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					Creativity
History of Psychology
 Blend of diligent research and
 Accidental discoveries
 Researchers surprised by findings
 Shift their thinking.
 Historians of science call these
 Paradigm shifts
Ivan Pavlov
 1849-1936
 Nobel prize in 1904
 for studies on the
 digestive system
 Classical conditioning
 Learned reflex
 Ivan Pavlov
Research during Russian
Revolution
Inner lab insulated from
noise.
Assistant bringing in food
had to ring bell.
Dogs started to salivate
before food entered room.
Hmmm.. What’s going on?
     Pavlov’s Classic Experiment
                          Before Conditioning

UCS (food
in mouth)
                                                Neutral
                          UCR                   stimulus      No
                          (salivation)          (tone)        salivation

       During Conditioning                        After Conditioning
              UCS (food
              in mouth)

   Neutral                                      CS
   stimulus           UCR                       (tone)
   (tone)             (salivation)                         CR (salivation)
Behaviorism

 John B. Watson
   >Impressed by Pavlov’s work
   >Good model for experimentation
   >psychology as objective science
Birth of psychology as a science
Serendipity
 Accidental fortunate discoveries
 “The Three Princes of Serendip”
 Persian princes who stumble into a fortune
 due to their discoveries.
 Find a maiden in the forest.
 Take her to nearest castle where she is
 greeted as missing princess.
 Receive huge reward for her safe return.
Example 1: Cockleburs
 The story of the discovery of
 hook and loop fasteners begins
 with George de Mestral taking a
 walk through the countryside.
 The Swiss engineer enjoyed
 hunting. One morning in 1941,
 while returning from the fields
 with his dog, he noticed how
 difficult it was to detach the
 flowers of the mountain thistle
 from his trousers and his dog’s
 fur.
 Invention?
Example 2: Pager markers
 Art Fry worked for 3M in product
 design of new tapes (Scotch brand) and
 adhesives. He came upon this discovery
 out of frustration when his scrap paper
 bookmarks kept falling out of his
 church choir hymnal. In a moment of
 pure "Eureka," Fry realized that new
 adhesive from 3M could be applied to
 paper and make a wonderfully reliable
 bookmark that wouldn’t damage his
 hymnal.
 Invention?
Example 3: “Airy” Soap
A large batch of White Soap was mixing when a
  workman at the factory went to lunch and left
  the machinery running. When he returned, he
  found that air had been worked into the
  mixture. he decided not to discard the batch of
  soap because of such a small error, and he
  poured the soap into the frames. The soap
  hardened and it was cut, packaged, and
  shipped.
Floating soap a hit!
A few weeks later, letters began arriving at Procter
  & Gamble asking for more of the soap that
  floated. The workman's error had turned into a
  selling point! Harley Procter came up with the
  name "Ivory" while listening to a bible reading at
  church one morning in 1879.
New idea and hard work.
            Thomas Edison
            To develop light bulb, gathered
            group of engineers.
            Tested and retested materials.
            Thousands of hours.
            “Genius is 1% inspiration and
            99% perspiration.”
Creativity in the arts
 Product doesn’t have to have commercial
 success to show signs of creativity.
 Arts creative by their very nature.
 Often the most creative works are not well
 received by first audiences.
 Controversial artwork
 Music that breaks conventions.
 Early 1900’s conventional music.
What the audience expected.
        Camille Saint-Saens (1835-1921)
        Popular and successful composer.
        “The artist who does not feel
        completely satisfied with elegant
        lines, by harmonious colors, and by a
        beautiful succession of chords does
        not understand the art of music.”
  Stravinsky’s
  Rite of Spring
  (1913)
   Hardly had the performance begun when Camille Saint-
   Saens rose in his seat, made a bitter remark about the
   music and left the theater with indignation. The complex
   music and violent dance steps depicting fertility rites first
   drew catcalls and whistles from the crowd, and there were
   loud arguments in the audience between supporters and
   opponents of the work, and were soon followed by shouts
   and fistfights in the aisles. The unrest in the audience
   eventually degenerated into a riot. The Paris police arrived
   by intermission, but they restored only limited order.
   Chaos reigned for the remainder of the performance, and
   Stravinsky himself was so upset due to its reception that
   he fled the theater in mid-scene.
www.keepingscore.org/flash/stravinsky/index.html
Motivation for creativity
 Find new ways to explore perception: vision
 and sound.
 Express new ideas: Challenge convention
 Find new solutions to problems
 Perhaps practical but not necessarily so
 Creativity is tendency to generate or
 recognize ideas, alternatives or possibilities.
 Good example: planning communities
Redesigning Neighborhoods
 Most towns have been
 modified to adapt to cars.
 Wider streets laid out in
 grids.
 Home distant from work.
 New design more
 friendly to bikes and
 pedestrians than to cars.
Neo-traditional


