A brief history of plastic surgery Elizabeth Bullivant takes us on a whistle stop tour from the Egyptian beginnings of the specialty, through its evolution, to its present day form Edivence of reconstructive surgery exists in Egyptian medical papyruses that date back to 1600 BC As surgical specialties go you may think that plastic surgery is one of the best known at the moment, courtesy of media coverage of celebrity "enhancements" and the never ending pursuit of the perfect appearance. Plastic and cosmetic surgery have, in the eyes of the public, become almost interchangeable terms, but in medical and historical contexts this isn't so. Cosmetic surgery involves elective procedures performed for aesthetic reasons, but plastic surgery refers to surgical reconstruction of deformity, providing normal appearance and function. The specialty developed from its ancient Egyptian origins more than three thousand years ago. It progressed geographically, as knowledge disseminated from epicentres, including northern India at about 600 BC, Sicily in the 15th century Renaissance, Germany in the 19th century, and finally Britain in the two world wars. Egyptian beginnings Evidence of reconstructive surgery exists in Egyptian medical papyruses that date back to 1600 BC, describing reconstructive techniques employed by the priest-doctors of the time to restore appearance. Pair of sketches from Karl Graef's Rhinoplastik Of these, the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus is the best example, describing case histories and advice for practical management, unlike other texts, which outlined combinations of magical and practical techniques. Of the 48 preserved, case 12 describes how to approach "a break in the chamber of the nose," including a description of its appearance and methods of packing the nasal cavity to stop bleeding and reproduce a normal profile. Also included are suturing techniques, which allowed large lacerations to heal with minimal scarring. In the upper echelons of Egyptian society huge importance was placed on appearance, as shown by the elaborate death masks of the pharaohs and their everyday use of make up. Therefore, a person's appearance was altered, doctors were expected to restore it to normality, and it was this demand that provided the stimulus for the foundations of plastic surgery. Although lack of anaesthesia and pain relief and religious forbiddance of invasive surgery limited their work to superficial injuries, doctors were able to perfect basic but highly effective techniques, which continue to be used today. Reconstructing the nose in India Almost a thousand years later, a Hindu doctor, Susruta, working in northern India close to the modern day city of Varanasi, made the next step in the development of plastic surgery, with the introduction of rhinoplasty. Nasal amputation was common at the time, either through injury on the battlefield or as a punishment, which produced a shocking and disfigured appearance. McIndoe's technique were used on this soldier, in 1944, who had a nose reconstruction and skin graft In response, Susruta developed a reconstruction technique that returned some degree of function and form, which is described in his book, Samhita (about 600 BC). His work spread quickly to eastern Europe and into the Byzantine empire, where, in AD 700 the emperor Justinian successfully had a forehead rhinoplasty after a traumatic nasal amputation. Surviving statues of Justinian bear scars around the nose and forehead, a testament to the surgery he underwent. The fall of the Roman empire in the fifth century was crucial in preventing the dissemination of this technique throughout western Europe. Lack of demand for procedures other than rhinoplasty in the east meant a lack of driving force for further advancements; techniques were only being refined not pioneered. It was not until the Renaissance in the 15th century that any developments took place. Italian practitioners were at the forefront, as for many medical advances at that time, specifically a Sicilian family of surgeons, the Brancas. Between Branca Senior and his son, Antonius, suturing techniques were refined, affording minimal scarring, new methods for repairing wounds to ears and lips were established, and the aforementioned Indian method was introduced to the West, as Susruta's text became more widely available. Pioneering wound healing Working in the 16th century in Bologna, a surgeon named Gaspare Tagliacozzi began to experiment with the use of pedicles, which involves relocating a section of skin, subcutaneous tissues, and vasculature to another area to cover a wound. Although correct in principle and practice, Tagliacozzi's techniques were not popular among his peers, and without a successor to take over, his work was disregarded until interest in reconstructive techniques resurfaced in the 19th century. It has been suggested that interest waned because of skin transplantation exp eriments that Tagliacozzi and others had attempted, and the widely held belief of the time