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					InformationManagement
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                                      Chapter 3

               Environmental Scanning & Industry
                           Analysis
                                        Dari buku Wheelen
                                      Arrianto Mukti Wibowo


    Computer Science Centre
    University of Indonesia
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    Societal Environment (PEST)

    • Political-Legal
    • Economic
    • Sociocultural
    • Technological
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    Economic

    •   GDP trends           •   Wage/price controls
    •   Interest rates       •   Devaluation
    •   Inflation rates      •   Energy cost
    •   Unemployment         •   Government
        levels                   spending
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    Technological

    • Patent protection     • Telecommunication
    • New products            infrastructure
    • New developments      • Internet
      from lab to markets   • Productivity
                              improvement
                              through automation
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    Political-Legal

    •   Anti-monopoly laws   • Free trade
    •   Environmental laws     regulations
    •   Tax laws             • Employment laws
    •   Special incentives   • Government stability
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    Sociocultural

    • Changes in lifestyle
    • Consumer activism
    • Rate of familiy formation
    • Growth rate of population
    • Regional shifts of population
    • Age distribution
    • Life expectancies
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    External Environmet Scanning
                        Analysis of Societal Environment


                                                 Competitor
                                   Market         Analysis
                                   Analysis
              Community                                       Supplier
               Analysis                                       Analysis


    Interest Group
                                     Selection of                   Government
       Analysis                   Strategic Factors:                 Analysis

                                   •Opportunities
                                       •Threat
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    Which Issues Are Important?
    Issue X
                                                      Probable Impact on Company
                                                   High       Medium     Low
       Probability of Occurance




                                  High             High       High       Medium
                                                   Priority   Priority   Priority
                                  Medium           High       Medium     Low
                                                   Priority   Priority   Priority
                                  Low              Medium     Low        Low
                                                   Priority   Priority   Priority
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 Porter’s Competitive Forces
                                     Potential
                                     Entrants


                                    Industry
     Suppliers
                                   Competitors
                                                   Buyers
       Other                      Rivalry Among
    Stakeholders                  Existing Firms




                                   Substitutes
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    Barriers for New Entrants

    • Economies of scale
    • Product differentiations
    • Capital requirements
    • Switching cost
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    Factors contributing to intense rivalry

    • Number of competitors
    • Rate of industry growth
    • Product charcteristics
    • Amount of fixed cost
    • High exit barrier
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    Bargaining Power of Buyers

    • A buyer purchases a large portion of
      seller’s product
    • A buyer has the chance for backward
      integration
    • Low switching cost
    • Commodity products
    • Buyer has a very low profits, therfore
      sensitive to price changes
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           RESEARCH GROUP




    Barganing Powers of Suppliers

    • Supplier dominated by few, but sells to
      many
    • Suppliers may integrate forward
    • Has high switching cost
    • Buyer only buys a tiny fraction of
      supplier’s products, thus seen as
      unimportant
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    Strategic Groups

    • Set of business units / company that pursue
      similar strategies with similar resource
    • Usefull to understand competitive position
    • How to plot:
       – Select 2 broad characteristics
       – Plot the firms using the 2 characteristics as the
         dimensions
       – Draw circles of each company proportional to the
         group’s share of the market
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    Example: Price vs Product-Line
                                     High Price

                                                                Lotus
                                             Ichiban

                        McDonalds
                               KFC

     Limited menu                                                       More menu
     variety                                                            variety


                                          Kantin UI


                                                       Warteg
            Mie Ayam

                                     Low Price
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           RESEARCH GROUP




    Strategic Types (Miles & Snow)
    • Defenders
       – Focus on improving efficiency of their existing
         operations
    • Prospectors
       – Focus on product innovation & market
         opportunities
    • Analyzers
       – Operates in 1 stable (efficient) and 1 variable
         (innovate)
    • Reactors
       – Lack of consistent strategy – structure – culture

				
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posted:4/26/2011
language:English
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Description: matakuliah pak asep semester 6