icdl_xp03_manual by Jonas914

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									ICDL International Computer Driving Licence

Computer Based Training

Courseware User Guide

© Capernaum Ltd, Trading as Advance Learning 2006

Contents

1. Introduction 2. About ICDL 3. How to Turn On Your PC 4. How to Use the Mouse 5. How to Use the Keyboard 6. Getting to Know the Desktop 7. Keyboard Shortcuts 8. Course Outline 9. Quiz Questions 10. Glossary of Technical Terms

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1. Introduction
Advance Learning is a successful and highly-regarded education and elearning company. We provide technologically advanced products, including courseware, computer-based learning tools, and professional services that are designed to enhance our clients' personal and professional lives and productivity. This Advance Learning course caters for anybody wishing to prepare for the ICDL exam. The core element of the Advance Learning ICDL Learner Pack is the CD-ROM, which contains the main content of this course. This User Guide complements and supports the CD-ROM. It works on three levels. First, it describes the background and history of the ICDL, and explains how to go about getting your certification. Second, it provides instructions for running the CD-ROM, and getting the most out of the course. It also introduces the basics of a computer screen and the physical components you need to use to operate your computer. Finally, it acts as a guide to this course: it details the ICDL syllabus featured in the course, and lists and explains the several hundred technical terms that you will meet in this course. We hope that you enjoy this Advance Learning product and that you have a rewarding learning experience. If you'd like to find out more about our company or our products, visit us at our Web site, www.advancelearning.com

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2. About ICDL
What is ICDL?
The International Computer Driving Licence (ICDL) is the European-wide qualification that enables people to demonstrate their competence in computer skills. The ICDL is designed specifically for those who wish to gain a basic qualification in computing to help them with their current job, develop their IT skills, and enhance their career prospects. No prior knowledge of IT or computer skills is needed to study the ICDL. The ICDL is fast becoming the most widely recognised qualification in the field of work-related computer use, because it is targeted at the full spectrum of the population, and because of the support and monitoring of the organisations behind it.

How ICDL works
The ICDL syllabus is designed to cover the key concepts of computing, its practical applications and their use in the workplace and society in general. It is broken down into seven modules, each of which must be passed before the ICDL certificate is awarded. Candidates obtain, usually from a test centre, a Skills Card or Log Book listing all the modules. As they pass each module, the accredited test centre will sign the Skills Card or Log Book. The modules may be taken in any order and over any period of time (up to three years) – even all at once – offering maximum flexibility. When all the modules have been successfully completed, the Skills Card or Log Book is exchanged for a certificate. The seven modules that make up the ICDL are: • • • • • Basic concepts of IT Using the computer and managing files Word processing Spreadsheets Database

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Presentation Information and Communication

Benefits of the ICDL
ICDL is designed to help people at work and at home: • For home users, it provides a relevant and up-to-date syllabus that covers basic computer skills in a range of applications, assisting them in becoming familiar with computers for their own uses. • For employees, it provides a qualification with recognition across Europe. • For potential employers, it provides a precise measurement of skills. • For current employers, it provides a standard to encourage employees to aim towards.

Background of the ICDL
In 1994 the Computer Driving Licence was launched in Finland. Since then, over 24,000 people have received their licence in that country. The Council of European Professional Informatics Societies (CEPIS) established the User Skills Task Force in April 1995 to investigate the possibility of adopting the Finnish Computer Driving Licence and making it into a qualification for all of Europe. This study resulted in the formation of the ECDL Foundation. To date, the ECDL has been introduced in twelve European countries, and has met widespread enthusiastic support, from industry, voluntary groups, state agencies, educational bodies (public and private, second level, third level and vocational) and private individuals, those who are both employed and those who are seeking employment. In 1999 the ICDL, the International Computer Driving Licence, was established as a result of the success of the ECDL in Europe. The concept and syllabus of both are the same. The ICDL qualification is now being recognised internationally in over fifty countries around the globe, including Australia, Canada, and South Africa.

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ECDL/ICDL at National Level
Within Europe, national computer societies who are members of CEPIS subscribe to the ECDL Foundation for a licence to operate the ECDL concept within their own country. The ECDL Foundation is located in Dublin, Ireland, and ensures that all of the affiliated national ECDL organisations operate to the high standards required of them. The national organisations then issue licences to different centres around their countries to administer the ECDL exams. All of the centres operate using strict guidelines from the central ECDL Foundation. For organisations in non-European countries, the ECDL Foundation will licence organisations as Licensees, but these groups do not become members of the ECDL Foundation.

Local Test Centres
The local test centres that are licensed by their national ECDL/ICDL organisations are many and varied. These centres include schools, universities, and vocational colleges, as well as private and state-run training centres. Each is chosen for its rigorous adherence to the ECDL/ICDL international testing standards. Together, they constitute a tightly controlled network of outlets for the European Computer Driving Licence. Individuals can sit tests for different modules of the licence in any ECDL/ICDL testing centre, in any country. It is completely standardised. To find out about local test centres, contact your local computer society.

How to get started
Registration
The first thing you need to do is to enrol in the programme. In order to do this you must register with the National Licensee of your country. There is a registration fee – see the National Licensee of your country for details.

Skills Card/Log Book
Once you have registered, your National Licensee will issue you with a Skills Card or Log Book which lists the seven modules. It is used to record your results in each of the seven tests that make up the Licence. As you pass the test for each module, the corresponding skill is marked on your Skills Card or Log Book by the accredited test centre. Once you have passed all seven tests you will be awarded your Licence. 7

Training
Whether or not you will require training for the Computer Driving Licence will depend on your skill level. You are not required to do any official training. If you feel you are already sufficiently experienced you can purchase a Skills Card or Log Book and start taking the tests immediately. However in most cases people undergo training, especially in areas where they lack competency.

Tests
The seven tests may be taken in any order and over a period of time. All tests are free of any bias towards any computer producer or software product. The first module is a theory test and all of the others are tests of practical skills, which consist of tasks chosen at random from a store of typical day-to-day computer operations. In this way the tests are as close as possible to tasks that you could be asked to perform in real-life, so that the ECDL/ICDL is a definition of your actual skills. The tests are conducted by accredited Test Centres. There is a charge for each test, the details of which can be obtained from the Centres. Once you have passed all seven tests, send your Skills Card or Log Book to your National Licensee where they will exchange it for the Computer Driving Licence.

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3. How to Turn On Your PC
The first step in using your PC is knowing what to turn on and how to go about it. In general, you should turn on the monitor and anything else connected to your computer, such as a scanner or speakers (known as 'peripherals'), before you turn on the computer itself. Like most electrical devices, computers – and their peripherals – have an on/off switch. The computer's on/off switch is usually

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located on the front, but on some models it's on the side or the back. 1. 2. Turn on the monitor power button. Turn on any other peripheral devices if you have them, such as speakers. 3. 4. Turn on the main power button. Make sure that the PC, the monitor, and any peripherals are plugged in. How to install this CD: After you have turned on and started up your PC, follow these steps to install the CD.

1 1. Remove the CD from the case.

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2. Locate the CD-drive and click the CD-drive button to open it. 3. Insert the CD, with the label facing upwards.

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4. Click the CD-drive button to close it. The CD starts to run automatically and guides you through the logon process. Note: if the course doesn't display within a few seconds of inserting the CD-ROM, this indicates that the AutoRun feature may not be enabled on your computer. If this is the case, you will have to run the CD manually. To run the CD manually, insert it into the CD drive, click Start, point to Run. In the Run text box, type d:\advancelearning_icdl.exe (where d is the letter of your CD-ROM drive), and click OK. CD-ROM system requirements There are a few things that your PC needs to run the Advance Learning CD-ROM. Chances are that you will have them. Before you insert the CD-ROM, check that you have the following: • • • • • A Pentium (or compatible) Processor, 133MHz 64 MB RAM, or greater (Recommended: 256 MB) 8 x CD-ROM drive, or greater Windows 95/98/ME/NT 4.0/2000/XP 16-bit sound card and speakers

There are also a few settings required to see the course at its best: • • • • Minimum resolution: 800 x 600 Recommended resolution: 1024 x 768 Minimum colour setting is 256 Colors Recommended colour setting is True Color (32 Bit)

You can check these settings on your computer, and change them if necessary in Control Panel. To change the appearance of your screen, you can modify both the colours used in the display screen, and the size of the screen area, or resolution. Colors The Colors setting on your computer determines the number of colours that your monitor will use to display images and pictures. The minimum colour requirement, 256 Colors, will use 256 different colours to 10

create images and pictures. However, the recommended colour mode, True Color (32 Bit) will use several million colours, to create sharper, clearer, and more realistic images and pictures. 1. Click Start, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel. 2. Double-click the Display icon. 3. Click the Settings tab. 4. To view the various colour options, under Colors, (in some operating systems, this is called the Color Palette), click the Color arrow. 5. To change to True Color (32 Bit), click this option in the Color list. Resolution Screen resolution is the number of pixels contained on a display monitor, expressed in terms of the number of pixels on the horizontal axis and the number on the vertical axis. Pixels are minute units of color, which make up the images displayed on your screen. The sharpness of an image or picture will depend on the resolution setting of your monitor. Low resolution setting, such as 640 x 480, make items on screen appear larger, and high resolution settings, such as 1024 x 786, make items on screen appear smaller. In addition, if your resolution is 800 x 600, your taskbar may obscure part of the Advance Learning screen. We strongly recommend that if your resolution is 800x600, you change the settings so that the taskbar hides if it is not in use. To do this, right-click the taskbar and click Properties. On the Taskbar Options tab, check the Auto hide option. The recommended resolution for this course is 1024 x 768. With this resolution, the overall screen will appear larger, and will therefore display more, and the taskbar won't obscure the course. To change your resolution to the recommended resolution: 1. Click Start, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel. 2. Double-click the Display icon. 3. Click the Settings tab. 4. Click the Screen Area arrow, and move it to the left or right, until the 11

resolution 1024 x 768 pixels is reached. 5. To apply any screen changes and close the Display Properties dialog box, click OK. 6. To close Control Panel, click the Close button. Audio requirements This course contains audio, so to run the course you will need either speakers or headphones, and a sound card. If you have headphones, you'll need to plug them in. You can plug them in either on the speakers, or at the back of your PC.

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4. How to Use the Mouse
Operating the mouse is an easy and essential part of using a computer. If you've never used a mouse before, this section provides an introduction to the basics and an explanation of the terms used to describe the various mouse actions. The mouse is a small plastic device connected to the computer by a cable. It has two buttons for 'clicking', and a ball or rollers on its base to register its movements. There are many different types of mouse – for example, with three buttons instead of two, or with a wheel on top for 'scrolling'. You might find other variations, such as trackballs and touchpads, on laptop computers. The designs may work slightly differently, but the principles of using the mouse are the same. Let's look at how to use the standard two-button mouse. The mouse should be placed on the desk within easy reach. The mouse pad provides better traction than most desks, so use this as the surface for the mouse. You can use whichever hand feels most comfortable – most right-handed users prefer to use their right hand for moving the mouse. When you move the mouse, the pointer on the screen moves in the corresponding direction. The pointer normally looks like an arrow (left), but it can change its appearance depending on what you are doing. For example, when you are using a word processing application, the pointer becomes an I -shape for selecting text (left), and the point where text will appear when you type is indicated by a flashing line, known as a cursor. There are numerous other pointer types, including a pointing hand in Web browsing applications, and a double-headed arrow used for resizing objects in many applications. Try out each of the mouse actions as described below. Don't be afraid to experiment with the mouse – some of the techniques, such as double-clicking, can seem difficult at first, but they become easy with a little practice. Pointing Move the mouse on the mousepad with your hand. As you move the mouse, the pointer on the screen moves in the same direction. If you run out of space on the mouse pad, simply lift the mouse, reposition it, and move it again. Pointing is used to move the pointer, or cursor, around the screen. 13

Clicking Quickly press and release the left mouse button once. Clicking allows you to interact with the computer by selecting items and commands on the screen.

Right-clicking Quickly press and release the right mouse button. Right-clicking is used for a number of tasks, such as accessing shortcut menus. It is used less often than clicking the left mouse button.

Double-clicking Quickly press and release the left mouse button twice. Double-clicking can be tricky to begin with, but it becomes easy with a little practice. It is used to open files and folders quickly, to launch applications quickly, and to perform certain other tasks.

Drag and drop A technique used to move objects on the screen. First point at an object with the mouse, click to select it, then, keeping the left mouse button held down, move the mouse pointer to a different part of the screen.

Highlighting

Used for selecting text. Move the mouse

cursor to, for example, the start of a word. Click the left mouse button once, then, keeping the left mouse button held down, move the mouse pointer to the end of the word. This technique can be applied to any amount of text.

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5. How to Use the Keyboard
The keyboard is the main device for input of data to most computers, so it's important to pick up a few basic keyboard skills. Thankfully, you don't need to know what every key is for, and you don't have to be able to type. With just a few of the basic keys you should be able to use your computer – you'll pick the rest up as you go along.