that the recipient would survive only as long as the donor remained alive. Although there were sporadic developments in the discipline after Tagliacozzi, including Ambrose Pare's revolutionary advances in wound healing, discouraging the use of cautery in favour of natural healing, the next milestone was not reached until the early 19th century and Karl von Graefe's coining of the name "plastic surgery" for the specialty. This was from the Greek "plastikos," which means to mould or give form to. At the time other countries, including Britain, were reviving the Indian method, after a description of the procedure being carried out in India was published in the Gentleman's Magazine in London in 1794. Von Graefe's publication of Rhinoplastik in 1818 signalled the beginning of a new chapter, with innovative rhinoplastic techniques being developed. Johann Dieffenbach, who succeeded von Grafe, ensured continuity. The profile of reconstructive surgery was maintained with the publication of the groundbreaking Operative Chirurgie in 1845, which was the first practical text to describe the principles and techniques of reconstructive surgery, so the procedures could be replicated by other surgeons. As with other surgical pioneers of the period, Dieffenbach benefited greatly from advances in the fundamentals of surgical practice, with the introduction of anaesthesia and antiseptic techniques. This allowed more intricate procedures to be attempted, with a greater degree of precision, coupled with a reduced risk of postoperative infection, driving success rates upward. Dieffenbach has been credited with the title of "father of plastic surgery," which may have come to him as much because of the hard work of others, including Joseph Lister and James Simpson, as his own. Ready to improve appearances By the end of the 19th century, aesthetics, as well as function, became an important part of plastic surgery. As the mechanics of reconstruction were perfected, attention turned to developing techniques to restore as normal an appearance as possible. The first successful skin graft is attributed to the English surgeon Astley Cooper, who, in 1817 used the technique during a thumb amputation. A reliable, replicable technique was not described until 1869, when Jacques Louis Reverdin showed the use of full thickness grafts in the treatment of large wounds. This triggered a spiral of rapid progress, in which grafting was perfected in a range of tissue, from eyelids, by George Lawson, to mucous membranes, by Czerny. The importance of this work was perhaps underestimated at the time, but its legacy was massive, ensuring that basic techniques had been developed, honed, and advanced. War drives surgical progress Twentieth century warfare heralded a new age in weaponry, accompanied by the inevitable progression in battlefield injuries. Shrapnel wounds from heavy artillery, burns from explosives, and traumatic amputations were common. During the second world war, reliance on aerial combat increased and planes became more advanced, with larger fuel tanks and a greater capacity for munitions. This meant that although pilots were more likely to survive if shot down, they were at a greater risk of suffering serious burns. As for many other surgical specialties, war was a massive force in the shaping of plastic surgery, providing both the opportunity and the need for advancements in practice. It has been speculated that in the six years of the second world war, progress was made equivalent to that in 50 years of peace. Focusing on the work of two New Zealanders, Harold Gillies and Archibald McIndoe, we can briefly explore the amazing work that took place, the difference it made to the patients involved, and its positive reshaping of societal attitudes. During the four years of the first world war Gillies's work centred on the treatment of facial deformities, from orthopaedic jaw injuries to the reconstruction of burnt eyes, lips, and noses. Aside from the medical techniq ues, Gillies's attitudes towards his patients helped improve society's opinions of people with facial disfigurement. Previously, such patients would have covered their disfigurement with a mask, a practice perhaps more stigmatising than their underlying injury. Once they had had surgery, however, Gillies's patients were encouraged to act normally and were integrated back into their previous life, to the best of their ability. A summary of this work, Plastic Surgery of the Face, was published in 1920. A knighthood in 1930 recognised the gravity of Gillies's work and its continuing progression was ensured with the arrival of McIndoe. In the years before the second world war started, McIndoe worked for his cousin Gillies, perfecting reconstructive techniques, so that when the time came he was ready to take any wounded at the East Grinstead Hospital, where he worked, although it was not until the Battle of Britain in 1940 that severe facial burns became a more common injury. As his workload increased, McIndoe set about creating not just surgical