Human rights are "rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled." Proponents of the
concept usually assert that everyone is endowed with certain entitlements merely by reason of
being human. Human rights are thus conceived in a universalist and egalitarian fashion. Such
entitlements can exist as shared norms of actual human moralities, as justified moral norms or
natural rights supported by strong reasons, or as legal rights either at a national level or within
international law. However, there is no consensus as to the precise nature of what in particular
should or should not be regarded as a human right in any of the preceding senses, and the
abstract concept of human rights has been a subject of intense philosophical debate and criticism.
The human rights movement emerged in the 1970s, especially from former socialists in eastern
and western Europe, with major contributions also from the United States and Latin America.
The movement quickly jelled as social activism and political rhetoric in many nations put it high
on the world agenda. By the 21st century, Moyn has argued, the human rights movement
expanded beyond its original anti-totalitarianism to include numerous causes involving
humanitarianism and social and economic development in the Third World.
Many of the basic ideas that animated the movement developed in the aftermath of the Second
World War, culminating in its adoption by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the
United Nations General Assembly in 1948. While the phrase "human rights" is relatively modern
the intellectual foundations of the modern concept can be traced through the history of
philosophy and the concepts of natural law rights and liberties as far back as the city states of
Classical Greece and the development of Roman Law. The true forerunner of human rights
discourse was the enlightenment concept of natural rights developed by figures such as John
Locke and Immanuel Kant and through the political realm in the United States Bill of Rights and
the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason
and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
—Article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Main article: Universal Declaration of Human Rights
"It is not a treaty...[In the future, it] may well become the international Magna Carta." Eleanor
Roosevelt with the Spanish text of the Universal Declaration in 1949.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted by the United Nations
General Assembly  in 1948, partly in response to the atrocities of World War II. Although the
UDHR was a non-binding resolution, it is now considered by some to have acquired the force of
international customary law which may be invoked in appropriate circumstances by national and
other judiciaries. The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil,
economic and social rights, asserting these rights as part of the "foundation of freedom, justice
and peace in the world." The declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the
behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-
...recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all
members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from
unwarranted infringement by governments and private organizations, and ensure one's ability to
participate in the civil and political life of the state without discrimination or repression.
Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples' physical integrity and safety; protection from
discrimination on grounds such as physical or mental disability, gender, religion, race, national
origin, age, or sexual orientation; and individual rights such as the freedoms of thought and
conscience, speech and expression, religion, the press, and movement. (Some activist
organizations include sexual orientation within the auspices of civil rights protections although
there is continuing controversy over this issue in several countries)
Political rights include natural justice (procedural fairness) in law, such as the rights of the
accused, including the right to a fair trial; due process; the right to seek redress or a legal
remedy; and rights of participation in civil society and politics such as freedom of association,
the right to assemble, the right to petition, and the right to vote.
Civil and political rights comprise the first portion of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(with economic, social and cultural rights comprising the second portion). The theory of three
generations of human rights considers this group of rights to be "first-generation rights", and the
theory of negative and positive rights considers them to be generally negative rights.
Economic, social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights, such as the right to
education, the right to housing, and the right to health. Economic, social and cultural rights are
recognized and protected in international and regional human rights instruments. Member states
have a legal obligation to respect, protect and fulfill economic, social and cultural rights and are
expected to take "progressive action" towards their fulfillment.
The Universal Declaration on Human Rights recognizes a number of economic, social and
cultural rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
(ICESCR) is the primary international legal source of economic, social and cultural rights. The
Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women recognizes and protects many of the economic, social and
cultural rights recognized in the ICESCR in relation to children and women. The Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination prohibits discrimination on the basis of
racial or ethnic origin in relation to a number of economic, social and cultural rights.
According to Karel Vasak's theory of three generations of human rights, economic, social and
cultural rights are considered second-generation rights, while civil and political rights, such as
freedom of speech, right to a fair trial, and the right to vote, are considered first-generation
rights. The theory of negative and positive rights considers economic, social and cultural rights
Xenophobia is defined as the "hatred or fear of foreigners or strangers or of their politics or
culture". It comes from the Greek words ξένος (xenos), meaning "stranger," "foreigner" and
φόβος (phobos), meaning "fear."
