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					Chapter 2 Motion Along a Straight Line
 2-0. Mathematical Concept
 2.1. What is Physics?
 2.2. Motion
 2.3. Position and Displacement
 2.4. Average Velocity and Average Speed
 2.5. Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
 2.6. Acceleration
 2.7. Constant Acceleration: A Special Case
 2.8. Another Look at Constant Acceleration
 2.9. Free-Fall Acceleration
 2.10. Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis
              Trigonometry
Example 1 Using Trigonometric Functions
 On a sunny day, a tall building casts a shadow that is
 67.2 m long. The angle between the sun’s rays and the
 ground is =50.0°, as Figure 1.6 shows. Determine the
 height of the building.
   Trigonometric Functions




PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
Example 1 Using Trigonometric Functions


 On a sunny day, a tall
 building casts a shadow
 that is 67.2 m long. The
 angle between the sun’s
 rays and the ground is
 =50.0°, as Figure 1.6
 shows. Determine the
 height of the building.
What is the location of downtown Wilmington?
Defining a Coordinate System




One-dimensional coordinate system consists of:

• a point of reference known as the origin (or zero point),

• a line that passes through the chosen origin called a
  coordinate axis, one direction along the coordinate axis,
  chosen as positive and the other direction as negative,
  and the units we use to measure a quantity
          Scalars and Vectors
• A scalar quantity is one that can be described with a
  single number (including any units) giving its magnitude.

• A Vector must be described with both magnitude and
  direction.



                         A vector can be represented by an
                         arrow:
                         •The length of the arrow represents
                         the magnitude (always positive) of
                         the vector.
                         •The direction of the arrow represents
                         the direction of the vector.
     A component of a vector along an axis
              (one-dimension)
A UNIT VECTOR FOR
A COORDINATE AXIS
is a dimensionless
vector that points in the
direction along a
coordinate axis that is
chosen to be positive.


A one-dimensional vector can be constructed by:
•Multiply the unit vector by the magnitude of the vector
•Multiply a sign: a positive sign if the vector points to the same
direction of the unit vector; a negative sign if the vector points to
the opposite direction of the unit vector.

    A component of a vector along an axis=sign × magnitude
 Difference between vectors and scalars

• The fundamental distinction between
  scalars and vectors is the characteristic of
  direction. Vectors have it, and scalars do
  not.

• Negative value of a scalar means how
  much it below zero; negative component
  of a vector means the direction of the
  vector points to a negative direction.
   Check Your Understanding 1

  Which of the following statements, if any,
  involves a vector?
(a) I walked 2 miles along the beach.
(b) I walked 2 miles due north along the beach.
(c) I jumped off a cliff and hit the water traveling at
  17 miles per hour.
(d) I jumped off a cliff and hit the water traveling
  straight down at 17 miles per hour.
(e) My bank account shows a negative balance of
  –25 dollars.
Motion


  • The world, and
    everything in it, moves.
  • Kinematics: describes
    motion.
  • Dynamics: deals with
    the causes of motion.
One-dimensional position vector




• The magnitude of the position vector is a scalar that
  denotes the distance between the object and the origin.

• The direction of the position vector is positive when the
  object is located to the positive side of axis from the origin
  and negative when the object is located to the negative
  side of axis from the origin.
                     Displacement




• DISPLACEMENT is defined as the change of an object's
  position that occurs during a period of time.

• The displacement is a vector that points from an object’s
  initial position to its final position and has a magnitude
  that equals the shortest distance between the two
  positions.
• SI Unit of Displacement: meter (m)
Example 2: Determine the displacement in the following cases:



   (a) A particle moves along a line from
       to


   (b) A particle moves from                to



   (c) A particle starts at 5 m, moves to 2 m, and then returns to 5 m
  EXAMPLE 3: Displacements
Three pairs of initial and final positions along
  an x axis represent the location of objects
  at two successive times: (pair 1) –3 m, +5
  m; (pair 2) –3 m, –7 m; (pair 3) 7 m, –3 m.
• (a) Which pairs give a negative
  displacement?
• (b) Calculate the value of the displacement
  in each case using vector notation.
           Velocity and Speed




A student standing still with
the back of her belt at a
horizontal distance of 2.00
m to the left of a spot of the
sidewalk designated as the
origin.
A student starting to walk
slowly. The horizontal
position of the back of her
belt starts at a horizontal
distance of 2.47 m to the
left of a spot designated as
the origin. She is speeding
up for a few seconds and
then slowing down.
                 Average Velocity




•    x2 and x1 are components of the position vectors at the
    final and initial times, and angle brackets denotes the
    average of a quantity.

