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Hybrid-Electric Drive for the SAE Mini-Baja Car Design Document Project Number: May05-13 Client: Iowa State University, Society of Automotive Engineers Faculty Advisor: Dr. Venkataramana Ajjarapu Team Members: Daniel Robinson (Team Captain) ME Jeremy Boon ME Godwin Itteera EE Douglas Milewsky CprE Nicholas Olson EE Rajdeep Wadhwa EE DISCLAIMER: This document was developed as a part of the requirements of an electrical and computer engineering course at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. This document does not constitute a professional engineering design or a professional land surveying document. Although the information is intended to be accurate, the associated students, faculty, and Iowa State University make no claims, promises, or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, quality, or adequacy of the information. The user of this document shall ensure that any such use does not violate any laws with regard to professional licensing and certification requirements. This use includes any work resulting from this student-prepared document that is required to be under the responsible charge of a licensed engineer or surveyor. This document is copyrighted by the students who produced this document and the associated faculty advisors. No part may be reproduced without the written permission of the senior design course coordinator. Date: November 12, 2004 Table of Contents Page Number List of Figures ii List of Tables iii List of Definitions iv Introductory Material Executive Summary 01 Acknowledgement 02 Problem Statement 02 Operating Environment 03 Intended Users and Intended Uses 03 Assumptions and Limitations 03 Expected End Product and Other Deliverables 04 Proposed Approach and Statement of Work Proposed Approach 04 Detailed Design 07 Estimated Resources and Schedules Estimated Resource Requirement 11 Schedules 15 Closure Material Project Team Information 17 Closing Summery 18 References 18 -i- List of Figures Page Number Figure 1: Diagram of series set-up hybrid-electric drive iv Figure 2: Diagram of detailed electric drive 6 Figure 3: Diagram of DC-DC converter 6 Figure 4: Original Gantt chart of schedule 15 Figure 5: Gantt chart of schedule 16 - ii - List of Tables Page Number Table 1: Original Group Schedule 12 Table 2: Group Schedule 12 Table 3: Original Other Resources 13 Table 4: Other Resources 13 Table 5: Original Financial Costs 13 Table 6: Financial Costs 14 - iii - List of Definitions Series Set-up- Configuration of a hybrid-electric car where the components are in a series arrangement. A gas engine produces initial energy for the system which is converted to electrical power through a generator. The electrical current is managed by a controller to drive motors to power the wheels through a transmission. Figure 1: A diagram of the series setup of the electric motor and components - iv - Introductory Material This is a brief summary of what this Design Document will cover. Executive Summary The collegiate Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Mini-Baja team at Iowa State University (ISU) is seeking to develop innovative design components into their competition racecar. The ISU SAE Mini-Baja team participates in an annual design competition against other collegiate teams. Points are awarded based on design, cost, presentation, and performance. ISU SAE feels that a design including a hybrid-electric drive would gain their team a competitive advantage. The May05-13 senior design team is tasked to develop and produce the design and methods for implementing such a drive into future ISU SAE Mini-Baja racecars. This is a two-phase project split into two year-long segments. The first year represents the May05-13 team which will design the concept, simulate possible solutions through computer software, and create working drawings. Phase two will be composed of an entirely separate team who will build, test, and retrofit the hybrid-electric drive into the ISU SAE racecar. As of November 12, 2004, the May05-13 team has successfully completed a preliminary design of the hybrid-electric drive for the ISU SAE racecar. The design involves using a Briggs and Stratton motor, provided by SAE, to power a DC Generator which will generate electrical power. This power is then input into a DC to DC Converter also known as a Buck Chopper which will regulate the power that is sent to a DC motor which will then turn the wheels. The power sent to the DC motor from the Buck Chopper will be controlled by the driver using a pedal. The pedal will be connected to a potentiometer which will adjust the duty ratio of the Buck Chopper based on the input from the pedal. Adjustment of the duty ratio of the Buck Chopper will result in changes in the power provided to the DC motor resulting in the DC motor turning at a differential speed. Another aspect that the team is deeply involved in is finding a way to simulate the drive on computers. The parts needed to fulfill the electric drive design are very expensive and cannot