techniques to repair visible injuries, but a whole rehabilitative centre, designed to tackle the range of the patient's needs, aiming to reintegrate them into society. The horrific nature of the injuries, meant it would have been easy for morale to slip, hindering recovery, but through careful planning, including the employment of "only the prettiest nurses", a relaxed atmosphere was created on the ward, aiding the success of McIndoe's new surgical techniques. Such was the camaraderie generated, that the patients formed the Guinea Pig Club, the title reflecting the nature of the surgery being done, and surviving members continue to meet to the present day. These new procedures included adventurous uses of pedicles, stretching in some cases from chest to face, reconstruction of eyelids, and relocation of the big toe to the hand to replicate the action of a thumb, restoring function and minimising disability. Some patients recovered so successfully that they were able to return to their squadrons and fly again. Our times Recent history sees a merging of plastic with cosmetic surgery, a byproduct of our image fuelled, appearance obsessed society. The most recent advances, notably partial face transplants, are a testament to this desire to always look "normal." Although accurate and correct in the medicine involved, the motives behind such cosmetic procedures are very different to those shaping the development of plastic surgery. Initially, reconstructive techniques were only the preserve of the ruling classes, with war widening this to the bravest members of society as well. The work undertaken by McIndoe and Gillies placed a strong emphasis on making the patient feel accepted as part of society and able to live a normal life. In a way, the choice that we now have, in the form of elective cosmetic procedures, is a continuation of that ideal. It is now driven by patients' desire rather than necessity and is available to all with the means to pay. Competing interests: None declared. Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. The history of COSMETIC SURGERY Today, here, and around the world, many people have considered having Cosmetic Surgery, or Plastic Surgery performed. Many more have had plastic surgery done, some with multiple procedures. Plastic Surgery, by definition, is a broad term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. Medical treatment for Facial injuries dates back over 4,000 years. The word "plastic" is a derivative of the Greek word plastikos meaning to mould or shape; however, contrary to common belief, the term “plastic surgery” is not related to modern plastics at all. Cosmetic Surgery was first known to have been performed in Roman times. The Romans had the ability to perform simple procedures such as repairing damaged ears, in modern times referred to as Otoplasty, this is one of the most simple of procedures. One report discusses a patient getting his earlobes repaired after years of wearing heavy earrings. The excess lobes were trimmed and the hole sewn together. One of the more expensive plastic surgeries performed at the time, the removal of branding and scars, was a commonly executed procedure. Freed slaves paid a high price indeed for this type of surgery. It was felt that this common practice reduced the stigma of having been a slave in this ancient times. In ancient India physicians were able to use skin graft reconstruction techniques as early as 800 B.C. From ancient times to the early nineteenth century, we find a living tradition of plastic operations of the nose, ear and lip. The Kangra (correctly pronounced as 'Kangada') district in Himachal Pradesh was most famous for its plastic surgeons. Some scholars are of the opinion that the word 'Kangada' is made from 'Kana + gadha' (ear repair). The British archaeologist Sir Alexander Cunningham (1814-93) had written about the tradition of Kangra plastic surgery procedures. We also have information that in the reign of Akber ,a Vaidya named Bidha used to carry out plastic operations in Kangra. The Charaka-Sanhita and the Sushruta-Sanhita are among the oldest known manuscripts on Ayurveda (the Indian science of medicine). Chronologically speaking, the Charaka-Sanhita is believed to be the earliest work, and deals with medicine proper and containing a few passages on surgery. The SushrutaSanhita, a work of the early centuries of the Christian era, mainly deals with surgical knowledge rather than medicine. The extant Sushruta-Sanhita is, according to its commentator Dalhanacharya (of twelth century AD), a amendment by Nagarjuna. The original Sushruta-Sanhita was based on a series of lectures between Kashiraj Divodas (or Dhanvantari) and his disciples, Sushruta and others. In 15th Century Europe, a man by the name of Heinrich von Pfolspeundt , a German physician and a member of the Teutonic Order of Knights was one of the first known Europeans to have performed cosmetic surgery. Dr. Pfolspeundt was one of the first doctors of the late medieval and early Renaissance period to take