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					       Speeches
   How to Deliver a Speech
             and
How to Begin and End a Speech
How to Deliver a Speech
Preparation
Know your audience! Your audience should
 determine everything, including topic
 selection, how you present your ideas,
 and how you deliver your speech.

Practice, practice, practice! Practice will
  help you by making you more confident
  with the material and with the
  presentation of it.
Delivery: Voice
Your voice must be confident, and loud enough so
  everyone can hear you. Speak as though you are
  speaking only to the people at the very back of
  the room.

Tailor your voice to the type of speech you are
  giving. An instructional lecture should sound
  different from a humorous one.

Vary the pitch and volume of your voice to
  emphasize points.

Speak in complete sentences. Plan any hesitation
  between words, or don’t hesitate much at all.
Delivery: Posture and Body Language
Stand tall and straight. Imagine that there
  is a string attached to the top of your
  head, holding you up.

Avoid extreme mannerisms, such as over-
 gesturing with your hands, clutching your
 hands together, keeping your hands in
 your pockets, or leaning on the podium.

Be friendly. Make eye contact with different
 individuals in your audience. Speak to
 them, not at them!
What if I’m REALLY nervous?
There are some “tricks” to presenting a better speech, even if
  you feel very, very nervous:

   Place your hands gently on the sides of the podium.

   Plant your feet shoulder-width apart. Use them to anchor
    yourself.

   If you have trouble meeting people’s eyes, spend more
    time looking at the tops of their heads, or at the back wall.

   Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse! More rehearsing will make
    you more confident.

   Remember that public speaking is hard for everyone! Your
    audience appreciates that it is hard to do, but they really
    want to hear the content of what you have to say.
How to Begin a Speech
Introductions
 “An introduction to a speech is what a
 man’s trousers are to full dress when he
 goes out to dinner. They are a necessity.
 Without them he is undressed and he
 shocks many people.”
Introductions
A speech without an introduction is
undressed. It shocks many people.
It can be said that with few
exceptions every speech demands a
pair of trousers, - i.e., an
introduction.

It also has been said that every
speaker has the audience’s attention
when he\she rises to speak and that if
he\she loses the attention, it is after
he\she begins to speak, hence the
importance of the introduction
becomes apparent.
 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS HAVE
 SEVERAL PURPOSES:
1. To gain the attention, arouse the interest and excite the
   curiosity of the listeners.

  This may be affected in several ways:

      a.     by telling a story;
      b.     by referring to a recent incident that the
               audience is familiar with;
      c.     by using a quotation;
      d.     by using a novel idea or striking statement to
               arouse curiosity;
      e.     by putting pertinent questions to the audience.
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS HAVE
SEVERAL PURPOSES:


  2. To prepare and open the minds of the
    hearers for the thoughts which are to
    come.

  3. To indicate the direction and purpose
    of the speech and the end it will reach.
Other Notes on Introductions
   Generally speaking, an introduction is prepared
    last.
   When the speaker is introduced, he\she should
    rise easily without noise or delay and move to the
    platform. After arriving there, a few seconds
    should elapse while he\she deliberately surveys
    the scenes before him\her.
   It is a good idea to address your audience
    directly – to let them know you are speaking to
    each of them (i.e. they are not simply
    overhearing your speech). Traditional ways of
    doing this are statements like “Ladies and
    gentlemen…” or “Classmates, judges, guests…”,
    but do not feel limited to these.
Examples
a)“Three persons were burned to death a week ago
   because of a school house which has improper
   fire escape exits.”
b)“It is hard to imagine fifty thousand persons
   destroyed in a few seconds…”
c) “I would like to tell you how atomic power may
   be harnessed so that it will wash your dishes and
   heat your house.”
d)“I have chosen to speak to you today on the
   subject of crime, which is costing our nation
   untold billions of dollars. It is my desire to
   explain to you the causes of crime as well as the
   prevention.”
How to End a Speech
Conclusions
 A day is never ended without a sunset of some
 kind. If the sunset is captivating, the entire day
 is often long remembered because of its
 impressive ending. A speech is much the same.
 It must have an ending and to be most
 successful, the ending should be impressive.
Conclusions
The conclusion brings together all the
thoughts, emotions, discussions, arguments
and feelings which the speaker has tried to
communicate to his\her audience. Keep in
mind:

     The conclusion should make a
  powerful impression on the listeners.
      It is the last opportunity to
   emphasize the point of the speech.
When a speaker moves into his\her conclusion, it
should be obvious that he/she is closing
his/her remarks. His/her intentions should be
clear.



The importance of the delivery of a conclusion
cannot be over-emphasized. The eye contact
should be direct, the posture alert and the voice
sincere and distinct.
WAYS TO DEVELOP A CONCLUSION:
a) Summary….“Czechoslovakia will live
  again! The hordes of Hitler the Huns of
  Europe, the intrigue of Berlin shall not
  swallow up this mighty and prideful
  people. They shall rise up and fight their
  horrible aggressor. Yes, Czechoslovakia
  will live again!”
b) A striking anecdote or story…“These
 old cars of ours are like the wonderful one
 horse shay. Let us hope that they, too, do
 not suddenly fall apart, scattering nuts
 and bolts across our neighbor’s lawn.”
c)   An emotionalized statement of the
     main idea…“Honesty is and always will
     be the moral fiber of our country. Let us
     continue to be known as the world’s
     most honest nation.”

d) A vivid illustration of the central
   idea…“The famous words of John Paul
   Jones, who said he had not begun to
   fight, are emblazoned across the world’s
   horizon, for tonight the American Navy
   launched ten new battle ships.”
e) A call for action…“Let’s go out one by
  one, by two’s and three’s or by the
  hundreds and vote for clean government
  and honest officials. Let’s do it tomorrow
  – it’s election day and our only hope!”
Final Speech Advice
 When the speech is done the speaker
 should hold the floor for a second or two.

 A person should not let his/her
 actions portray how well or how
 poorly he\she thinks he\she has done
 on his\her speech.

				
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