be risked in any testing procedure. Due to this fact the team, after extensive research, came upon the computer software known as SimPower, which can work with Matlab and Simulink to simulate the electric drive design the team has developed. The team with the help of the faculty advisor Dr. Ajjarapu has ordered SimPower through Iowa State University and is awaiting its arrival. SimPower will allow the team to do extensive tests on the preliminary design and make any necessary adjustments, without risking any equipment. The team has also done extensive research to find exact specifications on the various pieces of equipment found in the design of the electric drive that are available out in the market. The team has contacted the New Generation Motors Corporation about a specific DC Generator (MSF240140 Axial Flux, BLDC Motor) and specific DC motor (MSF215125 Axial Flux, BLDC Motor). Zahn Incorporated sells an appropriate buck chopper that can be purchased. Using all of these specifications, the materials necessary for design and building of the electric drive without including labor will approximately be $22,300. -1- Though the team has made a lot of progress there is much more to be accomplished. After the arrival of the simulation software, SimPower, the team must proceed to simulate the developed design under the many conditions that the racecar must handle, and then adjust the preliminary design according to the results obtained and repeat the process until a satisfactory design is found. Next the results should be used to find exact specifications on all of the components of the electric drive system. The last step is to use all of the data that is collected to develop a final design report for the electric drive system. This report would include diagrams and schematics that will explain what devices will be used for the electric drive system. Also, included would be instructions for the SAE members on how to construct the system. Simulation and test results will be collected from the many computer simulations that will be run, after the design has been finalized. This data will be presented to the SAE members, providing evidence of the electric drive systems capabilities. SAE members will know exactly what to expect from system once it is built. Acknowledgement The ISU SAE Mini-Baja team will cover all costs outside of costs associated with the EE/CprE 491/492 class requirements (poster, report binding and printing etc.). Other costs will be covered by sponsorships obtained by the Mini-Baja team specifically aimed at the electric drive system. Ethan Slattery will be providing assistance in the form of technical advice, and assistance in accessing any SAE products or workshop facilities. Problem Statement The Iowa State University Society of Automotive Engineers (ISU SAE) Mini-Baja team requests the design of a hybrid-electric drive for their Baja racecar. Design and implementation of project will occur over a two-year period. Phase I, the design stage, is planned for the 2004-2005 academic year. Phase II, the implementation and testing stage, is planned for the 2005-2006 academic year. The senior design group will work as an independent entity from ISU SAE. Yet it is intended that close ties remain between the groups. The senior design group will have full access to ISU SAE shop facilities, previous designs, and working drawings. Any information provided by SAE remains property of ISU SAE. The hybrid-electric drive system is to be powered by a 10 HP Briggs and Stratton engine. The senior design team will design a system to drive one or two electric motors that will in turn drive the car. The senior design team will also design controls for the system as well as a power generation system to be run by the Briggs and Stratton engine as previously stated. The senior design team will need to conform to all rules set forth by the SAE Mini-Baja Collegiate Design Series. -2- Operating Environment The hybrid-electric drive will be integrated into the design of a Baja race car. The car will be subjected to many extreme conditions including dust, dirt, mud, water, potentially high temperatures (>200°F), grease/oil (lubricant), high torque, shock loading, high stress loading, and potential collision with solid object, i.e. rocks. All components must be designed to withstand impact and shock loading from rough terrain. Critical components such as gear housing and electronics must be sealed from contaminants. Adequate cooling must be supplied to the electric motor yet the motor must also be protected from dust and water. Mechanical components must be designed for high cycle life. Electrical equipment must be protected from over currents and/or voltages that may result in electrical shock. Safety of the driver is critical. All components must integrate with the car so that no hazard, i.e. electrical shock, fire, mechanical failure threaten the safety of the driver or bystanders. Intended Users The design team’s electric drive is intended for the Mini-Baja team. The main user of this drive will be the