medical practices beyond the very crude conditions that had existed through much of the Middle Ages. During his time, a good number of German physicians, especially those in Strasbourg, helped to serve the advancement of the study of medicine. Dr. Pfolspeundt described a procedure to make a new nose for a person who lacks one. He stated that by removing skin from the back of the arm and suturing it into place a new nose could be created. From Italy we have records that would indicate that in the year 1442, Branca, a surgeon of Catania in Sicily, carried out plastic surgery of the nose, Also known as rhinoplasty, using a skin flap from the face. This procedure was very similar to the one described in the Sushruta-Sanhita, an Ayurvedic compendium composed in the early centuries of the Christian era. His son Antonio continued his work and was the first known to use a skin flap from the arm for reconstructing the nose. The Boinias family carried on with his work. The plastic operations carried out by the Boinia brothers are described in a book published in 1568 by Fioravanti, a doctor of Bologna, Italy. At the hands of Gasparo Tagliacozzi (1546-99), a professor of surgery and of anatomy at the Bologna University, that plastic surgery attained wide fame in Europe. His book De curtorum chirurgia per insitionem (The surgery of defects by implantation), printed in 1597, was the first scientific composition on plastic surgery. Tagliacozzi had described a method of substitution of the nose by skin from the arm and of replacement of the ears and lips, demonstrating his work throughout his manuscript by way of a large number of illustrations. The Church dignitaries of the time regarded cosmetic surgery as an interference in the affairs of the Almighty. After his death they not only excommunicated Tagliacozzi, but also had his corpse exhumed from its church grave, and placed it in unconsecrated ground. The great Voltaire (1694-1778) wrote a satirical poem on Tagliacozzi and his operation on the nose, using flap from the buttocks. However, due to the many dangers of surgery in those times, cosmetic surgery was rarely performed until around the 1900’s. The United States first plastic surgeon was Dr. John Peter Mettauer, born in Virginia in 1787, who in 1827 performed the first cleft palate surgery on record with instruments he himself designed. There are two very broad fields of aesthetic surgery, Cosmetic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery. Reconstructive surgery, including microsurgery, focuses on undoing or masking the destructive effects of trauma, previous surgery or disease. Examples of such operations are the rebuilding of amputated or damaged arms or legs; repairing cleft palates or lips, badly formed noses, and ears; and reconstructing a breast after mastectomy. Reconstructive surgery may include moving tissue from other parts of the body to the affected area. Cosmetic surgery however, is an elective surgery, usually done more for aesthetic reasons rather than to repair an injured area. In many cases, however, there are medical reasons for having some procedures done, such as breast reduction (for back pain relief) and Mastopexy (also known as a “breast lift). Cosmetic Surgery includes, but is not limited to, Abdominoplasty, or “tummy tuck”, Blepharoplasty, or “eyelid surgery”, Augmentation Mammaplasty, or "breast enlargement”, and Rhytidectomy, or "face lift". There are many more procedures not listed here that are commonly performed as well. The top five surgical procedures in 2004 Liposuction (325,000), nose reshaping (305,000), breast augmentation (264,000), eyelid surgery (233,000), and facelift (114,000). As you can see, Plastic Surgery has a longstanding history across the ages. It has helped not only in the reconstructive plastic surgery field but also has allowed people to feel more comfortable with their bodies and more confident about themselves. The PRO’s and CON’s of Cosmetic Surgery Breaking the Balance: Cosmetic Surgery Pros, Cons and Risk Factors By Kathryn D'Imperio Before you slap on a plastic smile, do some deep thinking on the whole picture when it comes to plastic surgery and its risks. It’s in the news, on television, movies and just about everywhere you look. A pretty face, a slender frame, and sizeable, perky breasts are society’s general prerequisites for a “beautiful woman,” and people are increasingly more willing to succumb to these diluted perceptions each year. But the purses and bank accounts of women are not the only ones being spilled out for a fresh new look…. More and more men are considering and even going through with cosmetic surgery to fit the trim and youthful appearance desired by so many. Male pectoral implants, calf implants, Rhinoplasty, facelifts, eyelifts and tummy tucks are just a few of the popular procedures in which males are recently partaking. The ever-popular “nose job,” or rhinoplasty, is just one of dozens of treatments available to the big spenders. (Typical procedures cost anywhere from a couple