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					A&PI                             Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                     p 1/34
                                              Name:________________________________________________



E
____1.   How does muscle tissue contribute to homeostasis?
             A) by generating heat that helps maintain body temperature
             B) by moving materials through the body
             C) by pulling on bones to move the body
             D) A and B are correct.
             E) A, B and C are correct.

A
____2.   The primary function of muscle is
              A) conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy.
              B) conversion of chemical energy into radiant energy.
              C) conversion of mechanical energy into heat energy.
              D) conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy.
              E) conversion of heat energy into chemical energy.
D
____3.   Skeletal muscle
              A) is striated.
              B) is largely under voluntary control.
              C) is primarily regulated by hormones from the endocrine system.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.
C
____4.   Cardiac muscle
              A) is found in the walls of blood vessels and in the heart.
              B) is largely under voluntary control.
              C) is striated.
              D) contraction is dependent on stimulation by the nervous system.
              E) is unaffected by hormones.

____5.
E        Smooth muscle
             A) is largely under voluntary control.
             B) is located in the coverings of solid organs.
             C) is striated.
             D) moves blood through the heart
             E) is regulated by the autonomic division of the nervous system.

____6.
C        The ability of a muscle tissue to stretch without being damaged is called
              A) electrical excitability.
              B) contractility.
              C) extensibility.
              D) irritability.
              E) elasticity.




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A&PI                            Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                     p 2/34
                                             Name:________________________________________________


B
____7.   A muscle fiber (myofiber) is a muscle
             A) contractile unit.
             B) cell.
             C) protein.
             D) sarcomere.
             E) A and B are correct.

E
____8.   A tendon
              A) attaches a muscle to a bone.
              B) is an extension of the fused endomysium, perimysium and epimysium of a muscle.
              C) contains parallel bundles of collagen fibers.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.
A
____9.   Which of the following is NOT true?
             A) Several nerves accompany each artery that penetrates a muscle cell.
             B) Muscle tissue is highly vascular.
             C) Somatic motor neurons control skeletal muscle contraction.
             D) Somatic motor neurons branch; each branch may control a muscle fiber.
             E) A muscle fiber uses large amounts of ATP during contraction.

____10. An adult has more muscle mass than a child. How did that increase in muscle mass occur?
E
              A) atrophy
              B) dysplasia
              C) hyperplasia
              D) dystrophy
              E) hypertrophy

____11. Transverse tubules
D
              A) are actually tiny pockets of plasma membrane that extend into the muscle cell.
              B) are filled with interstitial fluid.
              C) prevent the spread of an action potential to the interior of a myofiber.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____12. The sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle tissue
A
              A) stores Ca2+ ions required for muscle contraction.
              B) is called rough endoplasmic reticulum in other tissues.
              C) is part of the transverse tubule.
              D) is a thread of protein running the length of the muscle cell.
              E) removes Ca2+ from the sarcoplasm so that an action potential can be generated.




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                                              Name:________________________________________________


____13. Which of the following accurately describes the filaments of skeletal muscle tissue?
E
              A) The thin filaments have twice the diameter and half the numbers of the thick
                  filaments.
              B) The filaments extend through the entire length of the myofiber.
              C) Neither thick nor thin filaments are directly involved in muscle contraction.
              D) Thin filaments are more abundant than thick filaments in the H zone of the A band.
              E) Thick and thin filaments overlap each other within the A band of the sarcomere.

____14. Myofibrils
B
              A) include contractile proteins which stabilize the structure of the sarcomere.
              B) include the contractile proteins actin and myosin.
              C) include regulatory proteins that keep thick and thin filaments in proper alignment.
              D) include structural proteins that decrease the extensibility and elasticity of the
                  myofiber.
              E) include structural proteins the turn the contraction process off or on.

____15. Thick filaments
A
              A) are composed primarily of myosin.
              B) are able to convert mechanical energy into chemical energy.
              C) are primarily regulatory proteins.
              D) are primarily structural proteins.
              E) are composed of different types of proteins that appear as beads on a string.
D
____16. Thin filaments
              A) are composed of titin.
              B) are connected to the M lines.
              C) are able to convert chemical energy to mechanical energy.
              D) are composed of actin, troponin and tropomyosin.
              E) are the proteins that anchor thick filaments to the Z discs.
E
____17. Which of the following does NOT happen during a muscle contraction?
              A) The myosin heads bind to actin.
              B) The myosin heads pull the thin filaments toward the M line.
              C) The sarcomere shortens.
              D) The myofiber and the muscle itself shorten.
              E) The thick and thin filaments shorten.

____18. A contraction cycle
D
              A) cannot begin until Ca2+ has bound to troponin.
              B) cannot begin until the myosin-binding sites on actin are exposed.
              C) cannot begin until Ca2+ has bound to tropomyosin.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) B and C are correct.




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                                              Name:________________________________________________


____19. Place the events of a contraction cycle in the order in which they occur:
A
       1. ATP hydrolysis
       2. detachment of myosin head from actin
       3. power stroke
       4. crossbridge formation
               A) 1, 4, 3, 2
               B) 1, 4, 2, 3
               C) 1. 3, 4, 2
               D) 1, 3, 2, 4
               E) 1, 2, 3, 4

____20. Repetition of the contraction cycle
B
               A) requires the absence of ATP.
               B) requires the presence of an adequate number of Ca2+ ions.
               C) requires the action of the ATPase found on actin.
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.

____21. How is excitation of the sarcolemma coupled to the contraction of a muscle fiber?
C
               A) Excitation continues into the T-tubules causing Ca2+ active transport channels to
                   open, thus removing Ca2+ from the cytoplasm.
               B) Excitation causes synthesis of more calsequestrin, thus allowing more Ca2+ to be
                   stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
               C) Excitation continues into the T-tubules causing Ca2+ release channels to open, thus
                   starting a contraction cycle.
               D) Excitation causes Ca2+ to be released from troponin, thus allowing more cross-
                   bridges to form between myosin and actin.
               E) Excitation causes a number of intracellular events, which lower Ca2+ levels, thus
                   stimulating a contraction cycle.

____22. All of the following is true of rigor mortis EXCEPT:
D
               A) Cellular membranes become leaky after death.
               B) Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum accumulates in the cytoplasm.
               C) Ca2+ binds to troponin allowing crossbridges to form.
               D) Myosin ATPase activity allows the contraction cycle to repeat indefinitely.
               E) Muscles contract until proteolytic enzymes from the lysosomes digest crossbridges.

____23. A neuromuscular junction (NMJ)
A
               A) is the synapse of a motor neuron with a muscle fiber.
               B) includes the synaptic end bulbs of the muscle fiber.
               C) includes the motor endplates of the motor neuron.
               D) uses Na+ as a neurotransmitter.
               E) All of the above are correct.




