the faucet.  Different designs use different locations on the spout for the photodiodes, including placing them at the head of the spout, farther down
the spout near its base, or even at positions entirely separate from the spout.  Likewise, different designs use different physical mechanisms for detecting the proximity of objects, such as ultrasonic signals or changes in the magnetic permeability near
the faucet.


Examples of a hands-free faucets are given in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,566,702 to Philippe, and U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,273,394 to Vincent, and U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,363,549 to Humpert, which are hereby incorporated herein in their entireties.


Although hands-free faucets have many advantages, depending on how they are used, some tasks may best be accomplished with direct control over the starting and stopping of the flow of water.  For example, if the user wishes to fill the basin with
water to wash something the hands-free faucet could be frustrating, since it would require the user to keep their hand continuously in the detection zone of the sensors.  This is especially likely with a kitchen sink faucet, which may be used in many
different tasks, such as washing dishes and utensils.  Due to its size, the kitchen sink is often the preferred sink for filling buckets, pots, etc. Thus, there is a need for a kitchen faucet that provides water savings, but which does not interfere with
other tasks in which a continuous flow is desired.


Each of these control methods has advantages for a particular intended task.  Thus, what is needed is a faucet that provides both conventional, touch control, and hands-free operation modes, so that a user can employ the control mode that is best
suited to the task at hand.  The present invention is directed towards meeting this need, among others.


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION


In an illustrative embodiment, the present invention provides a hands-free faucet comprising a proximity sensor, a handle, and a logical control.  The logical control comprises a manual mode, wherein the proximity sensor is inactive, and wherein
positioning the handle toggles water flow on and off.  This logical control also comprises a hands-free mode, wherein water flow is toggled on and off in response to the proximity sensor.  The mode-controller toggles the faucet between the hands-free
mode and the manual mode.  The handle comprises a touch control, the touch control controlling activation of water flow through the faucet in response to contact of a user with the handle that is insufficient to change a position of the handle.


In a further illustrative embodiment, the present invention provides a hands-free faucet comprising a proximity sensor and a logical control.  The logical control comprises a manual mode, wherein the proximity sensor is inactive, and water flow
is toggled on and off by positioning the handle; a hands-free mode, wherein water flow is toggled on and off in response to the proximity sensor; and a handle.  The handle comprises a first touch control that puts the faucet in the hands-free mode when
touched by a user; a second touch control that toggles the faucet between the hands-free mode and the manual mode when touched by a user; and a mode indicator that displays which mode the faucet is presently in. The water flow has a temperature and flow
rate that is determined by the position of the handle.


In another illustrative embodiment, the present invention provides a hands-free kitchen-type faucet.


In a further illustrative embodiment, the present invention provides a kitchen-type faucet having a touch control that controls activation of water flow through the faucet in response to contact of a user with a handle, where the contact is
insufficient to change a position of the handle.


In yet another illustrative embodiment, the present invention provides a hands-free faucet comprising a manual valve; an electrically operable valve in series with the manual valve; and a logical control comprising a manual mode and a hands-free
mode, the logical control causing the electrically operable valve to open and close.  The faucet enters the manual mode when the faucet detects that water is not flowing through the faucet and the electrically operable valve is open.


In a further illustrative embodiment, the present invention provides a faucet comprising a pull-down spout, wherein pulling out the pull-down spout activates water flow.


In another illustrative embodiment, a faucet includes a spout, a handle, and a touch control operably coupled to at least one of the spout and the handle.  A proximity sensor is provided and includes an active and an inactive state.  A logical
control is operably coupled to the touch control and the proximity sensor.  The logical control includes a first mode, wherein the proximity sensor is inactive, and a second mode, wherein the proximity sensor is active.  A mode indicator is configured to
provide a visual indication of at least one of the first mode and the second mode.


According to a further illustrative embodiment, a faucet includes a spout, a handle, and a touch control operably coupled to at least one of the spout and the handle.  A proximity sensor is provided and includes an active state and an inactive
state.  A logical control is operably coupled to the touch control and the proximity sensor.  The logical control includes a first mode, wherein the proximity sensor is inactive, and a second mode, wherein the proximity sensor is active.  The logical
control further includes a mode controller that changes the faucet between the first mode and the second mode and responds to substantially simultaneous touching of the spout and the handle.


In a further illustrative embodiment, a faucet includes a spout, a handle, a touch control operably coupled to at least one of the spout and the handle, and a proximity sensor having an active state and an inactive state.  A logical control is
operably coupled to the touch control and the proximity sensor.  The logical control includes a first mode, wherein the proximity sensor is inactive, and a second mode wherein the proximity sensor is active.  An audio device is configured to provide an
audible indication of transition between the first mode and the second mode.


