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					       Lesson Three

Pub Talk and the King's English
1.   To learn the methods in developing an
     expository writing,esp. the use of examples
2.   To know how to make good conversation
3.   To trace the history of the King‟s English
4.   To analyse the features of spoken English
5.   To appreciate the language features
Teaching Contents
   1. Exposition
   2. History of Britain
   2. Detailed study of the text
   3. Organizational pattern
   4. Language features
   5. The characteristics of spoken English
Time allocation
1. Exposition and history (15 min.)
2. Detailed study of the text (105 min.)
3. Structure analysis (15 min.)
4. Language appreciation (15 min.)
5. The characteristics of spoken English (30

Writing style
   a piece of exposition

       What is King's English?
       What is pub talk?
Writing style
   The title of this piece is not very aptly
   It misleads the readers into thinking that the
    writer is going to demonstrate some
    intrinsic or linguistic relationship between
    pub talk and the king's English
Writing style
   Whereas the writer, in reality, is just
    discoursing on what makes good
   He feels that bar conversation in the pub has
    a charm of its own.
Writing style
   The writer illustrates his point by describing
    the charming conversation he had with
    some people one evening in a pub on the
    topic “the King's English".
   The thesis --- in the opening sentence of
    Para 1.
Writing style
   Conversation is the most sociable of all
    human activities.
   The last sentence of the last par. winds up
    the theme by pointing out what is the bane
    (祸害)of good conversation ....... "talking
Writing style
   The real thesis --- in the 3rd para. “Bar
    conversation has a charm of its own”.
   A better title would be:
       " The Art of Good Conversation“
       "The Charms of Conversation"
The History of Britain
   1.The native people in Britain Celts
       --- Celt (language)
   2. Roman Conquest 43 AD, ruled for 400
       Latin (language)
The History of Britain
   3. In 449 Angles, Saxon, and Jutes from
    Northwest of Germany , conquered the most
    part of England
     English --- old English
The History of Britain
   4. 9th century, Scandinavian conquest
    Danish (language)
   5. 11th century Norman Conquest for 400
    years French (language)
   6. British people conquered the conquest
    again. English won its recognition.
   *http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/bri
    tain/o_neo_bronze.shtml *
Detailed study of the text
   pub talk
       --- conversation held in the public house
   The King's English
       --- standard English
Detailed study of the text
   Conversation is the .....:
       Conversation helps to promote an agreeable
        pleasant and informal relationship among
       ---- friendly; agreeable
     The smiths are a sociable family.
     We spent a sociable evening drinking the other
     A sociable person is one who is friendly.
And it is an activity only of human…

   -- And conversation is an activity which is
    found only among human beings.

   Animals and birds are not capable of
intricate --- complicated
     The intricate computer requires a skilled
     an intricate argument / plot
             design / pattern
indulge in
   --- enjoy; satisfy 容许自己享受; 尽情
       allow oneself to have or enjoy
       He indulged heavily in conversation and drink.
indulge in
     He occasionally indulges in the luxury of a
      good cigar.
     We indulge in an expensive supper after the
     Nazi madmen indulged in the torture of their
      victims before they killed them.
Par. 2
   How to make good conversation?
What makes good conversation?
     1. Anything can start a conversation. It does not
      need a special topic to start a conversation. And
      once started, no one knows how or where it will
What makes good conversation?
     2. What spoils the conversation is people who
      think they have a lot of important things to say.
      He who would have anything important to say
      spoils the conversation.
     3. Conversation is not for making a point.
What makes good conversation?
   4. There is no winning in conversation. One
    does not try to prove himself right and
    others wrong. We may argue but we needn't
    try to convince others that they are wrong
    and we are right.
make a point
         --- prove effectively truth of one„s statement by
          argument or in some other way.立论; 证明观点
    This is the first point I want to make.
    In this case he made a point.
         在这一点上,他发表了自己的观点。
in a flash --- in a second
     In a flash he realized that they were presents
      from his patients.
     Everything happened in a flash.
     a flash in a pan
They are ready to let it go.
   --- They are ready to give up the
    opportunity to tell one of their best
    anecdotes (because the conversation has
    moved onto other subjects)
   meander
   leap  ---- river
     1. flow slowly turning here and there
     2. jump over
   Sparkle
   glow ---- fire
     1. small flashes

