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					14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager

14.1 Getting Started with the 3D Model Manager

The 3D Model Manager is an umbrella program, dramatically enhancing the capabilities
of MasterFrame, MasterPort and MasterKey Steel Design. It provides you with
additional advanced modelling tools together with even more sophistication and speed
for the integrated design of your structure.

The MasterSeries 3D Model Manager gives you the ability to very quickly set up any
frame to receive area gravity, wind or snow loading, using the most intelligent and easy
to use method available.

This manual has been carefully designed to make you aware of the additional tools the
3D model manager provides and also explain in great detail the operation of these. The
current main features of the 3D Model Manager are,

Advanced 3D frame generation utilities (Multi-Storey menu)
Gravity area loading one-way or two-way spanning
General Patch loading
General panel line loads
Wind loads normal to any surface
Grid Lines
Integrated Composite Beam design
Automatic Steel design by member design groups

To use the tools of the 3D Model Manager you must firstly generate a 3D structural
model in the normal fashion using either MasterFrame for general frames or MasterPort
for 3D portal frames. In MasterFrame the 3D Model Manager provides a collection of
advanced tools for generating 3D structures more easily (Multi-Storey menu). The tools
of the 3D Model Manager can be found in the Edit> 3D Model menu of either of these
programs. For the purposes of clarity in this manual, from this point on we will assume
only to be using the 3D Model Manager from the more general MasterFrame. For
guidance on generating a 3D structure please refer to the appropriate sections in this
manual.




                                                       3. MasterFrame



                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                 14-1
14.2 The Multi Storey Menu

The multi-storey menu contains a collection of tools,
which assist in the generation of any 3D structure,
however there are several functions that become
more beneficial in multi-story type frames. One of
the main purposes of this menu is to collect all the
tools needed for the generation of multi-storey
structure and place then in an order that provides
an approximate guide to the recommended steps in
generating a multi-storey structure. For many multi-
storey frames this menu can be entirely sufficient
for the complete generation of a structural model.
Hence many items found in the Mutli-Storey menu
are also available in other menus. Also many of the
tools are exclusive to this menu specifically for
multi-storey frame generation purposes. All these
tools can be used in conjunction with the standard
MasterFrame facilites.
The methodology of the menu in relation to the generation of an example multi-storey
structure is as follows.
1. New Floor Plan (Replace Frame). This option will allow
   the generation of rectilinear arrangement of beams, i.e. a
   floor plate. The beams can also be referenced with grid
   lines.
    Even though your beam arrangement is not rectangular it
    is recommend to use this option to produce a skeleton,
    then delete the unnecessary elements. An example of
    this is shown below.




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                         14-2
   When starting a new file the Floor Plan generator is available from the frame wizard
   options, therefore avoiding the need to initially use this option from the menu.
   An initial section property type for the beams can be chosen here, avoiding the need
   to assign section sizes in the standard MasterFrame area.

The next four options in the menu can then be used to achieve the desired arrangement.
The order in which the Add Columns…, Add Beams…, Move Columns… and Delete
Members options are used in is not important.
2. Here we may decide to Add some
   Beams as the next step.
   These are shown highlighted.




3. Next we might use the Delete
   Members option




                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                 14-3
4. Going back to Add Beams…




5. Using Delete Members and Move
   Columns…
Tip! In this example the points at the
ends of the radial beams could also be
located using the general MasterFrame
Nodes> Position Nodes on a Circle
command.
6. Finally we Add Beams… using the
   snap grid approach




7. Having achieved the beam arrangement we may Add/Delete Column Runs. A
   column can be placed at any location where there is a node point. By firstly adding
   all the beams in this case we have obtained nodes at all points where we have
   columns. If this is not the case it is necessary to add the node at the column
   location using standard MasterFrame methods.




   First select the column section type (and grade if appropriate). Then enter the beta
   angle (orientation), columns height and base support condition. A column is added
   with the specified data by click on the node point. A set of nodes can also be
   windowed for multiple selections. You can also remove a column by clicking on the
   node.