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A&PI                             Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                     p 5/34
                                              Name:________________________________________________


____24. Place the events at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in the order in which they occur:
E
       1. release of acetylcholine (ACh)
       2. activation of ACh receptors on motor endplate
       3. termination of ACh activity by acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
       4. arrival of an action potential at the synaptic end bulb
       5. diffusion of ACh across the synaptic cleft
       6. opening of Na+ channels in the motor endplate
       7. production of muscle fiber action potential
               A) 4, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 3
               B) 4, 1, 5, 6, 2, 7, 3
               C) 4, 1, 5, 2, 7, 6, 3
               D) 4, 1, 5, 2, 3, 7, 6
               E) 4, 1, 5, 2, 6, 7, 3

____25. Which of the following acts on the NMJ to block stimulation of muscle contraction?
D
              A) botulinum toxin
              B) curare
              C) neostigmine
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____26. How do muscle fibers produce ATP?
E
              A) from creatine phosphate
              B) through anaerobic cellular respiration
              C) through aerobic cellular respiration
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____27. Anaerobic cellular respiration
D
              A) converts glucose to pyruvic acid and ultimately to lactic acid.
              B) can produce energy for 30-40 seconds of contractions.
              C) requires O2.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

E
____28. Aerobic cellular respiration
              A) converts the pyruvate from glycolysis into CO2, H2O, heat and ATP.
              B) occurs in the mitochondria.
              C) requires O2, which can be obtained from hemoglobin or myoglobin.
              D) is required for muscle activities lasting longer than one minute.
              E) All of these are correct.




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                                              Name:________________________________________________


____29. Each of the following is true EXCEPT that:
B
              A) a single muscle fiber is controlled by through a single neuromuscular junction.
              B) a single motor neuron controls a single muscle fiber.
              C) the strength of a muscle contraction depends on the number of motor units
                  stimulated.
              D) the strength of a muscle contraction depends on the size of the motor units
                  stimulated.
              E) a motor unit consists of a somatic motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers it
                  controls.

____30. Which of the following is true of a twitch contraction?
A
              A) During a twitch, all fibers in a motor unit respond to an action potential in a motor
                 neuron.
              B) During its latent period, Ca2+ binds to troponin.
              C) During its contraction period, Ca2+ is actively transported in the sarcoplasmic
                 reticulum.
              D) During its relaxation period, an action potential moves across the sarcolemma and T
                 tubules.
              E) All of the above are correct.

____31. Wave summation in a muscle fiber
E
              A) occurs when additional stimuli arrive before the fiber has relaxed after the initial
                  stimulus.
              B) usually result in subsequent contractions that are stronger than the 1st.
              C) may result in muscle fiber tetany.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____32. Motor unit recruitment
B
              A) occurs when the number of motor units involved in muscle contraction decreases.
              B) contributes to the production of smooth rather than jerky movements.
              C) promotes muscle fatigue.
              D) prevents sustained contraction of a muscle group.
              E) inhibits fine adjustments to muscle strength.

D
____33. Muscle tone
              A) is maintained by conscious control from the autonomic division of the nervous
                  system.
              B) blocks muscle contractions not needed for movement of the body.
              C) is a property of skeletal, but not, smooth muscle tissue.
              D) results from involuntary contractions of alternating small groups of motor units.
              E) increases when motor nerves to a muscle group are damaged.




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                                               Name:________________________________________________


____34. Isotonic contractions
C
               A) generate low muscle tension but allow little change in muscle length.
               B) generate high muscle tension but allow little change in muscle length.
               C) are used to move objects or to move the body.
               D) are important in maintaining posture.
               E) are concentric if the length of the muscle increases during the contraction.

D
____35. Slow oxidative muscle fibers
               A) are the muscle cells most involved in short-term activity such as sprinting.
               B) are the largest and most powerful of the skeletal muscle fiber types.
               C) contract rapidly and generate ATP anaerobically.
               D) resist fatigue and contain large amounts of myoglobin.
               E) All of the above are correct.
E
____36. What is the relationship of exercise to skeletal muscle fibers?
               A) Endurance exercise can transform some FG fibers into FOG fibers..
               B) Strength training exercises can induce production of more filaments in FG fibers.
               C) Exercise does not change the number of skeletal muscle fibers.
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.

____37. Cardiac muscle tissue
E
               A) is autorhythmic.
               B) contains branched cells that are connected by intercalated discs.
               C) obtains Ca2+ required for contraction from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the
                   interstitial fluid.
               D) maintains contractions for longer periods of time than skeletal muscle tissue.
               E) All of the above are correct.

____38. Smooth muscle tissue
D
               A) may be stimulated to contract by hormones.
               B) has briefer contractions than skeletal muscle tissue.
               C) uses calmodulin to remove Ca2+ from the cytoplasm.
               D) A and C are correct.
               E) B and C are correct.

A
____39. All of the following are true of muscle tissue regeneration EXCEPT:
               A) Skeletal muscle tissue retains its mitotic ability and ability to regenerate throughout
                  life.
               B) Smooth muscle fibers of the uterus and arterial walls have regenerative capacity.
               C) Cardiac muscle tissue has limited regenerative capacity.
               D) Most body tissues have more regenerative capacity than the muscle tissues.
               E) Healthy cardiac muscle fibers may undergo hypertrophy to compensate for damaged
                  cells.




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A&PI                                Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                     p 8/34
                                                 Name:________________________________________________


____40. Which of the following is NOT true of the effect of aging on muscular tissue?
C
               A) Fibrous connective tissue and adipose tissue replace skeletal muscle tissue as age
                   increases.
               B) Skeletal muscle strength tends to decrease as age increases.
               C) Exercise has little effect on delaying or reversing age-related loss of skeletal muscle
                   function.
               D) The ratio of slow oxidative fibers to other skeletal muscle types increases with age.
               E) The loss of skeletal muscle tissue may be related to decreased physical activity with
                   age.
Matching: Choose the answer from the column on the right that best matches the description or
term on in the column on the left.

