A new approach for design and implementation of AMR in Smart Meter

Document Sample
A new approach for design and implementation of AMR in Smart Meter Powered By Docstoc
                                                                                    Vol No. 2, Issue No. 1, 056 - 060

   A new approach for design and implementation
             of AMR in Smart Meter
                         Ms.Priya S.Kamble                                              Ms.Sonali T.Bodkhe
         M.E IVth Semester (Embedded System & Computing)                               Head of Department
         Department of Computer Science & Engineering                          Department of Information Technology
          G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering,Nagpur                           G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering,Nagpur

  Abstract-This paper elucidates a current measurement
  method for wide range residual current measurement.
  The paper discusses Automated Meter Reading, a                        (A). Need to make optimum use of grid
  technology used to automate the task of reading                       infrastructure:
  consumption records of subscribers. The problem is                      Power Generation, Transmission & Distribution is
  first defined in terms of Utilities, critical infrastructure          the last remaining mega sector which provides a
  needs, revenue protection and operational efficiencies.
                                            ES                          critical service to customers without having real-time
  Various drivers as well as impediments within such
                                                                        feedback about how its services are utilized at its
  scopes are the defined. Moreover, different technologies
  proposed and implemented are discussed. The paper
                                                                        termination points. In other words, power is
  concludes by capturing the conclusions obtained and                   generated at the source without any real-time data
  suggestions for further improvements of such                          from where it is used. The utility system has
  technologies for future applications.                                 traditionally operated as an open loop where no real-
                                                                        time data has been captured on instantaneous
                                                                        demand, consumption profiles, system performance,
                                                                        etc. This means that Power Companies generate
  Keywords— Automated Meter Reading, Advanced                           power at the top peak of their anticipated demand and
  Meter Management (AMM), Advanced Metering                             blindly push it downstream to termination points. If
  Infrastructure                                                        the generated power is less than the actual demand,
                                                                        then there would be black-outs. And if it is more than
                                                                        the aggregated demand, then the excess power is
                     INTRODUCTION                                       burnt in dummy loads.
     Although there are a variety of industry                           (B). Need to change pricing model:
  definitions, Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)
  generally is regarded as the reading of a utility meter                To achieve balanced loading across the distribution
  by a means that does not require physical access or                   system and reduce peak demand cycles, customers
                                                                        need to be enticed to change their consumption

  visual inspection of the meter. Utility companies
  across the world are experiencing the need for a                      behavior. This can only be done through multi-tariff
  major technological evolution in their day-to-day
                                              day-                      pricing of electricity service. Consumption shall thus
  operational systems. A variety of factors are                         be charged differently based on the time it has
  contributing to the drive to overhaul the entire                      occurred. Consumption during peak hours is
  system, tools and processes. AMR system provides                      penalized by charging a higher tariff, while outside
  residents access to their consumption of water, gas                   peak hours the tariffs could be considerably less.
  and power meter remotely. At the same time the                        (C) Improved fraud detection:
  management department can analyze these real-time
  and accuracy meter data in order to make optimal                      AMR allows utilities to detect whether or not a meter
  resource distribution for future use. The key to                      has been tampered with or if wires have been cut at
  successful AMR system depends on adopting which                       the meter. The system will flag the account with a
  communication tools. Obviously the remote                             code notifying the meter reader to investigate the
  communication channel can be either GPRS/RF or                        single.
  fiber network based on the public service network. It
  can ensure remote transmission reliable and fluent
  without any maintenance fee.