Although there are some variations, most keyboards look something like this. They consist of three rows of letter keys, surrounded by various other special keys. The keyboard is used for interacting with the computer in a number of ways, including typing text, entering commands, and using other shortcut and function keys. Many of the functions that the keys perform can also be performed by using the mouse. Whether you use the mouse, the keyboard, or both for these tasks is up to you – there is no one correct method.

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Keys:

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1. Letter keys. Used for entering text. The letter keys are arranged in the same way as on a standard typewriter. To type a capital, you need to keep the SHIFT key held down when typing. If you need to type more than a few capital letters, you can press the CAPS LOCK key once, and then continue typing. The letters you type will appear as capitals. 2. SPACEBAR. The SPACEBAR key is used for entering a space between words or letters.

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3. Number keys. The number keys appear in two places on the keyboard: in a row above the letter keys, and in a separate section at the right of the keyboard. The number keys at the right of the keyboard are arranged the same way as on a calculator and are useful if you are typing a lot of numbers. Note, however, that the Numeric Lock must be activated in order to use these keys – press the NUM LOCK key to do this. The row of number keys above the letter keys are more 16

commonly used. Be careful not to confuse this row of keys with the row of function keys at the top of the keyboard (numbers marked with the letter F).

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4. ENTER/RETURN. The ENTER key, also sometimes called the RETURN key, appears twice on the keyboard. It is used to insert a new paragraph when typing text, just like a carriage return on a typewriter. The ENTER key has other important uses: to activate commands (once you have typed them), and to launch applications. 5. BACKSPACE. The BACKSPACE key is mainly used when working with text. It moves the cursor one place to the left, removing each letter as it moves. Its main use is for erasing typing mistakes. 6. SHIFT. The SHIFT key also appears twice on the keyboard. It is used in

combination with another key or mouse action – pressing the SHIFT key on its own does nothing. For example, when SHIFT is held down and any letter key is pressed, the letter becomes a capital. The SHIFT key is used in this way to access the special characters, such as £ and *, that appear on the row of number keys. 7. CAPS LOCK. When Caps Lock is turned on, the letters you type appear as capital letters. You only have to press it once to turn the Caps Lock on or off. It is useful if you want to type more than just a few capital letters at a time. If you need to type just a few capitals, the SHIFT key can be more convenient. Unlike the SHIFT key however, the CAPS LOCK key applies only to letter keys. 8. DELETE. The DELETE key is used to erase selected objects, or sections of text. When no text is selected in a text document, pressing the DELETE key erases the characters to the right of the cursor one at a time. The DELETE key is also used in certain key combinations (where more than one key is pressed simultaneously). 17

9. TAB. The TAB key has a number of uses, which vary between applications. In word processing applications, pressing the TAB key inserts a TAB character (a blank space used for alignment). In spreadsheet and database applications, pressing the TAB key moves the cursor from one cell to the next.

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10. CTRL. The CTRL key (pronounced 'control'), like the SHIFT key, is only used in combination with another key or mouse action – pressing the CTRL key on its own does nothing. It also appears twice on the keyboard. Its uses include many keyboard shortcuts (quick ways of performing tasks – see the Keyboard Shortcuts section on p.20). 11. ALT. The ALT key, like CTRL, is mainly used in shortcut key combinations. Pressing ALT on its own is a shortcut method of accessing the File menu in most applications. 12. ESC. The ESC key (pronounced 'escape'), is used in a variety of ways, including shortcut key combinations. In many applications, pressing the ESC key allows you to exit the menu you have clicked on, and in some cases, to close the application.

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13. Special character keys. Special character keys include COMMA, COLON, PLUS SIGN, MINUS SIGN, and various others. They are found in different places on the keyboard, but most appear either to the right of the letter keys, or on the same keys as the numbers. To access a symbol that appears on the top part of any key, keep the SHIFT key held down while you press that key. To access the symbol on the lower part of the key, just press it. 15 15 15

14 14. Arrow keys. The arrow keys are most commonly used to move the cursor in a text document. Pressing an arrow key moves the cursor one character in the direction pressed. 15. Function keys. The function keys (F1 to F12) appear on the top row of the keyboard. They are mainly used as shortcut keys – for example, in many Windows applications pressing F1 is a shortcut method of accessing Help. The function keys are predefined, and their uses can vary from one application to another.

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6. Getting to Know the Desktop
Screen Terminology If your computer is running the Windows operating system, the screen you see when you switch on and log on to your computer is similar to the illustration below. Most computers nowadays use the Windows operating system, which is the program that controls and manages everything on your computer. You don't need to know how it works – just that it forms the basis for everything you'll do on your computer. There are different versions of Windows, including Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP, but they all look and work more or less the same.

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If you're new to using Windows, you might find the screen terminology a little hard to get used to at first. But don't worry – you'll soon become familiar with the terms used to describe the various parts of the screen. The above illustration shows a typical Microsoft Windows 2000 screen, with a commonly used application – Microsoft Word. 1. Desktop The display area. The desktop displays commonly used program

icons and other objects, and acts as the screen backdrop. It resembles an office desktop – objects can be moved around and rearranged on the desktop. Windows, menus, and dialog boxes also appear on the desktop. 22

2. Desktop icon

A small graphical image displayed on the desktop. Desktop

icons can represent applications such as Microsoft Word, utilities such as My Computer, and other items such as files, folders, and windows. By double-clicking on an icon, you open up the application, utility, file, or folder that it represents. 3. Taskbar Displays taskbar buttons that show which applications are open. By clicking on a taskbar button you can switch to that application. 4. Start button A button on the taskbar that activates the main menu when clicked. The main menu contains a number of items including Programs (from which applications can be launched), Help, and Shut Down (which contains further options for closing down the computer). 5. Taskbar button A button on the taskbar that represents an application. By clicking on a taskbar button you can switch to that application. The taskbar button of the active application (the application currently being used) always appears 'pressed in' on the taskbar. 6. Window The area of the screen that displays an application. Application

windows typically consist of a number of features including a title bar, a toolbar, a menu bar, and a status bar. Windows are resizable, and many windows can be viewed simultaneously. Messages and documents within applications can also appear in separate smaller windows. 7. Title bar The horizontal bar that appears at the top of a window. The title bar is typically blue, and normally displays the window name and various buttons for resizing or closing the window. 8. Menu bar The bar that appears near the top of the window and displays the menu names. Menus can be activated by clicking on the name, which causes a drop-down menu to appear, with a list of commands. 9. Menu A list of command choices. Menus can be accessed by clicking the

relevant name on the menu bar. Commands that are unavailable appear in grey instead of black text. Other menu types include submenus (accessed by clicking other menu commands), and shortcut menus (accessed by right-clicking an object such as an icon). 10. Toolbar A row of buttons known as tools. Clicking a toolbar button allows 23

you to execute a specific task or function, such as printing or saving. Tasks performed by using the toolbar buttons can also be performed by using the menus; using the toolbar buttons provides a quicker alternative. 11. Status bar The bar that appears at the bottom of the application window, indicating the current status or activity of the program 12. Scroll bar The bar located along the edge of the window that enables you to move up and down, and from left to right in the window display area. 13. Close button The x button on the title bar that closes the window when clicked. The Close button acts as a quick alternative to using menus. 14. Restore down button The button on the title bar that returns a window to its previous size. 15. Minimize button The button on the title bar (marked with a horizontal line) that hides the window without closing it. When the Minimize button is clicked, the window is reduced to an icon or a button on the taskbar. 16. Maximize button window. The button on the title bar (marked with a small

rectangle) that expands a window to its full size on the screen or within another

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7. Keyboard Shortcuts
Shortcuts In the Advance Learning ICDL course, you will learn how to perform a wide range of computer-related tasks. As with many things, there is often more than one way to perform a particular task. For example, if you want to print a Microsoft Word document that you have just typed (Module 3: Word Processing – Printing), you could click Print on the File menu. An alternative way to complete the same task would be to click the Print button on the toolbar, or to use the shortcut key combination CTRL+P (keep the CTRL key pressed, and press P on the keyboard). There is no one way that is better than any other – you should use whichever method suits you best. Using shortcut keys can be a good way to save time, especially for the more advanced computer user. Most computer applications come with some preset shortcut keys, typically consisting of a combination of keys, such as the CTRL key and a letter on the keyboard. The function keys (marked F1 to F12 at the top of the keyboard) are used exclusively as shortcut keys. It is also possible to define your own shortcut keys in many applications. Some of the most frequently used predefined shortcut keys are displayed in the following tables. Databases

task Open New Save Print Spelling Cut Copy Paste Find & Replace Help Check Spelling Select All records

Microsoft Access 2003 CTRL+O CTRL+N CTRL+S CTRL+P F7 CTRL+X CTRL+C CTRL+V CTRL+F F1 F7 CTRL+A
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Spreadsheets

task Open Print Go To Find & Replace Check Spelling Cut Copy Paste Help Save New

Microsoft Excel 2003 CTRL+O CTRL+P CTRL+G CTRL+F F7 CTRL+X CTRL+C CTRL+V F1 CTRL+S CTRL+N

Lotus 123 CTRL+O CTRL+P CTRL+G CTRL+F CTRL+F2 CTRL+X CTRL+C CTRL+V F1 CTRL+S

Word Processing

task Open Print Go To Find & Replace Check Spelling Insert Page Break Cut Copy Paste Help Save Select All New

Microsoft Word 2003 CTRL+O CTRL+P CTRL+G CTRL+F F7 CTRL+Enter CTRL+X CTRL+C CTRL+V F1 CTRL+S CTRL+A CTRL+N
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Corel WordPerfect CTRL+O CTRL+P CTRL+G CTRL+F2 CTRL+F1 CTRL+Enter CTRL+X CTRL+C CTRL+V F1 CTRL+S

Lotus Word Pro CTRL+O CTRL+P CTRL+G CTRL+F CTRL+F2 CTRL+Enter CTRL+X CTRL+C CTRL+V F1 CTRL+S

Presentations

task Open New Save Print Spelling Cut Copy Paste Find & Replace Help Select All View Show

Microsoft Powerpoint 2003 CTRL+O CTRL+N CTRL+S CTRL+P F7 CTRL+X CTRL+C CTRL+V CTRL+F F1 CTRL+A F5

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8. Course Outline
The Advance Learning ICDL course was designed according to the curriculum provided by the ICDL Foundation. You can see the outline clearly on the Course Map screen when you open the CD-ROM. Here follows a brief summary of the contents of each of the parts of the course.

Module 1 - Basic Concepts of Information Technology Lesson Title 1 Getting Started Topic Title Introduction Hardware, Software, and Information Technology Types of Computer Main Parts of a Personal Computer Summary Quiz 2 Hardware Introduction The Central Processing Unit Input Devices Output Devices Summary Quiz
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Understand what the CPU is, and what it does

Tasks

Overview of the basic concepts of hardware, software, and IT Understand and distinguish between various types of computer Overview of the main parts of a personal computer

Know the various devices for inputting data into a computer Know the various devices for displaying the results of computer processing

3 Storage

Introduction Memory Storage Devices Types of Memory Measuring Memory Computer Performance Summary Quiz
Understand and compare the main types of memory storage devices Learn about the different types of computer memory Understand how computer memory is measured Find out about the factors that affect a computer’s performance

4 Software

Introduction Types of Software
Understand the meaning of the term software, and how it is used Understand the main roles of a computer’s operating system Learn about some common software applications and their functions Follow the computer systems development process

Operating System Software Application Software Systems Development Summary Quiz 5 Information Networks Introduction LAN and WAN The Telephone Network in Computing
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Understand what a network is, and know the difference between a LAN and a WAN Learn how telephone networks are used in computing

Electronic Mail The Internet Summary Quiz 6 Computers in Everyday Life Introduction Computers in the Home Computers at Work and in Education Computers in Daily Life Summary Quiz 7 IT and Society Introduction A Changing World

Find out about e-mail, and how it works Learn about the Internet, and how it works

Appreciate the many uses and importance of the PC at home Find out about the uses of office applications Discover how computers are used in everyday life

Find out how the Information Age is changing the way we live Understand the importance of a good working environment Learn what health & safety precautions should be taken with computers

A Good Workspace Health and Safety Summary Quiz 8 Security, Copyright and the Law Introduction

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Security Computer Viruses Copyright Data Protection Act Summary Quiz

Find out how to protect your data from system failure and intrusion Learn about computer viruses Understand the legal issues associated with copying files Discover the implications of the Data Protection Act

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Module 2 - Using the Computer and Managing Files Lesson Title 1 Getting Started Topic Title Introduction First Steps with the Computer Summary Quiz 2 Desktop Environment Introduction Working with Icons
Recognise, select, and move desktop icons Create a desktop shortcut Start, shut down, and restart the computer Use the Help function