____41. property allowing muscle tissue to return to its
D                                                                    A) contractility
         original shape                                              B) elasticity
A
____42. property allowing muscle to shorten forcefully               C) electrical excitability
         when stimulated by an action potential                      D) extensibility
____43. function of muscle; heat generation
E                                                                    E) thermogenic




____44. fusion of connective tissues; joins muscles to
E                                                                    A) endomysium
         bones
                                                                     B) epimysium
C
____45. bundles of muscle fibers                                     C) fascicles

____46. connective tissue around bundle of muscle fibers
                                                                     D) perimysium
D
                                                                     E) tendon




____47. plasma membrane of muscle cell
C                                                                    A) myoblasts

____48. embryonic cells; fuse to form muscle cells
                                                                     B) myofibers
A
                                                                     C) sarcolemma
____49. modified smooth endoplasmic reticulum of
E
                                                                     D) sarcoplasm
         muscle cell; stores Ca2+
                                                                     E) sarcoplasmic reticulum
F
____50. sites delineating ends of sarcomeres
                                                                     F) Z discs




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A&PI                                 Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                     p 9/34
                                                  Name:________________________________________________



____51. regulatory protein associated with thin filament;
D                                                                     A) actin
         binds Ca2+
                                                                      B) myosin
C
____52. structural protein; anchors thick filament to M line          C) titin
         and Z disc
                                                                      D) troponin
____53. contractile protein found in thin filament
A                                                                     E) tropomyosin

F
____54. enzyme that removes neurotransmitter from
                                                                      F) acetylcholinesterase
         synaptic cleft; helps muscle relax

Select the word or phrase that best completes each sentence.
                                                                                    A. Aerobic
____55. Both skeletal and ____ muscle are striated, but only skeletal
C
         muscle is voluntarily controlled.                                          B. atrophy

____56. An increase in the number of muscle cells would be called ____,
F
                                                                                    C.   cardiac
         but most muscle growth is attributed to a different process.               D. Creatine phosphate
____57. ____ is a protein found in the sarcoplasm of skeletal muscle cells
I                                                                                   E. Endurance (Aerobic)
         that binds and releases O2.                                                F. hyperplasia
____58. ____ are the contractile organelles of muscle tissue.
H                                                                                   G. Motor units
____59. Muscular ____ is a wasting away of muscles that may arise from
B                                                                                   H. Myofibrils
         disuse or denervation.                                                     I. Myoglobin
____60. A ____ is the functional unit of muscle contraction.
K                                                                                   J. Rigor mortis
M
____61. ____ is a part of the thin filament ; it blocks actin’s myosin              K. sarcomere
         binding sites in relaxed muscle.
                                                                                    L. sliding filament
L
____62. The ____ is the scientific explanation of how thick and thin                   model
         filaments overlap to allow muscle contraction.                             M.       Tropomyosin
J
____63. ____ occurs because there is no ATP to remove myosin
         crossbridges after death.
D
____64. ____ is a high energy compound found only in muscle tissue.

____65. ____ metabolism is required to provide energy for muscle contractions that last longer than
A
         thirty seconds.
G
____66. _____ consist of motor neurons and the muscle fibers that they control.

____67. ____ exercises can transform some fast glycolytic fibers into fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers.
E


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A&PI                             Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                      p 10/34



Choose the single best answer to each of the following questions.
E
____68. Which of the following is true?
               A) Muscles pull on bones; they do not push bones.
               B) The end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves least is the origin of that
                  muscle.
               C) The end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves most is the insertion of the
                  muscle.
               D) The main movement that occurs when the muscle contracts is the action of the
                  muscle.
               E) All of the above are correct.
____69. Which of the following is true?
A
               A) The origin of a muscle on a limb is usually proximal to it insertion.
               B) A muscle must cover the limb or other body part it moves.
               C) Muscles crossing one joint have more complex actions than those crossing two
                  joints.
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.
D
____70. A lever
               A) is a rigid structure that moves about a fixed point.
               B) provides mechanical advantage when a small effort can move a large load.
               C) that provides a mechanical advantage decreases the speed and distance needed to
                   move a load.
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.
B
____71. A first class lever
               A) may be represented as FEL.
               B) extends a bowed head on the vertebral column.
               C) allows a ballerina to stand on her toes.
               D) allows the forearm to flex on the arm.
               E) is the least common lever system in the body.
____72. A third class lever
A
               A) is the most common lever system in the human body.
               B) may be represented as FLE.
               C) always produce a mechanical advantage.
               D) favors force over speed.
               E) favors force over range of motion.
____73. Which of the following may be the basis for the name of a muscle?
E
               A) the direction of the muscle’s fasicles
               B) the size of the muscle
               C) the action of the muscle
               D) the location of the muscle
               E) All of the above may be used to name a muscle.


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A&PI                             Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                  p 11/34



____74. Muscles of facial expression
E
              A) generally originate from bones of the facial skull.
              B) generally insert on the skin.
              C) are innervated by the facial (VII) nerve.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____75. Which of the following is NOT an extrinsic muscle of the eye?
C
              A) superior rectus
              B) inferior rectus
              C) ciliary
              D) superior oblique
              E) inferior oblique
A
____76. Which of the following is NOT a muscle of the abdominal wall?
              A) intercostal muscle
              B) internal oblique
              C) external oblique
              D) rectus abdominis
              E) quadratus lumborum
____77. Which of the following muscles is used in breathing?
E
              A) diaphragm
              B) external intercostals
              C) internal intercostals
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.
D
____78. Which of the following penetrates the diaphragm?
              A) esophagus
              B) inferior vena cava
              C) superior vena cava
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.
____79. Each of the following is a posterior muscle that moves the pectoral girdle EXCEPT the
C
              A) trapezius.
              B) rhomboid major
              C) serratus anterior
              D) rhomboid minor
              E) levator scapulae
E
____80. Which of the following elevates the scapula?
              A) trapezius
              B) levator scapulae
              C) rhomboids
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.


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A&PI                             Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                     p 12/34



A
____81. Which muscle is the primary abductor of the arm?
              A) deltoid
              B) teres major
              C) subscapularis
              D) supraspinatus
              E) corachobrachialis

____82. Which of the following flex the forearm at the elbow?
D
              A) brachialis
              B) brachioradialis
              C) triceps brachii
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.
C
____83. Four year old Parker has been going to the health club with his dad. Today he is showing the
         trainers his big muscle. Parker flexes his forearm at the elbow and a bulge appears. That
         bulge is, in part, due to the contraction of Parker’s
               A) triceps brachii
               B) anconeus
               C) biceps brachii
               D) pronator teres
               E) supinator

____84. Which of the following flex the wrist?
D
              A) flexor carpi ulnaris
              B) flexor carpi radialis
              C) flexor digitorum superficialis
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____85. The general activities of the hand depend on the functions of intrinsic hand muscles and
E
         include
              A) pinching
              B) free motion
              C) power grip
              D) precision handling
              E) All of the above are correct.
E
____86. Lower limb muscles function in
              A) maintaining stability.
              B) maintaining posture.
              C) moving the body.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.