  ISSN: 2230-7818                      @ 2011 All rights Reserved.                           Page 56
                                                                                    Vol No. 2, Issue No. 1, 056 - 060
               II. LITERATURE SURVEY                                  Reduced meter reading costs:
      This article reviews the technical features of                      Conventional meter reading is a labor-intensive
  automatic meter read (AMR) systems for residential                  process and can represent a considerable percentage
  small commercial natural gas meters, including a                    of a utility's operating cost. In addition to the labor
  look at the new static gas meters. AMR systems are                  component, ancillary elements such as vehicle costs,
  today quite widespread for electrical residential                   insurance claims, uniforms, etc. are recurring costs
  meters, but are still in an experimental (pilot projects)           that can be avoided by using a technology solution.
  stage for other applications in utility meters, such as             Further, in many areas public utility commissions
  natural gas residential and small commercial meters.                have placed limitations on the number of times that a
                                                                      utility can estimate a meter reading.
       AMR systems allow the recording of gas
  consumption in an efficient way with some important                 Implementation of real-time pricing:
  advantages for the overall gas system, both for the
  provider and for the user. The main AMR benefits for                   Variable rate tariffs based on the time of day can
  the customer are:                                                   be used to encourage consumers to shift their
                                                                      consumption of valuable resources to off-peak hours,
  * Convenience. Meter readers are eliminated                         while also discouraging the usage during peak hours.
                                                                      This enables energy producers to reduce the
  * Efficiency. The AMR system eliminates estimated                   maximum capacity of their plant and therefore
  meter reads; and                                                    achieve a better return on capital.

  * Accuracy. The electronic unit of AMR, equipped                            read-to-bill
                                                                      Reduced read-to-bill time:
  with a reliable encoder technology, is more accurate
  than manual (or semi-manual) meter reads, thereby                     AMR allows utilities to reduce their read-read-to-bill
  eliminating human errors.                                           time, by tightly integrating the meter data capture and
                                                                      billing process. In many cases, improved meter data
        New enablers such as automated meter reading                  acquisition permits utilities to increase billing
  (AMR) can be applied to capture and leverage
  information to help utilities proactively achieve these
  competitive objectives. Advanced capabilities such as
  predictive analysis, simulation tools, contingency
  analysis and network monitoring can go far in giving

              the    power       to    be
                                          ES  successful.
      Automated meter reading systems are an attractive
  technology for cutting costs while increasing speed
                                                                      frequency or offer more billing options to their
                                                                      Distribution automation:
                                                                         AMR can allow utilities to provide better
                                                                      customer service by enabling a greater level of
                                                                      functionality over their distribution network,
  and control of metering activities. When                            including: remote credits to pre-payment meters,
  organizations, such as utilities, military installations,           remote connect/disconnect services, tamper/leak
  large industrial parks and school districts consider                detection and outage notification.
  automated meter reading technology, they discover                   Improved fraud detection:
  most available systems carry high initial capital costs.
  Organizations that purchase systems without first                   AMR allows utilities to detect whether or not a meter
  evaluating the full costs and benefits often find they              has been tampered with or if wires have been cut at
  are locked into a technology that accomplishes less                 the meter. The system will flag the account with a
  than they need.                                                     code notifying the meter reader to investigate the
  AMR offers both utilities and their customer's key
  tangible benefits.                                                               III. PROBLEM DEFINITION

  Benefits of AMR to utilities include:                                The AMR system is composed of collector,
                                                                      concentrator and central station. The collector is data
          Reduced meter reading costs                                acquisition module used for collecting every
                                                                      household’s energy meters data and then sending it to
          Ability to access difficult-to-read meters
                             difficult-                               the concentrator based on units. It also has the
          Improved customer service                                  function of sending the alarm about power failure or
                                                                      tampering of meters or any other accidental events
          Reduced percentage of estimated bills                      happen. The alarm or report must be sent to the
          Improved meter reader safety                               concentrator with minimum latency in order to notify
                                                                      the remote missionary of power management
          Implementation of real-time pricing                        instantly.
          Reduced read-to-bill time                                    Traditionally, Utility companies have faced
                                                                      difficulties in embracing Automation in most of their
          Distribution automation                                    operational environment. While the need for modern
          Improved fraud detection                                   Billing and Accounting systems had forced Utilities
                                                                      to modernize their back-office systems, the front-end
                                                                      of the system has seen almost no change in the

