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SOLUTIONS Factors Affecting Solubility

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SOLUTIONS Factors Affecting Solubility Powered By Docstoc
					SOLUTIONS

    Lesson 1
SOLUTION
   Homogenous mixture containing more than
    one substance
   One phase
   Solutions can be solid, liquid or gas!
EXAMPLES
   SOLID:
       Steel: alloy of Fe, C, Mn, Cr, W, V
       Bronze: alloy of Cu, Sn, P, Mn, Al, Si
   LIQUID:
       Apple juice, Kool aid
   GAS:
       Air: 78% N, 21% O, 1% other gases
SOLVENT & SOLUTE
   Solvent: the substance in largest quantity
   Solute: Other dissolved substances
SOLUBILITY
   Solubility = how well a solute dissolves
   Measured in g/100mL
   Soluble: solubility > 1g/100mL
   Insoluble: solubility < 0.1 g/100mL
   Slightly soluble: solubility is between 0.1
    g/100mL and 1g/100mL
SOLUBILITY


            0.1              1.0


INSOLUBLE         SLIGHTLY
                                   SOLUBLE
                  SOLUBLE
METHODS OF DETERMINING
SOLUBILITY


 1) Look it up in Merck index
 2) Find it by dissolving the solute in
     the solvent until it no longer
     dissolves
SATURATION
   Unsaturated solution:
       MORE solute can dissolve
   Saturated solution:
       NO MORE solute can dissolve
MISCIBILITY
Solubility of Liquids
MISCIBLE:
 Liquids that dissolve into each other in any
  amounts
 Ex: Water and ethanol

IMMISCIBLE:
 Liquids that do not readily dissolve into each
  other
 Ex: Water and Oil
MISCIBLE
IMMISCIBLE
DETERMINATION
   LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE
   Polar substance tend to dissolve other polar
    substance (liquid, solid or gas)
    Ex: Water dissolves salt, ethanol, CO2
    Ex: Water does not dissolve O2 or gasoline
   Non-polar substance tend to dissolve non-
    polar substances
    Ex: Oil is miscible with turpentine, chlorine gas
…DETERMINATION
   Use you knowledge of bonding to determine
    if something is miscible
   IONIC: charged – polar
   POLAR COVALENT: slight charge – polar
   COVALENT: no charge – non-polar

Recall: Water is polar / Oil is non-polar
HOMEWORK
   Page 280-287
   Page 288: Thought Lab
   Page 289: #1-6, 8-13

				
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