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Longevity and Fertility

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									Longevity and Fertility


Paul M. VanRaden
Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory
Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD
paul@aipl.arsusda.gov


                                                  2002
               History of Productive Life
  January 1994 – Single-trait PL for bulls
  July 1994 – Multi-trait PL at HA for all bulls
  January 1995 – Base change of 0.9 months
  January 1996 – Cow PL PTA’s first published
  August 2000 – New multi-trait methods at USDA
  August 2000 – Base change of 0.8 months
  November 2000 – Genetic correlations reduced


                                                                         2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (2)   P.M. VanRaden
                        PTA Productive Life
            Productive Life (PL) =
                   Total months in milk by seven years of age,
                   including up to 10 months per lactation.
            Multi-trait PL includes correlated traits
              •    Milk, fat, protein
              •    SCS
              •    Type composites (udder, feet & legs, size)
              •    Cull rate gradually replaces correlated
                   traits


                                                                         2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (3)   P.M. VanRaden
            Calculation of Multi-trait PL
  PTA PL = PA PL + Cov(true PL – PA, PTA – PA)
           Var -1(PTA – PA) (PTA – PA)
  Begin with PA, regress on PTA – PA
      Direct (single trait) PL and 7 indirect traits
       included in vectors
      Weight on PTA – PA for each trait is
       determined by correlations, heritabilities, and
       reliabilities
             Decline to zero as single-trait REL for PL approaches 99%


                                                                         2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (4)   P.M. VanRaden
         Heritabilities and Correlations
                   Milk         Fat       Protein        PL     SCS    Size   Udder      F&L
Milk                   .30       .65          .90        .29    .20    .01      -.20     -.02
Fat                    .77       .30          .76        .26    .20    .01      -.20     -.02
Protein                .93       .82          .30        .30    .20    .01      -.20     -.02
PL                     .34       .29          .34        .085   -.40   -.04      .30     .19
SCS                  -.10       -.10         -.10        -.30   .10    -.11     -.33     -.02
Size                   .06       .06          .06        .03    -.11   .40       .26     .22
Udder                -.10       -.10         -.10        .08    -.33   .26       .27     .10
F&L                    .01       .01          .01        .19    -.02   .22       .10     .15

Genetic Correlation above diagonal
Heritabilities on the diagonal (for Holsteins)
Phenotypic Correlation below diagonal

                                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (5)                   P.M. VanRaden
                        Example Data for PL

                                 Fat      Protein         PLa
                Milk (lb)        (lb)       (lb)         (mo)   SCS     Size Udder       F&L
PTA               +1,947         +61         +61         +1.1   +3.38   +.52     +.90    +.99
REL %                    81        81          81         61      66     75        71     67
PA                   +588        +44         +28          -.4   +3.31   +.73     +.56    +.81
RELPAb %                 48        48          48         46      47     48        48     47




aPTA is single trait, PA is multi-trait
bREL
     PA max = 50%



                                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (6)                   P.M. VanRaden
                  Example Weights for PL
                                 Fat      Protein         PLa
                Milk (lb)        (lb)       (lb)         (mo)   SCS     Size Udder       F&L
PTA               +1,947         +61         +61         +1.1   +3.38   +.52     +.90    +.99
REL %                    81        81          81         61      66     75        71     67
PA                   +588        +44         +28          -.4   +3.31   +.73     +.56    +.81
RELPAb %                48         48          48         46      47     48        48     47

Relative wt. %            3          4           5        54       -5     -8       16       4
Multi-Trait PTA                                          +1.4
RELMT %                                                   63
aPTA is single trait, PA is multi-trait
bREL
     PA max = 50%


                                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (7)                   P.M. VanRaden
             Stability of PL Evaluations
      Update of 1997 study by Ryan Starkenburg
      August 2001 evaluations compared for:
        •    January 1995 active AI bulls
        •    February 1997 active AI bulls
      PTA protein adjusted to true protein
      Bulls with sample code ‘0’ excluded
      August 2001 PL reliability  90%
      Regressions (expected to be 1)
      Correlations (hoped to be high)
                                                                         2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (8)   P.M. VanRaden
         High PTA PL Bulls from 1995
                                    PL 19951               PL 20012               PTA PL
                   Bull        Daus             REL      Daus      REL       19951       20012
     C-E Bell Jake                   103         .72       8461    .99         3.4        2.8
      P-R Roebuck                      50        .63      21,282   .99         3.4        2.0
    E S-W-D Eagle                10,823          .99      13,542   .99         3.3        2.5
  B-H MarkOPolo                      538         .86      11,520   .99         3.2        2.3
             B Ethan                   39        .57       9687    .99         3.0        1.4
  V-V Cleitus Bert                     42        .56      12,956   .99         2.9        1.4
            L-B Abel                   50        .57       3013    .98         2.8        1.2
    J Secret Kody                      28        .48       1410    .96         2.8        1.1
1January 1995 Evaluation
2August 2001 Evaluation


                                                                                           2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (9)                   P.M. VanRaden
          Low PTA PL Bulls from 1995
                                    PL 19951                PL 20012              PTA PL
                    Bull       Daus             REL       Daus     REL       19951       20012
      P Ijon Dakota                 2817         .94        4086   .99        -2.0       -4.0
   BigAlLouRahls                        47       .53         809   .94        -1.3       -0.5
  M Enhanc. Tater                       49       .57         650   .92        -1.1       -3.5
  W-R Chalet-Red                      131        .73        3346   .98        -1.0       -1.2
       S Ijon Vision                    86       .68        1363   .96        -0.9       -1.4
        L-Ro-D Reid                   120        .73        1124   .96        -0.8       -0.8
  R Rotate Jimmy                        66       .62         706   .92        -0.8       -0.5
            O Rambo                   199        .66        1839   .96        -0.6        0.0