hundred to a couple thousand dollars and ever climbing.) As the nose is rumored to be the most prominent feature on a person’s face, many are quick to have theirs sculpted to perfection, or at least to improvement. In addition to aesthetic nose surgery, procedures such as aesthetic ear surgery, cosmetic eyelid surgery, facelifts, forehead lifts, and chemical face peels attempt to present cosmetic surgery patients with a more appealing visage. Eyelid rejuvenation, or Blepharoplasty, is a relatively common cosmetic procedure practiced in the hopes of reducing the signs of aging around the eyes. Facelifts and forehead lifts and chemical face peels also attempt to decrease the appearance of aging, thus restoring a brighter skin tone and an overall younger look. Non-facial cosmetic surgery procedures are extremely common as well. Liposuction and tummy tucks are common treatments to aid in contouring the body and eliminating localized deposits of fat in areas such as the waistline, thighs and buttocks. Breast size and shape become a concern to women for several reasons, including physical appearance and personal comfort. Breast enlargement, breast reduction and breast lifts may deliver desire results to happy patients, but several risks could dampen the bliss. Inability to nurse a baby, uneven nipple placement and sensory loss are possible flaws known to occur after a Mammoplasty. The obvious and ultimate goal, or benefit, is to construct the desired appearance in as little time as possible with little or no pain and a quick recovery. Often, patients know exactly what they want to see when the procedure is done, so a match to the envisioned or sketched result is the greatest advantage, though there is no guarantee. The cons and risk factors are much more abundant, though sometimes rare or uncommon. The need to take time off from one’s professional career and typical daily activities can be seen as an immediate disadvantage. Financial expenses, imminent bruising and discomfort may also deter an individual from receiving a cosmetic surgical procedure. Speaking with a person who has had cosmetic surgery performed on them may be the best means of deciding for oneself if opting for surgery is the right choice. As with any type of surgical procedure, certain inherent risks are involved. Infection, dry eye problems/ decreased tear production, bleeding, blindness and damage to nerves, blood vessels and muscles within the eye are just a few complications that can occur when a Blepharoplasty is performed. Less serious risks can include allergic reactions, asymmetry (a notable difference in appearance of the eyes), chronic pain, delayed or prolonged healing of the affected area, permanent or temporary eyelash hair loss, scarring, and dissatisfaction with the end result, among others. This is not to mention additional risks involved with local and general anesthesia administered to patients receiving surgical treatment. With so many risks, why do so many people continue to go through with cosmetic surgery? Not surprisingly, for the same reasons many people dye their hair! Satisfaction of one’s appearance is intrinsically linked to one’s happiness and overall mood and performance. Do blondes really have more fun? If someone asks your mom one more time how old she is, will she tell? Will enhanced or reduced breasts really make someone a “different person”? It is all a state of mind. Though risks such as blindness, blood clots, and serious lung problems are rare, it is critical that you are aware of these possible outcomes. If you cannot live with the potential consequences, it is best to think twice and weigh out your options before plunging into a procedure that could change your life forever. Advantage of Cosmetic Surgery Cosmetic surgery is something that should not be entered into lightly. It is considered a surgical procedure and therefore will carry risks. But if you are in good general health and decide that cosmetic surgery is something that you want to do then it is important that you do research on the procedure so that you are able to make an informed and responsible decision. The advantages of plastic surgery can be many in the right circumstances. Cosmetic surgery can be exactly what you need to enhance your self image. Having a positive self image can give you the self confidence that you need to get a better job, try new things and it will give you a general overall feeling of well being. Another advantage of plastic surgery is the ability to correct physical defects. These patients may have physical defects that have resulted from an accident or a bad case of acne as a teenager. Some people are born with physical defects that have plagued them since birth and cosmetic surgery can finally give them a shot at a normal life. If you have decided to get any type of procedure, choose your surgeon wisely. Get recommendations from your doctor. If possible, talk to former patients to get their input on a particular cosmetic surgeon. If you know of anyone who has had surgery, ask them