In another embodiment of the present invention, a capacitive sensor is provided for use with a single hole mount faucet.  In single hole mount faucets, the spout and manual valve handle are coupled to a faucet body hub which is connected to a
single mounting hole.  The capacitive sensor may be either coupled to a new faucet or retrofit onto an existing faucet without impacting the industrial design or requiring redesign of the faucet.


In an illustrated embodiment, a capacitive sensor is electrically connected to the faucet body hub.  The handle of the manual control valve is electrically coupled to the faucet body hub due to metal-to-metal contact between the handle and the
hub.  However, the spout is coupled to the faucet body hub with an insulator.  Therefore, the spout is capacitively coupled to the faucet body hub.  A larger capacitance difference is detected when the handle is grasped by a user compared to when the
spout is grasped.  Therefore, a controller can determine where a user is touching the faucet (i.e., the handle or the spout) and for how long in order to control operation of the faucet in different modes.


Additional features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon consideration of the following detailed description of the illustrative embodiment exemplifying the best mode of carrying out the
invention as presently perceived. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS


Although the characteristic features of this invention will be particularly pointed out in the claims, the invention itself, and the manner in which it may be made and used, may be better understood by referring to the following description taken
in connection with the accompanying figures forming a part hereof.


FIG. 1 is a front plan view of an illustrative embodiment electronic faucet system including a valve body assembly having an electrical cable extending therefrom to a controller assembly, and a spout assembly having an electrical cable extending
therefrom to the controller assembly;


FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating the electronic faucet system of FIG. 1;


FIG. 3 is a top, front side perspective view of the spout assembly of FIG. 1;


FIGS. 4A and 4B are diagrams of a logical control for an illustrative embodiment faucet according to the present invention;


FIG. 5 is a block diagram with schematic portions illustrating another embodiment of the present invention which provides a capacitive sensor for use with a single hole mount faucet; and


FIG. 6 is an illustrative output from the capacitive sensor of the embodiment of FIG. 5.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT


For the purposes of promoting an understanding of the principles of the invention, reference will now be made to the preferred embodiment and specific language will be used to describe the same.  It will nevertheless be understood that no
limitation of the scope of the invention is thereby intended.  Such alternations and further modifications in the invention, and such further applications of the principles of the invention as described herein as would normally occur to one skilled in
the art to which the invention pertains, are contemplated, and desired to be protected.


An illustrative embodiment of the present invention provides a kitchen-type faucet that can be placed in at least two modes, in order to provide water-efficient operation that is easy and convenient to use.  In a hands-free mode, the water is
activated and deactivated in response to a proximity sensor that detects when something is presently under the spout, so as to provide the most water-efficient operation, while still maintaining easy and convenient operation and use.  For other
applications, such as filling the sink to wash dishes, or filling pots, bottles, or other such items, the faucet can be operated in manual mode, wherein the water is controlled by a manual handle as with a conventional faucet.  When the faucet is
manually closed and not in use, the faucet is returned to manual mode, and the proximity detector is deactivated, so that power consumption is limited, making it practical to power the faucet with batteries.


FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an illustrative embodiment kitchen-type faucet according to the present invention, indicated generally at 100.  It will be appreciated that kitchen-type faucets and lavatory-type faucets are distinguished by a
variety of features, such as the size of their spouts, the ability of the spout to swivel, and, often, the manual control.  These features are related to the different applications for which they are used.  Kitchen-type faucets are generally used for
longer periods, and for washing and filling a variety of objects, while lavatory-type faucets are used mostly to wash the user's hands and face.  Kitchen-type faucets typically have longer and higher spouts, in order to facilitate placing objects, such
as dishes, pots, buckets, etc., under them.  Kitchen-type faucets typically rise at least 6 inches above the deck of the sink, and may rise more than a foot.  In addition, kitchen-type faucets typically swivel in the horizontal plane, so that they can be
directed into either of the pair of basins in a typical kitchen sink.  Lavatory-type faucets, on the other hand, are usually fixed, since even bathrooms with more than one sink basin are typically fitted with a separate faucet for each.  In addition,
kitchen-type faucets are generally controlled by a single manual handle that controls both the hot and cold water supplies, because it makes it easier to operate while one hand is holding something.  Lavatory-type faucets more often have separate hot and
cold water handles, in part for aesthetic reasons.  Although there are exceptions to each of these general rules, in practice kitchen-type faucets and lavatory-type faucets are easily distinguished by users.


While the present invention's multi-mode operation is especially useful for kitchen sinks, the present invention may also be used with a lavatory-type faucet.