Tasks

Working with Windows

Recognise the different parts of an application and desktop window Resize an application and desktop window

Identifying your Computer’s Properties Personalising your Desktop Summary Quiz 3 Organising Files Introduction Overview of Files and Folders

View the computer’s basic system information View the computer’s desktop configuration

Understand a basic directory and folder structure Create, examine, and rename files and directories/folders Recognise file types and view file attributes

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Copying, Moving, and Deleting Files and Folders Backing Up Files and Folders Using the Find Tool Summary Quiz 4 Simple Editing Introduction Using a Text Editing Application

Select, copy, cut, paste, and delete files and directories/folders Format a diskette Take backup copies of data on to a diskette Use the Find tool to search for files or folders based on various criteria

Open and close an editing application Save a file to a directory/ folder and onto a diskette

Summary Quiz 5 Print Management Introduction Printing
Print a document, and view a print job’s progress Change the default printer

Summary Quiz

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Module 3 - Word Processing Lesson Title 1 Getting Started Topic Title Introduction First steps with Word Processing
Open and close a word processing application Create, save, open, and close a document Use the Help function

Tasks

Adjusting Basic Settings

Change page and toolbar display modes Use magnification tool/zoom tool

Document Exchange

Save documents under other formats

Summary Quiz 2 Basic Operations Introduction Inserting Data
Insert characters, words, text, paragraphs, symbols, and page breaks in a document Select characters, words, text Use copy and paste tools Delete text Use the Find and Replace command

Selecting Data Copying, Moving, and Deleting Text Find and Replace Summary Quiz 3 Formatting Introduction
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Adjusting Text Type, Size, and Colour Adjusting Text Layout General Formatting Templates Summary Quiz 4 Finishing a Document Introduction Styles and Pagination Headers and Footers Spelling and Grammar Document Setup Summary Quiz 5 Printing Introduction Prepare to Print Summary Quiz
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Change text size, type, colour, and format Align, justify, and indent text Change spacing and hyphenate text Use tabs, borders, and lists

Choose and use templates

Apply styles and page numbering to text Add and format headers and footers Use spell-check and grammar tools Modify document setup and margins

Preview and print a document

6 More Advanced Features

Introduction

Tables

Create and modify a table Use automatic table formatting tool Add and modify images in a document Add and modify autoshapes in a document Import a spreadsheet and image file into a document Create a mailing list Merge a mailing list and letter

Pictures and Images Adding Shapes Importing Objects Mail Merge Summary Quiz

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Module 4 - Spreadsheets Lesson Title 1 Getting Started Topic Title Introduction First Steps with Spreadsheets
Open and close a spreadsheet application Create, save, open, and close a spreadsheet Use the Help function Change the spreadsheet view mode, page view, and toolbar display Save a spreadsheet under other formats

Tasks

Adjusting Basic Settings Document Exchange Summary Quiz 2 Basic Operations Introduction Inserting Data Selecting Data Copying, Moving, and Deleting Cells Using the Find Tool Rows and Columns Sorting Data Summary Quiz
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Enter numbers, text, symbols, and simple formulas in a cell Select adjacent and nonadjacent cells, rows, and columns Use the copy, cut, paste, and delete tools Use the Find and Replace command Insert, modify, and delete rows and columns Sort data in ascending and descending numeric and alphabetic order

3 Formulas and Functions

Introduction Arithmetic and Logical Formulas Working with Functions Summary Quiz
Use arithmetic and logical formulas Recognise error messages Use the Sum and Average functions

4 Formatting

Introduction Formatting Cells Numbers Formatting Cells Text Formatting Cells Cell Ranges Spelling Document Setup Summary Quiz
Format cells to display number, date, currency, and percentage styles Format cell content

Centre and align cell content Add border effects to selected cells Use the spell-check tool

Modify spreadsheet setup, margin, and orientation Add headers and footers

5 Printing

Introduction Printing Simple Spreadsheet Documents Summary Quiz
Preview and print a spreadsheet

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6 More Advanced Features

Introduction

Importing Objects Creating Charts and Graphs Modifying Charts and Graphs Summary Quiz

Import and modify objects in a spreadsheet Produce charts and graphs

Modify, move, and delete charts and graphs

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Module 5 - Databases Lesson Title 1 Getting Started Topic Title Introduction First Steps with Databases
Open and close a database application Open, modify, save, and close a database Use the Help function Change the database view mode and toolbar display

Tasks

Adjusting Basic Settings Summary Quiz 2 Creating a Database Introduction Designing and Planning a Database Creating a Table Setting Table Properties Entering Data Summary Quiz 3 Making Changes to a Database Introduction

Design and plan a database

Create a database table

Create a primary key and table index Enter data in a database table

Table Design

Modify table layout and field attributes

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Updating a Database Summary Quiz 4 Use of Forms Introduction Creating a Form

Modify and delete table data Add and delete database records

Create a form Enter data using a form Format form text, color, and layout

Modifying Form Layout Summary Quiz 5 Retrieve Information Introduction Basic Operations

Create and save database queries Add and remove filters Add and remove query fields

Refining a Query Selecting and Sorting Data Summary Quiz 6 Reporting Introduction Creating Reports Modifying Reports

Select and sort data using given criteria and operators

Create report to present data in a sequence Modify a report, and group data in totals Create report Headers and Footers

Summary Quiz
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Module 6 - Presentations Lesson Title 1 Getting Started Topic Title Introduction First Steps with Presentation Tools
Open and close a presentation application Open, modify, save, and close a presentation Use the Help function Change the presentation display mode and toolbar display Save a presentation under other formats

Tasks

Adjusting Basic Settings Document Exchange

Summary Quiz 2 Basic Operations Introduction Creating a Presentation Copying, Moving, and Deleting Text Copying, Moving, and Deleting Images Copying, Moving, and Deleting Slides Summary Quiz 3 Formatting Introduction Formatting Text
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Use various formatting tools to change text font type, size, colour, and position Choose and modify a slide layout Add an image and text to a slide Copy, paste, cut, and delete text Copy, paste, cut, and delete an image Copy, paste, cut, delete, and reorder slides

Modifying Text Boxes Summary Quiz 4 Graphics and Charts Introduction Drawn Objects

Resize, modify, and move a text box in a slide

Add, modify, and move lines and shapes in a slide Create and modify an organisational chart Import, resize, copy, and move an image or object

Charts Images and Other Objects Summary Quiz 5 Printing and Distribution Introduction Slide Setup

Select a slide format, and change slide orientation Add notes and page numbers to slides Use spell-check tool Preview and print a presentation document

Preparing for Distribution Printing Summary Quiz 6 Slide Show Effects Introduction Preset Animation Effects
44

Create and modify a table Use automatic table formatting tool

Transitions Summary Quiz 7 View a Slide Show Introduction Delivering a Presentation Summary Quiz

Add slide transition effects

Start a slide show and navigate through it

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Module 7 - Information and Communication Lesson Title 1 The Internet: Getting Started Topic Title Introduction Tasks

First Steps with the Internet

Open and close a Web browsing application Understand, display, and save a Web address Use the Help function Change the Web browsing application display modes and toolbar display

Adjusting Basic Settings Summary Quiz 2 Web Navigation Introduction Accessing a Web Address Summary Quiz 3 Web Searching Introduction Using a Search Engine Printing Summary Quiz

Open a Web address and hyperlink Browse a Web site and collect data

Create and modify a table Use automatic table formatting tool Add and modify images in a document

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4 Bookmarks

Introduction Creating a Bookmark Summary Quiz
Open and create Web page bookmarks

5 E-mail: Getting Introduction Started First Steps with Electronic Mail
Open and close an electronic mail application Open a mail Inbox and mail message Use the Help function Change the e-mail application display modes and toolbar display

Adjusting Basic Settings Summary Quiz 6 Messaging Introduction Sending a Message

Create, address, sign, and send an e-mail message Add a title and file to a message Copy, paste, cut, and delete message text Delete a file attachment Open an e-mail message and a file attachment Reply to and forward an email message

Copying, Moving, and Deleting Text Reading a Message Replying to a Message Summary Quiz

47

7 Addressing

Introduction Using Address Books
Use an address book Add and delete mail addresses from an address book Reply to a message using a distribution list Use the Cc and Bcc fields

Message to Several Addresses Summary Quiz 8 Message Management Introduction Organising Messages

Create a new mail folder Move, sort, and delete messages Empty the Deleted Items folder

Summary Quiz

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9. Quiz Questions
To help maximise your learning while using this course, there is a quiz section at the end of each lesson. These quiz sections present a variety of interactive questions, which you can use to test your knowledge and competency on a particular lesson. The quizzes are useful in helping you to quickly revise a certain topic, reinforce concepts already learned, and highlight areas in the course that perhaps need more attention. Similar to the modules and lessons themselves, you do not have to take the quizzes in any particular order. They can be taken as often as you like, and at any time during the course. However, it's a good idea to try a quiz soon after you have completed the corresponding section of the course, to help assess how well you have learnt the material covered and as an indicator as to whether a lesson should be repeated. A variety of question types are used: instructions on how to use each question type are given within the questions. To submit your selected answer, you must click the answer tab at the bottom of the question screen. Feedback is provided with each question, and the type of feedback depends on whether a question is correctly or incorrectly answered. We regard feedback as an important instructional element, providing as it does explanations in the case of an incorrect answer and supplementary information in the case of a correct answer. We recommend that you take time to read the feedback. All questions in a quiz are evenly weighted, and at the end of each quiz you are given an overall percentage score. This score indicates what percentage of quiz questions were correctly answered. As part of the interactive CD-ROM, you can also view a Progress Report that displays your scores for every quiz you have completed. To access the Progress Report, click the Progress Report button positioned on the left side of the Course Map. You should note that, in answering these quizzes, you have not completed the ICDL exam. These quizzes prepare you to take the ICDL exam, but do not in any way constitute part of that exam.

49

50

10. Glossary
active Refers to something that is currently in use, such as an application or a part of the screen. For example, if several applications are open, the active application is the one that is currently being used and is indicated by a 'pressed in' button on the taskbar. address book addresses. address list In e-mail applications, a list of e-mail addresses that you compile. Various e-mail addresses are grouped together under a common name or title, allowing you to then send e-mail to everyone on this list by simply referencing the group name. Also known as a distribution list or mailing list. American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) A numeric code given to each letter and character on the keyboard. For example, the ASCII code for the letter 'b' is 98. By using the ASCII system, text and other files can be transferred between computers. analog Refers to an electronic transmission or signal of varying frequency. Phone and broadcast transmissions are examples of analog technology. Digital technology, on the other hand, is based on discrete units (0 and 1). Compare digital. animation Simulated movement of on-screen images, created by a series of In e-mail applications, a collection or database of e-mail

A

successive static images. Many software applications have been designed for the creation of animated computer images and this has greatly aided the development of multimedia presentations. anti-surge device A device that protects computers and other electrical devices from electrical surges (sudden increases in voltage). Also called a surge protector. anti-virus software: Software that scans a computer system to identify, locate, and destroy viruses. The program scans a computer's memory and hard disk to search for possible threats. It is also capable of scanning floppy disks and CDs in order to protect a computer from viruses present in incoming files. The anti-virus software must be updated on a regular basis, in order to protect against new viruses that appear. application A program designed to perform a specific task for the computer user. 51

Examples of applications include word processing and database programs, and Web browsers. ASCII Short for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A numeric code given to each letter and character on the keyboard. For example, the ASCII code for the letter 'b' is 98. By using the ASCII system, text and other files can be transferred between computers. attach To add a document or file to an e-mail. audio Anything relating to hearing or sound. back up To make a duplicate copy of a program, file, or data, in order to protect in case of system failure or other catastrophe. background The combination of colour, texture, patterns, and pictures that

make up the surface of the desktop. Icons, bars, and buttons appear against the desktop background. backup A duplicate copy made in order to protect against system failure or other catastrophe. A backup copy is usually stored on a different medium (tape or disk), or in a separate location to the original copy (to protect against catastrophe such as fire or flood). This ensures that the backup can be recovered in case the original data is lost. Also called duplicate copy. bar chart A diagram in which data is represented in the form of vertical or