     2. bright light
mixed metaphor
       meander/ sparkle --- smooth / peaceful
       leap / glow ---- exciting / heated
   The writer in the same sentence
    compares conversation to river and
    fire as well.
    Para 3
   the real thesis ---
       Bar conversation has a charm of its
Why does the writer like bar
conversation so much?
1. The writer is only a frequenter of pubs.
2. Bar goers are not intimate friends.
   Bar/church, the place for people to
    make friends. Bar plays an important
    role in social activities in the western
on the rocks ---
    infml cliché
    1. wrecked or ruined
     Mr Jones' business was on the

       = His business was losing money
        and almost ruined.
    on the rocks
   2.with ice only
        Sally ordered an orange juice on the
        = Sally ordered an orange juice with
         ice cubes.
       Marriage is compared to a ship
        wrecked on the rocks.
Ancient superstition:
  1. get out of bed on the wrong
    get up on the wrong side of the
    Ancient superstition
    Getting out of bed on the "wrong side"
    will bring you "bad" luck. The wrong
    side is usually the "left" side. When one
    get out of bed on the "wrong" side, it
    usually means you're in the "grumpy" or
    "bad" mood.
   Go back to bed and get up on the right
 Ancient superstition
2. “Step on a spider... it is sure to rain”
    This superstition is told to all children,

     because no one wants it to rain. Spiders
     generally live a long and healthy life.
3. The number 13 has often been thought to
   be a bad omen. People should never invite
   "13 guests to dinner. It is believed that one
   will die before the year is out .
Ancient superstition
4. " Friday the 13th " is day to stay at
   home and do nothing. It is doubly
   unlucky, when the 13th of the month
   falls on a Friday. "Bad" things will
   happen. Many people refrain from
   starting activities on the "13th" to make
   sure no evil will happen to them.
     --- the training and education
       received while growing up
    His upbringing explains a lot about
     his attitude towards women.
of one's own
    -- belong strictly to oneself
   She has a mind of her own. 她颇有主见。
   For reasons of his own, he refused to
    join the club.
       由于某些个人理由,他拒绝参加那个俱乐部。
delve –
   dig, research; investigate
       delve into book 专研书本
       delve into the past 调查过去的情况
       If you delve into sth, you try to
        discover new information about it.
two kinds of language:
 a) colloquial expression
      on the rocks
      get out of bed on the wrong side
 b) literary allusion 文学典故, 引喻
    in reference to a person; event; story
    "Musketeers of Dumas―
   http://www.cadytech.com/dumas/biographie.php

       The three Musketeers in Dumas' novel
        are very close friends. They supported
        each other with their fortune and their
        lives, yet they showed no curiosity in
        or tried to find out anything about each
        other's private life.
Para.1-3 Questions:
 1.   How do you comment on the title?
 2.   What is the first topic the writer puts
 3.   Do you think the writer sticks to this
 4.   What makes a good conversation?
 5.   Why does the writer like bar
      conversation so much?
Para. 4
    Specific example. It may be used as a
     transitional paragraph. In order to arouse
     the readers curiosity the writer didn't
     mention the topic until the next
     ---- aimless, half-hearted (fml) 散漫
    The word comes from the Latin
     "desultor" - leaper . Something that is
     desultory is done or happen in an
     unplanned and disorganized way, and
     without enthusiasm.
  There were some desultory
   attempts to defend him.
  He began to look desultorily for
   another apartment.
        a ~ conversation 漫谈
        ~ research 漫无边际的研究
        a ~ walk 漫步
     -- ordinary, common
    Disposable cigarette lighters are
      Air travel has now become ~.
    n. In earlier centuries the death of
     children was a commonplace.
alchemy --- magic
 1.   the form of chemistry studied in the Middle
      Ages, which was especially concerned with
      trying to discover ways to change ordinary
      metals into gold.
 2.   a literary use, the power to do sth. so well that
      it seems mysterious and magical
        the alchemy of his performance
--- a statement of your belief in and
   support for them
 the denunciation of privilege and