An illustrative embodiment faucet according to the present invention comprises a manually controlled valve in series with an actuator driven valve, illustratively a magnetically latching pilot-controlled solenoid valve.  Thus, when the solenoid
valve is open the faucet can be operated in a conventional manner, in a manual control mode.  Conversely, when the manually controlled valve is set to select a water temperature and flow rate the solenoid valve can be touch controlled, or activated by
proximity sensors when an object (such as a user's hands) is within a detection zone to toggle water flow on and off.  An advantageous configuration for a proximity detector and logical control for the faucet in response to the proximity detector is
described in greater detail in U.S.  patent application Ser.  No. 10/755,582, filed Jan.  12, 2004, entitled "Control Arrangement for an Automatic Residential Faucet," which is hereby incorporated in its entirety.


It will be appreciated that a proximity sensor is any type of device that senses proximity of objects, including, for example, typical infrared or ultrasound sensors known in the art.  Touch or contact sensors, in contrast, sense contact of
objects.


Magnetically latching solenoids comprise at least one permanent magnet.  When the armature is unseated, it is sufficiently distant from the at least one permanent magnet that it applies little force to the armature.  However, when a pulse of
power is applied to the solenoid coil the armature is moved to the latched position, sufficiently close to the at least one permanent magnet that the armature is held in place.  The armature remains seated in the latched position until a pulse of power
is applied to the solenoid coil that generates a relatively strong opposing magnetic field, which neutralizes the latching magnetic field and allows a spring to drive the armature back to the unlatched position.  Thus, a magnetically latching solenoid,
unlike typical solenoids, does not require power to hold the armature in either position, but does require power to actuate the armature in both directions.  While the preferred embodiment employs a magnetically latching solenoid valve, it will be
appreciated that any suitable electrically operable valve can be used in series with the manual valve.  For example, any type of solenoid valve can be used.


Illustratively, the electrically operable valve is relatively slow-opening and -closing, in order to reduce pressure spikes, known as "water hammer," and undesirable splashing.  On the other hand, the valve should not open or close so slowly as
to be irritating to the user.  It has been determined that a valve opening or closing period of at least 0.5 seconds sufficiently suppresses water hammer and splashing.


Referring initially to FIGS. 1 and 2, an illustrative electronic faucet system 100 is shown fluidly coupled to a hot water source 101A and a cold water source 101B.  Faucet system 100 includes a spout assembly 102 and a valve body assembly 104
mounted to a sink deck 105.  As explained in more detail herein and in U.S.  patent application Ser.  No. 11/326,989, filed Jan.  5, 2006, entitled "Position-Sensing Detector Arrangement For Controlling A Faucet," the disclosure of which is expressly
incorporated by reference herein, spout assembly 102 illustratively includes several electronic sensors.  More particularly, spout assembly 102 illustratively includes a sensor assembly 103 having an infrared sensor 103A generally in an upper portion 106
of spout assembly 102 to detect the presence of an object, such as a user's hands.  Sensor assembly 103 further illustratively includes a Hall effect sensor positioned in upper portion 106 to detect when a pull-out or pull-down spray head 108 is spaced
apart from upper portion 106, for example when a user is directing water flow to desired objects within a sink basin 109.  Sensor assembly 103 additionally illustratively includes a touch control, such as a capacitance touch sensor 103B wherein fluid
flow from spout assembly 102 may be activated by the user touching spout assembly 102.  Additional sensors or electronic devices may be positioned within or attached to spout assembly 102.


Due to the presence of electronics (such as the described sensors) generally within upper portion 106, a spout control electrical cable 120 is contained within a delivery spout 110 of spout assembly 102 and provides electrical communication
between sensor assembly 103 and a controller 116.  Illustratively, controller 116 includes a battery compartment 117 operably coupled to a logical control unit 119.  Additional details of the controller 116 are provided in one or more of the Related
Applications, including U.S.  patent application Ser.  No. 11/324,901, filed Jan.  4, 2006, entitled "Battery Box Assembly," the disclosure of which is expressly incorporated by reference herein.


Valve body assembly 104 also illustratively includes several sensors as explained in more detail in one or more of the Related Applications including U.S.  patent application Ser.  No. 11/326,986, filed Jan.  5, 2006, entitled "Valve Body
Assembly With Electronic Switching," the disclosure of which is expressly incorporated by reference herein.  Valve body assembly 104 illustratively includes a conventional manual valve member (such as a mixing ball or disc) to provide for the manual
control of the flow and temperature of water in response to manual manipulation of a handle 118 supported for movement relative to a holder 114.  A Hall effect sensor 104A is illustratively positioned in holder 114 to detect a position of the manual
valve member, and hence, the handle 118.  Valve body assembly 104 further illustratively includes a capacitance touch sensor 104B wherein fluid flow from spout assembly 102 may be activated by the user touching valve body assembly 104.  Additional
sensors or electronic devices may be positioned within or attached to valve body assembly 104.  Due to the presence of electronics (such as the described sensors) generally within holder 114, a valve control electrical cable 130 is contained within
holder 114 and provides electrical communication with controller 116.