individual who is driving the vehicle at the time. The design team will give an overview of this design to the whole Baja team. This is so each individual who directly works on the vehicle will know how the drive works and functions in case there is a problem. In this case, the Baja team should understand the available trouble shooting methods. Intended Use The use of this drive is intended for the Mini-Baja car and will be designed specifically for this vehicle. By using the drive, the Mini-Baja team hopes to improve the performance of some aspects of the car. The car is used in a nationwide test to see how well each vehicle is designed and performs. The drive will be powered by the already existing Briggs and Stratton motor. It will then deliver power to the wheels through some control. Assumptions Simplifications to aid design include: Constant electrical output from generator Constant power from gasoline engine running at a peak 3800 rpm Addition of hybrid-electric components does not affect center of gravity All power for electronics will be available from Baja car battery Limitations Rules, restrictions, and constraints related to the design include: Design must adhere to all rules defined by SAE Mini-Baja Collegiate Design Series No initial stored energy to power wheels. Weight considerations (Max weight limited by SAE rules) Size constraints from SAE -3- Power available from 10hp Briggs and Stratton engine Wet and dry conditions Design to meet original performance of original car Expected End Product and Other Deliverables The next couple of sections describe the expectations of the senior design team. Expected End Product (Delivery date: 5/5/2005): The expected end product is a design for a system to drive the Mini-Baja car with electric motor. In the end the design team would like to have a completed final design report for an electric drive system that would drive the Mini-Baja car. This report would include diagrams and schematics that will explain what devices will be used for the electric drive system. Also, included would be instructions for SAE on how to construct the system. Simulation and test results will be included with this report so SAE will know exactly what to expect from system once it is built. Other Deliverables: Simulation Results (Delivery date: 5/5/2005): The simulation results will contain the data that will be collected from the many computer simulations that will be run, after the design has been finalized. This data will be presented to the SAE members, providing evidence of the electric drive systems capabilities. Proposed Approach Below is a list of the approach this design team will be taking to solve our problem. 1. Design Objective The objectives the design team must abide to throughout the design include: The Baja car must attain a maximum speed of at least 30 miles/hr Wheels must be solely powered by electric motor Must be able to withstand outside weather Must comply with SAE rules 2. Functional Requirements List of functional requirements. Vehicle must be drivable Driver will not be harmed Speed must be controllable by driver Wheels must only be powered by electric motor -4- 3. Constraints considerations Physical limits and requirements. Size: due to the min-Baja being a small vehicle Weight: rules outlined by SAE Power: 10HP engine to work max 4. Technology Technology utilized for design include: Motor (DC) The design team will be making use of a 144 V Dc motor because it was the lightest and most efficient motor in the design team’s price range. Advantages: The motor weighs 22.2 kg and is relatively cheaper ($6000) than the other motors that are available in the market. The motor is brushless, which means it will have a longer lifespan than a motor with brushes. Disadvantages: This motor was not the lightest or the most efficient motor on the market. Generators (DC,AC) The design team chose to use a DC generator so the speed of the system would be easier to control through the use of a buck chopper. Advantages: The output is DC voltage, which is what the buck chopper uses. Disadvantages (AC): Since the output is AC voltage it would need be converted to DC in order for the electric motor to use it. Control systems The decision was made to use a potentiometer to control the output voltage of the buck chopper, which in turn controls the speed of the electric motor. Advantages: The potentiometer is easier and cheaper than using a microcontroller. Disadvantages: This is a less accurate but acceptable way to control the speed. Batteries Due to SAE rules the initial thought of storing any excess energy from the generator was ruled out. Advantages: The design team could use the excess energy to power other electrical components. Disadvantages: It would be against the rules. Rectifiers This option was also ruled out because the design will not be using an AC generator (alternator). Therefore, there were no AC voltages to be converted to DC voltage. Advantages: -5- It would be an easy way to convert AC voltage to DC. Disadvantages: This would be an extra part