   affirmation 指责特权
 affirmation of equality 赞同平等
a term of criticism -- why?
   The King's English is a kind of
    language one should try to use and
    imitate. Someone told me that the
    language should not be used. The term
    is criticizing instead of praising.
     -- a person who has been found guilty
       of a crime and sent to prison esp.
       for a long time
    an escaped convict
    an ex-con 前科犯
barrier, obstacle, difficulty
   difficulty ---
        -- themost general of the words and may be
           applied loosely to any troublesome state of
       to have difficulty in learning higher
       the difficulty of driving a car through deep
barrier, obstacle, difficulty
   obstacle
         -- something that one must either remove
           or go around before being able to
        The huge tree that had been blown down
        by the storm was an obstacle to traffic.
       Ill health may be an obstacle to a child's
        progress in school.
     barrier, obstacle, difficulty
   barrier
      -- an obstacle that temporarily impedes
        progress but is not necessarily
     Writers never tire of depicting the

      barriers that arise between parents and
      growing children.
   The thick walls and moats of castles
    were built as barriers against attackers.
       城堡修筑厚实的城墙及护城河都是为了
-- (old use) a person of low birth, esp. a
   --- (cause to) change to a large degree
 She swung from happiness to tears

 The value of the dollar swung downwards.
Par 8
   History of English. T
   The writer here makes digression to show
    conversation going on without focus.
out of snobbery
   --- (in order) because they want to show
    their superior taste in matter of food.
out of snobbery
   In English restaurants, esp, in high-class
    restaurants, the names of the dishes on the
    menus are quite often in French. This is
    done out of snobbery because in the
    Western countries people consider French
    food to be the best.
out of snobbery
   But even if they wrote their menus in
    English, they would have to use many
    words, such as pork, beef, veal, poultry etc
    derived from French and which were first
    introduced into England by the Norman
snobbery ---
   1. the attitude of someone who belongs to or
    admires the higher social class of society,
    and despises people of a lower social class
snobbery ---
   2. the attitude of sb, who believes that his
    own special tastes, interests and abilities are
    superior to those of other people.
   snobbish / snob
rift --- fml, lit.
   1. a crack, narrow opening made by
       The sun appeared through a rift in the clouds.
   2. (fig) division
     I'm afraid there's been a rift between us.
     A deep rift has started in their family life.
   example to show class distinction
   scamper ---
      When people or small animals scamper,

       they move with small, quick, bouncing
      The mouse scampered into its hole.
turn up one's nose at
     -- a trite expression
   show contempt for / ignore / score /

    consider sth not good enough
   I wish my child wouldn't turn up his

    nose at vegetables.
turn up one's nose at
     My friend turns up his nose at anyone who
      hasn't had a college education.

