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					       Chemistry
You will learn
about:
•Matter

•pH Scale

•Chemistry of
Cosmetics
     Why Chemistry?
The professional cosmetologist needs to
 understand the chemicals he/she works
 with in order to:
 - safely perform chemical services
 requested by clients,

 - teach clients how to care for their hair
 following chemical services,

 - and, sell products to their clients.
                   Matter
• Anything that occupies
  space; exist in 3 forms:         Liquid

  – Solids – weight,
    volume, shape
  – Liquids – weight,
    volume, no shape         Gas

  – Gasses – weight,
    indefinite volume and
    shape
          Organic Matter
 • Matter that is now living or was alive at
   one time.
    – Ex. - Plants and animals


Plants and Mulch     Humans          Animals
       Inorganic Matter
• Matter that is NOT alive or has never been
  alive; does not contain carbon.
  – Ex. – rocks, water, minerals


 Rock – Granite      Water         Mineral - Quartz
   Changes In Matter
• Physical
  – Change the characteristics
    without making a new
    substance.
    • Ex. – Ice Melting
• Chemical
  – A change in a substance that
    creates a new substance with
    chemical characteristics
    different from those of the
    original substance.
    • Ex. – Rust – oxygen mixed with
      metal creates rust (or iron oxide)
      Properties of Matter
1. Color
2. Odor
3. Weight
   (density)
4. Hardness or
   softness
Elements
that make up hair
#  Element     Symbol   Form
6  Carbon        C      Solid
8  Oxygen        O      Gas
1 Hydrogen       H      Gas
7 Nitrogen       N      Gas
16 Sulfur        S      Solid
                    Atoms
• Smallest complete unit of
  an element
  – 3 parts – proton, neutron,
    electron
     • Protons and neutrons
       packed tight in center to
       form core or nucleus
     • Electrons move about in
       orbiting paths or shells at
       nearly the speed of light.
                 Nucleus
• Proton
  – Positive electrical charge (+) – gives atom its name.
• Neutron
  – No electrical charge – determines the weight of an
    atom - neutral
• Electron
  – Negative electrical charge – makes it possible for
    atoms to combine with other atoms to form bonds.
             Molecule
• Unstable atoms
  combine chemically
  by sharing
  electrons
      Chemical Bonds
• Atoms combine
  chemically to create
  compounds that
  eventually create
  protein of hair.
         Amino Acids
• Compounds of
  C,O,H,N
• 22 Common
  amino acids
• Join together in
  chains to make
  proteins
          Protein
• Hair is made up of protein
  called keratin
• Hair is 97% keratin and 3%
  trace minerals
• Hair contains 19 of 22
  common amino acids.
          Hydrogen Bond
• Unlike charges attract.
• Makes up about 35% of
  hairs strength.
• Individually very weak and
  can easily be broken by
  heat or water to create
  physical (temporary)
  changes in the hair.
How it Works:
  The hydrogen atom in one
  molecule is attracted to an
  atom of another molecule
  that has many negative
  electrons.
              Salt Bonds
• This bond is a result of the
  attraction of unlike charges.
• Also broken by water to
  create physical (temporary)
  changes in the hair.
• Negative charge in one amino
  acid grouping attracts the
  positive charge in another
  amino acid grouping.
      Disulfide Bonds
• Sulfur containing side bond - Most
  important to a Cosmetologist.
• A chemical bond that forms between
  protein structures; sulfur-type side chains
  join with other sulfur-type side chains to
  form disulfide bonds.
• Much stronger than hydrogen or salt
  bonds.
• Not broken by heat or water. Only a
  chemical change.
  – Example – permanent wave
        van der Waal’s
• Based on theory that atomic groups prefer
  an environment with other groups that
  have structures similar to theirs.
• Not necessarily important for
  Cosmetologist, other than to know that it
  exists and plays a role in bonding of
  protein chains.
   End Bonds
   (Peptide Bonds)
• Backbone of all protein molecules
• Links the amino acid protein chains
  together end to end.
• Do not disturb the end bond, this could
  destroy the protein structure.
  – If broken, protein chains separate into small
    fragments, or revert to groups of amino acids
    that no longer have the characteristics of hair.
     • RESULT – VERY DAMAGED HAIR!
          Side Bonds
• Link the long spiraling
  protein chains together.
• Made up of hydrogen, salt
  and disulfide and Van der   Label the Bonds
  Waal’s forces.




                                Van der Waal’s
     Stages of Hair Formation
                                                    5. The individual protein
                             3.Amino acids unite to
                2.Unite to                          chains bond to other chains
                             form peptide or end
                become                              by hydrogen bond, salt bonds
                             bonds.
                molecules of                        and disulfide bonds.
                amino acids.
1.Begins with
individual                                                               6. Hair
atoms.


          4. Amino acids create
          polypeptide protein
          chains.
Hair Shaft
Cuticle Layer
Close Look at the Cuticle Layer
  Chemistry
Talking Points
           The pH Scale
In this section you will learn what the pH
 scale is and it’s values associated with
        water, acids and alkalines.