1January 1995 Evaluation
2August 2001 Evaluation


                                                                                           2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (10)                  P.M. VanRaden
          High PTA PL Bulls from 1997
                                    PL 19971                PL 20012                 PTA PL
                    Bull       Daus             REL       Daus      REL         19971       20012
    E Meadowlord                        73        65         932       93         3.4        1.0
    R-VU Emperor                        64        63        7016       99         3.3        2.6
   SFL Sndwtr Itm                       97        66        2396       97         3.2        2.8
           Ked Juror                    80        68        9766       99         3.2        1.1
  I-C B Troy Cash                       71        67        1348       95         3.1        3.2
      Prices Bonus                      54        65        5142       99         3.1        1.2
   H-B Clei Aspen                       56        65        1154       94         3.1        1.9
         H Aristides                    87        69       10,428      99         3.0        2.0

1February 1997 Evaluation
2August 2001 Evaluation


                                                                                              2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (11)                     P.M. VanRaden
          Low PTA PL Bulls from 1997
                                    PL 19971                PL 20012                 PTA PL
                    Bull       Daus             REL       Daus      REL         19971       20012
     M-B C Geoffry                      64        64        3299       98        -1.4       -1.8
    Peticote Lance                  1803          95       22,298      99        -1.2       -3.1
  S-B N-B Mascot                  10,460          99       31,021      99        -1.0       -2.7
       Q-P Madison                    320         81         637       92        -1.0       -2.8
     L Rex Richard                    117         74        6581       99        -0.9       -1.5
       J Rotate Jed                   429         85        8951       99        -0.8       -0.7
       P Desperado                    621         89        1027       94        -0.6       -1.1
     R Rte Juggler                  2249          96       13,486      99        -0.6       -1.7

1February 1997 Evaluation
2August 2001 Evaluation


                                                                                              2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (12)                     P.M. VanRaden
         Current and Past Evaluations
                            Regressions and Correlations

August 2001
Regressions                         Milk              Fat       Protein      PL           SCS
February 1997                        .90                  .93     .85        .88          .94
January 1995                         .92                  .93     .88        .87          .96


August 2001
Correlations
February 1997                        .81                  .86     .82        .62          .83
January 1995                         .78                  .85     .81        .58          .80




                                                                                            2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (13)                   P.M. VanRaden
                   PL and Lifespan Defined
            PL
               •    Credit for maximum 10 mo per lactation
               •    Records  305d weren’t stored in database
               •    Long calving intervals unprofitable
            Lifespan
               •    Credit for months between lactations
               •    Higher yield and bST allow longer
                    lactations
               •    Embryo donors not penalized


                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (14)   P.M. VanRaden
             Lifespan and PL Compared
            Heritability
               •    6.7% for lifespan
               •    7.6% for PL
               •    (8.5% official PL estimate since 1994)
            Genetic correlations of lifespan
               •    .986 with PL
               •    More correlated than PL with yield
               •    Less correlated than PL with SCS
               •    Less correlated with fertility (-.46 vs -.59)



                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (15)   P.M. VanRaden
                                    Cow Fertility
            Days Open
               •    Calving interval – 280 days
               •    Lower limit of 50 days, upper limit 250
               •    Sold for reproductive problems = 250
            Genetic parameters
               •    3.7% heritability
               •    .32 correlation with protein
               •    .30 correlation with SCS



                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (16)   P.M. VanRaden
    Bulls with Low Daughter Fertility
                                                    PTA Days
                                         Bull         Open       PTA PL

                              P Lance                     15.9    -3.0
                             J Rte Jed                    11.1    -0.6
                          K-M Bell Joy                    11.0    -0.5
                           E Rte Duke                     10.9    -1.4
                         R Rte Juggler                     9.7    -1.7
                     J-S Mark Anthony                      9.5    -1.8
                     H Mr Mark Cinder                      9.0    -0.1
                       A-R Ever-Ready                      8.0    -0.7




                                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (17)                   P.M. VanRaden
   Bulls with High Daughter Fertility
                                                    PTA Days
                                         Bull         Open       PTA PL

                               E C Valiant                -7.2    1.2
                         S Mark Arthur                    -6.0    3.4
                      O Chrmn Monitor                     -5.4    0.4
                      S Valiant Winken                    -5.3    0.7
                     T-H Valiant Rockie                   -5.2    0.9
                            C-W Valour                    -5.1    1.5
                      C Emerald Target                    -5.0    1.6
                         L-M Centurian                    -4.8    0.7




                                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (18)                   P.M. VanRaden
       Foreign Longevity Evaluations
            Measures of longevity:
                    Survival, herd life, stayability, durability, PL
            Most countries adjust for yield
            Evaluated in 13 Countries:
                    Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark,
                    France, Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy,
                    Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden,
                    Switzerland, USA



                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (19)   P.M. VanRaden
             Foreign Bull Productive Life
            Options
               •    Set PL equal to zero or breed average
               •    Simple regressions on yield (1995-2000)
               •    Use parent average from domestic PL data
                    (August 2000)
               •    Combine PA with Interbull yield and type
                    (November 2000)
               •     Include also Interbull SCS (May 2001)
               •    MACE for longevity (Dutch research)


                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (20)   P.M. VanRaden
                                    Conclusions
            Longevity rankings have high value but
             lower accuracy than other traits.
            Cow fertility has low heritability (3.7%)
             but high genetic correlation with PL
             (-.59).
            Selection on PL is effective, but cow
             fertility evaluations could increase
             lifetime profit. Credit for embryo donors
             may be needed.


                                                                          2002
NAAB Dairy Trade Mission – Longevity and Fertility (21)   P.M. VanRaden

								
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