     -- turn up one's toes –
      to die (slang)
bilingual education
          --- using two languages in teaching
     Since there are now some two or three million
      Americans of Latin American parentage whose
      language is Spanish, a recent movement has
      been for bilingual education, usually English
      and Spanish.
     Under this plan, students whose first language
      is sth other than English receive instruction in
      that language as well as English, so as not to
      deprive them of equal educational opportunity.
bilingual education
   This proposal, which has been only
    sporadically(不时发生地) implemented
    (执行,生效)has caused a great deal of
    controversy in the US.
bi + adj.
         --- meaning double, two, appearing twice
     bimonthly 每月二次
     biannual 每年二次
     biplane 双翼飞机
into the shoes of
          --- (infml) in the position of experiencing what
           another has to experience
     I'm glad I'm not in his shoe just now.
cultural humiliation ---
     The English must have felt greatly humiliated
      when they were forced to listen to and use a
      foreign language and to accept a foreign
      language. So they took up arms against this
      cultural humiliation. The leader is Hereward the
Hereward the Wake
   3image-1*
       an Anglo-Saxon patriot and rebel leader, he rose against
        the Norman conquerors but was defeated.
       This sentence means like Herewaaard the Wake, when
        the English rose against the Norman conquerors, they
        must have felt greatly humiliated when they were
        forced to listen to and use a foreign language to accept
        a foreign culture.
heirs to it
          --- "it" is not clear
     1. the English we speak and write in America
      today also shows the French influence of that
      time. We have inherited this French influence
      on the English language.]
heirs to it
     2. In America today we are facing the same
      problem that existed in England 900 years ago.
      The problem of having two languages existing
      side by side.(English and Spanish)
Par 12
   the history of the King's English
       Newes -- archaic spelling
            Strange News of the Intercepting Certain Letters
            thou clipst the King's English ------ middle English
clip --- simplify
     abbreviate in speech or writing as "n'kyou" for
      "thank you“
     They gave him clipped and precise instructions.
     His plays are written in a very clipped style.
     A clipped style of language expresses things
      quickly and clearly using as few words as
God's patience...
     There will be a great trying of one's patience
      and plentiful misuse of the King's English.
     No matter how patient you are, you won't be
      able to bear him, because he will even try God's
      patience. God is more patient than any human
abusing –
    1. take unfair or undue advantage of (one's
    2. improper or incorrect use of language (the
     King's English)
come into its own ---
     receive what properly belongs to one, esp
      acclaim or recognition 获得应得的
     She didn„t really come into her own until she‟d
      won the election for Party leader.
     With the success of the Model T Ford, the
      automobile industry came into its own.
          随着T型福特汽车的成功,汽车工业受到了应有
     the famous writers in Elizabethan time (period)
     Shakespeare/ Milton
   Extended simile
   blow on a dandelion clock – seeds
    multiplied – floated to the ends of the
   To spread the English language is compared
    to the blowing of a dandelion clock.
   English was spread far and wide by those
    famous writers.
"The King's English was no
    The use of English was no longer restricted to a
     certain race or class. Now English is used both
     by the King and common people in England.
pejorative –
   disparaging, downgrading
       (a word, phrase) that suggests that somebody or
        sth, is bad or worthless
       I didn't think he is using inequality in a
        pejorative sense.
          --- comes from the French "faetie" -- a jest
     joking esp. at an inappropriate time
     I became angry with that facetious boy.
     A phrase used pejoratively or facetiously is
      clearly lowered in importance and dignity.
underling(s) --- derog
     a person of low rank or position in relation to
      another such as a servant
"English as it should be spoke―
     The deliberate poor grammar used here reflects
      the desire by some members of the lower
      classes to strip the language of any pretence, to
      keep it from being used in snobbish way.
Carlyle --- Thomas Carlyle
    a Scottish essayist and historian and a very
     strong voice in the intellectual circles of
     Victorian England.
    Carlyleism卡莱尔风格
    -- become hard or forceful
    There exists a kind of danger. That's for us,
     words will become concrete things.
edict -- (fml)
     an official public order having the force of law,
      which everyone must obey
       a firm, authoritative command or instruction
immune (to) 不受影响的
    If you are immune to sth. that happens or is
     done, you are not affected by it.
    He was immune to the flattery of others people.
    The American economy is proving surprisingly
     immune to big fluctuations 波动in interest rates.
    be ~ against attack
    be ~ from taxation
         n. diplomatic immunity外交豁免权
common sense ---
   头脑,见地, 应有的判断力
       practical good sense and judgment gained from
        experience, rather than special knowledge from
        school or study
common sense
    a person's natural ability to make good
     judgments and to behave in a practical and
     sensible way.
         1. Although she is not very clever she's got a lot of
          common sense.
         2. Haven't you enough ~ to know that it's unwise to
          go swimming just after a big meal?
ultimatum ---
    a final statement of terms made by one party or
