CARBON COMPOUNDS by mikesanye

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									CARBON COMPOUNDS


                         CARBON COMPOUND




         ORGANIC COMPOUND                                 INORGANIC COMPOUND




                                                                   SALT CARBONATE
                                                                       MINERAL
   HYDROCARBONS                                                          GAS
                                        NON
                                    HYDROCARBONS                         ACID




  SATURATED        UNSATURATED                   ALCOHOL
HYDROCARBONS      HYDROCARBONS               CARBOXCYLIC ACID
                                                  ESTER
                                                FAT AND OIL



                       ALKENE
    ALKANE




                  Carbon is placed in Group 14. It has 4 electrons In its outer most shell.
ALKANE            An atom of carbon shares with 4 hydrogen atoms to obtained
                  the stability of inert gas elements.
                  The first member in this group is the simplest compound, methane.
                  Carbon-carbon atoms in alkanes are bonded with single covalent bond.
 GENERAL FORMULA : Cn H 2n + 2




                                        1
      1090 28’




PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKANE

1    On going down the alkanes series, the relative molecular mass increases caused by
     the increase in molecular size.

2    When the molecular size increases, the melting and boiling point increase. This is
     because the larger the molecular size, the stronger the Van Der Waals forces of
     attraction between the molecules. Thus more energy is needed to overcome the
     forces of attraction during melting or boiling.

3    All alkanes are less dense than water.
4    All alkanes are colourless and insoluble in water . Alkanes are soluble in organic
     solvent.
5    Alkanes are covalent compounds made up of molecules. They don’t have freely
     moving ions. Hence alkanes are non-conductors of electricity.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKANE

1    Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons that contain single covalent bonds.
2    This single covalent bonds are strong and not reactive.
3    Alkanes are neutral compound, they have no effect on blue or red litmus paper.
4    Alkanes burn readily in air or in excess oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
5    The alkanes burn with a sooty flame if the combustion is not complete.
6    Alkanes undergo Substitution Reaction – atom of H is replaced with Cl or Br with the
     presence of light or UV rays.




                                            2
                                       METHANE




     - Known as natural              Uses :
       gas.                          - as a fuel in a gas turbine and system reboiler
     - Formed as an                  - as a fuel for domestic heating and cooking
       product of the                - as a feedstock for the production of hydrogen,
       anaerobic decay of              methanol, acetic acid and acetic anhydride.
       plants                        - as greenhouse gas ( 21 times more effective at
     - Can cause fire in               trapping heat than carbon dioxide
       landfills and peat
     swamps


      ALKENE
The chemical structure of
       ethylene,
  the simplest alkene


          1200
                     1200
          1200

                                       1         2        3         4         5         6



                                                              3,5-DIMETHYLHEX-2-ENE


 Physical properties of alkenes

 -     have almost identical physical properties as alkanes
 -     the first 3 alkenes, C2 to C4 , are gases at room temperature.
 -     al alkenes have low melting points and boiling points. As the molecule become larger,
       there is a gradual increase in the melting and boiling points.
 -     Alkenes less dense than water. Densities of the alkenes increase with the increasing
       carbon chains.
 -     Alkene do not soluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
 -     All alkenes do not conduct electricity.




                                                 3
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKENES




                                  + H2

  Additional reaction : hydrgenation




  etene
    Additional reaction : bromination   1,2-dibromoetane


                                               H

                     HBr
     etene                                                   1,-bromoetana
                     3 Addition of halide
    Additional reaction :ADDITION OF HALIDE



                                                         _
                        + H2O
                                                                       Ethanol
         Etene                                       H        OH


      Addition reaction : hydration



                               [O]                       _          Etane-1,2-diol
                           [ OXYDATION ]            OH OH

 Oxidation reaction : alkene reacts with acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution




                                           4
COMBUSTION REACTION :
Alkene burns completely in excess oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
If the combustion is not complete ( limited oxygen) carbon monoxide and soot(carbon) are
produced.




                                              5
 ALCOHOL
Alcohol is one of the Homologue Series that has
Functional group of – OH ( HYDROXYL)

GENERAL FORMULA : CnH2n+1OH

The melting point of alcohol is higher than alkane and alkene due to the presence of
hydroxyl group. This is because –OH group forms hydrogen bonding
that is stronger than the bonds between molecules of alcohol.