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A&PI                              Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                 p 13/34



____87. Which muscle extends the thigh at the hip joint and laterally rotates the thigh?
A
               A) gluteus maximus
               B) gluteus medius
               C) gluteus minimus
               D) piriformis
               E) tensor fascia latae
A
____88. Which muscle does NOT flex the thigh?
               A) quadratus femoris
               B) adductor magnus
               C) adductor brevis
               D) adductor longus
               E) pectineus

____89. Which of the following muscles is NOT part of the quadriceps femoris?
B
               A) rectus femoris
               B) biceps femoris
               C) vastus medialis
               D) vastus lateralis
               E) vastus intermedius

____90. The calcaneal (Achilles) tendon is formed by the fusion of the tendons of the
E
               A) gastrocnemius
               B) soleus
               C) plantaris
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.
A
____91. The gastrocnemius
               A) is the prominent, superficial muscle of the calf.
               B) everts the foot.
               C) dorsiflexes the foot.
               D) extends the knee.
               E) All of these are correct.
____92. Which of the following is NOT an intrinsic muscle of the foot?
A
               A) extensor digitorum longus
               B) abductor hallucis
               C) flexor digitorum brevis
               D) abductor digiti minimi
               E) lumbricals
D
____93. What is RICE therapy?
               A) an initial treatment for most sports injuries
               B) a combination of rest, ice, compression and elevation
               C) a therapy that should generally be used for 2-3 weeks after an injury
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.

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A&PI                              Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                     p 14/34



Matching: Choose the answer from the column on the right that best matches the description or
term on in the column on the left.


____94. part of muscle between tendons
B                                                                    A) action

____95. role of the part of the biceps brachii attached to
                                                                     B) belly
D
         humerus when forearm is flexed on arm                       C) insertion
                                                                     D) origin
____96. role of the part of the quadriceps femoris attached
C
         to the tibia when the leg is extended on the thigh          E) tendon




____97. muscles of facial expression that
D                                                     A) levator and depressor labii
         are sphincters
                                                      B) levator and depressor labii
E
____98. muscles that move the eyeball                 C) masseter, temporalis
                                                      D) orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris
____99. muscles of mastication
C
                                                      E) superior and inferior obliques




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A&PI                               Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                          p 15/34




Select the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
____100. When a lever system allows a smaller effort to move a heavier
I                                                                              A. adductor magnus
         load, it has _____.
                                                                               B. brachialis
____101. The most common type of lever in the human body arranges its
F
                                                                               C. calcaneal (Achilles)
         fulcrum, load and effort in this order: _____.
                                                                               D. compartment
____102. In an extremity, a _____ is a group of muscles, with their
D
         associated blood vessels and nerves that perform a particular         E. diaphragm
         function.                                                             F. Fulcrum, Effort, Load
A
____103. Considering the conventions used in naming muscles, _____ is          G. latissimus dorsi
         the best two word name for a large (but not necessarily long)
                                                                               H. masseter
         muscle that brings the thigh toward the midline.
                                                                               I. mechanical advantage
____104. The ____ is the muscle of facial expression that puckers the
K                                                                                 (leverage)
         lips, as in when kissing your elderly aunt.
                                                                               J. medial rectus
____105. When the lateral rectus of the right eye contracts, the ____ of
J
                                                                               K. orbicularis oris
         the left eye must also contract so that both eyes look in the
         same direction.                                                       L. posterior triangle
H
____106. The ____ is a muscle of mastication and is the strongest muscle       M. quadriceps (quadriceps
         in the body.                                                             femoris)
L
____107. The ____ of the neck contains the external jugular vein, the          N. rectus abdominis
         subclavian artery, and the accessory (XI) nerve.                      O. sartorius
____108. The ____ is the abdominal wall muscle that extends from the
N                                                                              P. soleus
         pubic crest to the cartilages of ribs 5-7. It is the “6 pack”
         muscle observed on very muscular individuals.
____109. The ____ is a skeletal muscle attached to the ribs and vertebrae, but it is largely under
E
         involuntary control.
____110. Two muscles, the pectoralis major and the ____ move the humerus but do not attach to the
G
         scapula. The second muscle laterally rotates the humerus and is called the swimmer’s
         muscle.
B
____111. The most powerful flexor of the forearm at the elbow is the _____.

____112. The largest muscle group in the body is the _____, which extends the knee.
M

____113. The _____ is the longest muscle in the body, crosses both the knee and hip joints, and is
O
         sometimes called the tailor’s muscle because it is involved in flexing the knee and laterally
         rotating the hip.
____114. The _____ is the muscle deep to the gastrocnemius that assists in plantar flexion of the foot.
P

____115. Damage to the ____ would prevent the gastrocnemius from lifting the heel and plantar
C
         flexing the foot.


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A&PI                             Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                     p 16/34




Choose the single best answer to each question.
____116. The nervous system
E
             A) works with the endocrine system to maintain homeostasis.
             B) communicates with the body via action potentials.
             C) is responsible for thoughts and behaviors.
             D) initiates voluntary movements.
             E) All of these are correct.

____117. Each of the following is part of the nervous system EXCEPT the:
C
             A) brain
             B) spinal cord
             C) vertebral column
             D) neurons
             E) neuroglia
A
____118. Which of the following correctly describes a function of the nervous system?
             A) sensory: detect changes in the environment; relays information to the brain and spinal
                 cord.
             B) integrative : response system; causes muscles to contract or glands to empty based
             C) motor: process and make decisions regarding sensory input; responsible for
                 perception.
             D) A and B are correct.
             E) A, B and C are correct.
D
____119. The central nervous system
             A) excludes the cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia and sensory receptors.
             B) is the source of thoughts and emotions.
             C) is the destination of action potentials from motor neurons.
             D) A and B are correct.
             E) A, B and C are correct.

____120. The peripheral nervous system
B
             A) includes the brain and spinal cord.
             B) may be divided into somatic, autonomic and enteric nervous systems.
             C) is only involved with unconscious (involuntary) activities.
             D) A and B are correct.
             E) A, B and C are correct.

____121. The somatic nervous system
A
             A) provides motor signals and conscious control to skeletal muscles.
             B) includes sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
             C) regulates the gastrointestinal tract.
             D) is dependent on the autonomic system for control.
             E) includes motor neurons to smooth muscles.




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____122. Neurons
E
             A) are electrically excitable cells.
             B) vary greatly in size.
             C) have a perikaryon enriched with the organelles for protein synthesis.
             D) A and B are correct.
             E) A, B and C are correct.