                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                14-4
8. Super members can now be automatically generated by detected beams spanning
   between columns and supporting beams. A Super member has the effect of gluing
   two or more member together, forming one structural member. This is necessary for
   the design processes and most convenient for the management of the model.
   Super members can be automatically generated from the Add/Delete Columns area,
   however this can also be done from the specific Super Member option in the menu,
   which has the advantage of providing more graphical super member information.
   Always generate as Analysis Super Members.
                                                            In this example some super
                                                            member have already been
                                                            generated. This is because in
                                                            the Add Beams… function the
                                                            option to „Keep as Super
                                                            member‟ was checked for any
                                                            members that where split in
                                                            the    process      of  adding
                                                            members.        Many of these
                                                            super members are incorrect
                                                            therefore it is recommended to
                                                            delete these before attempting
                                                            to automatically generate all
                                                            the super members.
   To automatically generate the super members,
   firstly enter the maximum beam span in the
   structure. This prevents long beam runs, which do
   not span between columns, being defined as super
   members.
   Then click on the lightening bolt button to generate all super
   members in the current view. The additional two icons (pressed
   down) indicate that this process is being carried out for all beams
   in the east-west and north-south direction.




                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                    14-5
9. Stiff Deck End Releases (Simple Construction). This option allows you to
   automatically and/or manually apply pinned ends and diaphragm floor action (stiff
   deck) to members. When using the automatic application method it will apply to all
   members is the current view. After entering this option from the Multi-Storey menu
   the option are automatically configured for pinned ends in the major axis with stiff-
   deck. To automatically apply these simply click on Proceed.
                                                             The blue highlighting
                                                             represents stiff-deck, while
                                                             the symbols drawn at the
                                                             ends of the beam represent
                                                             pinned ends. In the
                                                             automatic method an end
                                                             release is applied to the
                                                             ends of all members / super
                                                             members in the current
                                                             view.


    Any unwanted end releases can be removed by clicking on the individual release on
    that member. Such would be the case for cantilever members.

10. Area Loading. The application or gravity area loading, line loading and patch
    loading is recommended at this stage. This topic is discussed in detail in section
    14.3, 14.5 and 14.6 of this manual.

11. Add Floor. This function will copy a floor or part off to create further levels in the
    structure. In doing so all columns and bracing, area loading, line loading and patch
    loading are also copied between levels. Therefore it is most convenient to carry out
    as much common work as possible on the first floor before using the Add Floor
    facility. To use this function simply select the nodes on the floor, enter the level
    height and the number of additional levels required. Click on ShowNewFrame and
    then Proceed to activate the change.

12. Column Splices. This area allows you to consider columns splice locations by
    specify which columns on a column run will be the same section size. This is done
    by defining Drafting Super Members. A drafting super member allows independent
    design checks to be added to the individual members, however the sections size of
    all parts of the drafting super members are made the same in the MasterKey Steel
    Design program. Also during any automatic design in the most critical member in
    the drafting super member is selected and determines the section size for all other
    parts of the drafting super member.




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                  14-6
    When the Column Splices
    option is selected from the
    menu        the      program
    automatically turns on the
    vertical member filter and
    places the structure in front
    elevation. At this point the
    entire column lifts in whole
    structure that are the same
    section can be windowed as
    shown.
                                                         This produces individual drafting
                                                         super members from each of the
                                                         straight runs of members
                                                         included in the selection.
                                                         Drafting super members can be
                                                         individually edited and amended
                                                         in the same way as other super
                                                         members.


13. Grid Lines. If the structure has originated from the Floor Plate generator as
    illustrated in step 1, then gird line referencing may already be in place. Any existing
    gird lines can be redefined, renamed or deleted, while new grid lines can be added.
    Specific levels can also be names in this area, which has a major influence on the
    application of the default area loading intensities (see section 14.3). This area is
    described in section 14.13 of this manual.

14. Set Frame Views (Automatic). By simply selecting this option from the menu the
    program will generate plan views of all levels and section views on all gird lines.
    These are then accessible from the frame view drop list on the top tool bar. Frame
    views are the most convenient means of navigating your way around a large 3D
    Structure.

15. Wind Loading is described in detail in section 14.10 of this manual.

16. Composite Design groups are discussed in section 14.14.3 of this manual.


14.3 Area Loading Defaults
The area loading defaults allows you to define the blanket default dead and live gravity
loading applied to each floor and roof of the structure. The program can also
automatically calculate a slab self weight based (dead load) on the slab thickness and
density. These loads are only applied when the Member Area Loading information has
been defined as described in section 14.5.