Methanol, ethanol and propanol dissolve in water. The solubility of other alcohols
decreases as the molecular mass increases.

Naming the alcohol compound is likely to alkane. Replace the ending – ane to anol
C1 is numbered from the carbon that nearest to –OH.

Alcohols are used as fuels, solvents, in medicine, in making cosmetics and as a main
component in alcoholic drinks.




methanol                                 ethanol
                                                                            propan-1-ol

                                                                OH


                        propan-2-ol                       OH         OH
                                                   pentan-2,3,4- triol


                              Reactions of alcohols




   Combustion                Oxidation              Dehydration           Esterification
   (produces water         (produces                 ( produces            (produces ester)
   and CO2)                 carboxylic acid)           alkene)



                                            6
ETHANOL CAN BE PRODUCED INDUSTRIALLY BY TWO PROCESS ES
        a) THE HYDRATION OF ETHENE



                                  +     H – OH
                                      ( Water )
                                 ( H3 PO4) , 300o C , 65 atm
                                                                                            Ethanol
             Ethene


       b) THE FERMENTATION OF SUGAR OR STARCH.




                                                     Lime water
                                                     Turns chalky
      Glucose + yeast                                Means that CO2
                                                     Is released




                   Thermometer




                                      Water out

                                           Liebig Condenser



    Product of
    fermentation                          water in

                                                                      Distilate (ethanol)
                                                                      produced at 78o C




   Fermentation is used to produce alcoholic drinks.
   Yeast is added and left for several days in the absence of air at not more than 40o C.
   Higher temperature will kill the yeast and the reaction will stop.
   The zymase enzymes in yeast breaks down the sugar and starch into glucose and
   then to ethanol and liberated carbon dioxide.




                                                     7
      OXIDATION OF ALCOHOL WILL FORM CARBOXYLIC ACID



                                             [O]
                                   OH                                           OH




CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

                                                      an organic acid with carboxyl
  Uses :                                                               O

  - food preservative ( benzoic                       group –COOH (    C - OH
                                                                                )
    acid)
  - food flavouring
  - ethanoic acid and methanoic
    acid are used to coagulate                                   General formula
    latex in rubber industry                                     CnH2n + 1 COOH
  - making ester and soft drinks
                                        CARBOXYLIC
                                           ACIDS
     Ethanoic acid normally prepared
     by oxidation of an alcohol
                                                      Ethanoic acid
                                                       - colourless liquid at room
                                                          conditions.
                                                       - has sharp and pungent smell.
    weak acid and names end with                       - boiling point 118o C
   ‘oic acid’ . Eg. ethanoic acid.                     - soluble in water
                                                       - pH 3 - 4




                         Chemical properties of ethanoic acid


  reacts with            reacts with            reacts with             reacts with
  metal to               bases to               carbonate to            alcohol or
  liberate               form salt              form salt,              esterification
  hydrogen               and water              water and               reaction.
  gas                    only                   carbon dioxide




                                            8
     product of an esterification                     Ester is a non-hydrocarbon
     reaction between a carboxylic                    organic compound
     acid and an alcohol.

                                                                      contain carbon, hydrogen
 the functional                                                       and oxygen
 group is –COO- or
 carboxylate group
                                      ESTERS
                                                                       The general formula is
                                                                       CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1

 uses of ester,
 - as food flavouring
 - to pleasant aromas for                                         found in flowers and fruits.
     making perfumes                                              The fragrance of flowers and
 - as organic solvents for                                        fruits is due to the presence
     glue, varnish and paint                                      of esters


the name of an ester consists of two words.
The first word originates from alcohols, the                   - esters are colourless liquids
second is from the carboxylic acids. All of                    - sweet and fruity smell
them end with ‘-oate’                                          - volatile, insoluble
                                                               - less dense than water




                                                    Preparation of ethanoic acid
           Ethanol

                                                   water out

           oil bath

                                                   water in
   Acidified
   potassium                                                             ethanoic
   dichromate(VI)                                                        acid
   solution




                                               9
FATS AND OILS

        Vegetable oils such as palm
        oils, coconut oil, corn oil and            belong to a group of
        groundnut oil can be used to               organic compounds
        manufacture various products               known as lipids
        such as condensed milk,
        candle, soap and margarine.