B

horizontal bars. Bars are differentiated by colours and patterns, and values are represented by the lengths of the bars. Also called a bar graph. bar code An identifying code in the form of parallel rectangular bars of varying widths. The code represents binary information and is read by being passed through a bar code scanner. Bar codes provide a fast and error-free means of identifying items in such places as a library or a shop. baud A unit of measurement of data transmission speed. The baud is named after the French inventor of the Baudot telegraph code, J.M.E. Baudot. The baud is normally used to measure data transmission speeds of modems and, at slow speeds, can be said to represent the number of bits transmitted per second. bcc Short for blind carbon copy. In e-mail applications, a facility that allows you to secretly send an exact copy of a message to additional recipients. With bcc, the direct recipient is unaware of the other addresses to which the message has been sent. 52

binary digit Either of the two numbers (1 and 0) in the binary numeric system. A binary digit is also known as a bit. A bit represents the smallest amount of data stored by a computer. Eight bits make up a byte. bit Either of the two numbers (1 and 0) in the binary numeric system. A bit represents the smallest amount of data stored by a computer. Eight bits make up a byte. A bit is also known as a binary digit. bitmap A representation of binary data in the form of an image of individual bits. A bit can represent an individual pixel or a number of pixels. Bitmaps are normally associated with graphic images. bits per second (bps) The unit of measurement used to measure speed of data transfer of networks and communication systems. The speed in bps is equal to the number of bits sent or received in one second. While bps is the basic unit of measurement, the transmission speed of modern communication devices is now so fast that it is usually measured in multiples of bps, kilobits per second (Kbps). One Kbps is equal to one thousand bits sent or received in one second. blind carbon copy (bcc) In e-mail applications, a facility that allows you to secretly send an exact copy of a message to additional recipients. With bcc, the direct recipient is unaware of the other addresses to which the message has been sent. bold A font style available in many applications. Bold is applied to text so that the text appears dark and heavy and stands out more distinctly. For example, in this sentence, the word text is bold. bookmark In Web browsing applications, a link you can create to a web page that you commonly access. Using a bookmark saves you from having to type in the Web address of the page, or find it using a search engine. bookmark folder In Web browsing applications, a folder for storage of shortcuts to favourite Web pages and sites that you have bookmarked. A bookmark folder is also known as a Favorites folder in Microsoft Internet Explorer. bps Short for bits per second. The unit of measurement used to measure speed of data transfer of networks and communication systems. The speed in bps is equal to the number of bits sent or received in one second. While bps is the basic unit of measurement, the transmission speed of modern communication devices is now so fast that it is usually measured in multiples of bps, kilobits per second (Kbps). One Kbps is equal to one thousand bits sent or received per second. 53

B

button

1. Part of a dialog box in a graphical user interface that you click to

perform an action. 2. The part of a mouse that you press to click. byte Short for binary term. A unit of computer storage or data, made up of 8 binary digits, or bits. A byte is the unit of storage commonly used to represent a single character, such as a letter or a number. CAD Short for computer-aided design. A branch of computing that aids

architectural, mechanical, and electrical design. CAD applications, for example, can be used to create two-dimensional or three-dimensional designs, while also providing additional functions to aid design and presentation. CAE Short for computer-aided engineering. Software that performs engineering tests on designs created on a computer system. CAE can be used to perform tests such as electronic circuit testing and structural analysis. Most CAD systems include some CAE features. capacity store. carbon copy (cc) In e-mail applications, a facility that allows an exact copy of a message to be sent to additional recipients. The message is sent to the direct recipient and the copy is sent to the address marked in the carbon copy field. Use of the carbon copy field implies that the message is simply for the information of the copy recipient. Also called courtesy copy. cartridge Any of a variety of forms of storage devices consisting, in part, of The maximum amount of data or information that a computer can

C

plastic casing. cc Acronym for carbon copy. In e-mail applications, a facility that allows an exact copy of a message to be sent to additional recipients. Use of the carbon copy field implies that the message is simply for the information of the copy recipient. Also called courtesy copy. CD Short for compact disc. A data storage device, capable of storing large

amounts of data. A CD can store roughly 650 MB, approximately 450 times that of a floppy disk. The data on a CD is read using laser optics. Though most commonly used to store music, CDs can store any kind of data files. CD-ROM Short for compact disc read-only memory. A read-only data storage device, capable of storing large amounts of data. A CD-ROM can store roughly 650 MB, approximately 450 times that of a floppy disk. The data on a CD-ROM is read using laser optics. A CD-ROM is often referred to as a CD. 54

CD-ROM drive A device that can read data from a CD-ROM. The CD-ROM drive reads data by means of an optical laser, which is focussed on the CD-ROM. cell The name given to the unit of a spreadsheet that occurs at the intersection of a column and a row. The cell is used to enter text, a formula, or a value into the spreadsheet. cell referencing In spreadsheet applications, the defined use of data within a cell in relation to other cells, data, and formulas. central processing unit (CPU) The central unit for computing and processing within the computer. The CPU controls the implementation of the instructions contained within a computer program. In most modern computers, the CPU is usually composed of a single silicon chip. Also known as a processor. character A single number, letter, punctuation mark, or symbol. A character is equivalent to a single byte of data in computer memory. chip A device, normally made of silicon (or other semiconductor material), that consists of tiny electrical circuits. Chips are used as processors and memory in computers. click To press down, and immediately release a mouse button without moving the mouse. client In a network, a computer that requests resources from another computer called a server. On a local area network (LAN), the client computer may request access to network resources such as hardware devices or software applications from a server computer. On a larger network, such as the Internet, a client computer may request access to data and files. column 1. In database applications, a type of field. 2. In word processing and spreadsheet applications, a series of items of data arranged vertically within a table format. command An instruction you give to a computer to perform a specific task.

C

Commands can be issued in the form of typed commands, or options selected (such as from a menu) in a graphical user interface (GUI). compact disc (CD) A data storage device, capable of storing large amounts of data. A CD can store roughly 650 MB, approximately 450 times that of a floppy disk. The data on a CD is read using laser optics. computer A programmable machine, capable of responding to a specific set of 55

instructions in order to produce a desired result. The machinery that physically makes up the computer is called hardware. The information and instructions stored in the computer are called software. computer-aided design (CAD) A branch of computing that aids architectural, mechanical, and electrical design. CAD applications, for example, can be used to create two-dimensional or three-dimensional designs, while also providing additional functions to aid design and presentation. computer-aided engineering (CAE) Software that performs engineering tests on designs created on a computer system. CAE can be used to perform tests such as electronic circuit testing and structural analysis. Most CAD systems include some CAE features. configuration The sum of a computer's components, or the way that it is set up. Configuration refers to either hardware or software, or a combination of both. For example, configuration for a PC will include a floppy disk, a hard disk, memory, a monitor, and an operating system. Configuration of a new application or device relates to setting and defining various options that will determine the way the application or device works with your computer. Control Panel A folder that allows you to control and change various aspects of

C

the computer's operating system and configuration. With Control Panel, you can adjust such aspects of the operating system as the date and time settings, specify settings for hardware such as the mouse and other devices, and install and remove software applications. copyright The legal protection of intellectual and creative property. Software

copyright protects the rights of the software producer as regards use and distribution of the product. Copyright laws are also relevant to the legal status of creative and original material as communicated on a network, such as the Internet. Copyright law in these areas is still developing. CPU Short for central processing unit. The central unit for computing and

processing within the computer. The CPU deals with the instructions contained within a computer program. In most modern computers, the CPU is usually composed of a single silicon chip. Also known as a processor. CPU speed A measure of the capability of a central processing unit (CPU) to process data. CPU speed is normally measured in MHz. crash A sudden and serious failure of a computer application, operating system, 56

or hard disk, that results in the software application, operating system, or drive becoming inoperable. A crash of a computer can cause loss of data. cursor A moveable symbol used to mark the point that text will appear on-screen when typed. The cursor is usually a solid rectangle or a blinking underline character, and can be moved by using the arrow keys or a mouse. DAT Short for digital audio tape. A magnetic tape that acts as a storage medium for data. DAT is often used to provide backup storage of data. data Items of information formatted in a way that can be read by computers. data cartridge A cartridge for storage of computer data. data file A file that contains data in text, graphics, or numeric format. Data files are different to executable or program files, which contain programs that can be run. Data Protection Act Legislation introduced in a number of countries to protect the privacy of the individual in regard to data compilation. In the UK and Ireland the legislation is called the Data Protection Act. While the act varies from country to country, its general provisions include guidelines as regards the compilation and use of information, and the rights of the individual to access such data sources. The act generally applies to either paper or electronic data, or both. data transmission electronic devices. data transmission speed The rate of transfer of electronic data. database A file of related records stored in tables. Each record consists of units of information called fields. All data contained in the file is managed by database management software, which provides the ability to organise, search, combine, and manipulate all information within the database. default The setting or option that an application or program selects The process of sending and receiving information using

D

automatically when no other is specified by the user. default printer The printer to which a computer automatically print documents, unless instructed to do otherwise by the user. desktop The on-screen computer display area. The desktop is designed to

simulate an office desktop, and make the computer easier to use by representing various components of the computer as graphical images, or icons. Windows, menus, and dialog boxes also appear on the desktop. 57

desktop publishing The use of a computer and specialised software applications to create and print high quality documents. Modern desktop publishing packages provide sophisticated functions such as the ability to create images, and combine graphics and text. Specialised hardware, such as high performance scanners and laser printers, are also used for desktop publishing in order to enhance the quality of the finished product. Desktop publishing is generally used in the production of all commercial printed material. dialog box A window in a graphical user interface (GUI) that prompts you to input information. digital Refers to anything based on digits, but especially the binary system

(based on the digits 0 and 1). The term digital is often used to refer to transmission of data using dicrete units, rather than the varying frequency of analog transmission. Compare analog. digital audio tape (DAT) A magnetic tape that acts as a storage medium for digitally recorded audio material. Digital audio tape (DAT) is often used to provide backup storage of data. digital linear tape (DLT) A magnetic tape that acts as a storage medium for data. Digital linear tape (DLT) provides faster transfer of data than other tape

D

devices. directory A container used to store files, data, program files, and other

directories. A directory is represented on-screen by an icon of a file folder and is central to file organisation and management. A directory is also known as a folder. disk A data storage device. There are two types of disk: magnetic disks, such as a floppy disk or a hard disk, and optical disks, such as a CD-ROM. disk drive The hardware device that you insert a compact or floppy disk into. A disk drive will then read data from or write data to that disk. disk operating system (DOS) A command-line operating system that was the first operating system commonly used in personal computers. It has largely been substituted by the more user-friendly GUI system that you see on most computers today. diskette A storage device consisting of a magnetic disk, encased in a plastic cover. Diskettes come in two basic sizes: 5 1/4-inch and 3 1/2-inch. However, 5 1/4-inch diskettes are only used in PCs that were made before 1987. A 5 1/4inch diskette can hold between 100 KB and 1.2 MB of data. A typical 3 1/2-inch 58

diskette normally stores between 720 KB and 1.44 MB of data. Diskettes have less storage capacity than a hard disk but they are less expensive and, most importantly, they are portable. Diskettes can be used to transfer data from one computer to another. A diskette is also known as a floppy disk. display screen The unit used to display images generated by a computer. A display screen is also known as a monitor or VDU. distribution list In e-mail applications, a list of e-mail addresses that you

compile. Various e-mail addresses are grouped together under a common name or title, allowing you to then send e-mail to everyone on this list by simply referencing the group name. Also known as an address list or mailing list. DLT Short for digital linear tape. A magnetic tape that acts as a storage medium for data. DLT provides faster transfer of data than other tape devices. It is often used to provide backup storage of data. document A file created using a software package, especially a word-processing application. The term document is most frequently used to refer to a written file, but can also apply to a file that is made up of or contains graphics or spreadsheets. domain name The domain name is an organisation's unique network address name. For example, in the address www.advancelearning.com, advancelearning.com is the domain name. DOS Short for disk operating system. A command-line operating system that was the first operating system commonly used in personal computers. It has largely been substituted by the more user-friendly GUI system that you see on most computers today. dot-matrix printer A printer that produces images made up of a series of dots. These dots are produced by striking pins against an ink ribbon; the quality of the output depends on the number of pins within the matrix. double-click To press a mouse button twice in rapid succession. download To copy a file over a network. The term is most frequently used in reference to the transfer of files and data from the Internet. drive A device that reads data from and writes data to a disk. The main

D

components of a drive are a spindle motor, read/write heads, and other mechanisms for positioning and reading the disk. 59

dumb terminal A device consisting of a monitor and keyboard that does not have any processing capability but depends on a host computer for all processing activity. duplicate copy A copy made in order to protect against system failure or other catastrophe. A duplicate copy is usually stored on a different medium (tape or disk), or in a separate location to the original copy (to protect against catastrophe such as fire or flood). This ensures that the copy can be recovered in case the original data is lost. Also called backup copy. e-commerce Short for electronic commerce. E-commerce is commercial activity that takes place over the Internet. Businesses can now market, advertise, sell and provide services via the Internet, while customers can log on, browse and buy as if they were in a real store. Examples of pioneers of e-commerce are online booksellers, Amazon.com. Also called e-business. electronic data interchange (EDI) A standard governing the exchange of

business documents between computers. EDI aids the transfer of such documents as invoices and confirmations, between companies. e-mail Short for electronic mail. The transmission of text messages and files over the Internet. Today e-mail is one of the most popular uses of the Internet. The