With further reference to FIG. 2, the faucet system 100 is in fluid communication with hot water source 101A and cold water source 101B.  The valve body assembly 104 illustratively mixes hot water from the hot water source 101 and cold water from
the cold water source 101 to supply a mixed water to an actuator driven valve 132 through a mixed water conduit 131.  Illustratively, the actuator driven valve 132 comprises a conventional magnetically latching solenoid valve of the type available from
R.P.E.  of Italy.  The actuator driven valve 132 is controlled by the controller 116 through an electrical cable 128 and, as such, controls the flow of mixed water supplied to the spout assembly 102.  As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the valves 104 and 132 are
arranged in series and are fluidly coupled by mixed water conduit 131.  The spout assembly 102 is configured to dispense mixed water through spray head 108 and into conventional sink basin 109.


As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, when the actuator driven valve 132 is open, the faucet system 100 may be operated in a conventional manner, i.e., in a manual control mode through operation of the handle 118 and the manual valve member of valve body
assembly 104.  Conversely, when the manually controlled valve body assembly 104 is set to select a water temperature and flow rate, the actuator driven valve 132 can be touch controlled, or activated by proximity sensors when an object (such as a user's
hands) are within a detection zone to toggle water flow on and off.


In an illustrative embodiment, the actuator driven valve 132 is controlled by electronic circuitry within control unit 119 that implements logical control of the faucet assembly 100.  This logical control includes at least two functional modes: a
manual mode, wherein the actuator driven valve 132 remains open, and a hands-free mode, wherein the actuator driven valve 132 is toggled in response to signals from a proximity sensor.  Thus, in the manual mode, the faucet assembly 100 is controlled by
the position of the handle 118 in a manner similar to a conventional faucet, while in the hands-free mode, the flow is toggled on and off in response to the proximity sensor (while the flow temperature and rate are still controlled by the handle 118
position).  The logical control may also include a further functional mode: a touch mode such that tapping of one of the handle 118 and the spout 110 toggles water flow on and off.  As further detailed herein, tapping is illustratively defined as a touch
by a user having a duration of less than approximately 250 milliseconds and greater than approximately 50 milliseconds.  Grasping, in turn, is defined as a user touch having a duration of more than approximately 250 milliseconds.  In one illustrative
embodiment of the touch mode, tapping either the handle 118 and the spout 110 or a grasping of the handle 118 activates actuator driven valve 132, while grasping the spout 110 alone has no effect.


Illustratively, the faucet assembly 100 is set to operate in a hands-free mode by user interaction, for example by input from a push-button, by input from a strain gauge or a piezoelectric sensor incorporated into a portion of the faucet assembly
100, such as the spout assembly 102, or by input from a capacitive touch button or other capacitive touch detector.  It will be appreciated that a touch control, whether implemented with a strain gauge or a capacitive touch-sensor can respond to contact
between a user and the handle 118 that is insufficient to change a position of the handle 118.


The capacitive touch control 103B may be incorporated into the spout assembly 102 of the faucet assembly 100, as taught by U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,962,168, entitled "Capacitive Touch On/Off Control For An Automatic Residential Faucet," the disclosure
of which is expressly incorporated by reference herein.  In certain illustrative embodiments, the same mode-selector can be used to return the faucet assembly 100 from hands-free mode to manual mode.  In certain of these illustrative embodiments, as
detailed herein, a touch-sensor 104B is also incorporated into the handle 118.  In such illustrative embodiments, the two touch controls can either operate independently (i.e. mode can be changed by touching either one of the touch controls), or
together, so that the mode is changed only when both touch controls are simultaneously touched.


More particularly, in one illustrative embodiment, the mode of the logical control may be changed by simultaneously grasping the spout 110 and tapping the handle 118.  In the illustrative embodiment, the mode is toggled from hands free on (i.e.,
proximity sensor active) to hands free off (i.e., proximity sensor inactive) by simultaneously grasping the spout 110 and tapping the handle 118 twice in order to reduce inadvertent mode changes.  As detailed above, grasping is defined by a user contact
lasting longer than approximately 250 milliseconds, while tapping is defined as user contact lasting less than approximately 250 milliseconds.  As such, the threshold value of 250 milliseconds permits the logical control to distinguish between these two
types of contact with a user.