  Conditioners & Shampoo                  Hair
                                   Soap
              Hair                        relaxers
  Potential Hydrogen
• Abbreviation – pH
• Measures whether substance is acidic,
  neutral or alkaline
 Water-Based Solutions
• pH measures amount
  of acid or alkali only in
  a water based solution.
• Only solutions
  containing water or
  solutions that can be
  dissolved in water can
  be acid or alkaline in
  value.
• Most products used in
  salon have water listed
  as main ingredient.
   Acid
More positive
hydrogen ions
 than negative
hydroxide ions
                 Acid

• 0 – 6.99 on pH scale
• Skin and hair acid-
  balanced at 4.5 – 5.5
         Neutral
Equal number
of hydrogen
and hydroxide
ions.
      7.0
           Alkaline
• More negative
  hydroxide ions
  than hydrogen
  ions.
          Alkaline
• 7.01 – 14 on pH
  scale
              pH Scale
• Unit of measurement – determines if
  substance is acid, neutral or alkaline.
• Ranges from 0 – 14
• 7 is Neutral
              0 – 6.99
• Acid range (orange)
• More positive hydrogen ions
          7.01 - 14
• Alkaline range (purple)
• More negative hydroxide ions
   Testing pH
pH Nitrazine Paper
pH Pencil
pH Meter
      Acid Balanced
• pH is in the same
  range as skin
  and hair
• 4.5 – 5.5
  Chemistry
Talking Points
Chemistry of Cosmetics
• Cosmetic Classifications
  –Based on how well
   substance combines and its
   physical characteristics
         Solutions
• Mixture of 2 or
  more kinds of
  molecules
  –Do not separate
  –Can be solid,
   liquid or gas
        Suspensions
• Mixture of 2 or
  more kinds of
  molecules
• Separates
• Needs to be
  shaken
   –Example: Vinegar
    and Oil
            Emulsions
• 2 or more non-mixable substances united
  by a binder (gum).
  – Example: oil in water (perms)
  – Example: water in oil (cold cream)
         Ointments
• Mixture of organic
  substance and a
  medicinal agent
• Semi-solid form
• No water
  –Example: Lipstick
       Soaps

Mixtures of fat and oil
converted to fatty acids
by heat and then
purified.
           Powders
• Equal mixtures of
  inorganic and organic
  substances that do
  NOT dissolve in water.
• Sifted and mixed until
  free of coarse grit.
          Shampoo
• Cleans the scalp
  and hair
• Removes all
  foreign debris
  without adversely
  affecting scalp
  and hair.
How Shampoo Works
• A push pull action is caused by a
  surface active agent causing the oil to
  “roll up” into droplets that are lifted and
  rinsed away.
      Surfactant

•Surface active agent
•Has water loving and
 oil loving ends.
The tail of the shampoo molecule is
      attracted to oil and dirt
Shampoo causes oil to roll up into
       small globules
   During rinsing, the heads of the
 shampoo molecules attach to water
molecules and cause debris to roll off.
Thorough rinsing washes away
  debris & excess shampoo.
   The Role of Water
• Universal solvent
• Neutral pH
• Hard water = minerals
   –Hard to lather
• Soft water preferred (allows
  lather)
WHAT WE JUST
   READ
HEAD TO HEAD
 CHALLENGE
 Types of
Shampoos
         All Purpose
• Low Alkaline
• Low surfactants
• Mild, does not strip color
  –Example: Redken Clear
   Moisture
                       Plain
•   Usually strong
•   High alkaline
•   Not for chemically treated hair
•   Follow with acid rinse
    – Ex: Baby shampoo
       • Doesn’t burn eyes because it’s high
         in alkaline and so are eyes.
  Soapless Shampoo
• Able to lather
  without harsh
  alkaline ingredient
• Works in soft and
  hard water
    Acid - Balanced
• Made to have same
  pH as the skin and
  hair
• Will not strip color
         Medicated
• Often must have
  prescription
• Designed to treat
  scalp and hair
  problems
          Clarifying
• Removes
  residue
   –Such as
    product
    build-up.
       Anti-Dandruff
• Control dandruff
• Massage scalp
  vigorously and rinse
  thoroughly
         Liquid Dry
• Used when client
  can’t receive normal
  shampoo
• Works with wigs
• Evaporates from hair
• Very drying
            Powder Dry
• For bedridden
  clients
• Orris root powder
  absorbs oil and dirt
  as product is
  brushed through
  the hair.
• Don’t use prior to
  chemical service.
        Conditioning
• Contain animal,
  vegetable or mineral
  additives that enter
  cortex or coat cuticle.
• Improve strength and
  porosity.
              Color
• Contain temporary
  color molecules that
  stick to outer cuticle
  of hair.
     For Thinning Hair
• Gentle
• Lighter molecular
  weight
• Provides healthy
  environment for
  hair growth.
Rinses and Conditioners
   Appearance
Shine,
Luster
                 Porosity
     Amount of moisture in the hair.

Hair Porosity is the
ability of the hair to
retain & absorb
moisture,
determined by how
raised or compact
the cuticle layers
are.
Porosity Test
    Manageability
How easily a
comb passes
 through the
     hair.
           Elasticity
Ability to stretch and return to its natural
           shape without breaking.
Types of
 Rinses
  Vinegar and Lemon Rinse
• Acid rinses
• Remove
  soap scum
• Counteract
  alkalinity.
        Cream Rinse
• Soften
• Add luster
• Only slightly
  acidic
  Medicated Rinse
Control dandruff and minor scalp
           conditions.
Conditioners
  Instant Conditioner
• Coat the hair shaft
• Restore moisture
  and oils
• Do NOT penetrate
  into the cortex
• Not for fine limp
  hair
        Normalizing
• Contain
  vegetable
  protein
• Acidic pH
  causes cuticle
  to close after
  chemical
  services.
      Body-Building
• Required for
  fine, limp hair
• Deposits
  protein
• Can use prior to
  chemical
  services
         Moisturizing
• Humectants bind
  and hold moisture in
  the hair.
• Avoid use for
  several days
  following perm (may
  go limp)
        Customized
• Formulated to
  meet special
  needs
• Ex. Moisture
  and color
WHAT WE JUST
   READ
HEAD TO HEAD
 CHALLENGE