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					Leadership

Leadership Defined
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Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals. (DuBrin, 1998) The process of influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals (Roach & Behling, 1984).

Leadership can exist in both formal and informal groups. In a formal setting, such as within a large corporation, the leader of the group is usually someone who has been appointed to a high position of authority. In an informal setting, such as a group of friends, the leader is someone with personal traits that simply tend to inspire respect.

Manager Vs. Leader

Factors of leadership

There are four major factors in leadership: Follower Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes.

Factors of leadership
Leader You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader who determines if a leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed. Communication You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you "set the example," that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. Situation All are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective.

Leadership Involves an Interaction Between the Leader, the Followers, and the Situation

Leadership Roles
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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Figurehead Spokesperson Negotiator Coach Team Builder Team Player Technical Problem Solver Entrepreneur

The Activities of Successful & Effective leaders
Type of Activity Description categories Derived from free Observation
Exchange Information Routine Communication Handling paperwork Planning Traditional Management Decision Making Controlling Interacting with outsiders Socializing /Politicking Motivating/Reinforcing Human Resource Management Disciplining/Punishing Managing conflict staffing Training/Developing

Networking

Transformational Leadership
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Transformational leadership is a process that changes and transforms individuals. A transformational leader inspires his or her team constantly with a shared vision of the future. Transformational leaders transform the organization by developing vision, building commitment, and empowering followers.

Transformational Leadership
Key Characteristics
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Charisma : Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect trust. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways. Intellectual Stimulations: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving. Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.

Charismatic Leadership
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in that the leader injects huge doses of enthusiasm into his or her team, and is very energetic in driving others forward. charismatic leader can tend to believe more in him or herself than in their team. charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and needs long-term commitment.

Key Characteristics Self Confidence- They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability. A vision- This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. The greater the disparity between idealized goal and the status quo, the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leader.

Charismatic Leadership
Ability to articulate the vision- They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers’ needs and, hence acts as a motivating force.

Strong convictions about vision- Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed, and willing to take on high personal risk, incur high costs, and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision.
Behavior that is out of the ordinary- Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel, unconventional, and counter to norms. When successful , these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers. Perceived as being a change agent- Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo.

Environmental sensitivity- These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change.

Early Leadership Theories
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2.
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Trait Theories Behavioral Theories Contingency Theories

Trait Theory
Definition of Trait Theory
Trait theory is a major approach to the study of human personality. The first organized approach to studying leadership analyzed the personal, psychological, and physical traits of strong leaders. The trait approach assumed that some basic trait or set of traits existed that differentiated leaders from non leaders. If those traits could be defined, potential leaders could be identified.

Basic Assumptions of Trait Theory
1. People are born with inherited traits. 2. Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. 3. People who make good leaders have the right combination of traits.

Traits
Adaptable to situations Alert to social environment Ambitious and achievementorientated Assertive Cooperative Decisive Dependable Dominant (desire to influence others) Energetic (high activity level) Persistent Self-confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility.

Skills
Clever (intelligent) Conceptually skilled Creative Diplomatic and tactful Fluent in speaking Knowledgeable about group task Organized administrative ability) Persuasive Socially skilled

Trait Theories
Limitations:
• No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. • Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.

• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.
• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.

Behavioral Theories
Introduction Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do. If success can be defined in terms of describable actions, then it should be relatively easy for other people to act in the same way. This is easier to teach and learn then to adopt the more ephemeral 'traits' or 'capabilities'.

• Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.

Behavioral Theories
Basic Assumptions of Behavioral Theories
•Leaders can be made, rather than are born.

•Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior.

Various Behavioral theories of leadership
1. IOWA study 2. Managerial grids

IOWA study
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University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin)
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Identified three leadership styles:
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Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participation Democratic style: involvement, high participation, feedback Laissez-faire style: hands-off management
No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader

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Research findings: mixed results
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Autocratic (Directive)
Leader tells “what, when, why, & how” of task Followers do what they’re told

Democratic (Participative)
Leader seeks input about task from group Followers & leader are equal

Laissez-faire (Delegate)
Leader lets followers make all decisions

Followers do what they think is best

Autocratic leaders
•High productivity •Hostility, aggression, blaming

Democratic leaders
•Fairly high productivity •Camaraderie, creativity, consideration

Laissez-faire leaders
•Low productivity

•Demanding, argumentative

Managerial Grid Theory
The Managerial Grid model by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton is a behavioral leadership model. Blake and Mouton found that a management behavior model with three axes (concern for production, concern for people, motivation) was a more accurate representation of reality. On the grid, concern for production is represented on a one to nine scale on the horizontal axis (x-axis). Concern for people is represented on a one to nine scale on the vertical axis (yaxis). According to Blake and Mouton there is also a third axis: Motivation, measured from negative (driven by fear) to positive (driven by desire).

The Managerial Grid
High 9
8 1,9 Country club management Thoughtful attention needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to A comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo 7 9,9 Team management Work accomplishment is from committed people, interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationship of trust and respect

Concern for people

6

5 4

3

2

Low
1

5,5 Organization Man Management Adequate organization performance possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of the people at a satisfactory level 9,1 1,1 Authority-Obedience Impoverished Management Efficiency in operations results Exertion of minimum effort to get from arranging conditions of required work done is appropriate work in such a way that human to sustain organization membership elements interfere to a minimal degree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Low

Concern for production

High

Managerial Grid Theory
1. 2. 3. 4.

Impoverished style (Low Production / Low People) Country Club style (Low Production / High People) Produce or Perish style (High Production / Low People) Middle-of-the-road style (Medium Production / Medium People). Team style (High Production / High People).

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Benefits of the managerial Grid
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Using a model makes it easier to openly discuss behavior and improvement actions. Using the Grid model makes the various leadership styles measurable to a certain extent and allows more than two competing options (X versus Y).

Limitations/ disadvantages of the managerial Grid  There are more dimensions of leadership that can be relevant.  The model basically neglects the significance of the internal and external constraints, context, circumstances and situation.

Leadership Styles
Leadership styles may be of relevance to a variety of situations where there is a requirement to manage others. Effective performance will depend on many factors including the organizational culture in which the individual is operating.

Authoritarian or Autocratic Participative or Democratic Delegative or Laissez-faire

Authoritarian (autocratic)
This style is used when the leader tells her employees what she wants done and how she wants it done, without getting the advice of her followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style...rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around. it has no place in a leaders repertoire. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.

Participative (democratic)
This type of style involves the leader including one or more employees in on the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything -- this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit -- it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.

Delegative (free reign)
In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decision. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you have the full trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!

Positive and Negative Approaches:
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There is a difference in ways leaders approach their employee. Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, independence, etc. to motivate employees. While negative employees emphasize penalties. While the negative approach has a place in a leader's repertoire of tools, it must be used carefully due to its high cost on the human spirit. Negative leaders act domineering and superior with people. They believe the only way to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay, reprimand employees in front of others, etc. They believe their authority is increased by freighting everyone into higher lever of productivity. Yet what always happens when this approach is used wrongly is that morale falls; which of course leads to lower productivity. Also note that most leaders do not strictly use one or another, but are somewhere on a continuum ranging from extremely positive to extremely negative. People who continuously work out of the negative are bosses while those who primarily work out of the positive are considered real leaders.


				
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