• SI Unit of Average Velocity: meter per second (m/s)
Example 4 The World’s Fastest Jet-Engine Car


                      Figure (a) shows that the car
                       first travels from left to right
                       and covers a distance of 1609
                       m (1 mile) in a time of 4.740 s.
                       Figure (b) shows that in the
                       reverse direction, the car
                       covers the same distance in
                       4.695 s. From these data,
                       determine the average
                       velocity for each run.
• Example 5: find the average velocity for
  the student motion represented by the
  graph shown in Fig. 2-9 between the
  times t1 = 1.0 s and t2 = 1.5 s.
          Average Speed

Average speed is defined as:
Check Your Understanding
A straight track is 1600 m in length. A
runner begins at the starting line, runs due
east for the full length of the track, turns
around, and runs halfway back. The time
for this run is five minutes. What is the
runner’s average velocity, and what is his
average speed?
                       EXAMPLE 6

  You drive a beat-up pickup truck along a straight road for
  8.4 km at 70 km/h, at which point the truck runs out of
  gasoline and stops. Over the next 30 min, you walk
  another 2.0 km farther along the road to a gasoline
  station.

• (a) What is your overall displacement from the
  beginning of your drive to your arrival at the station?

• (b) What is the time interval from the beginning of your
  drive to your arrival at the station? What is your average
  velocity from the beginning of your drive to your arrival
  at the station? Find it both numerically and graphically.
  Suppose that to pump the gasoline, pay for it, and walk
  back to the truck takes you another 45 min. What is your
  average speed from the beginning of your drive to your
  return to the truck with the gasoline?
  Instantaneous Velocity and Speed




• The instantaneous velocity of an object can be obtained
  by taking the slope of a graph of the position component
  vs. time at the point associated with that moment in time

• The instantaneous velocity can be obtained by taking a
  derivative with respect to time of the object's position.

• Instantaneous speed, which is typically called simply
  speed, is just the magnitude of the instantaneous
  velocity vector,
                     Example 7
  The following equations give the position component,
  x(t), along the x axis of a particle's motion in four
  situations (in each equation, x is in meters, t is in
  seconds, and t > 0): (1) x = (3 m/s)t – (2 m);
  (2) x = (–4 m/s2)t2 – (2 m); (3) x = (–4 m/s2)t2;
  (4) x = –2 m.
• (a) In which situations is the velocity of the particle
  constant?
• (b) In which is the vector pointing in the negative x
  direction?
How to Describe Change of Velocity ?
     Definition of Acceleration




SI Unit of Average Acceleration: meter
  per second squared (m/s2)
Instantaneous acceleration:
• An object is accelerated even if all that changes
  is only the direction of its velocity and not its
  speed.

• It is important to realize that speeding up is not
  always associated with an acceleration that is
  positive. Likewise, slowing down is not always
  associated with an acceleration that is negative.
  The relative directions of an object's velocity and
  acceleration determine whether the object will
  speed up or slow down.
                 EXERCISE
  A cat moves along an x axis. What is the sign of
  its acceleration if it is moving
(a) in the positive direction with increasing speed,
(b) in the positive direction with decreasing speed,
(c) in the negative direction with increasing speed,
  and
(d) in the negative direction with decreasing
  speed?
 EXAMPLE 7: Position and Motion
A particle's position on the x axis of Fig. 2-1
  is given by
  with x in meters and t in seconds.
• (a) Find the particle's velocity function and
  acceleration function .
• (b) Is there ever a time when            ?

• (c) Describe the particle's motion for
Constant Acceleration: A Special Case
Free-Fall Acceleration
Equations of Motion with Constant Acceleration
   Example 8 A Falling Stone
 A stone is dropped from
    rest from the top of a
    tall building, as Figure
    2.17 indicates. After
    3.00 s of free-fall,
(a) what is the velocity of
    the stone?
(b) what is the
    displacement y of the
    stone?
  Example 9 An Accelerating Spacecraft

The spacecraft shown in
 Figure 2.14a is traveling with
 a velocity of +3250 m/s.
 Suddenly the retrorockets
 are fired, and the spacecraft
 begins to slow down with an
 acceleration whose
 magnitude is 10.0 m/s2.
 What is the velocity of the
 spacecraft when the
 displacement of the craft is
 +215 km, relative to the point
 where the retrorockets began
 firing
                 Example 10

  Spotting a police car, you brake your Porsche
  from a speed of 100 km/h to a speed of 80.0
  km/h during a displacement of 88.0 m, at a
  constant acceleration.

• What is that acceleration?

• (b) How much time is required for the given
  decrease in speed?
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         Conceptual Question
1. A honeybee leaves the hive and travels 2 km before
   returning. Is the displacement for the trip the same as
   the distance traveled? If not, why not?

2. Two buses depart from Chicago, one going to New York
   and one to San Francisco. Each bus travels at a speed
   of 30 m/s. Do they have equal velocities? Explain.

3. One of the following statements is incorrect. (a) The car
   traveled around the track at a constant velocity. (b) The
   car traveled around the track at a constant speed.
   Which statement is incorrect and why?
4. At a given instant of time, a car and a truck are
   traveling side by side in adjacent lanes of a highway.
   The car has a greater velocity than the truck. Does
   the car necessarily have a greater acceleration?
   Explain.

5. The average velocity for a trip has a positive value. Is
   it possible for the instantaneous velocity at any point
   during the trip to have a negative value? Justify your
   answer.

6. An object moving with a constant acceleration can
   certainly slow down. But can an object ever come to a
   permanent halt if its acceleration truly remains
   constant? Explain.

				
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