     another. There is an implication of serious
     penalties if the terms are not accepted. The
     word comes from Latin “ultimatus” (last) and is
     obviously related to “ultimate” 最后通牒; 最后
ultimatum --
    When Iran held American diplomats hostage,
     ultimatums were issued by the Iranian now and
     then demanding concession from the
     Americans if their demands were not met.
Detailed study of the text
     The King's English sets up an excellent
      standard for us to imitate for we can gain a lot
      of useful knowledge or information by studying
      it, but people should not forced to accept it.
Par 18
   “so we may return…”
       The writer realizes he has been digressing from
        his subject so he comes back to his central them
        -- conversation.
slips and slides –
   metaphor
       to slide on a slippery surface, to lose one's
        footing, hence to make a mistake, fall into error
       The English one uses is no longer absolutely
    "Collective Poetry"
        --- Aspects of the novel is a major study of the novel
         and Foster's most important critical work.
        1939 -- move to the US
        1946 -- became a citizen
        1956--1961 --- professor of poetry at Oxford
        1967 - awarded the national medal for literature
   ON THE FRONTIER 1938 边界上
   JOURNEY TO A WAR 1935 战地行 a
    record of their experience to China
   NEW YEAR LETTER 1941 新年来信
    ORATORIO 1945 暂时
   FOR AGE OF ANXIETY 1947 Pulitzer
    Prize 忧虑的年代
   the sinister corridor of our age – metaphor
       the road we travel --- compared to a corridor
       in our age, people are traveling along a sinister
        road doing all kinds of evil things.
            a sinister look on his face
            A rather sinister figure was walking about behind
             the bushes
   Foster's metaphor refers to the ugly and
    frightening world of the 20th century which
    has indeed been a sinister corridor for
    mankind to walk down, fraught as it has
    been with danger on every side.
sit up—
    If sth, makes you sit up, it makes you pay
     sudden attention to what is happening
    Why don't you threaten to resign, -- that would
     make them sit up.
great minds
    --- people with great minds
    distinguished eminent people
salon --
     1. A salon is a drawing room or large room for
      entertaining guests. In 18th century France,
      such salons of the rich were often gathering
      places for persons of social and intellectual
salon --
     2. art exhibition "the Salon“
     3. parlor
          a beauty salon
          literary salon
saloon ---
     1. a grandly furnished room for the social use
      of a ship's passengers ( in a hotel0
     2. sedan (car) for 4 to 7 passengers
     3. a large public drinking place = bar
     Italian word "sala" = hall
    Sir
    Lady
    duke / duchess
    marquis / marchioness
    earl , count / countess
    viscount / viscountess
    baron / baroness
    the only difference ....
Detailed study of the text
     the sauces prepared by Mme. Deffand's cook
      and supreme chef, Brinvilliers, were equally
      terrible. The only difference between the two
      cooks lay perhaps in their different purpose
      /intention in preparing the sauces.
Organizational pattern
   4 sections
       Sect. I par.1-3
            The writer puts forward the theses.
            1. Conversation is the most sociable of all human
            2. Bar conversation has a charm of its own.
Organizational pattern
    Sect. II par. 4-11
         an example to support the thesis
         no fixed topic --- the King's English -- Australia --
          Saxon churls -- the language barriers
         The example has well explained where its charm lies.
Organizational pattern
    Sect. III par.12--19 more digressions (what the
     writer thought about after the bar conversation
     the night before)
         Para.12-15 He gives his personal reflection on the
          history and meaning of the King's English
         Para.16-19 By the mentioning of dictionaries and
          salons of 18th Paris, he reveals his attitude towards
          the King's English
       1) not ultimatum
       2) slips and slides
Organizational pattern
    Sect. IV. Para. 20--21 conclusion
         Those people who ruin the conversation by trying to
          talk sense are just like chimpanzees who are not
          capable of conversation.
Language features
   conversational style
       loosely organized
       informal language ---
            to suit the theme
Language features
   Reasons for the informal style:
       1. the title misleading
             The writer talks about the charm of conversation by
            "How to Make Good Conversation“
             "The Charm of Conversation“
Language features
    2. the thesis
         We have two theses here
              a) Conversation is the most ....
              b) Bar conversation has a charm of ... (the real one)
Language features
    3. the transition or digression
         para.5 served as transition
          shift general discourse to specific one
Language features
    4. two different kinds of language
         a) colloquial expressions
         b) copious historical allusions
               literary allusions
Language features
    5. mixed metaphors
    6. no big and abstract words
    7. sentence fragments
   Paraphrase:
       Conversation is an activity which is found only
        among human beings.
       2. Conversation is not for persuading others to
        accept one's own idea or point of view.
   3. In fact, those who really enjoy and skilled at
    conversation will not argue to win or force
    other to accept their point of view.
   4. People who meet each other for a drink in a
    bar are not close friends for they are not deeply
    absorbed or engrossed on each other's lives.
   5. The conversation went on without knowing
    who was right or wrong.