of the design to test, simulate and buy. Buck-choppers The design team decided to use this item because it was an efficient was to control the voltages to the DC motor. Advantages: It is easy to control the output voltages. The price is reasonable. Disadvantages: This option may only decrease voltage and cannot increase it. 5. Technical approach Technical considerations for design team include: Simulations Simulations would be on a computer. It is an easy way to approximate the total design without ever buying or building one thing. For this project SimPower is being considered. Advantages: Ensure compatibility of components with each other. Ensure total design will operate near specifications. Disadvantages: Must approximate values of components. Real world might have factors not in simulation. Computer models These models help to visualize the actual components and how they fit together in real life. Currently these are not being considered do to the resources required and the lack of benefit they will provide since the Baja team says they can build the vehicle around the new power system. Advantages: Ensure design will fit together properly in vehicle. Disadvantages: Time and resources needed to produce these models. Mechanical blueprints These are a good way to organize the design of the vehicle. They also help to keep record for future work. Advantages: Clear diagram of functionality. Allows easier future work on vehicle. Disadvantages: Requires time to produce blueprints. Electrical schematics These are a good way to organize the design of the electrical system. They also help to keep record for future work. Advantages: Clear diagram of functionality. Allows easier future work on electrical system. -6- Disadvantages: Requires time to produce schematics. 6. Testing requirements List of two items considered on the testing level include: Simulation of controller and motor response by means of SimPower software Quarter-scale mock-up 7. Recommendations for continuation or modification At this point the design team recommends that the project be continued because the design and later implementation is feasible. Detailed Design Driver Gas pedal Throttle lever Potentiometer (controls duty ratio of chopper) Overload Buck chopper 10 Hp engine DC DC motor circuit – for (DC-DC provided generator Wheels safety converter) Voltage and/or current meters Speedometer Output for testing/ operation Figure 2: The diagram above displays a detailed look at the electric drive design The basis for this design was the series setup shown in Figure 1. The design was modified to meet the specific requirements of the team. For simplicity, the generator was changed from an AC source to a DC generator. This takes out the need for the rectifier unit. The controls box from Figure 1 is basically the buck chopper block along with controls for that buck chopper. The test points are also shown in Figure 2 whereas Figure 1 does not include them. The last change is that there will also not be any transmission as Figure 1 shows. The also simplifies the total design. Overall, this is the basic series setup with a few changes for this project’s specifications and to simplify the design. -7- This diagram shows the flow of power from the 10Hp Engine to the wheels and how this power is controlled by the user. Basically, the mechanical energy from the engine is turned into electrical power which is sent to the DC motor. Before it gets to the motor, it goes through a converter that lowers the voltage proportionally to the driver’s gas pedal. This electric energy that makes it to the DC motor is then turned back into mechanical energy and drives the wheels. The only other part of the diagram includes a few testing points to ensure proper operation Component Specification Engine: The mechanical motor that is being used is the Briggs and Stratton 10 horsepower motor. This motor is a must as far as SAE rules are concerned. This motor is the main driving force for the system and has a maximum speed of 3800 rpm. As seen in the diagram above the motor will be connected to a generator to create the output voltage required to run the electric drive. This motor is provided by the Baja team and no cost will be applied to the design team for its use. Generator: The second stage in the system is the MSF240140 Axial flux, BLDC generator. This generator is basically like another motor except that it is attached backwards to the Briggs and Stratton. This generator will supply a continuous output power of 6800 to 7500 Watts, which is 42.5 VDC to 60 VDC, to the buck chopper. This generator will be obtained from New Generation Motor Corp. and costs approximately $10000. Throttle lever: The throttle lever is just as it sounds, it is a lever used by the driver to increase the throttle (rpm) of the Briggs and Stratton engine. For the system the design team will be designing the throttle lever will be in the fully opened so the Briggs and Stratton engine produces at peak performance. DC motor: The electric motor is the force that is directly driving the