In certain alternative embodiments, once placed in hands-free mode the faucet assembly 100 can be returned to manual mode simply by returning the manual faucet control handle 118 to a closed position.  In addition, in certain illustrative
embodiments the faucet assembly 100 returns to manual mode after some period of time, such as 20 minutes, without user intervention.  This time-out feature may be useful for applications in which power is supplied by batteries, because it preserves
battery life.  In one illustrative embodiment, once the hands-free mode is activated, the actuator driven valve 132 is closed, stopping the water flow.  This state is the hands-free standby state, in which water flow will be activated by a proximity
detector.  The manual valve handle 118 preferably remains in the open position.  In other words, the manual valve body assembly 104 remains open, so that flow is halted only by the actuator driven valve 132.


In the hands-free standby state, objects positioned within the sensor's trigger zone cause the faucet assembly 100 to enter the hands-free active state, wherein the actuator driven valve 132 is opened, thus permitting the water to flow.  The
faucet assembly 100 remains in hands-free active mode, and the actuator driven valve 132 remains open, as long as objects are detected within the sensor's trigger zone.  When objects are no longer detected in the sensor's trigger zone, the faucet
assembly 100 returns to hands-free standby mode, and the actuator driven valve 132 closes.


It will be appreciated that water flow is important while a user is attempting to adjust the flow rate or temperature.  More particularly, the user observes these properties as they are adjusted, in effect completing a feedback loop.  Thus,
adjustment of the flow properties is another case in which water flow is preferably activated without requiring the user to place his or her hands or an object in the trigger zone.  Therefore, in the illustrative embodiment, when the faucet assembly 100
is in standby hands-free mode, the faucet assembly 100 switches to active hands-free mode, and the actuator driven valve 132 is opened, whenever the manual control handle 118 is touched.


In certain alternative embodiments, when the handle 118 is touched while in hands-free mode, the faucet assembly 100 switches to manual mode, which will, of course, also result in activating the water flow (unless the handle is closed), as well
as the deactivation of the proximity sensor.  If the user wishes to then return to hands-free mode, he or she may reactivate it in the usual way, such as by a touch control.


In the illustrative embodiment, the faucet assembly 100 does not immediately enter the hands-free mode when the manual valve body assembly 104 is opened and released.  Instead, the faucet assembly 100 enters a "quasi-hands-free" state, in which
the faucet assembly 100 continues to be manually controlled, and the actuator driven valve 132 remains open.  This quasi-hands-free state persists as long as the proximity sensor does not detect the presence of an object within the sensor's trigger zone. This allows the faucet assembly 100 to function as a normal manual valve when initially operated, but to switch modes to hands-free automatically when sensing the presence of an object within the trigger zone.  The advantage of this quasi-hands-free mode
is that the faucet assembly 100 can be operated as a conventional manual faucet without the necessity of manually selecting the manual mode.  This is valuable, for example, in single-use activations such as getting a glass of water or when guests use the
faucet assembly 100.  In these embodiments, when the user initially opens the faucet assembly 100 and adjusts the water temperature or flow rate and then releases the handle 118, the water does not immediately shut off, thereby frustrating the user's
attempt to operate the faucet assembly 100 as a manual faucet.  After the user has adjusted the flow, and places an object within the faucet assembly's detection zone, the faucet assembly 100 will then enter hands-free mode.


Because the behavior of the faucet assembly 100 in response to its various input devices is a function of the mode it is presently in, illustratively, the faucet assembly 100 includes some type of low-power mode indicator 134 to identify it's
current mode.  Appropriate indicators include LEDs (light emitting diodes), LCDs (liquid crystal displays), or a magnetically latching mechanical indicator.  In certain embodiments, the mode indicator 134 may simply be a single bit indicator (such as a
single LED) that is activated when the faucet assembly 100 is in hands-free mode.  Alternatively, the mode indicator 134 may include a separate bit display for each possible mode.  In still other embodiments, the mode indicator 134 may indicate mode in
some other way, such as a multi-color LED, in which one color indicates hands-free mode, and one or more other colors indicate other modes.  Further, and as detailed herein, transition between modes may illustratively be indicated by an audio output.