Xenophobia can manifest itself in many ways involving the relations and perceptions of an
ingroup towards an outgroup, including a fear of losing identity, suspicion of its activities,
aggression, and desire to eliminate its presence to secure a presumed purity. Xenophobia can
also be exhibited in the form of an "uncritical exaltation of another culture" in which a culture is
ascribed "an unreal, stereotyped and exotic quality
Economic deprivation is defined as the lack of sufficient income for people to play roles,
participate in the relationships, and take part in the accepted behavior expected of them by the
society. Take for instance, the need for a telephone or a car. In a developed country these gadgets
are necessities in order to secure jobs and maintain relations with family and friends. Economic
deprivation in this instance then means the inability to secure or afford necessities for survival
“Sir Thomas Paine framed the word human rights”
-Rights theory-French to British language
-Declaration “rights of man” & citizen (Italy &France) changed into “human rights”.
1. Violation (nature law theory)
Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) has been described as a law whose
content is set by nature and that therefore holds everywhere. As classically used, natural law
refers to the use of reason to analyze human nature and deduce binding rules of moral behavior.
The phrase natural law is opposed to the positive law (meaning "man-made law", not "good
law"; cf. posit) of a given political community, society, or nation-state, and thus can function as a
standard by which to criticize that law. In natural law jurisprudence, on the other hand, the
content of positive law cannot be known without some reference to the natural law (or something
like it). Used in this way, natural law can be invoked to criticize decisions about the statutes, but
less so to criticize the law itself. Some use natural law synonymously with natural justice or
natural right (Latin ius naturale), although most contemporary political and legal theorists
separate the two.
2. Rights (social utility theory)
In economics, utility is a measure of relative satisfaction. Given this measure, one may speak
meaningfully of increasing or decreasing utility, and thereby explain economic behavior in terms
of attempts to increase one's utility. Utility is often modeled to be affected by consumption of
various goods and services, possession of wealth and spending of leisure time.
Utility is usually applied by economists in such constructs as the indifference curve, which plot
the combination of commodities that an individual or a society would accept to maintain a given
level of satisfaction. Individual utility and social utility can be construed as the dependent
variable of a utility function (such as an indifference curve map) and a social welfare function
respectively. When coupled with production or commodity constraints, under some assumptions,
these functions can represent Pareto efficiency, such as illustrated by Edgeworth boxes in
contract curves. Such efficiency is a central concept in welfare economics.
Media and human rights
1980-reporting of human rights started
Least coverage of human rights stories
3% importance given in newspaper(human rights stories)
Post scenario coverage
Human right stories covers about
Universal declaration of human rights
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with
reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without
distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no
distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status
of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust,
non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be
prohibited in all their forms.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal
protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in
violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts
violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and
impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal
charge against him.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until
proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees
necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission
which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time
when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was
applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or
correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to
the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-
political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion,
have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to
marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to
protection by society and the State.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes
freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with
others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice,
worship and observance.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom
to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and
ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or
through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall
be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal
suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to
realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with
the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights
indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable
conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for
himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if
necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working
hours and periodic holidays with pay.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being
of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and
necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment,
sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances
beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children,
whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary
and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and
professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be
equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to
the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote
understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and
shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to
enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting
from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms
set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development
of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such
limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition
and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of
morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and
principles of the United Nations.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person
any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any
of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
Elements for reporting human rights news
1. Human interest
A human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an interactive
and/or emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way
that brings about interest or sympathy in the reader or viewer. Human interest stories are
sometimes criticized as "soft" news, or manipulative, sensationalistic programming.
2. Society centric
3. Vulnerable groups-scoop
5. Development oriented
6. Avoid archieve borne stories (coz it may be sterotypic, repeated and boring)
7. Avoid press release based stories
8. Journalist shouldn’t be mouthpiece.
9. Self regulating
10. Use “quote”