E

transfer of e-mail is facilitated by the use of e-mail client software. e-mail address A set of characters (usually letters) that identifies an Internet user in order to send or receive e-mail. An e-mail address consists of three parts: a name that identifies the person, separated by the @ sign, (pr. "at"), and the domain name of the e-mail server. For example, jdillon@advancelearning.com. e-mail application Software used for sending and receiving e-mail. Most

operating systems provide an e-mail software application (also called an e-mail client). These packages also usually include a variety of features such as an address list facility and messaging service. e-mail client software Software applications used for sending and receiving email. Most operating systems provide an e-mail client software application. These packages include a variety of features such as an address list facility and messaging service. Examples of e-mail client software include Microsoft Outlook and Lotus Notes. embedded Of software and programming, relating to code that is created in one application and then built into another application. When an object is embedded, 60

it retains its original format and can be modified using the original application. encode To convert data to code form, normally for security purposes. The data is made unreadable to all those without the key to the code. Also called encrypt. encrypt To convert data to code form, normally for security purposes. The data is made unreadable to all those without the key to the code. Also called encode. encryption The conversion of data to code form, normally to ensure security during transmission. Encryption makes data unreadable to all those who do not possess the key to the code. end-user licence The legal agreement between a software manufacturer and a software user. The user licence specifies the rights of the user in regard to the software and is usually entered into on opening the software application. An enduser licence is also known as a software licence. ergonomic Any machines and devices that incorporate the safety and comfort of the user with the functionality of the machine. error message A message from a computer system or application indicating that an error has occurred in completing a task or function. executable file A file that is capable of being run as a program on the computer. An executable file normally has a file name extension of .bat, .com, or .exe. fax Short for facsimile. The transmission via telephone lines of scanned-in text or graphics. Once scanned in, the material is converted into digital format, and is sent via a telephone wire to the receiving fax machine. fax machine Short for facsimile machine. A fax machine transmits text or

F

graphics over telephone wires to a receiving fax machine. Fax machines work two ways: they can both send and receive faxes. The sending fax machine scans in the image or text to be sent and then dials the telephone number of the receiving fax machine. When the receiving fax machine answers the call, the data is transmitted across the telephone wires. On receipt of the transmission, the receiving fax machine prints the material. field An on-screen area used for input of specific information or data. In

database applications, several fields make up a record. file A collection of saved data or information, stored on a computer, and given a file name. Various types of files exist. A file can contain information relating to a program, stored text, or operating system commands. 61

file format The coded information contained within a file that determines which applications can read that file. Also known as the file type, the file format is indicated by the file extension, which is the set of characters added to the file name (such as .doc, .xls, or .exe). File format is usually determined by the application in which the file is created and is often specific to that application (for example .doc for Microsoft Word files). File Transfer Protocol (FTP) A communication protocol used for the transfer of files on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks, such as the Internet. filter In database applications, a criteria that is used to include specified material in a data search. By applying a filter you can specify the categories of data to be included in a search. Find tool A tool provided with most applications and operating systems that

enables you to search for a specific word, character, symbol, or phrase in a document, or for files or folders on a computer. flag In e-mail applications, a marker that is used to indicate the importance and priority level of individual e-mail messages, or to indicate that there is an action to be taken.

F

floppy disk A storage device consisting of a magnetic disk, encased in a plastic cover. Floppy disks come in two basic sizes: 5 1/4-inch and 3 1/2-inch. However, 5 1/4-inch diskettes are only used in PCs that were made before 1987. A 5 1/4inch diskette can hold between 100 KB and 1.2 MB of data. A typical 31/2-inch diskette normally stores between 720 KB and 1.44 MB of data. Diskettes have less storage capacity than a hard disk but they are less expensive and, most importantly, they are portable. Diskettes can be used to transfer data from one computer to another. A floppy disk is also known as a diskette. floppy drive A device that reads data from and writes data to a floppy disk or diskette. folder A container used to store files, data, program files, and other folders. A folder is represented on-screen by an icon of a file folder and is central to file organisation and management. A folder is also known as a directory. font Various features applied to a set of characters, or typeface, such as size, colour, and spacing. footer Text that appears at the bottom of a printed page containing any kind of 62

identifying details, such as the page number, the date, or the document name. format 1. To apply a specific appearance or structure to data. 2. To prepare a disk, for first use. Formatting a disk organises the structure of the data contained on the disk and makes the data readable to an operating system. A diskette is normally formatted by a specific formatting program. 3. The file type, indicated by a file extension (such as .doc, .xls, or .exe). formatting 1. The visible characteristics of text and data within a document. Elements of formatting effect the layout and appearance of a document, including the text style and font, page layout, document margins, and alignment. 2. The process of preparing a disk for first use.

formula In spreadsheet applications, a mathematical statement that is applied to specified data within a spreadsheet. A formula governs the mathematical relationship between data in different cells in the spreadsheet. The value of the cells can change, so changing the end result of the formula, but the formula itself remains unaffected. forward In e-mail applications, a facility that enables you to send received email messages on to another e-mail account. freeware Software or programming that is made available, often on the

Internet, at no cost to the user. The program developer normally retains the rights to the program and so controls all subsequent distribution, copying, and use of the software. FTP Short for File Transfer Protocol. A communication protocol used for the

G

transfer of files on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks, such as the Internet. function key Keys on the keyboard that perform a variety of functions and

execute different commands within a program or application. Function keys are typically the keys labelled F1 to F12 across the top of the keyboard. The aim of function keys is to provide a quicker way to perform tasks. In some cases an operating system or application assigns the use of a function key, while in others you can assign it yourself. gigabyte (GB) A unit of measurement, used to describe computer storage

capacity. A gigabyte is equal to 1,024 MB or approximately one billion bytes. Global Positioning System (GPS) A system of 24 satellites used for

pinpointing geographical positioning throughout the world. The system was 63

launched by the U.S. Department of Defence but is now available for general use. It is increasingly used for such purposes as air and nautical navigation. grammar tool A tool commonly provided with word processing applications that checks grammar throughout a document, highlights any errors, and, where possible, suggests solutions. graph A representation of data in pictorial form. graphical user interface (GUI) The more or less visual-based environment

that you use to interact with the computer. You can provide input to the computer by interacting with various on-screen graphics, such as pull-down menus, buttons, icons and windows. The GUI (pr. "goo-ey") was the user-friendly alternative designed to replace earlier computer interfaces which were not graphical, but instead were based on the use of the keyboard, and input made by entries and commands that you had to type into the computer. The GUI has become the standard for modern operating systems and software applications. graphics Pictorial images created, displayed, and manipulated by a computer. Many software and hardware components are used to enhance graphic capabilities of computers. Special scanners, plotters, printers, and monitors, are used to enhance graphic output. Many software applications, such as word processing and

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spreadsheet applications, support graphics because they are capable of importing pictorial images. However, specific graphics applications, such as desktop publishing and design packages, are used to produce high quality graphic output. hard disk A storage device consisting of one or more inflexible magnetic disks. The hard disk is the largest storage device in a computer and provides fast access to large amounts of information. Most modern computers' hard disks are capable of containing several billion bytes of stored data. Generally hard disks are not portable like floppy disks; however, it is possible to buy removable hard disks. The hard disk drive reads from and writes to the hard disk and, although they are different items, the terms hard disk, hard disk drive, and hard drive are often used synonymously. hard drive The mechanism that reads and writes data to the hard disk. Although they are different items, the terms hard disk, hard disk drive, and hard drive are often used interchangeably. hardware A collective term for all the physical parts of a computer system or any IT devices. It refers to everything from the computer itself to peripherals such as the keyboard to the cables and connectors. The term is used to contrast with 64

software, which refers to non-physical parts of a computer, such as the programs or applications. header Text appearing at the top of the printed page containing any kind of

identifying material, such as the page number, document name, and the date. Help function A function of most operating systems and applications that

provides instructions and advice as to the use of various features of the package and the resolution of functionality issues. hit 1. A successful search engine query return. When a search engine is used to search for a keyword or phrase on the Web, a list of successful matches, or hits, is returned. For example, if you searched for pages containing the word "kangaroo", and 45 relevant Web pages were found, your search would have produced 45 hits. 2. The unit of measurement of visits to a Web page. home page 1. The Web page set as the default page to appear on a computer when you access the World Wide Web (WWW). 2. A Web page, programmed by a Web developer, to appear as the first point of entry to a Web site. A Web site home page will usually act as an introduction and guide to the Web site, for example, providing a table of contents to the Web site. HTML Short for Hypertext Markup Language. The language used to create

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documents on the World Wide Web (WWW). HTML uses a series of elements or tags to indicate to a Web browser how data is to be displayed on a Web page and to enable you to interact with the Web page. HTML was defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in 1994, and HTML 4.0 is now the version generally used by most Web browsers. HTTP Short for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The Internet protocol used by the World Wide Web (WWW). Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the protocol that relays the command from a Web browser to a Web server to display a specific Web page. hyperlink A link from an element of an HTML document to another element of the same document or another, different document. hypertext Text linked by a complex series of non-linear associations. The

concept was first developed in the 1960s as a means of browsing through databases of information and became the basis of the World Wide Web (WWW). It is the concept of hypertext that allows the user to browse the Web, jumping or 65

linking from one topic to another in a manner that represents the non-linear structure of thought. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) The language used to create documents on the World Wide Web (WWW). HTML uses a series of elements or tags to indicate to a Web browser how data is to be displayed on a Web page and to enable you to interact with the Web page. HTML was defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in 1994, and HTML 4.0 is now the version generally used by most Web browsers. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) The Internet protocol used by the World Wide Web (WWW). Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the protocol that relays the command from a Web browser to a Web server to display a specific Web page. icon A small graphical image displayed on the screen to represent a variety of items, including applications, utilities, windows, and files and folders. The icon is designed to make the modern computer more user-friendly, as it allows for quicker identification of elements and allows you to execute various commands by simply clicking the mouse on an icon. IETF Short for Internet Engineering Task Force. An international organisation for the development of Internet technology. The IETF is concerned with the resolution

I

of technical problems facing networking and Internet technology, such as routing and security issues. Membership is open to all, and is mainly made up of volunteer workgroups of Web developers, programmers, vendors, and researchers. import To add data from one application document to another. To allow

importing, a level of compatibility must exist between applications and the format of the imported data must be readable by the importing application. index A list of keywords that indicates the location of files, records, or more information on a subject. Information Technology (IT) The term applied to the management and

processing of information by means of computers. inkjet printer A printer that produces material by spraying heated liquid ink through tiny holes onto the page. While the inkjet printer is not as expensive as the laser printer, it is slower and the print quality is generally not considered to be as good. input All information entered into a computer. Input to a computer can be made by a variety of means, including a mouse, a keyboard, or a disk. 66

input device

A hardware device used to put information into a computer.

Examples of input devices include a mouse, a keyboard, and a scanner. input/output device A hardware device that can provide data to or read data from a computer. An example of an input/output device is a floppy disk drive. An input/output device is also called an I/O device. install To introduce a program, application, or hardware device to a computer system. Most programs and applications include a setup file that facilitates the installation of new software to a computer. Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) An international

telecommunication network that supports high-speed, digital transmission of data, voice, and video over telephone wires. ISDN is solely devoted to transmission of digital data, unlike traditional telephone systems, which convert analog and digital data. intelligent terminal A terminal with processing capability. An intelligent

terminal consists of a monitor and keyboard with its own memory and processor. It can perform certain processing functions independently, without relying on a host computer. interface The visual elements, displayed on-screen, that allow you to interact with a computer's programs and devices. A computer interface can be based on graphics or text, and this will govern the manner in which you provide instructions and commands to the computer. Internet The global system of interconnected networks that links millions of

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computers all over the world using high speed telecommunication lines. The Internet enables the flow of information and data between computers. It was originally developed by the U.S. Department of Defence in the 1960s in the form of a decentralised communication network called ARPANET. Today the Internet provides a number of services including the World Wide Web (WWW) and e-mail. The Internet is also known as the Net. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) An international organisation for the development of Internet technology. The IETF is concerned with the resolution of technical problems facing networking and Internet technology, such as routing and security issues. Membership is open to all, and is mainly made up of volunteer workgroups of Web developers, programmers, vendors, and researchers. Internet service provider (ISP) A business organisation that provides the 67

means to access the Internet. For a fee, the ISP provides you with a user name, password, and telephone access number, which then enables you to connect to the Internet. An increasing number of ISPs offer their services free. ISPs also provide services to large companies, connecting their internal networks to the Internet. ISPs can vary in size, from small local business to large corporations. internetwork information. ISDN Short for Integrated Service Digital Network. An international A system of interconnected networks capable of sharing

telecommunication network that supports high-speed, digital transmission of data, voice, and video over telephone wires. ISDN is solely devoted to transmission of digital data, unlike traditional telephone systems, which convert analog and digital data. italics A font style applied to text so that the text appears slanted to the right. For example, in this sentence, the word text appears in italics. joystick A handheld input device that is used to point, move and generally

interact with the computer. A joystick consists of three components: a base, a vertical stem, and control buttons. The vertical stem specifies direction and the buttons control software functions. A joystick is most frequently used for playing