____123. Which of the following is NOT true?
B
             A) A dendrite is a nerve fiber that receives impulses from other neurons.
             B) Most neurons have many axons and one dendrite.
             C) An axon sends an impulse to another neuron or to an effector cell.
             D) Slow axonal transport moves axoplasm in only one direction.
             E) Fast axonal transport uses microtubules to move materials in two directions.
C
____124. Which of the following is true of a synapse?
             A) The presynaptic neuron carries a nerve impulse away from a synapse.
             B) The postsynaptic neuron carries a nerve impulse toward a synapse.
             C) A synapse is the site of where two neurons or a neuron and an effector meet.
             D) The presynaptic neuron releases chemical messengers called hormones.
             E) The synapse of a neuron and a gland is called a neuromuscular junction.
E
____125. Neuroglia
             A) comprise about one-half of the tissue in the CNS.
             B) retain mitotic potential but do not conduct nerve impulses.
             C) support and protect neurons.
             D) A and B are correct.
             E) A, B and C are correct.

____126. Astrocites
B
             A) support neurons in the peripheral nervous system.
             B) form the blood-brain barrier.
             C) regulate growth, migration and interconnection of neurons in the adult brain.
             D) form myelin on central nervous system neurons.
             E) maintain the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.

____127. Which neuroglia cells produce myelin?
D
             A) oligodendrocytes
             B) Schwann cells
             C) satellite cells
             D) A and B are correct.
             E) A, B and C are correct.




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____128. Gray matter
A
              A) consists of neuron cell bodies, neuroglia and unmyelinated nerve fibers.
              B) is found at the periphery of the spinal cord.
              C) may be found in clusters called ganglia in the central nervous system.
              D) may be found in clusters called nuclei in the peripheral nervous system.
              E) All of the above are correct.

____129. Which of the following statements is correct?
E
              A) Ion channels in neuron plasma membranes block electron flow across those
                  membranes.
              B) Action potentials allow cells to communicate over short distances only.
              C) Graded potentials allow cells to communicate over either long or short distances.
              D) The electrical current in living cells is the flow of electrons across a plasma
                  membrane.
              E) Neurons exhibit differences in electrical voltage across their plasma membranes.

____130. Graded potentials
A
              A) arise when ion movement causes a minor change in the resting membrane potential.
              B) usually propagate down the length of an axon.
              C) occur when voltage-gated channels open.
              D) are most often observed in axons.
              E) are usually associated with ion movement through leakage channels.
E
____131. Action potentials
              A) arise slowly and are observed primarily in dendrites and cell bodies.
              B) arise when a stimulus is strong enough to open mechanically-gated ion channels.
              C) occur in three phases: latent, graded and polarizing.
              D) vary in size depending on the strength of the initial stimulus.
              E) allow an impulse to travel over long or short distances.
C
____132. Place the events involved in generating an action potential in the order in which they occur”
       1. K+ moves out of the cell.
       2. Na+ activation gates open.
       3. Excess K+ leaves cell causing hyperpolarization.
       4. Na+ enters cell and voltage becomes less negative.
       5. K+ channels close.
       6. threshold stimulus arrives.
       7. Leakage channels restore resting membrane potential.
       8. Na+ inactivation gates close and K+ open.
              A) 6, 4, 2, 8, 1, 3, 5, 7
              B) 6, 4, 8, 2, 1, 3, 5, 7
              C) 6, 2, 4, 8, 1, 3, 5, 7
              D) 6, 2, 4, 8, 3, 1, 5, 7
              E) 6, 2, 4, 3, 8, 1, 5, 7




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____133. Draw an action potential voltage vs time plot. Label Absolute Refractory period, Threshold,
         Resting potential, Depolarization, Hyperpolarization, Overshoot, Relative Refractive Period,
                                           Over Shoot
                                                                                  0 Volts
                                           Absolute Refractory Period
         Depolarizaation
                                                 Relative Refractory Period




                                                                        Resting Potential
                                                         Hyperpolarization



D
____134. Which of the following is true of nerve impulse conduction?
              A) Saltatory conduction occurs on unmyelinated axons.
              B) Continuous conduction occurs on myelinated axons.
              C) Saltatory conduction requires more ATP than continuous conduction.
              D) Continuous conduction is slower than salutatory conduction.
              E) All of these are correct.
C
____135. Which of the following is NOT true?
              A) No refractory period is associated with graded potentials.
              B) Muscle fiber resting membrane potentials are more negative than those of neurons.
              C) Neuron action potentials last longer than muscle fiber action potentials.
              D) Conduction of action potentials in A fibers is much quicker than that in muscle
                 fibers.
              E) Neither B nor C is true.

____136. Electrical synapses
E
              A) occur when there is direct contact between electrically excitable cells.
              B) allow rapid communication between cells.
              C) allow synchronization of cellular activities.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

C
____137. At a chemical synapse,
              A) two cells communicate directly via connexons at gap junctions.
              B) action potentials are propagated more quickly than at an electrical synapse.
              C) the presynaptic neuron converts an electrical signal into a chemical signal.
              D) the postsynaptic neuron converts an electrical signal into a chemical signal.
              E) there is a synaptic delay of about 3 seconds as the neurotransmitter crosses the
                  synaptic cleft.



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____138. Place the events at a chemical synapse in the order in which they occur:
A
       1. action potential arrives at pre-synaptic neuron’s end bulbs; Ca2+ channels to open
       2. Ca2+ binds to synaptic vesicles; vesicles fuse with presynaptic neuron’s membrane
       3. postsynaptic potential develops
       4. neurotransmitter binds to receptors (ligand-gated channels) on postsynaptic membrane
       5. neurotransmitter exocytosed; diffuses across synaptic cleft
              A) 1, 2, 4, 5, 3
              B) 1, 4, 2, 5, 3
              C) 1, 2, 5, 4, 3
              D) 1, 2, 4, 3, 5
              E) 1, 3, 2, 4, 5


____139. Which of the following is NOT true?
D
              A) If a neurotransmitter causes depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron, it is excitatory.
              B) If a neurotransmitter causes hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic neuron, it is
                  inhibitory.
              C) EPSPs often result from opening cation channels.
              D) Information transfer at a chemical synapse is bi-directional.
              E) IPSP often result from opening K+ or Cl- channels
B
____140. Summation
              A) occurs on the cell body.
              B) is the integration of input to a neuron.
              C) resulting from simultaneous stimulation from several presynaptic end bulbs is called
                  spatial.
              D) resulting from many stimulations from the same presynaptic end bulb is temporal.
              E) has no effect on the electrical activity of the postsynaptic neuron.

