Meats and Offal

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					Meats and Offal

   Chapter 13
• Define the term meat, and identify the
  four basic animals from which meat is
• Explain the importance of The Meat
  Buyer’s Guide and IMPS system
• Summarize the USDA’s system for
  grading meat
         Objectives (cont’d.)
• Identify the most commonly used
  grades of meat for beef, veal, lamb, and
• List the products classified as offal or
  variety meats
• Identify the four categories of sausages
• Meat is animal flesh prepared for eating
  – Includes muscles and fat as well as organ
    meat and sausage
  – Sold and categorized by animal of origin
• Texture of muscle fibers determines the
  tenderness of the meat
  – Fat content, age, and size are also factors
         Buying and Storing
• North American Meat Processors
  Association (NAMP) has created The
  Meat Buyer’s Guide
  – Divided into sections by animal
  – Includes pictures of the major cuts
  – Each cut has a unique identifying number
    • Known as institutional meat purchase
      specifications (IMPS) codes
   Buying and Storing (cont’d.)
• Considerations when buying meat
  – Available cuts and grades
  – Menu needs
  – Available storage
• Meat shipped across state lines must be
  inspected by the USDA
   Buying and Storing (cont’d.)
• USDA meat grading program
  – Quality grades for beef, veal, and lamb
• Meats are available in many different
  – Primal cuts (approx. 1/8 of the animal)
  – Subprimal (smaller roasts, rounds, ribs)
  – Portion cuts (steaks) are most expensive
• Beef is meat from domesticated cows
• Two types of grades
  – Quality grade
    • Level of flavor, fat, juiciness, and tenderness in
      the carcass
  – Yield grade
    • The amount of usable meat in the carcass
              Beef (cont’d.)
• Marbling
  – The amount of fat in the muscle
• USDA quality grades for beef
  – Prime
    • Sold to upscale restaurants
  – Choice
    • Available to most restaurants and grocery
               Beef (cont’d.)
• USDA quality grades for beef (cont’d.)
  – Select
     • Leaner than choice or prime; less marbling
  – Standard and Commercial
     • Lowest quality for restaurants and groceries
  – Utility, Cutter and Canner
     • Used by food manufacturers to make ground
       beef, hot dogs, and other processed meat food
             Beef (cont’d.)
• Yield grades
  – Range from 1 to 5
  – Indicates percentage of usable meat
  – Only important if purchasing carcasses or
    primal cuts
             Veal and Calf
• Veal is meat from a young cow
  – 16 to 18 weeks of age
  – By-product of the dairy industry
• Forms of veal include calf, bob-veal,
  and special-diet veal
• One of five grades is assigned based on
  quality and proportion of the lean meat
• Most lamb is from animals less than one
  year old
• Five grades available
  – Prime and Choice available for retail sale
  – Good, Utility and Cull are used for food
• Mutton is meat from older lambs
• Pork is meat from young pigs
• In past 30 years, pork producers have
  modified pig feed
  – Producing meat that is leaner and sweeter
• Two grades: acceptable and
  – No quality grades
        Offal (Variety Meats)
• Edible, nonmuscular parts of slaughter
  – Red offal (heart, tongue, lungs, liver)
  – White offal (brains, marrow, testicles, feet)
• Includes meat mixtures such as
        Buying and Storing
• Variety meats are more perishable than
  other meats
• Sausages should be smooth and evenly
  colored, not sticky
• Dried sausage should have a pleasant
  odor and be covered with a bloom
• Very little importance in contemporary
• Stringy meat
  – Heart of calves, lambs, and chickens are
    small and tender
  – Pigs heart is moderately tender
  – Beef heart is strongest tasting
13.10a Diagram showing where offal, or variety meats, come from on beef

13.10b Diagram showing where offal, or variety meats, come from on pork
• Red offal that comes from domesticated
  animals, poultry, game and certain fish
  – Liver from young animals is more tender
  – Calf’s liver is most sought after
  – Color should be pinkish to reddish brown
  – Should be shiny with a pleasant smell
  – Foie gras is fattened duck or goose liver
• Tongue has a thick membrane
  – Should be removed after cooking
• Beef tongue has very strong taste
• Calf’s tongue is very tender
• Can be refrigerated for one or two days
  – Deteriorates rapidly
• Thymus gland from lambs and calves
• Gland has two parts
  – Central lobe called heart sweetbread
  – Two outer lobes known as throat
• Has a delicate taste
• Extremely perishable
• Brains of sheep and lambs are most
  delicate and sought-after
• Cow brains are firmer
• Pork brains are seldom eaten
• Purchase only from reputable dealers
  who had access to animals when they
  were alive, to verify origin
             Calf Kidneys
• Kidney is a type of red offal
• Pork and sheep kidneys have one lobe
  – Those of calf and beef have several
• Kidney of young animals is tender and
• Choose plump, firm, shiny kidneys that
  do not smell of ammonia
• Tripe is made from the stomachs of
  cows and lambs
  – Usually blanched before it is sold
• Choose white or cream colored tripe
  that has a pleasant odor
• Can be poached for one to two hours
  and then sautéed or fried
• Hundreds of types of sausages are
  available on the market
• Germans make the most sausage
• Most made from lean and fatty cuts of
  pork, but some sausages are made
  from beef, lamb, veal, and other meats
         Sausages (cont’d.)
• Natural and synthetic casings are used
• Types of sausages
  – Small fresh sausages
  – Small cooked sausages
  – Large cooked sausages
  – Dried sausages
    • Raw, but salted, fermented, and then dried
• Originally referred to pork from the hind
  leg of a hog
• Turkey ham is turkey thigh meat
• Sold in fresh, cook-before-eating, fully
  cooked, picnic, and country varieties
• May be stored differently according to
  its method of curing and preservation
• Beef, veal, lamb, and pork are the most
  commonly available meats
• The Meat Buyer’s Guide includes
  specification codes for many cuts of
• There are eight USDA quality grades for
  beef; five for veal and lamb
         Summary (cont’d.)
• Offal is the term for variety meats that
  include animal organs; many types exist
• Sausage is a meat mixture encased in
  natural or artificial casing
• Ham comes in a variety of forms

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