Buddhism “Invaded” – Shiva and Shakti enter the Buddhist Realm Kali – the “Dark Woman of Time” subdues Shiva Tantra: a Revolution in Practice and the Theory of Practice The Mahasiddhas Using the “negative” characteristics to obtain “positive” results Tilopa – the “brothel running sesame presser” Naropa – from marriage, to monkhood to siddha A new, positive view of the body cakra, prana, nadi and bindu, left-handed or “woman” tantra and right-handed or non-sexual tantra Sahasrara Ajna Vishuddha Anahata heart chakra Manipura Swadhisthana Muladhara Crown Cakra Structure (just above the head) connection to the divine space / thought sahasrāra, सहस्रार Third eye intuition extra-sensory perception time / light ājñā, आज्ञा Throat viśuddha, विशुद्ध speech, self-expression life / sound Heart/Lung anāhata, अनाहत devotion, love, compassion, healing air Solar plexus maṇipūra, मणिपूर mental functioning, power, control fire Sacrum svādhiṣṭhāna, स्िाधिष्ठान emotion, sexual energy, creativity water instinct, survival, security Root mūlādhāra, मूलािार instinct, survival, security earth Beginnings of tantra: an etymological review The union of the Sun and Moon, the Diamond and the Lotus, the Male and the Female = Wisdom and Compassion - from the “Right-handed” Shingon Japanese side …and another view of union, from the “left-handed” side…. Mantra, Mandala, Mudra - the three bodily actions 1. Mantra Ritual chants to motivate the mind to focus on awakening 2. Mandala Ritual images to concentrate the mind 3. Mudra Ritual hand gestures symbolizing aspects of Buddhist doctrine Speech, Mind, Body the corresponding "three mysteries" 1. Mantra: The mystery of speech This indicates the microcosmic, resonating aspect of reality 2. Mandala: The mystery of mind This points to the mesocosmic level of reality, we experience the world in our minds 3. Mudra: The mystery of body This reveals the macrocosm, the embodied aspect of the universe New Literatures Dharani – Protective Spells Sadhana – “Proving” Texts – generating the deity A new hierarchy: Nine Levels of the Hevajra and Guhyagarbha tantras The Entrance: reference to “nirmanakaya” Buddha The Sravakas – “no self” among the dharmas/skandhas Pratyekabuddhas: meditation on pratityasamutpada Mahayana: bodhicitta Three “Outer Tantras”: Generating familiarity with the “mind- impression” a.k.a. “deity” or “sambhogakaya” Buddha 4. Kriyatantra - All phenomena are without self- nature visualize yourself in your ordinary form, as subject and the deity as if a king and to obtain siddhis 5. Upatantra – receiving the empowerment of the five dhyani Buddhas, the “deity” becomes a friend, brother 6. Yogatantra - union with the nature, emphasizes inner practice more than outer conduct All phenomena are free from all diffuse characteristics „luminosity inseparable from great emptiness and realization of Dharmata Three “Inner” tantras 7. Mahayoga - inseparability of phenomena and great emptiness The skilful means to attain the inseparability of emptiness and form is to envision everything as the pure mandala of the deities. This is relative truth. Pure and impure are not differentiated 8. Anuyoga visualizing all phenomena and beings as the mandala of deities and the path of skilful means for example wisdom completive phase or meditating on the channels, air and essence. The body of Great Bliss is achieved in one lifetime 9. Atiyoga – Attainment of Buddhahood in this very body – one has merged with dharamakaya Buddha The Six Yogas of Naropa (1016-1100) 1. 1. The Heat, or Dumo Yoga—the Foundation of the Path (Candali or Tummo) a. A kind of psychic heat is generated and experienced through meditative practices. b. Burns up all obstacles and confusion but does not deal with heat generation alone, because it also focuses on practicing prana, bindu, and nadi while help to synchronize the body and the mind. -Our mind is split in two halves, the inner Candali and the outer Candali that each control different realms, and therefore, our mind conceives the world in duality. -What must be done is the mind must be able to understand the non-duality of all things which is Mahamudra through meditative practices. -When this happens, prana, nadi, and bindu dissolve together into a kind of non-duality type of thinking, which then gives the person attainment of vajra body, vajra speech, and vajra mind which makes the base for all other yogas.Heat gtum mo - the scientific proof: 115degrees outside body temperature melting snow, 98.6 inside Meditator becomes aware of the subtle energy channels nadis that exist in the body. Energy currents called winds rlung or prana course through these channels on mounts mystical physiology. The yogin can harness the energy current called the mind of enlightenment and cause it to move from the left and right channels into the central channel the madhyamaka susumna. Then it is caused to rise through a series of levels called cakras. Sensation of increasing heat and light altering body temperature – the point is to realize luminous nature of consciousness. The Six Yogas of Naropa (1016-1100) 2. illusory body - the illusory body is visualized as endowed with the six perfections and is transformed into the vajra or diamond body The illusory body is created from subtle aspects of energy and is generated as the form of a deity. The vital energies enter the central channel, then dissolve into clear light, the clear light is generated as a tantric deity, so that the meditator is visualizing his vital nature and mind as a fully enlightened deity. Reality comes to be perceived as malleable and pliable – not (as Yoda put it) “made of this crude matter.” a. The universe and its contents are nothing but illusions as they have no substance in their nature b. To completely understand and be able to meditate on this helps one to break all attachments and realize the ultimate