                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                    14-7
                                       Use Area Loading            This option must be
                                       turned on to activate all loading applied to the
                                       structure using the 3D Model Manager




Level applied to…          Live Load kN/m2      Dead Load kN/m2        Slab Dead          Load
                                                                       kN/m2
Roof Plan                  1.5                  5.25                   0.2 x 24 = 4.8
 st
1 level down from          5                    5                      0.2 x 24 = 4.8
roof
2nd level down from        5                    4                      0.2 x 24 = 4.8
roof

The list of default gravity dead and live loads are inserted as shown in the above
example. The gravity loads for each level are separated by semi-colons and start from
the roof plan down through the various levels of the structure. The levels are specifically
defined by the user using the Grid Lines option from the 3D Model menu. It is important
that the levels are defined using this option, thereby informing the program which levels
the default dead and live loads apply to.

              14.11 Grid Lines and Levels

You will also notice that in the live load, only two values have been specified, hence the
last value specified is used as the intensity for the remaining floors. Similarly for the slab
thickness one value is entered which is applied to all levels.
It is recommended that default dead and live loads defined for each level are the most
common and/or lowest load intensity on each level. Changes to the load intensity on
sub areas of each floor can easily be handled and are discussed in detail at a later
stage.
Important Note: It is not compulsory to define default blanket dead and live loads on
each level. The load intensities can also be defined when setting up the panel load
distribution characteristics as discussed in section 14.4 Member Area Loading – Setting
up an area loading group.

Local Area Loading Values
When setting up the panel load distribution groups the user has the opportunity to enter
values of dead and live loading. These values can either Replace the load intensities
defined in the default area or Add to them, depending on which of the above options are
selected.


                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                      14-8
To exit the Area Loading Defaults click on the „X‟ button on the top right of the dialog
box.

14.4 Working with Member Groups
                              Many of the 3D model manager functions operate by
                              defining groups of members to which information is
                              applied. This will become obvious in the following sections
                              of this manual. The methods for defining and managing
                              these member groups are common for many areas.



                        Drop list of all member groups. You can use this to move from
                        one group to another. The item in the drop list is the current
                        group. You may type a title for the group in the text box of the
                        drop list.
      Spin button to move up and down through the list of member groups.
      Apply To mode. When this button is pressed down the Apply To mode is turned
      ON. While you are in Apply To mode any member you click on in the structure
      geometry area will be added to the current member group. You can also add a
      range of members to a group by clicking and dragging a cross window around
      them. Members can be removed from a group by clicking on the member again.
      Search mode. When this button is pressed down the Search mode is turned ON.
      When you click on a member while in search mode the member group to which
      the member is assigned (if any) will become the current group.
      Add a new member group. The new group will be blank of all members and
      information until specified by the user.
      Clear all members from the current member group. The group itself and the
      information it holds will remain.
      Clear all members from all member groups of this type
      Delete the current member group.
      Delete all member groups of this type
      Exit the 3D Model Manager tools
Also at the bottom on the screen there are further tools that assist in the editing of
member area loading groups.
      Copy the current member group information to clipboard
      Paste the member group information from the clipboard to the current group




                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                 14-9
14.5 Gravity Area Loading
The Gravity Area Loading tool is accessed from the 3D-Model menu and is used to
define which members in the structure receive gravity area loading and also the load
distribution characteristics associated with each member. Members that receive gravity
area loading are assigned to member area loading groups. In each group the user
defines a single set of information, which applies to all members in that group. In each
group the user can basically define;
   1. If the member receives area loading from the panel to the upper side of the
      member
   2. If the member receives area loading from the panel to the lower side of the
      member
   3. The load distribution characteristics i.e. one way or two way spanning, of the area
      loaded panel to the upper side of the member
   4. The load distribution characteristics i.e. one way or two way spanning, of the area
      loaded panel to the lower side of the member


Shortcut icons are provided at the top right of the screen for quick access to the various
gravity loading tools.
     Definition of Bracing Members (See below)
     Automatic Generation of Gravity Area Loading. See section 14.6
     Defining general Member Area Loading Groups
     Alternate loading. See section 14.9
     Line Loading. See section 14.7
     Patch Area Loading. See section 14.8
     Mixed Construction. See section 14.14.3
     Area loading Defaults. See section 14.3


Bracing members
When you access the member area
loading a specialist area loading group
titled „Bracing Members‟ has been added
automatically. You should assign the
members to this group that do not
interfere with load distribution in a panel,
i.e do not receive gravity area loading.
In most situations this will be the vertical
and horizontal bracing, as shown in the
example below. Vertical members are
automatically ignored in gravity area
loading calculations.




