Durkheim Ideas

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					Emile Durkheim
 (1858-1917)
       Emile Durkheim
 Personal Information
 Social Environment

 Basic Concerns

 Intellectual Influences

 Ideas

 Research

 Contribution to Sociology
       Personal Information
   Born April 1858

   Jewish section of Epinal, France

   Family not wealthy but respected

   Close-knit family

   Taught secondary school
       Personal Information
   1887 first faculty appointment
     Introduced Sociology course

   Chair of the Dept. of Social Sciences
    1896-1902 (University of Bordeaux)
   Married, 2 children (Son, Andre died
    in WWI)
   Durkheim died at age 59
         Social Environment
   Rapid industrialization
   Cities full of factory workers
   Conflict between workers & employees
   Example: Paris Commune (1871)
     Workers seized Paris

     Established egalitarian republic

     French government destroyed
      commune
     Killed 20,000 working-class people
        Pere Lachaise Cemetery
Wall carved by Paul Albert Barthalomé
               in 1899
          Social Environment

   History of Political Instability
   Monarchy of Louis XVI
   French Revolution (1789)
   Dictatorship of Napoleon I (1799-1815)
   Restoration of Bourbon monarchy
   Bourbons overthrown (1830)
Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
Napoleon I
Napoleon III
(Nephew of Napoleon I)
           Social Environment
   History of Political Instability (cont.)
   Monarchy of Louis Philippe
   Revolution ended monarchy (1848)
   2nd Republic (didn’t last long)
   Emperor Napoleon III (1852-1870)
       Nephew of Napoleon I

   Deposed after defeat in Franco-Prussian
    War
Louis Philippe
      Social Environment
 Durkheim lived in 3rd Republic
 Felt that people had lost moral unity

 Remnants of previous governments

 People who supported:

   Democracy

   Monarchy

   Socialism
     Durkheim’s Basic Concerns
   1) Instability
       Economic
       Political
   2) Violence
       Workers & employers
       Between nations
       Anti-Semitism
   3) Decadence
       Self-centered
       No sense of community
      Sociology the Solution
   Purpose of Sociology=Explain how
    to make modern society work
   Develop positivist laws
   Solve problems
   Address moral crises
   Create stability
Moral Crisis?
                     Morality
   Morality composed of three elements:

    1.   Discipline (constrains egoistic impulses)

    2.   Attachment (voluntary willingness to be
         committed to groups)

    3.   Autonomy (individual responsibility)
                      Morality
   Education provides children with these 3
    moral tools to function in society

   Adults can acquire these moral tools by
    joining occupational associations

   According to Durkheim, associations include
    members of a particular occupation

   Provide integration and regulation
       Weakened by the division of labor
  Intellectual Influences
 Kant
    Morality without divine connection
    Motivated by sense of duty
 Saint-Simon
    Sociology develops moral laws
    Similarity of moral ideas hold society
     together
 Comte
    Emphasis on social stability & change
    Intellectual Influences
   Spencer
     Social evolution

     Increasing size

     Increasing complexity

     Differentiation

     Integration
   Intellectual Influences
 Wundt
  German   psychologist
  Model for creating new discipline

  Just created experimental
   psychology
 Jewish   training
  Morally integrated society
  Substituted “society” for “God” as
   origin of moral action
               Ideas
Social Solidarity
Dynamic Density
Social Facts
Collective Consciousness
Collective Representations
Social Currents
Society as a distinct social reality
Individual as Dualistic
            Social Solidarity

   1) Mechanical Solidarity
     More primitive societies

     Minimal division of labor

     Few occupations

     Similarity bound people together
            Social Solidarity
   2) Organic Solidarity
     More advanced societies (industrial)

     Specialization

     Individuality

     Increased division of labor (more
      occupations)
     Individuals must rely on others

     Difference and Interdependency

    create solidarity
        Dynamic Density
 The  number of people in society
 The amount of interaction
  between them
 A social fact

 Used to study society & social
  solidarity
                Social Facts
   “Ways of acting, thinking, & feeling,
    external to the individual & endowed with
    the power of coercion, by reason of which
    they control him.”