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computer games. justify In word processing applications, to align text evenly between the right and left margins of a document. Extra space is inserted between words in order to justify the text against the margins. keyboard The main device for input of data to most computers. The keyboard contains standard typewriter keys, and function control keys specific to the computer. keyword A word, character, or phrase that is used to search for records within a database. kilobyte (KB) A measurement of data referring generally to 1000 bytes, or

specifically to 1024 bytes. landscape A document orientation option where the page on which text is

printed is positioned horizontally, rather than vertically. See also portrait. laptop computer A small, portable personal computer designed to provide

mobility to the user. A laptop normally has a small, flat screen and a keyboard 68

that is smaller than desktop PCs. Laptop computers are run either on battery or AC power. They can run the same software as desktop PCs and can also support similar hardware. Laptops are usually more expensive than PCs. laser printer A printer that produces printed material using a laser. Laser

printers produce printed material of high quality and faster than inkjet printers, but they are generally more expensive. layout The plan, format, and appearance of text in a document and on the

printed page. licence The legal agreement between the software manufacturer and the user. The licence agreement specifies the rights of the user in regard to the software and is usually entered into on opening the software application. A licence can be allocated to an individual user or a corporation. Also called user licence or enduser user licence. licence number A number allocated to the individual user or corporation, by a software provider to indicate the licence agreement existing between both parties. The licence number, or key, must usually be entered when installing the software, which prevents unauthorised copies of the software being installed. light pen A handheld input device shaped like a pen and connected to a

computer by a cable. You interact with the computer either by touching the screen with the pen or pointing the pen at the screen and clicking part of the pen. local Any computer devices that are directly connected to or installed on a

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computer. Compare remote. local area network (LAN) A network of computers that is dispersed over a limited geographical area, for instance an office or department within a building. A LAN may rely simply on cable links between computers or may use more complex telecommunications technology. Computers on a LAN will typically share hardware resources and may rely on a shared server. local disk A disk drive directly connected to or installed in a computer. log on Providing a user name and password in order to gain access to a

computer, network or application. logical operator A word or mathematical symbol that allows data to be

manipulated. Logical operators are sometimes called Boolean operators and are used in programming and database queries. Examples of logical operators are 69

AND, NOT, and OR. macro virus A type of computer virus that embeds itself as a macro in a

document. When an infected document is opened, the macro virus is activated. Most anti-virus software provides protection against macro viruses; however, like other viruses, new macro viruses are constantly appearing. mail inbox In e-mail applications, the default folder or container in which

incoming mail is stored. Also called a mailbox. mailing list In e-mail applications, a list of e-mail addresses that you compile. Various e-mail addresses are grouped together under a common name, allowing you to then send e-mail to everyone on this list by simply referencing the group name. Also known as an address list or distribution list. mainframe computer A large, complex computer designed to execute largescale computing and processing tasks. Mainframe computers are normally associated with centralised networks and support many users connected via terminals. maximise In a graphical user interface (GUI), to expand a window to full size, taking up all available on-screen space.

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megabyte (MB)

A unit of measurement, used to describe computer storage

capacity or data transfer rate. One megabyte is equal to 1,048,576 bytes, though this is often interpreted as one million bytes. megahertz (MHz) A unit of measurement of frequency. One megahertz is equal to 1 million cycles per second. memory A device for the storage of computer data. Memory commonly refers to random access memory, which is a computer's main memory. memory storage device Any storage device that provides temporary or

permanent storage of computer data. Storage devices are categorised in two groups: primary and secondary. Primary storage devices refers to random access memory (RAM), while secondary storage devices refers to disk drives or external storage devices, such as floppy disks. menu In a graphical user interface (GUI), a list of options or command choices available. You can click on the option to activate that command. Menus are a central feature of GUI systems; prior to GUI, you had to type in the name of the desired command. 70

menu bar In a graphical user interface (GUI), a bar that appears near the top of an application window. The names of menus are displayed on the menu bar, and clicking one of these causes a drop-down menu to appear, providing you with a list of options or commands. merge To combine files in a way that maintains the order and structure of the original files. For example, a file containing a list of names and addresses could be merged with a letter document, so that a standard letter can be produced and sent to everyone on the list. microfilm A thin strip of film used to store miniaturised images of documents. millennium bug A computer problem that arose during the run-up to the turn of the millennium. The millennium bug concerned the large number of computer systems that relied on a two-digit year indicator, such as 99 for the year 1999. In older computer systems, cost was minimised by using a two-digit year indicator, rather than a four-digit one. When January 1st 2000 arrived, the date in these computer systems would have become 00, causing many of the systems to crash. When the problem became evident during the late 1990s, worldwide efforts were made to correct it and become "Y2K-friendly", and the potential disaster was avoided. The millennium bug is also called the Year 2000, or Y2K, problem. minicomputer Designed in size and function somewhere between a

microcomputer and a mainframe computer, minicomputers serve up to 200 users connected via terminals and process large amounts of data. minimize In a graphical user interface (GUI), to reduce a window size so that the window is simply represented by an icon or name in the application window, or a button on the taskbar. By minimising, the window is hidden but the application or program that generated the window remains open. modem Short for modulator/demodulator. A hardware device that enables a

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computer to receive and send data via telephone wires. monitor The unit used to display images generated by a computer. The monitor is also known as the display screen or visual display unit (VDU). mouse A handheld input device that is used to point, move, and generally

interact with the interface. A mouse consists of a ball and buttons housed in a plastic or metal casing and connected to the computer by means of a cable. As you push or click the mouse buttons, these actions are converted into on-screen pointer movements and commands. 71

multimedia Refers to the combination of sound, graphics, animation, and video for use in a number of contexts such as on a computer, in a software package, or on the World Wide Web (WWW). My Computer A Microsoft Windows utility that provides access to the floppy disk, hard disk, CD-ROM drive, and various other drives and utilities on a computer. My Computer provides the user with fast and easy access by representing these devices as icons. navigate To browse the World Wide Web (WWW) or to search through the

different drives, folders, and files on a computer system. Net Short for the Internet. The global system of interconnected networks that links millions of computers all over the world using high speed telecommunication lines. The Internet enables the flow of information and data between computers. It was originally developed by the U.S. Department of Defence in the 1960s in the form of a decentralised communication network called ARPANET. Today the Internet provides a number of services including the World Wide Web (WWW) and e-mail. The Internet is also known as the Net. network Two or more computers that are connected together. The main aim of networking is to share resources. Computers on a network may be permanently

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and physically connected by cables, such as on a local area network (LAN) or by more complex means such as the telecommunication technology that links all computers on the Internet. A network can be characterised in various ways, including its size, as in a LAN or a WAN, its configuration, who can use it, or the nature of its connections. network administrator The person responsible for the setup, management,

and maintenance of a network. A network administrator's responsibilities include such duties as control of access to network resources, data backup and archiving, and ensuring network security. network computer A computer on a network that depends on a server for data storage and access to shared network resources. Unlike a dumb terminal, however, a network computer does have processing capabilities. Also called client. network drive A shared drive on a network whose data is made available to users on that network. Access to the drive is controlled by the network administrator. newsgroup An online forum or discussion group. A newsgroup consists of 72

messages written by users on various subjects, posted to a central Internet site, and then redistributed using a newsgroup network such as Usenet. Thousands of newsgroups exist on the Internet providing a forum for discussion of an endless variety of topics. offline Not connected to a network or computer. The term offline is most

commonly used to refer to computers that are not connected to the Internet. online Refers to being connected to a network, most commonly the Internet. operating system The software that runs all other software applications on the computer and controls basic functions of the computer, such as sending images to the monitor and recognising input from the keyboard. The operating system also controls the function of hardware devices. All computers require an operating system: in most cases it is already included, in others it has to be installed. organisational chart In presentation applications, a graphic representation of data in the form of an organisational tree. Data is divided into groups and subgroups, and the relationship between items of data is indicated by the placement of the groups. orientation The printed layout of a document, which can be either landscape or portrait. The orientation governs whether text will be printed along the length or the width of the printed page. output Any information displayed or produced by a computer. The results of

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computer processing, produced by a computer in a variety of forms, including printed material, material appearing on a computer monitor, or material stored on a disk. output device A device for producing processed computer information.

Examples of output devices include printers and computer monitors. overhead projector An electrical device that projects images, printed on

transparent, plastic pages, onto a screen. page break In word processing applications, a separation made in the document to indicate the point in the text where the page ends. Page breaks are automatically inserted by the word processing application according to page length specifications, but can also be inserted by a user. palette The chart showing the colours available in an application for changing line, text, and fill colours. 73

password A series of characters that you enter when logging on to a computer system, network, file, or program. The password is a security measure designed to confirm the identity of a user and prevent unauthorised access. peripheral device An external hardware device that is connected to a computer and controlled by it. permission In a networking environment, the level of access to network

resources provided to the individual user. Permissions are specified by a network administrator and vary according to the needs of the individual network user, and the information management and security requirements of the network. Examples of permissions include read only, read and write, and delete permission. personal computer (PC) A computer type designed for use by one single

person. PCs are self-contained and do not rely on other computers for processing and other resources. PCs are relatively inexpensive and are common in the office and home. personal identification number (PIN) A unique numeric code used to identify a user to a computer system. The term is most commonly associated with banking and automated teller machines. physical Referring to something real as opposed to conceptual or theoretical.

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pie chart A circular diagram used to represent data. Data is differentiated by colours and patterns, and values are represented as portions (slices) of the whole. PIN Short for personal identification number. A unique numeric code used to

identify a user to a computer system. The term is most commonly associated with banking and automated teller machines. pixel Minute units of colour that make up the images displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper. plotter A hardware device used to draw charts, diagrams, and graphs. A plotter either works with pens or uses electromagnetically charged particles with toner to produce images. Plotters are most commonly used for producing technical drawings for engineering and architecture. portrait A document orientation option where the page on which text is printed is positioned vertically, rather than horizontally. This is the most common orientation for most documents. See also landscape. preview A feature of a number of applications that provides a detailed, on74

screen representation of how a document will look on the printed page. This allows you to view printed output in advance. Also called print preview. primary key In database applications, a field that uniquely identifies each

record. For example, an employee ID field could be used as a primary key in a database containing employee details. print To produce computer output on paper or other material such as a

transparency. printer A hardware device for producing printed output on paper or other

material such as a transparency. Different types of printers include the inkjet printer, the dot matrix printer, and the laser printer. processing Data manipulation by a computer. Processing is the basis of all

computer activity. processor The central unit for computing and processing within the computer. The processor controls the implementation of the instructions contained within a computer program. In most modern computers, the processor is usually composed of a single silicon chip. Also known as the central processing unit (CPU). program A coded set of instructions to a computer. Programs are also known as software, and programs that users work with are known as applications. A program is written in a computer programming language, and is generally translated into a machine language or executable language that is readable by the computer. program file A file containing the executable elements of a program. programming The creation of computer programs. Programming is based on the use of programming languages that provide the set of coded instructions to the computer. Examples of programming languages include Basic, C, C++, and COBOL. Programming also encompasses wider issues of program design, development, testing, and debugging. programming language A coded language that conveys instructions to a

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computer. The term is usually used to describe high-level computer languages such as Basic, C, C++, and COBOL. These languages are then translated into a machine language or executable language that is more simple and is readable by the computer. public network Of a telecommunications network, available for use by the 75

general public. Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) The global, public telephone

system. The PSTN relies on analog technology, and is being replaced by the integrated services digital network (ISDN) in many places. query In database applications, a search within the database for information that matches certain criteria. RAM Short for random access memory. Memory chips that store computer data. Data can be read from and written to RAM, however this data needs to be saved to a disk prior to switching off the computer or the information will be lost. random access memory (RAM) Memory chips that store computer data. Data can be read from and written to RAM however this data needs to be saved to a disk prior to switching off the computer or the information will be lost. read-only memory (ROM) A computer memory chip that permanently stores data. The data is stored at the time of manufacture of the computer and the information stored cannot be deleted or changed. ROM contains critical data such as the program that boots the computer. real-time Referring to computer timing that runs parallel to external time and

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factors and is seen to react immediately to events outside the computer. Realtime operations match the human perception of time.

record In database applications, a collection of related items of data, or fields. For example, a record might consist of three fields: employee name, employee ID, and employee address. A set of several records makes up a file. Recycle Bin A Windows folder that stores files deleted from the hard disk.