                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                  14-10
To add members to any area loading group simply click on the individual members or
cross window a series of members to select them in the structural geometry area.

Setting up an Area Loading Group

After defining the bracing members the user should click on   to add a new general
area loading group. You should give the group a name to which you can easily identify
by typing in the drop list text box of area loading groups.


                                Current Area Loading Group. You can edit the group
                                title by typing in this drop list text box.
                                Clicking on      turns ON the application of area loading
                                to the upper side of the members in this group. You can
                                then set the load distribution characteristics of the panel
                                to the upper side of the member.
                                Replacement or Additional loads to the default loading
                                on the panel to the upper side of the member.
                                Load distribution characteristics of the panel to the
                                lower side of the member.
                                Replacement or Additional loads to the default loading
                                on the panel to the lower side of the member.
                                Value of line load on all members in the current group
                                Move forward and back through the list of Area Loading
                                Groups.
                                Members to which the information in this group applies.
                                While Apply to mode is ON you can add members to
                                this group by clicking on them or cross windowing to
                                select them.
                                Automatic selection of members and selection filtering
                                tools



The Slab Depth entry is used in the integrated composite beam design (see section
14.11) and in the MasterFrame Flat Slab program.
The application of area loading is activated for the upper side and lower side of the
members in the group independently using the      and      ON/OFF switches. The
upper and lower side of the member is determined by the node numbering as shown
below, where n1 is the lower node number and n2 is the higher node number.




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                    14-11
When the area loading is turned on (button is pressed down) a further set of icons
appear that allow you to define how the loads from the panels are being distributed onto
the members in the group. The distribution methods are a follows.
       One Way spanning. The 3D Model Manager will identify the panel dimensions
       and distribute the appropriate magnitude of load to the member.
       Two Way spanning. The 3D Model Manager will identify the panel dimensions
       and distribute the appropriate magnitude and profile of load to the member.
       Define a linear projection (m) of loaded area normal to the member. This is most
       useful in perimeter members where the loaded area extends beyond the centre
       line of the member
       For some more complex panels the automatic calculation of area loading
       distributed to the member is not possible. In these instances you may use the
       user defined trapezoidal load distribution by defining 4 projections normal to the
       member (start of member, 1st intermediate point, 2nd intermediate point and end)
       and two distances along the member to locate the 1st and 2nd intermediate
       projections. An example of this is shown below.




We shall take the previous example we considered for the bracing members and apply
one way spanning area loading to one of the bays.
To set up a new one way spanning group,

   1. Click on       to add a new general area loading group

   2. Click on the       button to define a new area loading group
   3. Give the group a title „North-South Spanning‟ by typing in the group drop list

   4. Click on the     and      buttons (white background) to activate area loading to
      both the upper and lower side of the member.




                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                 14-12
   5. Click on the one way spanning button         (yellow background) for both the
      upper and lower side.

   6. Ensure that the group is in Apply To mode, i.e. the    button is pressed down,
      then click on the members which have one way spanning load coming onto them
      from both the upper and lower panels. The member numbers will be added to
      white window as shown below. Note that although the edge beams are in the this
      group of one way spanning on both sides of the member, no area loading is
      calculated for the free edge since the program has not detected a panel to one
      side of the edge beam members

   7. To visualise the colours on the area loading click on the    button




We can follow the same procedure for setting up a two way spanning load distribution.
Again using the same example if we where to make the middle bay two way spanning it
would require three Area Loading Groups as listed below,




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                              14-13
Middle bay 1- Two way Spanning to the
upper side and no area loading to the
lower side, applied to members 8, 9 and
10




                                                 Middle bay 1


Middle bay 2 – Two way spanning to both
sides, applied to member 30, 33, 36 and
39.




                                                 Middle bay 2


Middle bay 3 – Two way spanning to the lower side and no area loading to the upper
side, applied to members 15, 16 and 17.




  Middle bay 3                                           Show all groups




Finally to complete this example we shall illustrate the procedure for applying one way
spanning area loading to the third bay, but this time with the direction of span orthogonal
to the first bay. This would require members 15, 16 and 17 to have one way spanning to
their upper side and members 22, 23 and 24 to have one way spanning to their lower
side.