   6. These animals are called cattle when they are
    alive and feeding in the field, but when we sit
    down at the table to eat, we call their meat beef.
   7. The new ruling class by using French instead
    of English made it difficult for the English to
    accept or absorb the culture of the rulers.
   8. The English language received proper
    recognition and became an official language.
   9. The phrase "the King's English" has always
    been used disparagingly or jokingly by the
    lower classes.
   10. There still exists in the working people a
    spirit of opposition to the cultural control of the
    ruling class.
   11. There is always a great danger that we
    might forget that words are only symbols and
    take them for things they are supposed to
   12. Even the most educated and literate people
    do not use standard, formal English all the time
    in their conversation.
   ignorant, illiterate
   uneducated unlearned
ignorant --- 无知
    It implies a lack of knowledge, either generally
     or on some particular subject
    He's quite ignorant.
    He's not stupid, merely ignorant.
    You know I'm entirely ignorant about these
illiterate --- 缺乏文化修养
    With little or no education esp. unable to read
     and write
    There is a large illiterate population in the
    He is musically illiterate.他缺乏音乐修养。
uneducated ---
   没有受到正规的系统教育
       It implies a lack of formal or systematic
       He's uneducated enough not to be your
    It suggests a lack of learning, esp in a special
    He was unlearned in the ways of the world.他
    A lawyer is not unlearned profession. 律师是一
    --- 嘲弄,嘲笑,专对普遍被人们所信任崇
    speaking slightly and with derision of sth
     usually accorded honor, reverence or respect by
     He scoffs an advice given by his elders. 他对长
     Those who scoff history will be scoffed by
          嘲弄历史的人们必将被历史所嘲弄。
     They scoffed at his fervent patriotism.
          炽热的爱国精神
         --- 带有强烈的感情色彩,侧重于面部表情或语
    sneer carries a much stronger feeling, as by a
     derision smile or scornful insinuating tone of
    It's very discouraging to be sneered at all the
         成天受讥笑是很令人泄气的。
    --侧重指用粗鲁的,侮辱性的言辞或粗俗的
    It suggests openly insulting, coarse remarks or
     mocking laughter.
    The crowd jeered at the prisoners.
    They jeered at the proposal put forward by the
    Don't jeer at the mistake or misfortunes of
         不要嘲弄别人的错误或不幸。
    --- 不带恶意的取笑或捉弄人的笑骂
    It implies a taunting or mocking without illwill
     My brother gibed at my efforts to paint a
     It„s unkind to gibe at another's English.
     -- 以不理不睬或视而不见的态度表示出轻视
    It suggests a treating with contempt
    She flouted my offers of help and friendship.
         她对我所提供的帮助与友情均嗤之以鼻。
The Characteristics of Spoken
   the characteristics of spoken conversational
   those which interfere with and interrupt the
    fluency of speech
   features of normal non-fluency
The Characteristics of Spoken
   1. Hesitation pauses (or filled pauses) 填补
       Filled pauses are those which are plugged by
        stopgap noises such as "er""erm“
The Characteristics of Spoken
   2. False starts
       These can take the form either of a needless
        repetition of a word, eg "I erI", or of a
        reformulation of what has been said eg. "you
        get taught you're taught to drive" the result is an
        ungrammatical sequence of words.
The Characteristics of Spoken
   3. Syntactic anomalies (不规则)
       Often we fail to keep control of the syntax of
        what we are saying, and produce anomalous
        constructions which, if they are not entirely
        ungrammatical, would nevertheless be regarded
        as awkward and unacceptable in written
        composition eg. "We've got... you've got to
The Characteristics of Spoken
   The voiced fillers er and erm, for example,
    are useful delaying devices, so that we are
    able to continue holding the floor while we
    think of what next to say
The Characteristics of Spoken
   fillers - or tag constructions
       such as: you know, well, oh, you see, I mean
        mm, shall I say, I think
       isn't it -- an invitation to the listeners to confirm
        the speaker's observation
On the syntactic level
     Conversation tends towards coordination rather
      than subordination of clauses, for coordination
      simplifies the planning of sentence structure
On the syntactic level
     1. Sentences are short and the structure is
     2. Verbal phrases are simple.
          seldom use passive voice
          often use present and past tenses
On the syntactic level
     3. more use of none pre-modifiers
     4, in conversation, there is more use of
      declarative sentence than interrogative
      sentence(interrogation )
          less frequent use of imperative sentence
On the lexical level (lexis)
     lexis is short, simple and easy to understand ,
      plainly colloquial, emotional, exaggerative
On the lexical level (lexis)
     1. the use of basic verbs, seldom use different
      words to describe the same thing or the same
     2. a great deal of informal words, slang words
      and taboo, vogue words 时髦词
On the lexical level (lexis)
     3.the use of emotional words and exaggerative
     4.the use of vague terms 模糊词语
          kind of, sort of, thing, whatsit, what'shisname,
            eg. I met old what'shisname in town this morning
          things like that, like anything, for anything,
           somehow , somewhat
On the lexical level
     5. the use of abbreviation or abbreviated verb
      dorm = dormitory
      lab = laboratory
      flu = influenza
      ad = advertisement
On the lexical level
     6. conversational gambits 套话
          Excuse me, but...
          Sorry, but..
          In my opinion
On the phonological level
     1. an obvious feature in conversation is
      abbreviated verb forms and negative forms
          I'm he's
          she'd
          wouldn't

