Fetal Membrane

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					Fetal Membrane Gives placenta a shiny membrane Two Layers: 1. Amnion inner membrane (amniotic membrane) contains the amniotic fluid (or bag of water) which is the medium where the fetus and chord float inside the amniotic membrane contains cells 2. Chorion outer membrane (chorionic membrane) its function is to provide support to the amniotic membrane (Both amnion and chorion do not have nerve supply and blood vessels.)

Functions of the Amniotic Fluid: 1. protection from: - pressure, trauma and blows - sudden change of temperature - pressure from the cord 2. promotes symmetrical musculoskeletal development (allowing freedom of movement of the fetus) 3. acts as excretion and secretion system 4. source of oral fluids for the fetus 5. aid in diagnosis of maternal and fetal complications through amniocentesis (or the examination of the amniotic fluid through an insertion of a needle) 6. acts as a wedge during labor 7. Umbilical Cord Also known as funis. Has blood vessels, 2 arteries for the unoxygenated blood and 1 vein for the oxygenated blood Abnormalities: 1 vein and 1 artery denotes congenital anomalies Average length: 21 in or 50-55cm Average diameter: 2 cm Normal color: dull white

Origin: yolk sac and umbilical vessels; Wharton’s jelly (a gelatinous substance that protects the umbilical cord and the arteries; cutting the cord is not painful Functions: 1. it is a structure that carries oxygen and nutrients from the placenta to the fetus and return unoxygenated blood and fetal waste products to the placenta Origin and Development of Organ System (cephalocaudal direction – head to toe) Three Primary Germ Layers: 1. ectoderm – outer body structures formed: hair, skin, nails, and the mucous membranes of the anus and the mouth 2. mesoderm – middle body structures formed: supporting structures of the body – connective tissues, bones, muscles, tendons, urinary system, reproductive system, heart, circulatory system, blood and cells 3. endoderm – inner body structures formed: lining of the GI tract, respiratory tract, parathyroid, tonsils, thyroid glands and thymus gland Normal Fetal Development: 3 Stages: 1. Pre-embryonic stage – 1st – 14th day (first 14 days) 2. Embryonic stage – 15th day – 8th week 3. Fetal stage – end of 8th week – birth Embryonic stage:

Fetal stage:

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