                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                    14-14
At first thought you might think to create a further two area loading groups with these
specifications, however this would be incorrect. Since member 15, 16 and 17 are
already assigned to an existing group „Middle bay 3‟ they cannot belong to any other
group. This is one of the fundamental rules of area loading. To achieve one way
spanning to the upper side of these members we must modify the group „Middle bay3‟
as shown below. Then we only need to add one further group „Third bay 1‟ to include
members 22, 23 and 24 with one way spanning to the lower side.




                                              Third bay 1



Hint: In a multi-storey structure members from different levels can be assigned to the
same area loading group. The         button at the bottom of the member area loading
screen will automatically add members to the current group that have the same position
in plan as the existing members in the group, therefore copying the area loading of the
current group to other levels of the structure.


The Basic Rules of Member Area Loading
   1. Non area loaded members such as horizontal and vertical bracing should be
      assigned to the „Bracing Members‟ group
   2. Gravity area loading can be applied to any non-vertical panel. The load is applied
      vertically and is calculated for the horizontally projected area (plan area) of the
      panel.
   3. A member can only be assigned to one member area load group. If you add a
      member to a group (say G1) that is already assigned to another group (G2) then
      the member will be removed from G2 and added to G1.
   4. Only a member which receives area loading should be assigned to an area load
      group
   5. A panel must have three or four straight sides. A straight side of a panel can be
      made up of any number of individual elements.
   6. A panel must be a closed panel, i.e. no open sided „U‟ shaped panels.
   7. All gravity area loads are assigned to the D1 (dead) and L1 (live) load groups by
      default unless other wise specified in the Alternate Loading Groups section.


                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                  14-15
Using the Automatic Selection Tools
Of course the above example (although useful for getting to grips with area loading) is
perhaps over complicated for practical situations. If the area loading on the above
example were simple one way spanning in the west-east direction on the whole floor,
then the application of area loading would be very simple. In fact it might only require a
single area load group with one way spanning to the upper and lower side.
Taking the example we have been using (removing all existing area load groups, leaving
only the bracing members group), we may add such a group. By individually clicking on
each member in the North-South direction they are added to the group, therefore
creating West-East spanning area loading. A more convenient alternative to selecting
individual members may be to use the automatic selection tools. The automatic
selection works along with the selection filter options. For example in this case,

                                                1. Click on the north-south member
                                                    selection filter button
                                                2. Click on the automatic selection
                                                    button     to add all north-south
                                                    members in the current view to the
                                                    current area loading group.


                                                The selection filter buttons are
                                                described below.


       Selection filter for East and South face edge beams. This is useful if you wish
       add an area load projection to the lower side of these members.
       Selection filter for West and North face edge beams. Again an area load
       projection can be added to the upper side of these members.
       Selection filter for all internal beams. Useful for two way spanning area loads.

       Selection filter for North-South direction beams. Produces one way spanning in
       the east west direction.
       Selection filter for West-East direction beams. Produces one way spanning in
       the north-south direction.
       Selection filter for vertical members (columns)

       Automatically add to the current area load group the member types of the active
       selection filters.
Hint: You can use more than one type of selection filter simultaneously.
The definition of north-south and east-west members is shown in the diagram below.


                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                   14-16
Area Loading Display Tools
There are several ways in which area loading can be displayed. While you are viewing
an area loading group the controls at the bottom of the screen allow you to,
       ON - View the area load in multi-colour shading. The area loads being
       distributed to a single member are shown in the same colour. OFF – The load
       distribution lines are shown in grey with no coloured shading.
       ON – Show all the area load groups simultaneously. OFF – Only show the area
       load distribution diagram of the current group
       ON – View the area loading per coloured coded intensity. The        option must
       also be turned on. A coloured load intensity key is also displayed. This is most
       useful when used along with the Show All groups option.
There are also several display tools on the top tool bar, which can be used at any stage
inside MasterFrame.
     The area load display options on the top tool bar are not activated until this button
     is set to ON (pressed down)
     Display all gravity member area loading
     Draw the member area loading in shaded colour
     ON – View the area loading per coloured coded intensity. The     option must also
     be turned on. A coloured load intensity key is also displayed. This is most useful
     when used along with the Show All groups option.




