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Minerals _ Rocks

VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 22

									Minerals & Rocks
      •Minerals:
    Identification
 •Mining of Minerals
     •Rock Cycle
   What is a Mineral?
• Minerals may look like
  rocks or gems.
• Rocks are made of
  minerals, but minerals are
  not made of rocks.
A Mineral is…
• Inorganic (nonliving)
• Solid
• Crystalline Structure
• Formed in Nature
Crystals:
• Minerals are crystals,
  which have a repeating
  inner structure reflected
  in the shape of a crystal.
   2 types of Minerals:
• Silicate Minerals: Make up
  90% of the Earth’s minerals.
• Formed from the 2 most
  common elements of the
  crust: Silicon & Oxygen.
  Silicate Minerals




         Feldspar
Quartz              Mica
  Nonsilicate Minerals
• Minerals not made of
  silicon & oxygen.
• Many made of carbon,
  oxygen, fluorine, &
  sulfur.
  Nonsilicate Minerals
Native Elements:    Oxides:
gold, copper,      oxygen combined
Silver             with aluminum or
Used in            iron. Used
electronics &      to make paint & air
communications     craft parts.
Carbonates:        Sulfates:
Combination of     Contain sulfur
 carbon and         and oxygen.
 oxygen. Used       Used in
 in cement,         cosmetics,
 building stone,    toothpaste,
 & fireworks.       cement & paint.

                   Gypsum
     Calcite
Halides:           Sulfides:
Formed when        Contain one or
 fluorine,          more elements
 chlorine, or       such as lead,
                    iron, or nickel,
 iodine form        combined with
 with potassium     sulfur. Used to
 or calcium.        make batteries,
 Used in            medicine, and
 detergents.        electronic parts.

                  Galena
 Identifying Minerals:
  What to look for…
• Color: The same mineral
  can have a variety of
  colors or can change color
  over time.
• Luster: Metallic &
  Nonmetallic
• Streak: The color a
  mineral leaves in its
  powdered form.
• Cleavage: how a mineral
  breaks along the surface
  of the mineral.
• Hardness: A mineral’s
  resistance to being
  scratched.
• To determine the
  hardness of a mineral use
  Mohs Hardness Scale.
• Density: Minerals of the
  same size can have a
  different density.
• Special Properties:
  fluoresence, chemical
  reaction, optical properties,
  magnetism, taste, &
  radioactivity.
If you wanted to find a
mineral, where do you
think you would look?
    Minerals can be found in…
• Evaporated Salt Water: gypsum, halite
• Metamorphic rock: mica, talc
• Lakes & Seas: calcite, dolomite.
• Hot Water: gold & copper
• Pegmatites: tear dropped shapes of
  magma underground: topaz
• Plutons: Magma rising beneath the
  crust: mica, feldspar, quartz
   Mining for Minerals
• Surface
  Mining: when
  minerals are
  located at or    The surface of this
  near the         landscape has been
                   scraped for coal.
  surface of the
  earth.
• Subsurface
  Mining:
  tunneling
  method used
  to locate
  minerals
  deep in the
  Earth.        Miners deep below
                 the Earth. What
                  dangers exist?
Mining is important for
obtaining materials for
everyday products, but
how is mining creating
      problems?
       Mining Can…
• Destroy habitats of plants
  and animals.
• Waste products from
  mining can pollute water
  sources.
    Responsible Mining
• Reclamation:The process of
  returning the mined land to
  its original state or better.
  Required by law since
  1970’s.
• Recycle: Reduce our need for
  minerals such as aluminum.
            Reclamation



Mine reclamation by AEP in Muskingum County, OH

								
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