Traditional neighborhoods are more compact communities
designed to encourage bicycling and walking for short trips
by providing destinations close to home and work, and by
providing sidewalks and a pleasant environment for
walking and biking. These neighborhoods are reminiscent
of 18th and 19th century American and European towns,
along with modern considerations for the automobile.
Measures of creativity
 Want to recognize and nurture creativity.
 Gifted and talented programs.
 Need to develop valid measures.
 Creativity is a subjective quality.
 General agreement among experts and
 public.
Word Associations
 Cue word: moon
 Free responses: unique are better.
 Or see associations:
 Cue words: mouse, blue, cottage
 Single response associated with all three?
Mosaic Designs
 http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/jo/mosaic/index.htm
Unusual Uses
 Give subject a common object.
 Shoe lace
 Get points for unusual, practical uses.
         Productive thinking




Task: tie ropes together
Just for fun
 INSTRUCTIONS: Each question                 8=S on a S S
 below contains the initials of the          3= B M [S H T R]
 words that will make it a correct           4= Q in a G
 phrase. Find the missing words.
 FOR EXAMPLE: 7=D in a W.                    24= H in a D
 ANSWER: 7= Days in a Week.                  1= W on a U
                                             5= D in a Z C
 26=L of the A                               57= H V
 7=W of the W                                11= P on a F T
 1001=A N                                    1000= W that a P is W
 12= S of the Z                              29=D in F in a L Y
 54=C in the D[with the J]                   64= S on a C
 9=P in the SS                               200= D for P G in M
 88=P K                                      32= D F at which W F
 13=S on the A F                             18= H on a G C