                                                              they are naturally
   our body need fats/oils                 FATS               occurring esters and are
   because                                 AND                found in plants and
   - source of energy                      OILS               animals
   - thermal insulation
   - protection
   - source of nutrients
                                                  they are ester formed from
   saturated fats                                 three molecules of fatty acid
   - contain saturated carboxylic acid            and molecule of glycerol
   - contain a high percentage of
     cholesterol
   - palmitic acid and stearic acid form          CH2OH                 R 1COOH
     saturated fats/oils
                                                  CHOH                  R2 COOH
   Unsaturated fats
   – contain unsaturated carboxylic acid
                                                                   +
    ( there are –C=C- )                           CH2OH                 R3 COOH
   - it can turn to saturated fats by
      hydrogenation reaction                      glycerol
        - Hydrogenation process is                                     carboxylic acid
            also known as hardening
                                                  (alcohol)            (fatty acids)
            process
   - oleic acid and linoleic acid form                         O
     unsaturated fats/ oils                                    ║
                                                     CH2 – O – C – R1

                                                             O
                                                              ║
                                                    CH – O - C – R2

                                                               O
                                                               ║
                                                     CH2 – O – C – R1
                                                   trigleycerides ( fats and oils
                                                   )



                                            10
Comparison of fats and oils
    Comparison                               Oils                              Fats
Source                                         plants                            Animals
               o
Melting point C                             < 20 / lower                      > 20 / higher
Physical state at room                         Liquid                       Solid / semi solid
temperature
Cholesterol content                             low                                high
Examples                               Peanut oil, soybean oil                 Butter , lard
Molecular structure                Contain a high percentage of       Contain a high percentage of
                                    unsaturated carboxylic acid        saturated carboxylic acid
Similarities
In terms of                                                  similarities
Molecular formula                 The molecules contain of elements carbon, hydrogen and
                                  oxygen
Type of compound                  They are naturally occurring esters

Type of bond                      They are big covalent molecules.




NATURAL RUBBER


Natural rubber




                              protein                       Vulcanised rubber – natural rubber is
                              membrane
                              which is                      heated with sulphur at about 140o C
                              negatively                    using zinc oxide as catalyst. Or
                              charged
                                                            mixing natural rubber with a solution
                            rubber                          of sulphur monochloride ( S2 Cl2 ) in
                            molecule
                                                            methylbenzene


Milky fluid obtained from tapped rubber tree is called latex. Natural rubber is a soft, white solid
and is an elastomer. Vulcanisation is carried out to improve the properties of natural rubber.




                                                 11
                                          WORKSHEETS
Worksheet 1 : Carbon Compound
    1.      Carbon compounds are compounds which contain ………………
    2.      Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds containing …………….. and
            …………….atoms only. Some organic compounds also contain other element such
            as oxygen, nitrogen and halogens ; the compounds are called ………………….
    3.      Saturated hydrocarbons contain entirely of carbon-carbon ……………….. bonds.
            Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain at least one carbon-carbon ……………… bond or
            carbon-carbon triple bonds.
    4.      The molecular formula is a chemical formula that shows the………………………….
            of each element present in one molecule of the substance.
    5.      The structural formula of an organic compound is the formula that shows the
            ……………………………….. and the covalent bonds between atom in a molecule of
            the compound.
    6.      A ……………………series is a family of organic compounds with each member of
            the family differing from the previous member by having one more group of atoms
            –CH2 . All members in the same family have the same functional group and with
            similar …………………… properties.
    7.      A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms that determine the ……........
            properties of an organic compound.
             Name of homologous series                           Functional Group
             Alkane


                                                                              C-H bond

                                                               - C = C - double bond
             Alcohol                                          - OH hydroxyl group


             Carboxylic acid
             Ester                                                O

                                                                  C – O-

8        ……………………. are compounds which have the same molecular formula but
         different structural formula. The phenomenon whereby two or more molecules have the
         similar molecular formula but different structural formula is called ………………


                                                 12
Worksheet 2 : ALKANE

a) Complete the table below.

