HUN 1201; Essentials of Human Nutrition Mineral Quiz Review 1. Functions of water in the body include lubricant, maintains protein structure, and participant in chemical reactions. 2. Water contributes most to the weight of the human body. 3. Where is interstitial water found? 4. Water intoxication is rare but can result in death 5. What is the minimum water intake (from all sources; liquid, food and metabolic) for an adult with an energy expenditure of 2,500 kcalories? 6. Hard water contains the lowest amount of minerals. 7. Which of the following minerals is present in highest concentration in soft water? 8. What is the major extracellular electrolyte? 9. What is the major intracellular electrolyte? 10. When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity? 11. The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent hypertension and is both lower in sodium and higher in foods with potassium, calcium and magnesium. 12. What is the greatest single source of sodium in the American diet? 13. Chloride deficiencies are extremely common 14. Those who ingest low amounts of fresh fruits/vegetables are amoung those people known to be at risk for potassium depletion. 15. Approximately what percentage of the body’s calcium is found in the blood? 16. Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to 17. Blood clotting, nerve transmission and maintenance of heart beat, are all processes that directly involve calcium. 18. Lactose, pregnancy, and stomach acid are known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract 19. How much calcium would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg? 20. Osteoporosis has virtually no effect on blood calcium levels. 21. At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass? 22. Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition? 23. Which of the following is a major function of magnesium? 24. Magnesium is known to be involved in muscle contraction, and is therefore important in rhythmic heart beat and cardiovascular health 25. A characteristic of the trace minerals is that the amounts in foods are dependent, in part, on soil composition 26. Hemoglobin is the iron-containing compound that carries oxygen in the bloodstream? 27. All of the following factors are known to enhance the absorption of iron 28. Which of the following nutrients enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract? 29. Tea, coffee, and phytates are all known to increase the absorption of iron. 30. Which of the following population groups is least susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia? 31. Which of the following individuals would most likely need an iron supplement? 32. Which of the following may be linked with the presence of high blood iron? 33. Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition? 34. In the United States, iron is currently added to which of the following foods? 35. Zinc is known to play an important role in wound healing, synthesis of retinal, and the production of sperm (please gentlemen, hold your applause) 36. Excess zinc is known to lead to copper deficiency? 37. Copper deficiency due to interference with copper absorption is a known side effect of prolonged ingestion of excessive amounts of zinc supplements? 38. Zinc is highest in foods that also contain a high amount of protein 39. What mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxin, the hormone that controls the rate of oxygen use by cells, and hence metabolism? 40. Which of the following is the richest source of iodine? 41. Which of the following may result from iodine deficiency? 42. Selenium inhibits the formation of free radicals and therefore acts as an antioxidant 43. What trace element is part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which acts as a major antioxidant? 44. Which of the following meats would be the best source of copper? 45. What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride? 46. Fluoride deficiency is best known to lead to 47. Because it is believed the hormone insulin is dependent upon chromium for optimal activity, one of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of 48. Evidence to date in animals and/or human beings suggests that normal bone metabolism requires the trace minerals boron, silicon, and vanadium.