____141. A postsynaptic neuron receives a greater number and frequency of excitatory signals than
E
         inhibitory signals, but not enough excitatory signals to reach threshold level. What will
         develop in this neuron?
              A) an EPSP
              B) an IPSP
              C) a nerve impulse
              D) A and C are correct.
              E) B and C are correct.

____142. Acetylcholine
D
              A) is released from some CNS neurons and most PNS neurons.
              B) is excitatory at skeletal muscle motor end plates.
              C) is inhibitory where the vagus (X) nerve synapses with cardiac fibers.
              D) is removed from synapses by the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase.
              E) All of these are correct.




                                                                                                        20
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____143. Biogenic amines
B
              A) are modified fatty acids.
              B) include epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine.
              C) each bind to only one type of receptor.
              D) have excitatory effects.
              E) A and B are correct.

____144. Norepinephrine
C
              A) is required for the loss of consciousness that allows us to sleep.
              B) is used by fewer neurons in the brain; more neurons use epinephrine.
              C) and epinephrine are also made by the adrenal glands and can be considered
                  hormones.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____145. How is NO different from most neurotransmitters?
C
              A) It is packaged into synaptic vesicles that also contain another neurotransmitter.
              B) It is excitatory in the CNS, but inhibitory in the PNS.
              C) It is not stored in vesicles, but is made on demand.
              D) It is nontoxic in large concentrations.
              E) Its effects last for several minutes.

____146. Which of the following is true of neuropeptides?
E
              A) They consist of chains of amino acids.
              B) Some serve as hormones outside of the nervous system.
              C) They include enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins and substance P.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____147. Diverging neural circuits
D
              A) amplify sensory signals.
              B) allow a single presynaptic neuron to influence many postsynaptic neurons.
              C) are most involved in short-term memory.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

E
____148. Which neural circuit enables a single presynaptic stimulation to cause a postsynaptic cell to
         send a series of impulses?
             A) simple circuit
             B) convergent circuit
             C) diverging circuit
             D) parallel after-discharge circuit
             E) reverberating circuit




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____149. At the level of an individual neuron, which of the following is associated with nervous
B
         system plasticity?
              A) growth of new axons
              B) changes in synaptic contacts with other neurons
              C) synthesis of a different assortment of lipids
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____150. In order for a neuron to regenerate,
D
              A) it must be in the peripheral nervous system.
              B) the cell body must remain intact.
              C) the Schwann cell must cease myelin production.
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____151. Neurogenesis
E
              A) occurs in the embryonic brain.
              B) occurs in the hippocampus even during adulthood.
              C) is inhibited by neuroglial products in most areas of the CNS.
              D) is inhibited by the absence of fetal growth stimulating factors.
              E) All of these are correct.

____152. Epilepsy
B
              A) is an autoimmune disorder.
              B) results from abnormal, synchronous discharge of neurons in the brain.
              C) results in muscle weakness.
              D) rarely causes seizures.
              E) is usually observed in a relapsing-remitting form.


Matching: Choose the answer from the column on the right that best matches the description or
term on in the column on the left.

____153. serve integrative function; majority of neurons in
D                                                                    A) afferent neurons
         body                                                        B) central nervous system
C
____154. deliver response signals to muscles, glands and             C) efferent neurons
         other tissues
                                                                     D) interneurons
____155. any part of the nervous system other than the brain
E                                                                    E) peripheral nervous system
         and spinal cord




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____156. relays sensory information from skin and muscles
D                                                              A) autonomic nervous system
         to CNS                                                B) enteric nervous system
____157. provides “fight or flight” response
E                                                              C) parasympathetic division
                                                               D) somatic nervous system
____158. provides unconscious control of cardiovascular
A
         system                                                E) sympathetic division




____159. phagocytic glial cells found in CNS
C                                                              A) astrocyte

____160. found lining ventricles of brain; make CSF
B
                                                               B) ependymal cell
                                                               C) microglia
____161. found only in peripheral nervous system; support
E
         neuron cell bodies in ganglia                         D) oligodendrocyte
                                                               E) satellite cell




____162. all or none event; always the same size response;     A) action potential
A        usually observed on axons
                                                               B) depolarization
                                     +
____163. occurs due to activity at K voltage-gated
 D                                                             C) graded potential
         channels; membrane potential changes from 30
                                                               D) repolarization
         mV to -70 mV
                                     +
                                                               E) threshold
____164. occurs due to activity at Na voltage-gated
B
         channels; membrane potential changes from -70
         mV to 30 mV



____165. involved in transmission of pain signals; may be
 E                                                             A) aspartate, glutamate
         treatment for nerve degeneration                      B) catecholamines
____166. analgesic and pleasure molecules; suppress pain
 C                                                             C) endorphins, enkephalins
         signals
                                                               D) NO
____167. potent free radical neurotransmitter that serves as
D                                                              E) substance P
         important vasodilator; toxic in high
         concentrations
                                                                                            23
A&PI                               Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                               p 24/34




____168. capability of nervous system to change based on
 C                                                            A) chromatolysis
         experience
                                                              B) neurogenesis
____169. ability of cells to replicate or repair themselves
D                                                             C) plasticity
____170. Birth of new neurons from undifferentiated stem
 B                                                            D) regeneration
         cells
                                                              E) Wallerian degeneration
____171. destruction of distal end of damaged axon; occurs
E
         3-5 days after injury




                                                                                          24
A&PI                                Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                       p 25/34



Select the word or phrase that best completes the sentence:

____172. ____ are bundles of axons with their associated connective tissues and blood vessels found
L
           outside of the brain and spinal cord.
                                                                                 A. Afferent
____173. ____ are clusters of neuron cell bodies found outside of the brain
H                                                                                B. axon
           and spinal cord.
                                                                                 C. central
____174. ____ , or sensory, neurons relay information from receptors to
A                                                                                D. diverging
           the brain and spinal cord.
                                                                                 E. Dopamine
____175. The ____ nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal
 C                                                                               F. Enkephalins
           cord.
                                                                                 G. enteric
____176. The ____ nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous
G                                                                                H. Ganglia
           system that controls many activities along the gastrointestinal
                                                                                 I. ion channel
           tract.
                                                                                 J. ligand-gated
____177. A ____ is the electrically excitable cell that is the functional unit
 N
                                                                                 K. Multiple sclerosis
           of the nervous system.
                                                                                 L.   Nerves
 B
____178.   An ____ is a long, cylindrical nerve process transmits an
                                                                                 M. neural
           electrical impulse toward another neuron or an effector.
                                                                                 N. neuron
P
____179.   The ____ produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system.
                                                                                 O. refractory period
I
____180. An _____ regulates the passage of charged atoms across the              P. Schwann cells
           plasma membrane and may be classified as leakage, ligand-
           gated, mechanically-gated or voltage-gated depending on which
           stimulus causes it to open.