  ISSN: 2230-7818                    @ 2011 All rights Reserved.                         Page 57
                                                                                    Vol No. 2, Issue No. 1, 056 - 060
  operational procedures, tools and systems in the past                      4.    Manual Meter reading:
  100 years. In most utilities across the globe,
  consumption records of customers are still recorded                        Commercial Implications
  by utility staff using pen and paper (or lately by Hand                           1. Conveying tamper recording remains on
  Held Computers and PDA’s) and inputted off-line                                   the meter reader’s loyalty.
  into Utility’s backend systems. Accounting and
  Billing, however, are somewhat exception to the fact                              2. No clue on demand/ over drawls by the
  as these tasks are to a large extent automated.                                   consumer.
                                                                                    3. Delay in meter readings, delay bills,
                                                                                    delayed revenue, delay in cash-flow.
   Consumption records of customers are generally
  kept in terminal devices inside the premises of                                 VI. TECHNOLOGIES USED IN AMR
  customers. These terminals, generally known as                                AMR can be implemented using a variety of
  meters, are overwhelmingly Electromechanical. By                      technologies. Depending on the scope, available
  virtue of being electromechanical, such meters                        infrastructure and network topologies, many
  present utilities with the various challenges.                          chnologies
                                                                        technologies could be employed to realize AMR
                                                                        systems. Generally however, these technologies are
                                                                        divided into three groups:

                                                                        (a). Legacy Options:
                                                                         These comprise traditionally available technologies
                                                                        used in communication systems today, such as POTS
                                                                        (Plain Old Telephone System), Public Wireless
                                                                        (Paging, GSM, CDMA, GPRS, etc) and Satellite
   Let’s try to expand the problems in manual meter
                                                                        (Low Orbit Communication Satellites).
                                                                        (b). Broadband Options:
                                                                         Newer technologies used for large bandwidth data
                                                                        communication such as Broadband over Power lines
                                                                        (BPL) and Wireless Broadband (Wi-Fi, WiMax, etc).
                                                                        (c).Cost-Effective Options:
                                                                        (c).Cost-Effective Options
  reading on the following resources:
                                                                          These are the technologies of choice for low
  1. Meter reading resource: Time                                       bandwidth; cost sensitive applications using Private
         1. Time to access the site.                                    Wireless (licensed & unlicensed ISM Band) and
                                                                        Narrowband Power Line Communication (PLC)      (PLC).
        2. Time to read the meter manually.                             Legacy technologies are Capable of supporting large
   2. Meter reading resource: Accuracy/re                               scale AMM projects and can access geographically
                                                                        dispersed meters via dial-up or dedicated/shared
     work/Manpower cost.                                                lines. On the flip side, such links are expensive to
         1.        Accuracy of noting the readings.                     secure and operate in many locations and countries.
                                                                        While for large industrial customers, or collection of
         2.        Chances of errors while reading.                     meters, using phones lines to access meter might be

                                                                        justifiable, assigning a single phone line to a
         3.        Errors while recording what was read.
                                                                        residential meter does not make economic sense.
         4.        Errors during data entry.
                                                                        WAEPD has equipped 12 meters installed in remote,
   3. Meter reading resource:
    .               resource:                                           difficult to pass mountains with this type of AMR.
                                                                        Most of these meters are inaccessible during 6
    Hard to access meters: (any meter which takes                       months of year due to heavy snow and harsh climate
          more than 15 minutes to access)                               conditions. Broadband options, on the other hand,
              1.   Rural accounts                                       provide large communication bandwidth and use
                                                                        commercially available components and Cutting
              2.   Indoor meters                                        Edge Technologies and Standards. However, such
              3.   Obstacles                                            systems prove to be too expensive for AMM
                                                                        applications. They can only be justified if Utilities
                                                                        plan to venture into providing their customers with
                                                                        services other than Power (e.g. Video On Demand, IP
                                                                        Telephony, Video Surveillance, High Speed Internet,
                                                                        Etc). Unlicensed spread spectrum or licensed

  ISSN: 2230-7818                      @ 2011 All rights Reserved.                       Page 58
                                                                                    Vol No. 2, Issue No. 1, 056 - 060
  narrowband technology is proven to be the
  technology of choice for AMR applications. In this
  technology, the communication between Meters and
  Data Collectors are done thru peer to peer radio links,
  where radio coverage is determined by RF
  technology and permitted power dissipation.