wheels. As the diagram shows the setup for the electric motor does not involve a transmission. This is because this motor functions as an “electric transmission”. This means a multi-speed gear box is not needed and the motor can be directly connected to the wheels with a fixed ratio. The DC motor gets a DC voltage input from the buck chopper, then based on how much voltage is provided turns at a certain rpm. The rpm for this DC motor is a nominal speed of 2200 rpm. Along with the rpm is the important torque, which goes up to a maximum of 49 Nm. The DC motor will be obtained from New Generation Motor Corp. and costs roughly $8000. -8- Gas pedal: The gas pedal is a must due to SAE rules and is the drivers control for the speed of the vehicle. The pedal will be attached to a potentiometer, which in turn controls the buck choppers output. Voltage/current meter: This will be used for trouble shooting purposes. In case something goes wrong with the performance of the system, the Baja team would put the voltage/current meter in the specified locations to test the voltage/current levels. This meter can be purchased from multiple places but must be a high voltage/current device as the voltages can get up in the range of 150 volts. For such a device the cost would be in the range of $300 to $400. Speedometer: A standard speedometer, based on wheel speed, will be used to compare for testing. This test will basically compare the speed the car is traveling at to the voltage supplied to the motor. This can then be used to compare actual results to the estimated results. A speedometer runs about $100. DC-DC converter: A DC-DC converter accepts a DC input voltage and produces a DC output voltage which is typically at a different voltage level than the input. The design team made use of a buck chopper which is a step down DC-DC converter. The Buck chopper allows the design team to control the voltage being provided to the dc motor and thus by altering the duty ratio of the buck chopper the speed of the motor can be controlled. The buck chopper would have an input voltage of about 48 Vdc and an output voltage range of 0 to 48 Vdc. The step down dc-dc converter which is planned on being used in this system would cost between $2500 and $3500. The design team still has to decide as to what control interface that will be used for the system. A wiring diagram of the top choice for converters right now is: -9- Figure 3: A diagram of a dc-dc buck chopper from http://www.zahninc.com/0010.html Estimated Resources and Schedules The project would proceed while keeping the following requirements in mind: Personnel effort requirements: As shown in Table 1, group members Daniel Robinson and Jeremy Boon will work an estimated 87 and 85 hours respectively. These hours are about half as much as the other members because they will only be working with the project for one semester instead of a full year. Group members Godwin Itteera, Doug Milewsky, Nicholas Olson, and Rajdeep Wadhwa will work an estimated 162, 169, 164 and 166 hours for the academic year. Other resource requirements: The team will have access to the SAE shop (free of charge) if needed. The team will be making use of Simpower for simulating the hybrid drive. Financial requirements: As shown in Table 3, the estimated total cost of the project, including student labor is $8746.50 - 10 - Personnel effort requirements The project is divided into 8 different tasks: Task 1 – Project Plan Plan Project 9/6/2004-9/17/2004 12 days Revise Project 9/20/2004-10/5/2004 11 days Task 2 – Paper Work Weekly Reports Every Week Unbound Design Report 10/18/2004- 11/9/2004 18 days Status Report 10/18/2004-11/9/2004 18 days Revised Design Report 11/15/2004 -12/15/2004 22 days Task 3 – Component selection Research 9/6/2004-10/4/2004 20 days Set specification 9/27/2004-10/8/2004 10 days Select Components 10/25/2004-2/18/2005 65 days Task 4 – Map power and efficiency thru drive Block diagram 9/27/2004-10/8/2004 10 days Mathematical Diagram 10/4/2004-10/15/2004 10 days Task 5 – Circuit diagram Research 9/6/2004-10/4/2004 20 days Define system 9/27/2004-10/8/2004 10 days Design 10/25/2004-3/04/2005 85 days Error check and Compatibility 1/24/2005-3/04/2005 35 days Task 6 – Control System Research 9/6/2004-10/4/2004 20 days Design Control system 9/27/2004-10/22/2004 20 days Task 7 – Simulation Develop model 10/18/2004-11/5/2004 15 days Test specifications 1/24/2005-3/4/2005 35 days Task 8 – Design poster Design poster 11/15/2004-12/15/2004 18 days - 11 - Table 1: Original Group Schedule. Breakdown of hours by team-member by task Group Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Total member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Godwin Itteera 10 20 40 0 40 20 0 5 20 155 Doug Milewsky 10 20 20 0 0 0 104 5 0 159 Nick Olson 11 20 0 0 100 0 0 5 20 156 Jeremy Boon 9 20 0 25 0 0 0 5 25 84 Daniel Robinson 20 20 0 20 0 0 0 5 20 85 Rajdeep Wadhwa 14 11 0 0 40 0 68 5 20 158 Total Hrs 66 111 60 45 180 20 172 30 105 797 Table 2: Group Schedule. Breakdown of hours by team-member by task