Deleted files are kept in the Recycle Bin until you empty the bin, which involves permanently destroying all the files in the Recycle Bin folder. The Recycle Bin is represented by an icon on the desktop that looks like a rubbish bin. Items deleted from a floppy disk or network drive are not moved to the recycle bin. remote Refers to devices that are not in the near proximity of resources or other devices. Compare local. repetitive strain injury (RSI) A medical condition involving strained tendons, ligaments, muscles, and nerves caused by prolonged repetition of the same physical task. Repetitive strain injury frequently effects people who work with computers, causing pain to the hands, wrist, and shoulders. 76

resize To alter the size. The term is normally used to refer to an element in a graphical user interface (GUI), such as a window. resolution The degree of clarity and sharpness of an image displayed on-screen or on the printed page. On a screen or monitor, the resolution is measured by the number of pixels appearing within the horizontal and vertical lines of a matrix. On the printed page, resolution refers to the number of printed dots per inch (dpi). The quality of material produced by printers will vary from quality of 125 to 600 dpi. Rich Text Format (RTF) A file format designed to enable transfer of formatted text documents between different applications. right-click To press the right mouse button without moving the mouse. ROM Short for read-only memory. A computer memory chip that permanently stores data. The data is stored at the time of manufacture of the computer and the information stored cannot be deleted or changed. ROM contains critical data such as the program that boots the computer. row A series of items of data arranged horizontally within a table format. satellite communications The communications technology based on the

microwave and radio transmissions of satellite stations orbiting the earth. Signals are sent to a satellite from earth and are retransmitted and relayed to another location in the world. Satellite communication systems were initially used to relay television, telephone, and radio transmissions, but are increasingly used in the transmission of computer data. scan To input an image into a computer by means of passing the image through a light-sensitive device. The device picks up light and dark areas of the image, converts this into binary code, and conveys this to the central processing unit (CPU) of the computer. Hardware devices such as scanners and fax machines use this technology. scanner A hardware device that inputs data from an image, such as a printed page, into a computer by means of a light sensitive device. The light sensitive element of the scanner picks up light and dark areas of the image, converts this into binary code in the form of a bitmap, and conveys this to the central processing unit (CPU) of the computer. screen saver A moving picture or pattern that appears on-screen after a period of mouse or keyboard inactivity. While screen savers were originally designed to 77

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combat monitor burn-in problems, their widespread use today is largely aesthetic. scroll bar In a graphical user interface (GUI), a bar located along the edge of a window or list. Clicking the scroll bar enables you to move up and down, and from left to right in the on-screen display area. search engine A program used to search the World Wide Web (WWW) pages and files for keywords. You can enter keywords about a subject; the search engine then usually searches as many Web sites as possible and returns a list of the relevant ones. server A computer on a network that manages access to resources. Server

computers are multifunctional, and are used in small and more complex networking environments. For example, on a local area network (LAN), a server can provide client computer access to such resources as hardware devices and data. On the Internet, a server computer can provide access to Web pages and data resources. setup The way in which a computer's hardware or software is configured. shareware Copyrighted software that is initially issued free on a trial basis. You are often encouraged to distribute copies of the program. If you like the software, you are asked to pay a fee to the software producer for continued use of the package. Many shareware packages become unusable after a specified length of time if payment is not made to the producer. shortcut An icon that provides a quick way of accessing a file, program,

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application, Web page, or any other accessible item. Shortcuts are typically located on the desktop and can be activated by double-clicking. signature In e-mail applications, text that can automatically be added to the end of an email message containing details such as the sender's name and address. silicon A chemical element used as a semiconductor in electrical circuitry. Silicon provides the base material for the construction of microchips. silicon chip A tiny electriconic circuit (known as an integrated circuit) composed of a silicon semiconductor. An electrical circuit with silicon as the semiconductor material. Silicon chips provide the basis for a wide range of electronic devices. slide In presentation applications, the basic document used to create on-screen and printed presentations. software Computer programs that provide instructions for the computer. 78

Software can be categorised into two groups: system software and application software. System software includes operating system software, while application software (such as spreadsheets, databases, and word processing applications) is designed to perform specific tasks for the user. software package An application such as a word processor, spreadsheet, or

database application that is made ready for retail to the general public. Software packages typically come equipped with any additional items that might be required such as a licence key and manual. sound card A device used to allow a computer to process sound. The sound card enables the computer to accept input of sound from a microphone, produce output of sound through a speaker, and manipulate sound stored in audio files. speaker An output device, connected to a computer that converts electrical

signals into sounds. speech synthesiser An output device that simulates human speech. A speech synthesizer can replicate the spoken word by pasting together recordings of the different sounds and words to form sentences. spell-check tool A tool provided with many applications, including word

processing applications, that verifies that all words in a document are spelled correctly. A spell-check tool, also called a spell-checker, uses a stored dictionary to identify incorrectly spelled words, and then suggests alternatives and corrections. spreadsheet A worksheet of a spreadsheet application, containing data

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formatted in cells, rows, and columns. The relationship of the data contained within the spreadsheet is defined by mathematical formulas and can be represented by a variety of output means including charts and graphs. Spreadsheets and spreadsheet applications perform a wide variety of tasks including planning, forecasting, budgeting, and compiling statistics and reports. status bar In a graphical user interface (GUI), a bar that appears at the bottom of program or application windows, indicating the current status or activity of the program. storage device Any of a variety of devices that provide temporary or permanent storage of computer data. Storage devices can be either primary (RAM) or secondary (external storage devices). style In word processing applications, the collective characteristics of the 79

appearance of text including placement on page, colour, font, pitch and size. subdirectory A directory that is contained within another directory.

Subdirectories are also called subfolders and are represented on-screen by an icon of a file folder contained within another file folder. subfolder A folder that is contained within another folder. Subfolders are also called subdirectories and are represented on-screen by an icon of a file folder contained within another file folder. subscript A font effect whereby characters appear smaller and slightly below the baseline of the text. For example, in this sentence, the word text appears in subscript. Compare superscript. superscript A font effect whereby characters appear smaller and slightly above the baseline of the text. For example, in this sentence, the word text appears in superscript. Compare subscript. surf To browse through Web pages following links in an unplanned way. system development The entire process of creating a computer solution to a problem. System development refers to the series of actions that are required to provide the complete solution: outlining the problem, deciding which course of action to take, programming, and testing. system unit The hardware devices that make up the main part of the computer. The system unit of a PC includes the processor, memory, hard and floppy disk drives, and input/output ports. table In database and word processing applications, text or other data formatted in columns and rows. TCP/IP Short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The standard communication protocol of the Internet. TCP/IP allows different types of networks to communicate with each other. telecommunication The electronic transfer of all types of data.

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Telecommunications can be used to relay information in a variety of forms, including voice, televisual images, and faxes. The term can also refer to optical transmission of data. telephony Communication based on the transmission of data (especially voice

or sound) over telephone wires. The term often refers to the use of modems and software to enhance telecommunication capability. 80

Telnet

A communication protocol that enables a user to access network

computers from a remote location. The user can log on and enter commands as if they were directly connected to the server. template In word processing, spreadsheet, desktop publishing, and other

applications, a predesigned document format that contains specified text, layout, and formatting options. A template may also contain predefined automated functions such as word processing macros and spreadsheet formulas, which are embedded in the template programming. terminal A device consisting of a keyboard and monitor. A terminal

communicates with other computers on a network and may have very limited computing capabilities, relying on either a mainframe for processing functions. testing One of the four stages of system development. Testing refers to the

process of running programs in order to check functionality. text file A file consisting only of text characters. text-based Of an operating system, consisting of an interface where commands are typed. Traditional operating systems, such as DOS, were text-based, and usually consisted of commands you had to remember, and computer responses that were very brief. Most modern operating systems include a graphical user interface (GUI), where you provide input to the computer by interacting with various on-screen graphics, such as pull-down menus, buttons, icons and windows. The GUI interface was designed to be a more intuitive alternative to the text-based interface. title bar A horizontal bar that appears at the top of a window in a graphical user interface. The title bar normally displays the window name and various buttons for resizing or closing the window. toolbar A row of buttons provided in graphical user interface (GUI) applications. Clicking a toolbar button allows you to execute a specific task or function and provides an alternative and quicker means to using menus and menu commands. touch pad An input device that works as a pointing device. A touch pad consists of a small pad with pressure sensors that sense your hand movements and translate these to on-screen actions and movement. Movement on the pad moves a pointer and tapping the pad produces an on-screen click. trackball An input device similar to a mouse that acts as a position indicator. A trackball consists of a ball placed on rollers within casing, and has the appearance 81

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of an upside-down mouse. The casing remains stationary and the ball is rotated by your hand; these movements are translated into directional instructions to the on-screen pointer or cursor. A trackball, like a mouse, usually has other buttons that perform various other functions. traffic The amount of data travelling across a network communication system. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) The standard communication protocol of the Internet. TCP/IP allows different types of networks to communicate with each other. transmitter A device designed to send data from one location to another. transparency A transparent, plastic page on which output can be printed for projection on to a screen with the use of an overhead projector. Trojan horse A destructive computer program that is disguised as a harmless application, such as a game or utility. A Trojan horse, unlike a virus, cannot replicate itself; however, can be just as destructive. underlined A font style where the text appears with a line underneath it. For example, in this sentence, the word text is underlined. undo A command available in many applications that enables you to reverse the

U

last action you performed. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) An address used by Web browsers to find resources on the Internet. The URL identifies the protocol, domain name, and file name of specific Internet resources. Also called Web address. uninterruptible power supply (UPS) A device, usually containing a battery and an anti-surge device, that acts as a backup power supply. In case of a blackout or power surge, the UPS will protect the computer system, and supply enough electricity for all data in RAM to be saved and for the computer to be shut down correctly. UPS Short for uninterruptible power supply. A device, usually containing a

battery and an anti-surge device, that acts as a backup power supply. In case of a blackout or power surge, the UPS will protect the computer system, and supply enough electricity for all data in RAM to be saved and for the computer to be shut down correctly. URL Short for Uniform Resource Locator. An address used by Web browsers to find resources on the Internet. The URL identifies the protocol, domain name, and 82

file name of specific Internet resources. Also called Web address. user licence The legal agreement between the software manufacturer and the user. The user licence specifies the rights of the user in regard to the software and is usually entered into on opening the software application. A licence can be allocated to an individual user or a corporation. Also called licence, or end-user licence. user name A name assigned to a computer user. You must provide this name, along with an associated password, in order to gain access to a computer network or application. utility A small program designed to execute a specific and limited task or

function within a software application or operating system. view The manner in which data is displayed on-screen. virus A computer program that infects a computer system. Viruses can normally replicate themselves and can cause damage by taking up excessive amounts of a computer's memory. They can also be specifically designed to attack a computer's hard disk. A virus normally enters a computer's system without the knowledge of the user via attachments to e-mail, files on a floppy disk or CD, or files downloaded from the Internet. visual display unit (VDU) The screen used to display images generated by a computer. The visual display unit is also known as the display screen or monitor. Web Short for the World Wide Web (WWW). The global system of interlinked Web pages made available by Internet servers all over the world. Web pages are written in a language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which supports the use of audio, graphics, and video files. It can also link one document to another so that you can access another file, possibly located across the globe, by clicking the mouse. Web address The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or address used by Web

W

browsers to find resources on the Internet. The URL identifies the protocol, domain name, and file name of specific Internet resources. Web browser A software application that provides you with access to the World Wide Web (WWW). A Web browser enables the user to access specific Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and move from page to page by using hyperlinks. Web browsers also provide various navigational features and other features such as the ability to download data from the Web, to access video and audio files on the Web, 83

and to bookmark specific Web pages. The most commonly used Web browsers are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. Web browsing application A software application that provides you with access to the World Wide Web (WWW). A Web browser enables you to access specific Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and move from page to page by using hyperlinks. Web browsers also provide various navigational features and other features such as the ability to download data from the Web, to access video and audio files on the Web, and to bookmark specific Web pages. The most commonly used Web browsers are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. Web page A Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) file made available on the

World Wide Web (WWW). The HTML format supports the use of audio, graphics, and video files, and links one file to another, providing easy information access. Each Web page is identified by a Uniform Resource Locate (URL). Web site A group of related and interconnected Web pages and associated files on the World Wide Web. A Web site includes a home page that acts as a table of contents and navigational aid to each page. Web pages on a site are normally related in content, and are linked together by a series of hyperlinks. Every website has a unique web address, or URL, that generally points to the homepage.

W

wide area network (WAN)

A network that relies on telecommunication

technology and is spread over a large geographical area, such as a region, state, or country. WANs can either consist of one large network or several smaller local area networks (LANs). window An area of the screen in a graphical user interface (GUI) that displays an application, document, or message. A window is normally a scrollable, resizable portion of the screen and many windows can be viewed simultaneously. wireless Telecommunication that involves transmission using the airwaves,

rather than wires and cables. wizard A help utility that guides the user through the steps required to complete a task. word processing The creation of word-based documents using a computer.