truth, known as mundane illusory body practice. c. This will also allow one to realize that the five aggregates, six sense organs, and the 18 dhatus are truly divine by nature. d. The universe becomes a giant Mandala where all forms become deities, sounds are all mantras, and all thoughts become pure wisdom. The Six Yogas of Naropa (1016-1100) 3. The Dream Yoga—the Yardstick of the Path a. In this practice, one comes to realize that there is no distinction between their everyday lives and dreaming. b. The first step of this stage is the ability to recognize that you are dreaming while dreaming, known today as lucid dreaming. c. The second stage is being able to practice various spiritual exercises in mid dream, including the practice of the illusory body. d. After that, dreams begin to be transformed into the next yoga, the practice of luminosity. The Six Yogas of Naropa (1016-1100) 4. The Light Yoga—the Essence of the Path a. This particular yoga is thought to be the essence in the path to enlightenment. b. Only through the deepest meditation can one experience the illuminating Buddha-nature in Tantra. c. We experience momentary flashes of luminosity when dying, fainting, and yawning, but we just don‟t recognize them. d. The major technique here is to try and recognize this luminosity even when in dreams, where it is sometimes said that a Yogin can even meditate while sleeping. e. Through this practice, it is said that it leads directly to the experience of Dharmakaya or “reality body” that is the very principle of enlightenment. The Six Yogas of Naropa (1016-1100) 5. Bardo Yoga: our normal waking experience bardo between the birth and death bardo of the dream state from sleep to awaking is called dream bardo and reality bardo – unconsciousness at time of death Tantrins have no fear due to mental training. a. The bardo yoga is classified into three main types: the intermediate state between birth and death (life), the intermediate state of dreams, and the intermediate state of becoming (between death and rebirth), and is the last stage of yoga (Six Yogas of Naropa). b. The stage between death and rebirth called the “mind-body” is especially important because it is the period that decides which realm you will be reborn in. c. The best of these stages of practices is to realize the luminosity at the time of death. The next is to practice the illusory body after the mind-body is separated from the dead physical body. d. If neither of these techniques liberate the person, than they will be reborn into samsara – consciousness is attracted to a copulating couple from fertilization until physical birth The Six Yogas of Naropa (1016-1100) 6. Transference of consciousness- transference to a pure Buddha world is possible with help of a lama at time of death. Consciousness escapes through small hole at place where that bones of the skull meet. Important mantras are hik and ka: if successful, small amount of blood or lymph flows out of the top of the head. One can even enter another‟s body through consciousness transference. Gampopa elucidated three basic types 1 lowest one‟s consciousness visualized as Vajradhara 2 transfer into illusory body 3 transferring consciousness into realm of clear light – the rainbow body of supreme Buddhahood. The Six States of the Bardo 1. “Rang bzhin or „Natural‟ bardo”: our waking living state is the time of life to death 2. “Bsam gtan or „meditation‟ bardo”: concentration Provides opportunity for the given being to cultivate meditative equipoise, allowing them to achieve stability in the generation and perfection stages of meditation. This deepens the awareness of the ultimate nature of mind and prepares the meditator for the Chikha‟i or “death” bardo. 3 “Rmi lam bardo”: “path of dreams bardo” - from the moment of falling asleep to awake. Gives the person the ability to realize the similarity between the illusory nature of dreams and reality. The practice of dream yoga, enables the practitioner learns to maintain the ultimate nature of mind and phenomena during sleep and dreaming. 4 “Chikha‟i bardo”: bardo at the time of death is entered at the time when the process of dying surely begins, ends with the onset of the onset of the Dharmata or “Reality” bardo. This points to the gradual disillusion of the five elements and cumulates with the inner radience of the ground, also known as visions of clear light. A natural arising of inner radiance happens immediately after the being stops respiration, which is considered an opportune time to realize the Buddha- body of Reality. 5 “Chosnyid bardo”: bardo of experiencing reality. It arises after the Chikha‟i or “death” bardo and ends before the Sridpa‟i or “life” bardo. Based on the practices during one‟s lifetime the opportunity to recognize the natural purity and natural transformative qualities of the ultimate nature of mind occurs in the form of luminosities, rays, sounds, and meditational deities, noted by visions of various Buddha forms 6 “Sridpa‟i or „life‟ bardo”: This is the bardo of rebirth This state is entered after the Chosnyid bardo when the consciousness takes the form of a mental body which has been conditioned based on the individual‟s past actions. 1. Here the individual begins to experience the surroundings where they died and experiential states which are powered by the individuals past actions (karmically impelled hallucinations). 2. If liberation from cyclic existence does not come at this state, then it comes to an end at the moment of conception, where the individual is reborn. 3. As consciousness has heightened qualities at this level, there is potential to reach liberation, or achieve a more favorable state of rebirth during this state. Thus the six bardos are the classification of the 6 types of consciousnesses, where each state forms an intermediate state between other states of consciousness.