J
____181. A _____ ion channel opens only when a specific neurotransmitter binds to it.

____182. The ____ is the time during which another action potential cannot be generated.
O

____183. ____ is the catecholamine neurotransmitter that is associated with skeletal muscle rigidity in
E
           Parkinson’s Disease.
F
____184. _____ are the body’s natural pain killers and are 200 times stronger than morphine.

____185. A ____ circuit is a network of neurons that form a functional group and process a specific
M
           type of information.

____186. A ____ circuit is one in which a single presynaptic neuron interacts with several post-
D
           synaptic neurons, which in turn interact with multiple post-synaptic neurons.

____187. _____ is an autoimmune disorder that causes demyelination of CNS neurons.
K




                                                                                                         25
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Choose the single best answer to each question.
____188. Which of the following provide protection for the spinal cord?
E
              A) vertebra
              B) meninges
              C) cerebrospinal fluid
              D) A and B are correct.
              E) A, B and C are correct.

____189. Place the meninges and associated spaces in order from most superficial to deepest:
A
       1. subarachnoid space
       2. pia mater
       3. arachnoid mater
       4. epidural space
       5. dura mater
       6. subdural space
               A) 4, 5, 6, 3, 1, 2
               B) 4, 5, 6, 3, 2, 1
               C) 4, 5, 6, 1, 3, 2
               D) 4, 5, 6, 1, 2, 3
               E) 4, 5, 6, 2, 3, 1

____190. The spinal cord
D
               A) is flattened somewhat laterally.
               B) is characterized by thoracic and sacral enlargements.
               C) is longer than the vertebral column.
               D) is contiguous with the medulla oblongata.
               E) is tapered into a cone called the conus medullaris at its superior end.


C
____191. The gray matter of the spinal cord
               A) is primarily found at the periphery of the cord.
               B) contains the myelinated axons of motor neurons.
               C) contains the cell bodies and dendrites of neurons.
               D) excludes neuroglia.
               E) is shaped like the letter C or a caterpillar.

____192. The white matter of the spinal cord
E
               A) is divided into anterior, posterior and lateral columns.
               B) contains ascending myelinated axons in groups called sensory tracts.
               C) contains descending myelinated axons in groups called motor tracts.
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.




                                                                                                     26
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____193. The spinal nerves
C
               A) allow communication between the spinal cord and the brain.
               B) have posterior sensory roots.
               C) have anterior root ganglia containing cell bodies of motor neurons.
               D) have posterior motor roots.
               E) exit the vertebral column anteriorly between the intervertebral discs and the vertebral
                   bodies.

____194. Spinal nerves are
D
               A) identified based on the region and level of the vertebral column from which they
                   emerge.
               B) are mixed nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers.
               C) are all aligned with their corresponding vertebrae.
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.
A
____195. The connective tissue coverings of nerve fibers
               A) are organized in a similar manner to those of muscle fibers.
               B) are present only on unmyelinated nerves.
               C) are identical to the meninges.
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.

____196. Which of the following is NOT a branch of a spinal nerve?
C
               A) ventral ramus
               B) dorsal ramus
               C) dorsal root
               D) meningeal ramus
               E) ramus communicante

A
____197. Which plexus supplies the skin and muscles of the shoulders and upper extremities?
               A) brachial
               B) cervical
               C) coccygeal
               D) lumbar
               E) sacral
D
____198. Which plexus supplies the anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitals, and part of the
         lower limbs?
              A) brachial
              B) cervical
              C) coccygeal
              D) lumbar
              E) sacral




                                                                                                       27
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____199. Which plexus supplies the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs?
E
               A) brachial
               B) cervical
               C) coccygeal
               D) lumbar
               E) sacral

____200. Which plexus supplies a small area of skin in the coccygeal region?
C
               A) brachial
               B) cervical
               C) coccygeal
               D) lumbar
               E) sacral

E
____201. How does the spinal cord function in maintaining homeostasis?
               A) Nuclei in spinal cord gray matter receive and integrate incoming and outgoing
                  information.
               B) Ascending tracts in white matter propagate sensory impulses toward the brain.
               C) Descending tracts in white matter propagate motor impulses toward effectors.
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.

____202. Which of the following is NOT part of a spinal reflex arc?
A
               A) visual receptor
               B) sensory neuron
               C) integrating center
               D) motor neuron
               E) effector


____203. Which of the following is NOT a somatic spinal reflex?
C
               A) stretch reflex
               B) tendon reflex
               C) pupillary reflex
               D) flexor reflex
               E) crossed extensor reflex

____204. A stretch reflex
E
               A) is a monosynaptic reflex.
               B) occurs in response to the stretching of a muscle.
               C) can be observed at the elbow, wrist, knee and ankle.
               D) A and B are correct.
               E) A, B and C are correct.




                                                                                                   28
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____205. Place the events that in a stretch reflex in the order in which they occur:
B
           1. propagation of impulse along sensory neuron
           2. generation of impulse by muscle spindle
           3. integration of impulse at synapse in gray matter of spinal cord
           4. activation of motor neuron in anterior gray horn
           5. stimulation of muscle spindle
           6. propagation of motor impulse
           7. release of ACh from motor neuron
           8. stimulation of muscle contraction
               A) 5, 2, 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8
               B) 2, 5, 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8
               C) 5, 2, 3, 1, 4, 6, 7, 8
               D) 5, 2, 1, 3, 6, 4, 7, 8
               E) 5, 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, 6, 8
B
____206. How does a tendon reflex differ from a stretch reflex?
               A) A tendon reflex adjusts length instead of tension.
               B) A tendon reflex uses Golgi tendon organs are sensory receptors instead of muscle
                  spindles.
               C) A tendon reflex is more sensitive than a stretch reflex.
               D) A tendon reflex cannot override a stretch reflex.
               E) A tendon reflex is contralateral instead of ipsilateral.

C
____207. Which of the following is NOT a reflex typically used for diagnosing neurological disorders?
               A) patellar reflex
               B) Babinski sign
               C) crossed-extensor reflex
               D) Achilles reflex
               E) abdominal reflex
B
____208. A man gently strokes the lateral sole of his wife’s foot, and her toes curl toward the sole. He
         strokes his six month old baby’s foot, and the baby’s big toe flexes up toward his tibia.
         Should the man be concerned about the health of either his wife or his child?
              A) No, direction of toe curling has nothing to do with health.
              B) No, they are both exhibiting normal Babinski signs for their ages.
              C) Yes, they are both exhibiting abnormal Babinski signs for their ages.
              D) Yes, the baby has an abnormal Babinski sign.