   Independent of any single individual

   Can only be explained by other social
    facts
           Social Fact

“A social fact is identifiable through
  the power of external coercion which
  it exerts or is capable of exerting
  upon individuals” (Durkheim, [1895]
  1982, p. 56).
   Social Facts-3 General Types
 1.   Material facts
   Social   structures
        Economy,   family, social class

   Morphological       Facts (Describe form
   and structure, but not function)
        Populationsize and density
        Geographical location
         Social Facts (cont.)

   2. Nonmaterial facts
    (Communication links)
     Norms

     Values

     Collective representations
     Collective consciousness
        Social Facts (cont.)
   3. Social currents
     Not as clearly formed

     Examples:

      Enthusiasm  in crowds
      Indignation in crowds

      Depression in particular
       social groups
      Collective Consciousness
   The totality of beliefs & sentiments
    common to the average member of
    society

 Preexists individuals
 Survives individuals
Collective Consciousness             (cont.)




   Experienced as an external force
    which shapes behavior

   Varies from society to society
    based on the division of labor
        Collective Consciousness
              4 dimensions
   1. Volume=number of people involved

   2. Intensity=how deeply the people feel
    about the belief

   3. Rigidity=clarity of the definition

   4. Content=form collective
    consciousness takes
         Example of 4 Dimensions
        Marriage in Feudal Societies
          (Mechanical Societies)
   Volume=Most people involved

   Intensity=Felt deeply about it

   Rigidity=Clearly defined

   Content=Religious & economic
       Example of 4 Dimensions
    Marriage Today (Organic Society)

 Volume=Large    # but smaller %
  of population
 Intensity=Feel less deeply

 Rigidity=Less clearly defined

 Content=Personal choice
        Collective Representations
   Specific states of collective
    consciousness
       Norms, values, & beliefs of various
        groups (e.g., family, schools)

   Not reducible to or dependent on the
    individual
   Form a collective consciousness
                Social Currents
   Different collective consciousness &
    representations produce different social
    currents

   Not as clearly formed as representations

   Examples:
       Enthusiasm or pity in crowds
       Depression & disillusionment in segments of
        society
    Society & Social Reality
 Society as a distinct form of
 social reality
 Cannotbe reduced to biology or
 psychology
 Society is not the mere sum of
 its parts
       Individual as Dualistic

   Individual part
      Bioorganic

      Inborn

      Self-centered
      Individual as Dualistic
   Social Part
     Develops through socialization
      & interaction
     Altruistic

     Group   oriented
     Needs   nurturing & developing
                      Anomie

   Norms (expectations on behaviors)
    are
       Confused
       Unclear or
       Not present


   A state of normlessness
                  Anomie
   Modern individual insufficiently
    integrated into society
   Because of weakening bonds, social
    regulation breaks down
   Controlling influence of society on
    desires & interests of individual is
    ineffective
   Individuals left on own
                Anomie

   Because of the dual nature of human
    beings, breakdown of moral guidance
    results in:
   Rising rates of deviance
   Social unrest
   Unhappiness
   Stress
          Research
Suicide rates are social facts
4 types of suicide:
1. Egoistic

2. Altruistic

3. Anomic

4. Fatalistic
                Egoistic Suicide
   Low social integration
   Group solidarity has declined
   Individual must depend on self
   Excessive individualism in modern society
   Examples of vulnerable groups:
       Urban dwellers
       Industrial workers
       Protestants
       Unmarried men
           Altruistic Suicide
   High social integration
   Excessive integration into group
   Person completely absorbed by group
   Duty to commit suicide for benefit of
    group
   Examples:
   Found more in less “civilized” societies
   One group in modern society—Army
             Anomic Suicide
   Low social regulation
   Breakdown of moral community
   No rules or vague rules
   Examples:
       Adolescents
       Older white men
          Fatalistic Suicide
   Excessive social regulation
   Too tightly controlled
   Few choices
   Examples:
     Slaves

     Very young husbands

     Married women when divorce is
      not available
     Contribution to Sociology
   Institutionalized Sociology
      Taught first class

     Definedsociology’s area of
     research
     Conducted  research to illustrate
     sociology’s usefulness
      Contribution to Sociology
   Set the standard for research style
    & presentation
     Literature review

     Theoretical context

     Testable hypotheses

     Use of statistics

     Implications of findings