Illustratively, the mode indicator 134 comprises a reflector cooperating with a light pipe (not shown) which is configured to assist in directing light from an LED to a forward projecting lens in the manner detailed U.S.  patent application Ser. 
No. 11/325,128, filed Jan.  4, 2006, entitled "Spout Assembly For An Electronic Faucet," which has been incorporated by reference herein.  The mode indicator 134 is operably coupled to the logical control 119.  The logical control 119 provides several
different operational states for the mode indicator 134.  In a first operational state, which is illustratively the default state, the mode indicator 134 provides a blue light to indicate that the proximity sensor is active thereby providing hands free
operation, and provides a red light to indicate a low battery condition.  In a second operational state, which is a hands-free flash state, the mode indicator 134 provides a flashing blue light when the proximity sensor is active, provides a solid blue
light when water is running due to hands free activation, and provides a magenta color when water is flowing due to touch activation.  In a third operational state, all mode indicator functions are disabled, with the exception of a red light to indicate
low battery.  In a fourth operational state, which is a debug state, the mode indicator 134 provides a solid blue light when the proximity sensor is active, provides a flashing magenta color when a spout touch is sensed, provides a solid magenta color
when a valve touch is sensed, provides a solid red color when the actuator driven valve 132 is activated, and provides a flashing red light when the pull down sensor, as described herein, is activated.  In a fifth operational state, which is a show room
state, the mode indicator 134 provides a solid blue light whenever water should be flowing.


As noted above, an audio output may be provided to indicate transition between modes.  More particularly, an audio device, illustratively a speaker 136, is operably coupled to the logical control 119 and is configured to provide an audible
indication of transition between modes.  In one illustrative embodiment, the speaker 136 provides an ascending tone when the logical control 119 transitions from a hands free off mode (i.e., proximity sensor is inactive) to a hands free on mode (i.e.,
proximity sensor is active).  Similarly, the audio speaker 136 provides a descending tone when the logical control 119 transitions from the hands free on mode to the hands free off mode.


The speaker 136 may also provide audible indications for other system conditions.  For example, the speaker 136 may provide an audible tone for a low battery condition.  The speaker 136 may also provide a distinct tone upon initial start up of
the system.


When a user is finished using the faucet assembly 100, the faucet assembly 100 is illustratively powered down and returned to a baseline state.  Powering down provides power savings, which makes it more feasible to operate the faucet assembly 100
from battery power.  Returning the faucet assembly 100 to a baseline state is helpful because it gives predictable behavior when the user first begins using the faucet assembly 100 in a particular period of operation.  Preferably, the baseline state is
the manual mode, since the next user of the faucet assembly 100 might not be familiar with the hands-free operation.  Illustratively, a user is able to power down the faucet assembly 100 and return it to the manual, baseline mode simply by returning the
manual handle 118 to the closed position, because this is a reflexive and intuitive action for users.


As a consequence, the illustrative embodiment faucet assembly 100 is configured to sense whether the handle 118 is in the closed position.  It will be appreciated that this can be accomplished directly, via a sensor in the valve body assembly 104
that detects when the manual valve member is closed, such as by including a small magnet in the handle 118, and an appropriately positioned Hall effect sensor.  Alternatively, the handle position can be observed indirectly, for example by measuring water
pressure above and below the manual valve, or with a commercial flow sensor.  However, it will be appreciated that this inference (that the handle 118 is in a closed position) is only valid if the electrically operable valve is open.  It will be
appreciated that, because the actuator driven valve 132 is controlled electronically, this is easily tracked by the controller 116.  Thus, in the illustrative embodiment, the faucet assembly 100 is returned to manual mode when both the actuator driven
valve 132 is open and water is not flowing through the faucet assembly 100.


Illustratively, the faucet assembly 100 also includes a "watchdog" timer, which automatically closes the actuator driven valve 132 after a certain period of time, in order to prevent overflowing or flooding.  In certain of these illustrative
embodiments, normal operation is resumed once an object is no longer detected in the sensor's trigger zone.  In certain other illustrative embodiments, normal operation is resumed once the manual valve body assembly 104 is closed.  In still other
illustrative embodiments, normal operation is resumed in either event.  In those illustrative embodiments including a hands-free mode indicator 134, the indicator is flashed, or otherwise controlled to indicate the time-out condition.


In addition to the various power-saving measures described above, the illustrative embodiment also includes an output mechanism that alerts users when batter power is low.  It will be appreciated that any suitable output mechanism may be used,
but illustratively mode indicator 134 and audio speaker 136 are used.