                  Enchanted Mind - Creativity Test - Answers
Creativity hard to measure
 Particularly when move into area of
 expressive arts.
 Music, dance and painting.
 Unconventionality plays strong role.
 Most people find comfort in regular things.
Brain likes convention
 Brain works most easily with sameness.
 Behaviors become habitual and automatic.
 Semi-conscious autopilot for the routines of
 everyday life (theory of Ellen Langer).
 Driving to CCSU and parking your car.
 Remember little of the trip.
 Brain free to concentrate on other things.
Victims of convention
 Easier and more comfortable
 Less risky
 Routine can become a rut.
 Fail to see possibilities.
 Land of steady habits.
Creative People
 Maslow in study of self-actualizers.
 Many very creative people.
 Characteristics: broad interests, like
 complexity, high energy, like to work, high
 achievement, independent, confident.
 Can tolerate conflict
 Open to new experiences.
Fostering creativity
            Families place high value on
            intellectual development.
            Allow more independence.
            Open to letting children
            experience new things.
            Foster development of self-
            esteem.
Birth order may play a role
 Frank Sulloway
 Firstborns tend to be more
 conventional, little versions of
 their parents, enforce rules.
 Laterborns more likely to rebel
 against convention.
 Find other ways to get rewards
 and recognition
 More adventurous
Social and Political Changes
 Firstborns support the status quo.
 Laterborns join the movement.
 Support radical ideas.
 Sulloway drew conclusions from historical
 records and writings.
 Laterborns 18X more likely to be burned at the
 stake for rebelling against religious dogma.
 However, benefits if the movement succeeds.
 But Luther was oldest son of abusive father.
Csikszentmihalyi on creativity
 Creativity as the result of interaction between the
 individual, the domain, and the field.
 Domain is set of symbolic rules and procedures.
 Examples: Mathematics, music, experimental methods.
 Masters the domain, know how to do the craft.
 Studies all that went before him/her in domain.
 Person cannot be creative in a domain to which he or she is
 not exposed. Child could have great gift for mathematics
 but still needs to learn the rules in order to contribute to the
 domain.
Field
 Creativity is not a private enterprise but occurs
 only when an individual, who has mastered his
 subject matter is acknowledged by the gatekeepers
 of his domain.
 These gatekeepers (people) are called the field.
 Their job is to decide whether a new idea should
 enter into the domain.
 In music, the field might be the critics.
 In psychology, other psychologist who conduct
 peer review as part of the publication process.
Internet age changed field
         No longer control access to the
         domain through print media.
         In past only way to enter the domain
         was through acceptance to a printed
         article.
         Now online journals, postings,
         internet searches.
         Who are the gatekeepers?
         What info deserves to enter domain?
Creativity over time
 Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
 Greatest musician of all time.
 Forgotten by the music world after his death.
 His music was considered old-fashioned.
 Manuscripts used as scrap paper by butchers.
 Rediscovered when Felix Mendelssohn resurrected
 Bach’s St. Matthew’s Passion (in 1829).
 Creativity reassessed by the field over time.
Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
Recognized today as a genius in his domain.
Rejected by his field during his lifetime.
A disturbed man who painted strange canvases.
According to Csikszentmihalyi, van Gogh’s
creativity came into being when a sufficient
number of art experts (the field) started to
recognize his contribution to the domain.
In this view, you’re only creative when so
recognized by your peers.
Will it play in Peoria?
The saying, "Will it play in Peoria?" is
traditionally used to ask whether a given product,
person, or event will appeal to mainstream America.
The phrase initially came into fashion during the
Vaudeville era, believed to have been first asked by
Groucho Marx when putting together a new act.
The belief was that if a new show was successful in
Peoria, it would work anywhere in America.
Just because the critics like it, doesn’t mean the
general public will as well.
Public needs to be considered.
 Field may be the gatekeepers but letting something
 through the gate doesn’t assure acceptance.
 Field may find a new piece of art or music is
 daring and creative.
 Public might find it boring and offensive.
 Critics rave about a new musician but the CD’s
 don’t sell.
 New movie looking for a distributor in order to
 reach a larger audience.
Doug Block
 Independent film maker.
 Film school at Cornell. Learned domain.
 Several previous films. Practiced craft.
 51 Birch Street is story of his parents
 reflecting back after his mother’s death and
 father’s remarriage.
 Great story, wonderfully edited.
 Critical acclaim (gatekeepers for the field).
 Featured at several film festivals.
 Birch Street (website for film)
Process of creativity
 1. Delineating the problem.
 2. Developing knowledge base.
 3. Synthesis (putting the elements together).
 4. Withholding judgment during process.
Delineating the problem
 Not going to search for a
 solution unless you see a
 problem or an opportunity.
 Concern over global
 warming.
 Need creative solutions and
 very soon.
 Need to consider all the
 possible areas of study and
 impacts.
Developing knowledge base.
        Need well-developed information.
        Gathered by intelligent folks.
        “Global average surface temperatures
        pushed 2005 into a virtual tie with 1998 as
        the hottest year on record. For people living
        in the Northern Hemisphere—most of the
        world's population—2005 was the hottest
        year on record since 1880, the earliest year
        for which reliable instrumental records were
        available worldwide.”
Synthesis
Putting elements together.
Many different impacts all around the world.
May seem unconnected but creative people can pull
together the elements and see the relationships.

                          Alpine and polar glaciers
                          have retreated since 1961,
                          and the amount of ice
                          melting in Greenland has
                          increased since 1979.
Withholding judgment
 Making judgments will stop the creative process.
 Suspend judgment for a time.
 People with strong opinions have tendency to
 make premature decisions.
 People need to set aside their preconceptions.
 A mind is like a parachute.
 It works best when it is open.
Global warming solutions
 “We  have the technology and ingenuity to
 reduce the threat of global warming today.
 Solutions are already available that will
 stimulate the American economy by creating
 jobs, saving consumers money, and protecting
 our national security. By investing in renewable
 energy and energy efficiency, and increasing
 the efficiency of the cars we drive, we can take
 essential steps toward reducing our dependence
 on oil and other fossil fuels that cause global
 warming.”
 Global Warming Solutions

				
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