for a recommendation. Another thing that you need to take into consideration is the cost of your cosmetic surgery. Insurance plans will most likely not cover the costs for these procedures, so you will have to foot the bill yourself. There are places that will give you a loan specifically for cosmetic surgery, but be sure to research them carefully. Make sure that the cost of the surgery is not going to cause financial hardship upon yourself or your family. Cosmetic surgery can be exactly what the doctor ordered if you are dealing with self esteem issues. Do research on the particular procedures that you are interested in so you know what you are getting into. Make sure you can afford it financially and choose your doctor or surgeon carefully. All in all, the advantages of cosmetic surgery can outweigh the risks if it can change your life for the better. Everyone deserves to look their best. Different types of Cosmetic surgery You have probably heard the terms, plastic surgery, cosmetic surgery and reconstructive surgery. Are these types of surgery all describing the same thing? Hint: No they are all describing different types of surgery, not necessarily the same thing. Cosmetic Surgery The term 'plastic' surgery comes from the Greek word 'plastikos' which means to shape or mold. The term plastic surgery can be used when referring to shaping or molding anything on the body during a surgical procedure. Reconstructive surgery refers to improving the appearance and function of abnormal features of the body. These types of features include congenital defects, tumors, infection, diseases, etc. Cosmetic surgery is done to reshape normal features of the body to improve the patient's appearance and self-esteem. The most common types of cosmetic surgery today are: *Facelifts *Eyelid Lifts *Breast Augmentation or Reduction *Nose reshaping *Liposuction *Tummy Tuck These cosmetic surgeries are becoming so popular that it is forecasted that nearly 1 in 3 people will have some sort of cosmetic surgery done. And, most cosmetic surgery is not covered by medical insurance, so these surgeries are being paid for out-of-pocket by the consumer. More and more doctors are getting specialized training in cosmetic surgery procedures to accommodate the anticipated demand. Maybe we will end up less expensive procedures down the road ------ Cosmetic surgery is a term thrown around with a lot of frequency. The term, however, is rather vague given the fact there are different types of cosmetic surgery. Here is a guide to the different types of cosmetic surgery. The world of cosmetic surgery is growing quickly each year. As time passes, more and more people are looking into the benefits of having cosmetic procedures performed on their bodies – and more and more procedures are being developed to fit patients' needs. While medical science has not yet come up with surgeries that are able to provide solutions to all of the cosmetic problems people have, the many types of cosmetic surgery that are available today are attempting to correct most of the physical issues patients have. The types of cosmetic surgery that are available for patients right now can be loosely grouped into two types: those that add something to the body and those that take something away. Many people are unhappy with the size and shape of parts of their bodies, and they would like to either reduce the size of the body part or increase its size. Liposuction is perhaps the most popular of the procedures that are used to take away unwanted areas of the body. Liposuction involves making a small cut into an area of the body that has too much fat tissue (such as the hips or stomach), and then a cannula is inserted into the cut. The cannula is a small, flexible tube with which the surgeon can dislodge and vacuum out the unwanted fat cells. In this way, stubborn areas of fat that aren't responding to diet and exercise can be removed. Some of the most popular types of cosmetic surgery, however, involve adding volume to areas of the body. One of these is seen in collagen injections, which plump up the lips. But, the biggest of the addition surgeries is breast augmentation. With this surgery, implants (usually made of saline) are inserted into a woman's breasts in order to enlarge her cup size. These implants can be modest, and used to enhance breasts that may be undersized or sagging, or large – these are usually given to women who are looking to make a big impact. While there are many more types of cosmetic surgery out there, the most popular across all age groups have to be liposuction and breast augmentation. While many people are tempted to jump into getting cosmetic surgery, it's very important to consult a board certified cosmetic surgeon to find out what is the best procedure for you. Never rush into any type of surgery or cosmetic procedure. What are the difference of cosmetic surgery from plastic surgery? What is the difference between cosmetic & plastic surgery The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) defines the difference in the following way: Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed on abnormal structures of the body caused by birth defects, developmental problems, trauma, injuries, infections and tumors, such as as skin cancer and breast cancer. Aesthetic or cosmetic plastic surgery is performed to reshape or restore normal structures of the body to improve appearance or self-esteem. The ASPS has developed a list of those procedures most commonly performed by plastic surgeons and the FTC has prepared a brochure to advise consumers about some aspects of cosmetic surgery. It is included on these pages with added hypertext links. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Breast Augmentation, Breast Implants, Breast Lift, Tummy Tuck, Abdominoplasty, Liposuction, Rhinoplasty, and More... Accurate information about cosmetic plastic surgery can be hard to find. But look no further, because here it is...straight from the female plastic surgeon who CNN, MSNBC, The Today Show , The View , and Dateline turn to as an authority on liposuction , breast augmentation , breast implants , tummy tuck and every other cosmetic surgery procedure. Plastic Surgery: Fact Vs. Fiction You have undoubtedly visited many web sites in search of information about breast augmentation , breast implants , tummy tuck , liposuction , wrinkle remedies and other procedures . But, how do you know if the information you've gleaned is accurate? The web is cluttered with myths about cosmetic surgery. For example, the Internet is spattered with claims that liposuction is always better than a tummy tuck , that breast implants will fix saggy breasts, that mini facelifts are effective, that laser hair removal is painless and permanent, that endoscopic brow lifts last 20 years, and that laser will remove stretch marks and cellulite . NONE of these claims are true, and there are endless other examples. This site will help you separate fact from fiction. You might even find information here that your plastic surgeon did not tell you. Reasons of Celebrity plastic surgery Introduction Plastic surgery is a kind of surgery or operation, normally done in order to enhance the certain body features for enhancement of look, self image and better posture. Sometimes people go for plastic surgery in lieu of some innate deformation and some slight disorders which is quite ethical and logical too. Plastic surgery is the order of the day and is adopted by millions and millions of people all across the globe as they want to look better and better in the race. Well in this race, the need of plastic surgery is more essential and is highly adopted by celebrities or people being celebrated in public simply. The process of plastic surgery takes place by two successive steps known as cosmetic surgery and reconstructive surgery. Reasons of Celebrity plastic surgery We have scores of celebrities on different levels. We see them on the larger scale, on various roles, imbibe them, copy them, get inspired from their acts and follow their logics too. So somehow they get this feeling of being role models to the next set of people. So what becomes important is physical and mental refinement. One can’t change what one is blessed with. So celebrities ensure that, they should look better optimizing their physique. Celebrities throng to very high quality plastic surgery organizations and get precision plastic surgery on required areas. It is like a trend in European and other western nations. Plastic surgery among the celebrities is the order of the day. Plastic Surgery among Celebrities After undergoing the plastic surgery, some celebrities find it good and some doesn’t like the concept. So go to extreme ends and end up being mocked. Some openly admit their surgeries implemented and some make less noise about it to proclaim their beauty. There is unlimited list of popular celebrities who have undergone plastic surgery. More or less, it is found that almost nearly all of them have got surgery at some point of time in their life. Some names to mention are Britney Spears, Drew Barrymore, Brad Pitt, Angelina Jolly, Tom Cruise, and Michael Jackson etc. The entire process of plastic surgery can’t really be differentiated for normal people and celebrities logically. So the functionalities and types are the same for one and all, depending upon gender specific approach. The Surgery Techniques Common techniques employed in this type of surgery are incision, excision, chemo surgery, microsurgery, electro surgery, liposuction, dermabrasion etc. The most common process of plastic surgery is the transfer of skin tissues, known as skin grafting. They are either taken from natural skin of the patient or some one else (allograft and xenograft) or alternatively from cultured sheets of silicon like compounds. Plastic surgeries lay emphasis on several parameters like appropriate selection of the closure of any wound incurred, usage of best suture material, and proper planning of incision methods.
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