FIGS. 4A and 4B are a flowchart illustrating the logical control 119 for a preferred embodiment faucet according to the present invention.  The logical control 119 begins each use session at 200, when the manual handle 118 is used to open the
manual valve 104.  At this time, the faucet is in the manual mode (which fact will be displayed by the mode indicator 134, in those embodiments wherein the mode sensor does not simply activate to indicate hands-free mode).  At 214 the mode selectors,
including the touch sensor in the spout and the touch-button, are monitored for instructions from the user to enter hands-free mode.  At 218 it is determined whether the hands-free mode has been enabled.  If not, the logical control 119 returns to 200. 
If at 218 it is determined that the hands-free mode has been enabled, at 222 the flow sensor is monitored to determine whether the manual valve is open.  At 226 it is determined whether the manual valve 104 is open.  If not, the logical control 119
returns to 214.  If at 226 it is determined that the manual valve 104 is open, hands-free mode is activated at 230.


At 230, hands-free mode is activated by powering up the proximity sensor, initializing and closing the electrically operable valve 132 (thereby shutting off water flow), activating the mode indicator 134 to display hands-free mode, and
initializing the hands-free timer.  At this time, the faucet is in hands-free standby mode.


At 234 the mode selectors are monitored for instructions to return to manual mode.  At 238, it is determined whether manual mode has been enabled.  If so, at 242 it is determined whether the electrically operable valve 132 is open.  If at 238 it
is determined that--manual mode has not been enabled, at 246 the manual handle position is sensed, and at 254 it is determined whether the manual valve 104 is open.  If not, at 242 it is determined whether the electrically operable valve 132 is open.


If at 242 it is determined that the electrically operable valve 132 is closed (a "No" result), at 262 the solenoid is opened, and the mode indicator 134 is set to no longer display hands-free mode.  If at 242 it is determined that the
electrically operable valve 132 is open, or after it is opened at 262, then at 266 the proximity sensor is powered down and the hands-free and watchdog timers are reset.  At this time the faucet is in manual mode, and the logical control 119 returns to
200.


If at 254 it is determined that the manual valve 104 is open, then at 258 the proximity sensor is monitored.  At 272 it is determined whether the proximity detector has detected an object that should activate water flow.  If not, at 276 it is
determined whether the solenoid is closed.  If at 276 it is determined that the solenoid is closed, at 278 it is determined whether the hands-free timer has expired.  If at 278 the hands-free timer has not expired, the logical control 119 returns to 234;
otherwise it proceeds to 280, where the solenoid is closed, and the mode indicator 134 is activated to indicate the timeout condition, after which the logical control 119 passes to 266.  If at 276 it is determined that the solenoid is not closed, then at
282 the solenoid is closed, the watchdog timer is reset, and the hands-free timer is started, and the logical control 119 then returns to 234.


If at 272 it is determined that an object has been detected which requires that water flow be started, then at 284 it is determined whether the electrically operable valve 132 is open.  If not, at 286 the solenoid is opened, the watchdog timer is
started, and the hands-free timer is restarted.  Then, at 288 the manual valve status is sensed.  At 290 it is determined whether the manual valve 104 is open.  If so, the logical control returns to 234.  Otherwise, at 292 the mode indicator is activated
to indicate that the faucet is no longer in hands-free mode, and the logical control 119 then passes to 266.


If at 284 it is determined that the electrically operable valve 132 is open, then at 294 the manual valve status is sensed.  At 296 it is determined whether the manual valve 104 is open.  If not, the logical control 119 proceeds to 292.  If at
296 it is determined that the manual valve 104 is open, then at 298 it is determined whether the watchdog timer has expired.  If not, the logical control 119 returns to 234, but if so, the logical control proceeds to 280.


In the illustrative embodiment the spout of the faucet is a "pull-down" spout.  Those skilled in the art will appreciate that a pull-down spout is a spout that includes an extendible hose that connects it to the valve assembly, thereby permitting
the spout to be pulled out from its rest position, where it can be used similarly to a garden hose, to direct water as the user wishes.  In the preferred embodiment, when the pull-down spout is extended the faucet the electrically operable valve is
automatically opened, so that water flow is controlled by the manual handle.  In certain embodiments, this is effected by returning the faucet to manual mode.  In certain other embodiments, though, when the spout is retracted the faucet resumes
hands-free operation (assuming it was in hands-free mode when the spout was extended).  Thus, in these embodiments, when the spout is extended the faucet effectively enters another mode.  Note that this mode need not be distinguished from the hands-free
mode by the mode indicator, though, since its presence will be obvious and intuitively understood because of the extended spout.  Preferably, the electrically operable valve can be toggled by the tap control during this extended-spout mode.


In the illustrative embodiment, the automatic faucet detects that the pull-down spout has been pulled down using Hall-Effect sensors.  However, it will be appreciated that any suitable means of detecting that the pull-down spout has been extended
may be used.


