THE NERVOUS

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THE NERVOUS Powered By Docstoc
					   THE
NERVOUS
 SYSTEM
 Study the pictures below and answer the
          questions that follow.




http://www.abc.net.au/reslib/200712/r213478_823745.jpg   http://www.flickr.com/photos/14654539@N03/1507069003   /
Q: Which systems in our body are at work
  when we play a sport?
A: Our skeletal, muscular and nervous
  systems
Q: How do we know when and where to
move to during a sport?
A: Our nervous system helps us to react to
  our surroundings and move according.
Parts and Function
of the parts of the
    NERVOUS
     SYSTEM
SPINAL CORD
- about 18 inches long
- made of many nerves that are located around
    the spine
- located inside the vertebral canal
- carries messages to and from the brain
- Protected by the vertebral column
- Provides attachment points for the muscles of
    the back and ribs
- Has vertebral disks
  o which absorb shock during activities
  o allow spine to flex and extend
SPINAL CORD
NERVE CELL/Neuron
 - form a network throughout our body
 - send messages to our body parts and
    receive messages from our surroundings
    through the spinal cord
 - connected end to end and transmit
    electrical impulses from one point to
    another
 - two types : sensory nerves and motor
    nerves
NERVE CELL/Neuron
BRAIN
- soft organ that is protected by the skull
- controls the entire nervous system
- has the following parts:
A. CEREBRUM
- biggest part of the brain
- makes up 85% of the brain's weight
- thinking part of the brain
- controls our voluntary muscles (the ones that move
when you want them to)
THE BRAIN: Cerebrum




           http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/left-cerebral-hemisphere-function.html
THE BRAIN: Cerebrum




           http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/right-cerebral-hemisphere-function.html
B. CEREBELLUM
- is at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum
- only 1/8 of the size of the cerebrum
- controls balance, movement, and coordination
   (how muscles work together)
THE BRAIN:
Cerebellum




             http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/cerebellum-function.html
C. BRAIN STEM - sits beneath the cerebrum and
  in front of the cerebellum
- it connects the rest of the brain to the spinal
  cord, which runs down our neck and back
- controls our involuntary muscles (the ones that
  work automatically, without you even thinking
  about it)
- it sorts through millions of messages that the
  brain and the rest of the body send back and
  forth
THE BRAIN: Brain Stem




           http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/brainstem-function.html
         Other parts of the brain…
Pituitary gland
– produces and releases hormones
- controls our growth

Hypothalamus
– controls body temperature
- if we feel warm, the hypothalamus tells the body to
  produce sweat. If we’re too cold, the
  hypothalamus gets us shivering
THE BRAIN: Hypothalamus and
Pituitary gland




                 http://www.besthealth.com/besthealth/bodyguide/reftext/images/PituitaryGland.jpg
 Path of messages in
 our nervous system

                                     The brain
                            The
   The                                receives   The motor
                         sensory
sensory                                   the      nerves
                          nerves
 nerves     Message                  message      help the
                         bring the
 pick up    is sent as               & gives a    muscles
                         message
   the        a nerve                response     to carry
                           to the
message      impulse.                message       out the
                          spinal
 from a                                through   response
                         cord and
stimulus.                            the motor     action.
                           brain.
                                       nerves.
How about this?
COMMON ILLNESSES
 OF THE NERVOUS
     SYSTEM
      ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

                 marked by a deterioration of memory, thinking, and reasoning
Description/s    usually occurs in old age




            gradual loss of memory, lessened ability to perform routine
            tasks, disorientation, difficulty in learning, loss of language
   Symptoms skills, impairment of judgment and planning, and mood or
            behavioral changes




          Cure   currently no cure for AD
                     EPILEPSY
                result of trauma at the time of birth, such as insufficient
                oxygen to the brain or head injury. Other causes may be
Description/s   head injury resulting from accident, alcoholism, infectious
                diseases such as measles or mumps, or lead or mercury
                poisoning



                marked by seizures that often involve convulsions or the loss
   Symptoms of consciousness



                is a recurrent, lifelong condition that must be managed on a
        Cure    long-term basis
    HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE

Description/s Inherited, progressive disease


            -uncontrollable physical movements and mental
            deterioration.
            -symptoms usually appear in people between the ages
   Symptoms of thirty and fifty
            -include restlessness, twitching, and a desire to move
            about



         Cure there is no cure for HD and no treatment that can slow
               its rate of progression
                  MIGRAINE
              -a particularly intense form of headache lasting
              several hours or more
Description/s -headaches are provoked by a particular stimulus,
              such as stress, loud noises, missed meals, or
              eating particular foods.


            Headaches, nausea, sensitivity to light and/or
   Symptoms sound




         Cure Several drugs may be used to reduce the
              pain and severity of a migraine attack.
      MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
                -occurs when the myelin sheath (a protective coating around
                the nerves) deteriorates. The nerves become exposed and
                this directly interferes with the way that the brain sends
Description/s   signals to the rest of the body. The exposed nerves become
                hardened (sclerosis) and means that the body cannot
                respond to the signals being sent by the brain.


            -severe exhaustion, bladder and bowel weakness,
            balance and co-ordination problems, dizziness,
   Symptoms vision problems and pain in eyes, muscle stiffness,
            weakness, cramps and pain


             -it is thought that viral or bacterial infections can
             trigger the immune system to attack itself
        Cure -no known cure for MS, and treatment involves a
             management of the symptoms
     PARKINSON’S DISEASE
                -progressive disease in which cells in one of the movement-
                control centers of the brain begin to die, resulting in a loss of
Description/s   control over speech and head and body movements



                -nerves and muscles become weak, and the control over speech
                and head and body movements is lost
                -symptoms include tremors (usually beginning in the hands),
   Symptoms     slow movements, muscle rigidity or stiffness, balance problems,
                decreased eye-blinking, depression, speech changes, sleep
                problems, constipation, and irritability




        Cure    There is currently no cure for or a way to prevent PD
       POLIOMYELITIS (Polio)
                -serious infectious viral disease that attacks muscle-controlling
                nerves and can eventually cause paralysis
                -affects children
Description/s   -spreads primarily through contact with saliva or feces of infected
                person. The virus enters the and multiplies rapidly in the intestines.
                Eventually it enters the bloodstream, then gains access to the central
                nervous system



                -symptoms are fever, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea,
   Symptoms stiff neck and back, and muscle pain




        Cure vaccines were developed to provide the body
                immunity to the poliomyelitis virus
                    STROKE
              -occurs when a blood vessel carrying oxygen
              and nutrients to the brain is either blocked by
Description/s a blood clot or bursts
              -part of the brain is deprived of the blood and
              oxygen it needs, so it begins to die
            weakness or numbness of one side of the
            face, arm and/or leg; trouble speaking or
   Symptoms understanding; dizziness, trouble walking or
            loss of balance.


         Cure
 How do we take care of our nervous
             system?
   Learn how to cope with emotions.
   Have a balanced diet.
   Write regularly.
   Avoid alcohol, drugs and cigarettes.
Sources:
http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/brain.html#
http://www.humanillnesses.com/Behavioral-Health-A-Br/The-Brain-and-Nervous-
    System.html
http://www.faqs.org/health/Body-by-Design-V2/The-Nervous-System-Ailments-what-
    can-go-wrong-with-the-nervous-system.html

				
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