Number        Structural formula   Molecular   Name of   Condition at
  of                                formula     alkane      room
Carbon                                                   temperature

   1
                                     CH4       Methane       Gas



   2


   3


   4




   5


   6



   7
                                    C7H16


   8
                                    C8H18



   9


  10




                                        13
b   Name the compound a, b, c, d, e, and f
                                                      Incomplete
                    Complete combustion               combustion
     (a)            with excess O2 Methane            (limited O2 )    (b)



                   Substitution reaction     Excess chlorine
                   (chlorination)            Sunlight or heat




     (c)                         (d)                (e)                     (f)




Worksheet 3 : ALKENE
(a) Give name for each alkene compounds below



                                                                             Cl




                                                                      CH3




                                                                 Cl
                             =                                                    CH3




                                             14
(b) Fill in the blanks.

Alkenes are …………………. hydrocarbons. The names end with …………………… The
general formula for alkenes is ……………………………
Generally alkenes have …………………….. melting and boiling point but ………………..as the
number of carbon atoms per molecule increases. Alkenes have ……………… densities but
increases as the number of carbon per atom increases.
Alkenes ……………… dissolve in water but are ………………………. in organic solvents.
Alkenes …………………. conduct electricity.
Alkenes burn with more ……………… flame compared with alkanes of the same number of
carbon atoms because the percentage of carbon by mass in alkenes is ……………………
Compare to alkane, alkene is ………………… reactive.

more , cannot , soluble , sooty , higher , low, more ,low, increases, unsaturated, ene, CnH2n


Worksheet 4 : ALKENE
Fill in the blank boxes by giving the molecular formula or structural formula of the product for
every reaction of propene below.

           a)                                                    b)

                                    excess O2,
                                    heat                   limited O2
                                                           heat
   h)              acidified
                   KMnO4 (aq)                                                 c)

                                              Propene
                                                           Addition
                          H2 / Ni                          polymerization
                          .180o C
                                                             H2O(g)
     g)                                          HCl (g)     300 C,60 atm,
                                    Cl2(aq)                  H3PO4

                                                                         d)
                                         e)
             f)




                                                  15
Worksheet 5 : ALKANE AND ALKENE


(a)     Table below shows the reactions to compare the chemical properties of alkane and
         alkene. Complete the table.


                                                          Observation
          Reaction                         Hexane                          Hexene
      Reaction with oxygen        Hexane burns with a yellow
                                  sooty flame


      Reaction with bromine       No visible change



      Reaction with acidified     No visible change
      potassium
      manganate(VII) solution



 (b)       Calculate the percentage of carbon in (i)     hexane
                                                     (ii) hexane
           Which compound can be a good fuel ? Explain .
 (c)       List down 5 similar physical properties of alkane and alkene.
           (i)     …………………………………………………………………………………………

           (ii)    ………………………………………………………………………………………….

           (iii)   ………………………………………………………………………………………….

           (iv)    …………………………………………………………………………………………..

           (v)     ………………………………………………………………………………………….



  (d)      Construct 5 isomers from C6 H12 and give name to each isomer.




                                                16
Worksheet 6 : ALCOHOL

a)    Summarize the physical properties of alcohols in the table below

                 Physical properties              Description
        Physical state at room temperature


        Smell and colour


        Solubility in water


        Volatility


        Boiling point




 b)    State the uses of alcohols in everyday life.

 c)    List the harmful effects of alcohols


 d)    Propanol can be dehydrated into propene by using the apparatus below.
       Label i) , ii) , iii) , iv) and v)



      i……………….                ii ………………                         v………….


                                                                 iv …………


                          iii ……..……




                                                17
   Worksheet 7
Comparison between ethanol and ethene




Similarity
FACTORS                                 SIMILARITY
a. Elements present


b. Number of atoms


c. Type of bond


d. Combustion


e. reaction with KMnO4




Difference
FACTORS                                            DIFFERENCE




a. Type of atom           Molecules contain oxygen
                          atom

b. Functional group       Contain –O-H bond


c. Physical state         Exists as a liquid at room
                          temperature

d. Solubility             Soluble in water
e. Nature of flame        Burns with a non-sooty flame




                                        18
Worksheet 8 : CARBOXYLIC ACID

a)   Figure shows a series of conversion starting from ethene to ethyl ethanoate.
                           I
                Ethene          Ethanol
                                    II                Ethyl ethanoate
                                               III
                               Ethanoic
                                 acid

Based on the figure above, state
      process I       :………………………………………………………
        process II     :………………………………………………………..
        process III    :……………………………………………….………
b)   Draw the set up of apparatus to prepare ethanoic acid .in laboratory
     Write the chemical reaction that involve.

c)   Write the observation of every test for ethanoic acid below.