                    VII. AMR USING RF
  Automated Meter Reading System consists of the
  following 4 components:
  1. Energy Meter
  2. Interfacing Device
  3. Data Communication Media
  4. Remote PC with compatible software

  1. Energy Meter:                                                                System Architecture of AMR
  Energy meter is a device which is used to measure
  the energy consumed by the customer .Basically
  energy meter is of two types Electro-Mechanical                           VIII.
                                                                            VIII. FEATURES AND PARAMETERS
  meter and Digital meter. Now a day’s digital meters                The billing system is based on reading meters every 2
  are used because they are having high accuracy, with
  limited control and theft detection capability at
  2. Interfacing Device:
  It is a device which takes out readings from meter
  and passes those readings to the remote pc through
  communication media. It also consists of a circuit
                                                                     months and sending printed power consumption bills
                                                                     to subscribers by utility staff. According to field
                                                                     studies about 20 percent of meters can't be read
                                                                     because of closed doors and limited hours of reading
                                                                     through daytime.
                                                                     (A.) Selection Criteria:
                                                                     The two most important tasks of the selection process
  which can switch ON/OFF power supply of                            were the selection of AMR technology and the
  customer.                                                          selection of metering equipment.
  3. Data Communication Media:
   .                    Media:                                       (1). Selection of Technology:
   For transporting the data from the energy meter to                The selected technology had to meet the following
  the Host PC a communication media is necessary.                    requirements:
  Communication can be done by two ways,
                                                                     (a) Easy to integrate and synergize with the current
  a. Wired Communication:                                            working system of the utility
   Power lines, phone lines, dedicated lines.                        (b) Able to be deployed quickly
  b. Wireless Communication:

                                                                     (c) Able to grow from a small number to a large
    RF, GSM, GPRS.                                                   rollout with minimal extra effort
  Service provider can use any communication media                   (d) No special training should be required for the
  depending upon the services available to the servic                utility staff. The learning curve for the utility must be
  provider.                                                          steep.
                                                                     (e)No special resources should be required to
                                                                     supervise and control the pilot
  4. Remote PC with compatible software:
                                                                     (f)No disruptions and/or undue burdens upon the
     The heart of the meter reading station is the Meter             current practice and processes as a result of the pilot
  Reading Software which resides in the PC at the                    roll out.
  Meter Reading Station. It is a standalone system
  which is responsible for collecting meter reading,                 (g)Minimal regulatory clearances, if needed
  storing them to the data base, calculation of bills,               (2).Selection of metering equipment:
  switching ON/OFF of power supply, and providing
  analysis facility.                                                 The following criteria were applied while selecting
                                                                     the appropriate metering device for the pilot

  ISSN: 2230-7818                   @ 2011 All rights Reserved.                          Page 59
                                                                                    Vol No. 2, Issue No. 1, 056 - 060
  (a)Ability to work in harsh weather conditions                       of data for analysis. The duration of the pilot was set
                                                                       at 3 months with a further extension of 3 months if
  (b)Ability to work in harsh and unpredictable electric               desired. As can be concluded from the table, the
  conditions                                                           solution provided to the utility was quite unique,
  (c)Ability to detect and record specific events                      specially tailored to their needs.
  (d)Accuracy of Class of operation to be equal or
  better than existing                                                                    IX. APPLICATION
  (e)Tamper Resistant
                                                                                Automatic per day bill generation and
  (f)Should be able to provide a wider set of                                    monitoring of meter
  measurements than the existing meters
                                                                                Used for water meter control and monitoring
  (g)Soft Connect/Disconnect (Ability to cut off/restore                         system
  service to customer remotely and without the need to
  manipulate physical wirings or components                                     Industrial electrical energy conservation
                                                                                Used for distribution and maintains in
                                                                                 supply sector
  (B). Performance Criteria:

  (a). Ability to reduce the number of unread meters in
  each cycle
  (b).Estimate loss of revenue
  (c).Provide extensive data for analysis                                                 X.CONCLUSIONS

  (d).Estimate time saved in reading each meter                        Regarding low efficiency of traditional meters
                                                                       management, among them: high costs of gathering
  (e).Help utility upgrade the skills of its staff
  (f).Able to sufficiently and practically demonstrate
  the benefits of AMR
  (C). Selection of technology and metering instrument:
  Keeping the above guidelines in view, it was
  concluded that the process of collection of data must
                                                                       information, the need to be at the meter's installing
                                                                       location and low accuracy due to the man's role in
                                                                       data aggregation; it would be unavoidable to develop
                                                                       automated meter reading and management as a part
                                                                       of a larger automated network..The data was
                                                                       collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. As the new
                                                                       AMR digital meters were installed in series with the
                                                                       conventional electromechanical ones their records
  be as close to present system as possible. It should be
                                                                       were compared. All the 50 installed meters responded
  possible for any member of the utility staff to install
                                                                       to the commands. The least connecting distance was
  the meters, without applying any complex procedure
                                                                       of a meter enclosed in a metal box behind two walls
  or using any sophisticated equipment. It was
                                                                       in an Indoor situation and the farthest connecting
  therefore decided to choose Wireless walk-by meter
                                                                       distance belonged to a meter installed outdoor behind
  reading system. The selection of this method of data
                                                                       a house wall. Time needed to get the last
  collection would function very well in a system
                                                                       consumption records is 15 seconds which is 1/4 of
  where there would be a mixture of manually read
                                                                       the time needed to reach inside a house and read the
  meters and remotely read AMR equipped meters.
  Regulatory constraints limited the choice of using
  ISM band RF frequencies. The usage of 2.4 GHz was

  dropped due to weak penetration of radio signals into
  concrete walls and shorter "reach" distances as                                         XI. REFERENCES
  compared to sub-GHZ bands.433 MHz band was                           [1] Wei Yang, Yue Zhuo,Corporation
  chosen over 868 MHz band due to relatively simple                    Technology,Siemens Ltd., (China),Shanghai, China
  regulatory norms as well as easy availability of
  components. In order to make installation and                         “A residual current measurement method with a
  deployment simple, all the constituent components of                 combination of MR and Hall Effect sensors.” 978-1-
  the system, (metering instrument, and wireless                       4244-7374-8/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE
  communication system and control mechanism) were                     [2] Ali Bahramiazar, “Automated Meter Reading
  packaged in single chassis. This made it easy to                     Using RF Technology”.
  install the AMR meter without the need for additional
  wiring or equipment.                                                 [3] Richard Chi-Hsi Li, “Key Issues in RF and RFIC
                                                                       Circuit Design,” book, 2005.
      It was decided not to mix different types of
  systems in the first stage, and hence the scope of the               [4] H.G.RodneyTan,C.H.Lee, “Automatic Power
  pilot was limited to single phase installations. The                 Reading Meter Using GSM Network”, 978-981-05-
  number of installations was chosen to be 50 so as to                 9423-7 c_ 2007 GRPS.
  be manageable and yet provide a reasonable amount

  ISSN: 2230-7818                     @ 2011 All rights Reserved.                         Page 60

Shared By:
Description: This paper elucidates a current measurement method for wide range residual current measurement. The paper discusses Automated Meter Reading, a technology used to automate the task of reading consumption records of subscribers. The problem is first defined in terms of Utilities, critical infrastructure needs, revenue protection and operational efficiencies. Various drivers as well as impediments within such scopes are the defined. Moreover, different technologies proposed and implemented are discussed. The paper suggestions for further improvements of such technologies for future applications