  2. use of stress, intonation pause
The Characteristics of Spoken English
   The pragmatic实用,语用学的 analysis of
    language can be broadly understood to be the
    investigation into that aspect of meaning
    which is derived not from formal properties
    of words and construction
   but from the way in which utterances are
    used and how they relate to the context in
    which they are uttered.
The Characteristics of Spoken English
   The pragmatic实用,语用学的 analysis
    of language can be broadly understood
    to be the investigation into that aspect of
    meaning which is derived not from
    formal properties of words and
    construction,but from the way in which
    utterances are used and how they relate
    to the context in which they are uttered.
The Characteristics of Spoken English
   In pragmatics, much of what we learn
    comes from inference from the language,
    rather than from what is openly said.
    The "extra meanings" that we infer, and
    which account for the gap between overt
    sense and pragmatic force, may be
    called implicatures
The Characteristics of Spoken English
   The term "implicature" was proposed by the
    philosopher HP Grice. He suggests that when
    people converse with one another they
    acknowledge a kind of tacit agreement 默契
    to cooperate conversationally towards mutual
    ends. This agreement he calls the
    Cooperative Principle. When one abides by
    the cooperative principle, one agrees to act
    according to various rules, or rather Maxims
The Characteristics of Spoken English

   Grice has suggested four conversational
    1. The maxim of quantity 数量准则
          Give the required amount of information --
           not too much or too little
The Characteristics of Spoken English

2. The maxim of quality 质量准则
     Do not say that for which you lack
      evidence or which you believe to be
The Characteristics of Spoken English

3. The maxim of relation 关联准则
   Make your contributions relevant to
   the purpose in hand.
  A: I'm running out of ink.
  B. There is a shop round the corner.
The Characteristics of Spoken English

4. The maxim of manner 风格准则
     obscurity不明,
     ambiguity 模棱两可
     unnecessary prolixity 罗嗦

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