Group Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Total member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Godwin Itteera 10 28 25 0 40 34 20 5 162 Doug Milewsky 10 20 36 0 0 33 65 5 169 Nick Olson 11 20 24 0 42 32 30 5 164 Jeremy Boon 9 20 26 25 0 0 0 5 85 Daniel Robinson 20 20 22 20 0 0 0 5 87 Rajdeep Wadhwa 14 13 22 0 0 35 77 5 166 Total Hrs 74 121 155 45 82 134 192 30 833 As shown in Figure 2, there are several tasks designated throughout the year. This chart shows which activities overlap and which activities must be completed before the start of another activity. It is a visual representation of the necessary order of work. - 12 - Other resource requirements Upon completion of the design phase, the design team will be required to do some simulation/testing of the electric drive. Some simulation would also be required during the design phase itself. The power lab, as indicated in Table 2, which is a part of the electrical engineering department, has 3 hp motors that could be used for simulation and testing purposes. The Baja team is also willing to let the senior design team use their shop facilities. Table 3: Original Other Resources. This table shows other resources that will be utilized Item Team hours Other hours Cost Poster 12 0 $50 Power lab 40 0 0 Baja Shop 35 0 0 Totals 87 0 $50 Table 4: Other Resources. This table shows other resources that will be utilized Item Team hours Other hours Cost Poster 12 0 $50 Power lab 130 0 0 Baja Shop 35 0 0 Totals 177 0 $50 Financial Requirements The financial budget has been presented in Table 3. The SAE Mini Baja team is funding a major part of the project. The costs for the poster will be taken care of by the student design team. The design team’s advisor, Dr. Ajjarapu will be providing some reference materials. If any other reference material is required, the group members would pay for it and could keep it. Table 5: Original Costs. The table shows all costs of the project by parts, material, and labor Item W/o labor With labor Parts and Materials Poster $50 $50 Motors ( two) $418 $418 Briggs and Stratton engine Donated Donated Rectifier unit $40 $40 Alternator $25 $25 Subtotal $533 $533 Labor at & 10.50/hr Godwin Itteera $1627.50 Doug Milewsky $1669.50 Nick Olson $1638.00 Jeremy Boon $882.00 - 13 - Daniel Robinson $808.00 RajdeepWadhwa $1659.00 Subtotal $8284.00 Totals $533 $8817.00 Table 6: Costs. The table shows all costs of the project by parts, material, and labor Item W/o labor With labor Parts and Materials Poster $50 $50 Generator $10000 $10000 Motor $8000 $8000 Briggs and Stratton engine Donated Donated DC-DC Buck Chopper $3500 $3500 Testing Equipment $500 $500 Misc. $250 $250 Subtotal $22300 $22300 Labor at & 10.50/hr Godwin Itteera $1701.00 Doug Milewsky $1774.50 Nick Olson $1722.00 Jeremy Boon $892.50 Daniel Robinson $913.50 RajdeepWadhwa $1743.00 Subtotal $8746.50 Totals $22300 $31046.50 - 14 - Schedules Figure 4: Original Gantt Chart. The chart above shows the necessary order of operation graphically - 15 - Figure 5: Gantt Chart. The chart above shows the necessary order of operation graphically - 16 - Project Team Information Team members: Acting client: Daniel Robinson (Team Captain) Ethan Slattery Mechanical Engineering Project Manager 2004-2005 151 University Village, Apt C ISU SAE Mini-Baja Ames, IA 50010 1306 Iowa Cir Cell: (515) 460-1819 Ames, IA 50014 firstname.lastname@example.org Cell: (641) 821-0202 email@example.com Jeremy Boon Mechanical Engineering 2820 Lincoln Way #2 Ames, IA 50014 Cell: (515) 291-3220 firstname.lastname@example.org Godwin Itteera Faculty advisor: Electrical Engineering 4290 Birch Lange Dr. Venkataramana Ajjarapu Ames, IA 50013 Office: 1122 Coover Home: (515) 572-3559 Ames, IA 50011 email@example.com Home: 2704 Valley View Rd Ames, IA 50014 Douglas Milewsky Office: (515) 294-7687 Computer Engineering Home: (515) 292-3887 3218 Lincoln Way Fax: (515) 294-4263 Ames, IA 50014 firstname.lastname@example.org Home: (515) 268-1569 email@example.com Nicholas Olson Electrical Engineering 4138 Fredericksen Ct Ames, IA 50010 Home: (515) 572-7880 firstname.lastname@example.org Rajdeep Wadhwa Electrical Engineering 4112 Lincoln Swing #216 Ames, IA 50014 Home: (515) 441-0284 email@example.com - 17 - Closing Summary The challenge of this project is to determine a way to design an electric drive using a supplied 10 hp Briggs and Stratton motor. It must be determined how the drive will be tested and how it will be setup. Many different requirements and considerations will have to be looked at to make sure the design is feasible, functional, within SAE rules, safe and has not infringed on any patents or intellectual property. The expected solution would be a full design of how the electric drive will be implemented into the Baja car’s existing setup. This design should include a list of all the components needed and documentation of where these components came from and why they are needed. References http://www.public.iastate.edu/~isusae/Baja/ - 18 -
"Hybrid Electric Drive for the SAE Mini Baja Car"