Word processing applications have replaced the typewriter within the office. Sophisticated word processing applications provide many features including various printing, layout, editing, and formatting options, dictionary and thesaurus functions, spell-check tools, and file management functions. 84

workbook A spreadsheet file consisting of one or more spreadsheets. worksheet A sheet in a spreadsheet application, containing data formatted in cells, rows, and columns. World Wide Web (WWW) The global system of interlinked Web pages made available by Internet servers all over the world. Web pages are written in a language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which supports the use of audio, graphics, and video files. It can also link one document to another so that you can access another file, possibly located across the globe, at the click of a mouse. The World Wide Web is also known as the Web. Year 2000 problem A computer problem that arose during the run-up to the turn of the millennium. The Year 2000 problem concerned the large number of computer systems that relied on a two-digit year indicator, such as 99 for the year 1999. In older computer systems, cost was minimised by using a two-digit year indicator, rather than a four-digit one. When January 1st 2000 arrived, the date in these computer systems would have become 00, causing many of the systems to crash. When the problem became evident during the late 1990s, worldwide efforts were made to correct it and become "Y2K-friendly", and the potential disaster was avoided. The Year 2000 problem is also called the Y2K problem or the millennium bug. zip disk A storage device consisting of a 3 1/2 inch removable magnetic disk. Zip disks have either a 100 MB or 250 MB capacity, and are most frequently used for backup storage or for transporting large files. Zoom tool A feature provided with various applications, including word

Z

processing, spreadsheet, and presentation applications, that allows you to enlarge the view of a selected area of the screen.

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IMPORTANT – USE OF THE ICDL TRAINING SOFTWARE IS SUBJECT TO LICENSE RESTRICTIONS. CAREFULLY READ THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT BEFORE USING THE ICDL SOFTWARE. This license is a legal “Agreement” concerning the use of the ICDL Training Software between you, the end user, either individually or as an authorized representative of the company purchasing the license, and Capernaum Ltd. (trading as "Advance Learning" ) . USE OF THE ICDL TRAINING SOFTWARE INDICATES YOUR COMPLETE AND UNCONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT. If you do not agree to these terms and conditions, do not order or download the ICDL Training Software or if media has been received promptly return or, if received electronically, certify destruction of the ICDL Training Software and all accompanying items within 10 days after receipt of the ICDL Training Software and receive a full refund of any license fee paid. ICDL TRAINING SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT 1. GRANT OF LICENSE. The “intellectual property” you are downloading or have acquired with this Agreement (in the form of any courseware, CD-ROM media, graphics, text documentation, audio or other materials whether printed or recorded on magnetic media), including any updates, modifications, revisions, copies, and documentation (“the ICDL Training Software” hereafter referred to as “the Software”) are copyrighted, trade secret and confidential information of ADVANCE LEARNING or its licensors who maintain exclusive title to all the Software and retain all rights not expressly granted by this Agreement. ADVANCE LEARNING grants to you, subject to payment of appropriate license fees, a worldwide, nontransferable, nonexclusive license to use the Software for a “single use” solely to: instruct the user in interactive training for the International Computer Driving Licence (“ICDL”). “Single Use” means use of the Software on one computer or on-line system at a time. Subsequent users will require payment of additional fees. ADVANCE LEARNING shall have title to and ownership of any modifications you make to the Software and reveal to ADVANCE LEARNING. ADVANCE LEARNING’s then-current standard policies apply to the following and are subject to change: (a) determinations as to whether a modification qualifies as a new design or part of the original design; and (b) support services provided. Current standard policies are available upon request. 2. RESTRICTIONS ON USE. You may not copy the Software other than as reasonably necessary to support the authorized use. Each copy must include all notices and legends embedded in the Software and affixed to its medium and container as received from ADVANCE LEARNING. All copies shall remain the property of ADVANCE LEARNING or its licensors. You shall not make the Software available in any form to any person other than your employer’s employees and contractors,
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excluding ADVANCE LEARNING’s competitors, whose job performance requires access. You shall take appropriate action to protect the confidentiality of the Software and ensure that any person permitted access to the Software does not disclose it or use it except as permitted by this Agreement. You shall not reverse-assemble, reversecompile, reverse-engineer or in any way derive source code from the Software provided in binary form save as permitted by law. You may not rent, sublicense, assign, lend or otherwise transfer the Software, this Agreement or the rights under this Agreement without ADVANCE LEARNING’s prior written consent. Nothing contained in this Agreement shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel or otherwise any license or right except the licenses and rights explicitly granted under this Agreement. Any license granted under this Agreement may be enforced by ADVANCE LEARNING’s licensors. The provisions of this section shall survive the termination of this Agreement. 3. CONDITIONS. ADVANCE LEARNING’s obligations under this Agreement are subject to the following conditions. You acknowledge that ADVANCE LEARNING is licensing the Software to you for the purpose of interactive training for the ICDL, and you also agree that ADVANCE LEARNING has no control over the specific applications and use you will make of the Software. ADVANCE LEARNING does not make any warranties or representations in respect of third party rights. 4. LIMITED WARRANTY. 4.1 ADVANCE LEARNING warrants that for a period of 90 days after receipt, the Software will substantially conform to the functional specifications set forth in the applicable user manual. ADVANCE LEARNING does not warrant that the Software will meet your requirements or that operation of the Software will be uninterrupted or error free. You must notify ADVANCE LEARNING in writing of any nonconformity within the warranty period. This warranty shall not be valid if the Software has been subject to misuse or modification. ADVANCE LEARNING’S ENTIRE LIABILITY AND YOUR EXCLUSIVE REMEDY SHALL BE, AT ADVANCE LEARNING’S OPTION, EITHER: (A) REFUND OF THE PRICE PAID UPON CERTIFICATION OF DELETION OF THE SOFTWARE; OR (B) MODIFICATION OR REPLACEMENT OF THE SOFTWARE THAT DOES NOT MEET THIS LIMITED WARRANTY, PROVIDED YOU HAVE OTHERWISE COMPLIED WITH THIS AGREEMENT. 4.2 THE WARRANTY SET FORTH IN THIS SECTION 4 IS EXCLUSIVE. NEITHER ADVANCE LEARNING NOR ITS LICENSORS MAKE ANY OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THE SOFTWARE OR OTHER MATERIAL PROVIDED UNDER THIS AGREEMENT. ADVANCE LEARNING AND ITS LICENSORS SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL IMPLIED OR STATUTORY WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

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5. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. IN NO EVENT SHALL ADVANCE LEARNING OR ITS LICENSORS BE LIABLE FOR DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WHETHER OCCASIONED BY THE ACT, BREACH OMISSION, DEFAULT OR NEGLIGENCE OF ADVANCE LEARNING, ITS EMPLOYEES, CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS AND SHALL INCLUDE WITHOUT LIMITATION, LOSS OF BUSINESS, REVENUE OR PROFITS, LOSS OF USE OR DATA, LOSS OF SAVINGS OR ANTICIPATED SAVINGS, LOSS OF INVESTMENTS, LOSS OF GOODWILL, LOSS OF REPUTATION OR COST OF CAPITAL OR LOSS OF EXTRA ADMINISTRATIVE COST WHETHER OR NOT FORESEEABLE, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY, EVEN IF ADVANCE LEARNING OR ITS LICENSORS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. IN NO EVENT SHALL ADVANCE LEARNING OR ITS LICENSORS’ TOTAL LIABILITY UNDER THIS AGREEMENT EXCEED THE AMOUNT PAID BY YOU FOR THE SOFTWARE GIVING RISE TO THE CLAIM. IN THE CASE WHERE NO AMOUNT WAS PAID, ADVANCE LEARNING AND ITS LICENSORS SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER. 6. LIFE ENDANGERING ACTIVITIES. NEITHER ADVANCE LEARNING NOR ITS LICENSORS SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF THE SOFTWARE IN ANY APPLICATION WHERE THE FAILURE OR INACCURACY OF THE SOFTWARE MIGHT RESULT IN DEATH OR PERSONAL INJURY. YOU AGREE TO INDEMNIFY AND HOLD HARMLESS ADVANCE LEARNING AND ITS LICENSORS FROM ANY CLAIMS, LOSS, COST, DAMAGE, EXPENSE, OR LIABILITY, INCLUDING ATTORNEYS’ FEES, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH SUCH USE. 7. INFRINGEMENT. 7.1 ADVANCE LEARNING represents and warrants that the Software as licensed hereunder does not infringe any European Union copyrights or misappropriate any trade secret of any third party. ADVANCE LEARNING further represents and warrants that the Software is the original work of ADVANCE LEARNING and its licensors and were developed without access to or knowledge of any third party confidential materials.

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7.2 ADVANCE LEARNING will defend or settle, at its option and expense, any action brought against you alleging copyright infringement or trade secret misappropriation related to the Software in the European Union. ADVANCE LEARNING will pay any costs and damages finally awarded against you that are attributable to the claim, provided that you: (a) notify ADVANCE LEARNING promptly in writing of the action; (b) provide ADVANCE LEARNING all reasonable information and assistance to settle or defend the claim; and (c) grant ADVANCE LEARNING sole authority and control of the defense or settlement of the claim. 7.3 If a copyright infringement or trade secret misappropriation claim is made, ADVANCE LEARNING may, at its sole option and expense, either (a) replace or modify the Software so that it becomes noninfringing, or (b) procure for you the right to continue using the Software. If ADVANCE LEARNING determines that neither of those alternatives is financially practical or otherwise reasonably available, ADVANCE LEARNING may require the return of the Software and refund to you any license fee paid, less a reasonable allowance for use. 7.4 ADVANCE LEARNING has no liability to you for any claim of copyright infringement arising from (a) the combination of Intellectual Property with Customer or third party materials, unless it is determined by a court of competent jurisdiction that the Intellectual Property is the infringing element of such claim; or (b) the modification or translation of Intellectual Property or any portion of the Intellectual Property unless the modification or translation was made or approved in writing by ADVANCE LEARNING; (c) the use of the Software as part of an infringing process; or (d) any Software provided by ADVANCE LEARNING’s licensors which do not provide such indemnification to ADVANCE LEARNING’s customers. 7.5 ADVANCE LEARNING MAKES NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY THAT THE SOFTWARE IS FREE FROM ANY CLAIM OF INFRINGEMENT OF ANY THIRD PARTY’S PATENT RIGHTS. Subject to this disclaimer, if any party makes a claim of direct infringement of a patent by the Software, ADVANCE LEARNING may, at its option and expense, either: (a) replace or modify the Software so that it becomes noninfringing; or (b) procure for you the right to continue using the Software. If ADVANCE LEARNING determines that neither of those alternatives is financially practical or otherwise reasonably available, ADVANCE LEARNING may require the return of the Software and refund to you any license fee paid, less a reasonable allowance for use. 7.6 THIS SECTION 7 STATES THE ENTIRE LIABILITY OF ADVANCE LEARNING AND ITS LICENSORS AND YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY WITH RESPECT TO ANY ALLEGED PATENT OR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT BY ANY SOFTWARE LICENSED UNDER THIS AGREEMENT.

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8. TERM. This Agreement remains effective until termination. This Agreement will automatically terminate if you: (a) fail to comply with any term or condition of this Agreement; (b) fail to pay for the license when due and such failure to pay continues for a period of 30 days after written notice from ADVANCE LEARNING; or (c) become insolvent, make an assignment for the benefit of creditors, file or have filed against you a petition in bankruptcy or seeking reorganization, have a receiver appointed, or institute any proceedings for liquidation or winding-up. Upon any termination, you agree to cease all use of the Software and return to ADVANCE LEARNING or certify deletion and destruction of the Software, including all copies, to ADVANCE LEARNING’s reasonable satisfaction. 9. AUDIT RIGHTS. ADVANCE LEARNING shall have the right to audit all your records and accounts as may contain information related to this Agreement. Such audit shall be conducted upon reasonable notice during normal business hours by an independent auditor. ADVANCE LEARNING shall keep confidential any information gained as a result of any audit, except to use such information as necessary to enforce ADVANCE LEARNING’s rights under this Agreement. 10. EXPORT. The Software is subject to regulation by local laws which prohibit export or diversion of certain products, information about the products, and direct products of the products to certain countries and certain persons. You agree that you will not export in any manner any of the Software or direct product of the Software, without first obtaining all necessary approval from appropriate local agencies. 11. CONTROLLING LAW. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed under the laws of Ireland and the Irish courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear all matters arising out of this Agreement. 12. SEVERABILITY. If any provision of this Agreement is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be void, invalid, unenforceable or illegal, such provision shall be severed from this Agreement and the remaining provisions will remain in full force and effect. 13. MISCELLANEOUS. This Agreement contains the entire understanding between the parties relating to its subject matter and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous agreements, including but not limited to any purchase order terms and conditions, except valid license agreements related to the subject matter of this Agreement which are physically signed by you and an authorized agent of ADVANCE LEARNING. This Agreement may only be modified by a physically signed writing between you and an authorized agent of ADVANCE LEARNING. The terms of this Agreement are confidential information. Waiver of terms or excuse of breach must be in writing and shall not constitute subsequent consent, waiver or excuse. The prevailing party in any legal action regarding the subject matter of this Agreement shall be entitled to recover, in addition to other relief, reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses.

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