                                    Test                                    Observation
       1        a. Ethanoic acid + metal carbonate


                b. Gas released + lime water


       2        a. Ethanoic acid + magnesium


                b. Gas given off + lighted splinter


       3        a. Ethanoic acid + sodium hydroxide solution


                b. Ethanoic acid + copper(II)oxide


       4        Glacial ethanoic acid + ethanol +
                concentrated sulphuric acid + heat ;        .
                Then the boiling contents are poured into a
                beaker half filled with water.




                                                19
Worksheet 9 : ESTER

Name the following esters and give the alcohols and carboxylic acids required to synthesise the
esters name.

       Formula                    Name               Carboxylic acid               Alcohol
     HCOOC2H5               Ethyl methanoate          Methanoic acid               Ethanol
a) CH3 COOCH3


b) CH3 COOC3H7


c) C2H5 COOCH3


d) C3 H7COOC3H7




Worksheet 10 : FATS AND OILS

Fill in the blank with the correct answer.

1      Fats , oils and waxes are from a large family of organic compound called __________
2      They are natural _______________
3      They are product of the reaction between __________________ and ____________
4      Fats are usually found in animal and they are _____________ while oil is fat from plant
       and also from animal but they are ________________ at room condition.
5.      Fatty acids are long straight-chain containing between 12 to 18 __________ atoms per
       molecule.
6      A molecule of glycerol may combine with one, two or three fatty acid to form a
       monoester,
       diester or trimester. A Molecule of water is eliminated when a fatty acid joins to the
       glycerol molecule and the resulting bond formed is called an _______________
        (-COO-).
7    . Most fats and oils are _____________
8.     As a group, oil and fats tend to dissolve in organic solvents such as ____________
9      Fats are an important source of ____________ for our body.




                                               20
10     ________________ fats may cause cholesterol to deposit on the blood vessels and
       making them ____________ . This can lead to ________________, ____________ and
       ________________
11    The purposes of researches on biotechnical aspect of the palm oil in Malaysia are
      (i) _____________________________
      (ii) _______________________________
      (iii) _______________________________
12    The importance of oil palm industry to the development of the country in Malaysia are
      (i) ______________________________________
      (ii)_______________________________________
      (iii)_______________________________________

Worksheet 11 : palm oil

a) Complete the flow chart below to show the Extraction Process of Palm Oil.


                          Oil palm fruit bunches

                                   The fresh fruit bunches are sterilized ia large
                                   pressure vessels at 140o C for 60-90 min.
                                   The heat from the steam kills fungus and bacteria



      Stripping


                                   Breaking down the oil-bearing cells. Crush the
                                   palm oil fruits



      Pressing



                                   The mixture is filtered to remove solid or coarse
                                   fibre and allow to settle in an a large clarification
                                   tank. The oil is skimmed off and dried in a
                                   vacuum drier.




                                               21
b) State 5 benefits of palm oil compared to other vegetable oils
   i) ………………………………………………………………….
   ii) ……………………………………………………………………
   iii) …………………………………………………………………..
   iv) ………………………………………………………………….
   v) ………………………………………………………………….




Worksheet 12 : NATURAL RUBBER

Give explanation for every situation below:
a) Latex coagulate slowly when it is exposed to the air.
b) When 20 cm3 latex is added with 5cm3 methanoic acid, latex coagulate rapidly.
c) When 5 cm3 ammonia solution is added to latex, latex does not coagulate.
d) Compare the unvulcanized and vulcanised rubber in the table below.


    Aspect                       Unvulcanised rubber               Vulcanised rubber
    Structure


    Oxidation


    Resistance of heat


    Strength


    Elasticity




                                               22

								
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