____209. Which patient has the best prognosis?
B
               A) transection of the spinal cord at C3
               B) recently developed spinal cord compression due to a herniated disc at L4
               C) transaction of the spinal cord at T8
               D) hemisection of the spinal cord at C5
               E) hemisection of the spinal cord at T12




                                                                                                       29
A&PI                              Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                 p 30/34



Matching: Choose the answer from the column on the right that best matches the description or
term on in the column on the left.
E
____210. composed of collagen and fine elastic fibers;        A) arachnoid mater
         highly vascular
                                                              B) denticulate ligaments
____211. extensions of pia mater; suspend spinal cord
B                                                             C) dura mater
         within vertebral canal
                                                              D) epidural space
____212. space just superficial to dura mater; some
D                                                             E) pia mater
         anesthetics are injected into this area




                                                              A) horn
____213. a group of axons with common functions within
E
         the spinal cord (or brain)                           B) ganglion
                                                              C) nerve
____214. a group of cell bodies found outside the spinal
D
         cord (or brain)                                      D) nucleus
                                                              E) tract
____215. a region of gray matter in the spinal cord
A




____216. reflex in which sensory impulses enter one side of
A                                                             A) contralateral reflex
         the spinal cord and motor impulses exit on the
                                                              B) crossed-extensor reflex
         opposite side
                                                              C) ipsilateral reflex
____217. reflex arc with more than one synapse in the CNS
E
                                                              D) monosynaptic reflex
B
____218. reflex allowing you to maintain balance when you     E) polysynaptic reflex
         withdraw from a painful stimulus




                                                                                                 30
A&PI                                Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                                       p 31/34
D
____219. extension of the leg at the knee joint in response          A) abdominal reflex
           to tapping the patellar ligament                          B) Achilles reflex
____220. the pupils of both eyes decrease in diameter when
E                                                                    C) Babinski sign
           either eye is exposed to light                            D) patellar reflex
B
____221. plantar flexion of the foot in response to tapping          E) pupillary reflex
           the calcaneal tendon

Select the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.

____222. The ____ are connective tissue coverings that enclose the spinal cord (and brain).
G

____223. The ____ is the tough, superficial meninx.
C                                                                               A.   cauda equina
A
____224. The ____ is the collective term for the spinal nerves arising from     B.   dorsal
           the distal end of the spinal cord.                                   C.   dura mater

____225. The connective tissue covering around an individual nerve fiber
D                                                                               D.   endoneurium
           is the _____ .                                                       E.   intercostal
H
____226. Because they contain both motor and sensory fibers, spinal             F.   ipsilateral
           nerves are called ____ nerves.                                       G.   meninges
____227. The ____ ramus of a spinal nerve controls the skin and the deep
B                                                                               H.   mixed
           muscles of the back.                                                 I.   monosynaptic
____228. The _____ nerve arises from the cervical plexus and controls the
J                                                                               J.   phrenic
           diaphragm.
                                                                                K.   reciprocal
____229. The _____ is the largest nerve in the body and arises from L4-
M                                                                                    innvervation
           S3, the sacral plexus.                                               L.   reflex
____230. The _____, or thoracic nerves, arise from T2-T12 and innervate
E                                                                               M. sciatic
           the muscles between the ribs.                                        N.   visceral
L
____231.   A rapid, automatic, predictable sequence of actions occurring in
           response to a specific stimulus is a ____.

____232. A _____ reflex occurs when the effector is a smooth muscle.
N

____233. In ____ reflexes, sensory nerve impulses enter the spinal cord on the same side from which
F
           motor nerve impulses leave it




                                                                                                    31
A&PI           Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                   p 32/34




____1.    ____26.                    ____51.   ____76.

____2.    ____27.                    ____52.   ____77.

____3.    ____28.                    ____53.   ____78.

____4.    ____29.                    ____54.   ____79.

____5.    ____30.                    ____55.   ____80.

____6.    ____31.                    ____56.   ____81.

____7.    ____32.                    ____57.   ____82.

____8.    ____33.                    ____58.   ____83.

____9.    ____34.                    ____59.   ____84.

____10.   ____35.                    ____60.   ____85.

____11.   ____36.                    ____61.   ____86.

____12.   ____37.                    ____62.   ____87.

____13.   ____38.                    ____63.   ____88.

____14.   ____39.                    ____64.   ____89.

____15.   ____40.                    ____65.   ____90.

____16.   ____41.                    ____66.   ____91.

____17.   ____42.                    ____67.   ____92.

____18.   ____43.                    ____68.   ____93.

____19.   ____44.                    ____69.   ____94.

____20.   ____45.                    ____70.   ____95.

____21.   ____46.                    ____71.   ____96.

____22.   ____47.                    ____72.   ____97.

____23.   ____48.                    ____73.   ____98.

____24.   ____49.                    ____74.   ____99.

____25.   ____50.                    ____75.   ____100.



                                                                32
A&PI            Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam                    p 33/34
____101.   ____126.                   ____151.   ____176.

____102.   ____127.                   ____152.   ____177.

____103.   ____128.                   ____153.   ____178.

____104.   ____129.                   ____154.   ____179.

____105.   ____130.                   ____155.   ____180.

____106.   ____131.                   ____156.   ____181.

____107.   ____132.                   ____157.   ____182.

____108.   ____133.                   ____158.   ____183.

____109.   ____134.                   ____159.   ____184.

____110.   ____135.                   ____160.   ____185.

____111.   ____136.                   ____161.   ____186.

____112.   ____137.                   ____162.   ____187.

____113.   ____138.                   ____163.   ____188.

____114.   ____139.                   ____164.   ____189.

____115.   ____140.                   ____165.   ____190.

____116.   ____141.                   ____166.   ____191.

____117.   ____142.                   ____167.   ____192.

____118.   ____143.                   ____168.   ____193.

____119.   ____144.                   ____169.   ____194.

____120.   ____145.                   ____170.   ____195.

____121.   ____146.                   ____171.   ____196.

____122.   ____147.                   ____172.   ____197.

____123.   ____148.                   ____173.   ____198.

____124.   ____149.                   ____174.   ____199.

____125.   ____150.                   ____175.   ____200.


                                                                  33
A&PI            Chapter 10,11,12,13 Exam   p 34/34
____201.   ____226.

____202.   ____227.

____203.   ____228.

____204.   ____229.

____205.   ____230.

____206.   ____231.

____207.   ____232.

____208.   ____233.

____209.

____210.

____211.

____212.

____213.

____214.

____215.

____216.

____217.

____218.

____219.

____220.

____221.

____222.

____223.

____224.

____225.


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