Another embodiment of the present invention is illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6.  In this embodiment, a capacitive sensor is provided for use with a single hole mount faucet.  In the illustrated embodiment of FIG. 5, a timer integrated circuit such
as, for example, a 555 timer 300 is used as the capacitive sensor.  Timer 300 may be a IMC 7555 CBAZ chip.  It is understood that other types of capacitive sensors may also be used in accordance with the present invention.  Pins of the timer 300 are
shown in FIG. 5.


In the illustrated embodiment, pin 1 of timer 300 is coupled to earth ground and to a battery power source ground as illustrated at block 302.  An output of timer 300 is coupled to a controller 304 which is similar to controller 116 discussed
above.  Pin 2 of timer 300 is coupled through a 1 nF capacitor 306 to an electrode 308.  Electrode 308 is coupled to the faucet body hub 310.  Faucet body hub 310 is also electrically coupled to a manual valve handle 312, for example by metal-to-metal
contact between the handle 312 and the hub 310.  Manual valve handle 312 is movably coupled to the faucet body hub 310 in a conventional manner to control water flow.  Since the manual valve handle 312 and the faucet body hub 310 are electrically
connected, the electrode 308 may also be coupled to the manual valve handle 312, if desired.


A spout 314 is coupled to faucet body hub 310 by an insulator 316.  In one embodiment, such as for a kitchen faucet, the spout 314 is rotatable relative to the faucet body hub 310.  In other embodiments, the spout 314 may be fixed relative to the
faucet body hub 310.  Spout 314 may include a pull-out or pull-down spray head 318 which is electrically isolated from the spout 314.


The faucet body hub 310 provides sufficient capacitance to earth ground for the timer 300 to oscillate.  As discussed above, the manual valve handle 312 is electrically connected to the faucet body hub 310.  The spout 314 is capacitively coupled
to the body hub by insulator 316 to provide approximately a 10-15 pF capacitance.  When the manual valve handle 312 is touched by a user's hand, the capacitance to earth ground is directly coupled.  The capacitive sensor therefore detects a larger
capacitance difference when the handle 312 is touched by a user compared to when the spout 314 is touched.  This results in a significant frequency shift when the manual valve handle 312 is touched by a user's hand.  However, when the same user touches
the spout 314, the frequency shift is substantially lower.  For example, the frequency shift may be over 50% lower.  By measuring the frequency shift compared to a baseline frequency, the controller 304 can detect where the faucet is touched and how long
the faucet is touched to enable the controller to make water activation decisions as discussed herein.


FIG. 6 illustrates an output signal from pin 3 of timer 300 which is supplied to controller 304.  The controller 304 can determine whether the manual valve handle 312 is tapped (short duration, lower frequency) or grabbed (long duration, lower
frequency) and whether the spout 316 is tapped (short duration, higher frequency) or grabbed (long duration, higher frequency).  The controller 304 may use this information to control operation of the faucet in different modes.  The embodiment of FIGS. 5
and 6 may also be used with a proximity sensor (not shown), if desired, for a hands free mode.


While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, the description is to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive in character.  Only the preferred embodiments, and such
alternative embodiments deemed helpful in further illuminating the preferred embodiment, have been shown and described.  It will be appreciated that changes and modifications to the forgoing can be made without departing from the scope of the following
claims.


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DOCUMENT INFO
Description: 1. Field of the InventionThe present invention generally relates to the field of automatic faucets. More particularly, the present invention relates to an automatic faucet that uses both proximity and contact sensors in conjunction with logic that responds to variousactions to provide easy and intuitive operation.2. Description of the Related ArtAutomatic faucets have become popular for a variety of reasons. They save water, because water can be run only when needed. For example, with a conventional sink faucet, when a user washes their hands the user tends to turn on the water and letit run continuously, rather than turning the water on to wet their hands, turning it off to lather, then turning it back on to rinse. In public bathrooms the ability to shut off the water when the user has departed can both save water and help preventvandalism.One early version of an automatic faucet was simply a spring-controlled faucet, which returned to the "off" position either immediately, or shortly after, the handle was released. The former were unsatisfactory because a user could only wash onehand at a time, while the later proved to be mechanically unreliable.A better solution was hands-free faucets. These faucets employ a proximity detector and an electric power source to activate water flow, and so can be operated without a handle. In addition to helping to conserve water and prevent vandalism,hands-free faucets also had additional advantages, some of which began to make them popular in homes, as well as public bathrooms. For example, there is no need to touch the faucet to activate it; with a conventional faucet, a user with dirty hands mayneed to wash the faucet after washing their hands. Non-contact operation is also more sanitary, especially in public facilities. Hands-free faucets also provide superior accessibility for the disabled, or for the elderly, or those who need assistedcare.Typically, these faucets use proximity detectors, such as active infrared (