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                   14-17
14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager   14-18
Changing the Area Load Intensity on Individual Panels
Having defined the default blanket dead and live load, you may wish to change the load
intensity on certain panels. In the member area loading group information you may
specify „Replacement‟ to default or „Additional‟ to default dead and live area loads on the
panel to the upper side and/or the panel to the lower side of the member(s) in the group.
When calculating the load intensity on a panel the 3D Model Manager searches all
members which define the panel and uses the largest value of dead and live area
loading (on the side of the member relevant to the panel) as the load intensity on that
panel. This means that if we want to increase the area load intensity on one panel we
must increase the dead and/or live load intensity on the appropriate side of only one
loaded member that bounds the panel. If we want to reduce the default area loading on
a panel then we must reduce the dead and/or live load intensity on the appropriate side
of all loaded members surrounding the panel.

Increasing the Default Area Loading Intensity on a panel
                                                             In this example the default
                                                             area loading is 5 kN/m2 dead
                                                             and 1.5 kN/m2 live and is
                                                             applied to all north south
                                                             direction beams, producing a
                                                             one way spanning distribution
                                                             of area loading in the west-
                                                             east direction.




To increase the area loading on the centre-centre panel we need only specify a higher
load intensity on either the upper side of member 36 or the lower side of member 33. To
do this we need to insert an additional area loading group and give it the appropriate
information as follows.


   1. Click on the      button to define a new are loading group

   2. Click on the     and      buttons (white background) to activate area loading to
      both the upper and lower side of the members in this group.

   3. Click on the one way spanning button          (yellow background) for both the
      upper and lower side.


                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                    14-19
   4. Click on member 36 to add it to the new group.
   5. Click on the „Replacement Loads‟ button for the upper side of the member
   6. In the Dead load text box type „6‟ and in the live load type „2‟

   7. Select all three area loading display options               to view the colour coded
      area loading intensity diagram.




The dead and live load on the central panel is now increased by the replacement loads
specified. The values entered may be either replacement loads to the default or
additional to the default depending on which option was selected in the Area Loading
Defaults section. You will notice how both the replacement dead and live loads are
larger than the default values, therefore they only needed to be applied to one loaded
member surrounding the panel (in this case the upper side of member 36).




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                   14-20
Reducing the Default Area Loading Intensity on a panel
Taking the same example if we now wish to reduce the default area loading on the
centre-top panel we must specify the reduced replacement loads on the upper side on
member 37 and the lower side of member 34. This entails adding a further two area
loading groups as follows.




                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                             14-21
Using the Edit Panel Option
The edit panel option can be used to quickly make changes to a
single selected panel. Changes can be made to the panel span
characteristics, slab depth, as well as the dead and live loading.
This is a most convenient way to either increase or reduce the
area loading intensity in a localised area.




To use the edit panel,
   1. Click on the                      button, which is found in the Member Area
      Loading Groups.
   2. Click inside a panel in the bottom right quadrant to select it. The members
      surrounding the panel will be highlighted in red and any existing area loading will
      be displayed.
   3. Using the               buttons you can alter or apply the area loading as north-
      south, east-west or two way spanning.
   4. The      button can be used to clear any existing area load from the panel,
      creating a void. Four text boxes also appear on each side of the yellow rectangle,
      which facilitate the projection of the slab from the centre line of the beam to the
      edge of an opening.
   5. To change the slab depth, dead or live loading, simply enter the values. The
      loading entered will either be additional to the default or will replace the default
      depending on the option selected in the Area loading Defaults (see section14.3)

While in edit panel mode the gravity area loading will only be displayed for the currently
selected panel.
All characterises from one panel can be copied to other panels using the      button,
which is a Copy To mode. Once this button is turned on the current information is
copied each panel selected as in step 2 above. The Copy To operates on a panel-by-
panel basis. It is is important that when the copying is complete that the Copy To mode
is turned off by clicking on the    button again.

To exit the edit panel mode click on the                             button to return to the
Member Area Loading Groups.




                            14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                   14-22
14.6 Automatic Generation of Area Loading
For some structures the methods already discussed concerning the application of
gravity area loading can be automated.
The „Automatic Generation of Area Loading‟ option will set up the member area loading
groups for the entire structure, applying area loading as one way spanning (North-
South), one way spanning (West-East), or two way spanning.
The automatic generation tools also allow you to very quickly define a line load and area
projection on the North, South, East or West facing perimeters.
To access the „Automatic
Generation of Area Loading‟ select
3D Model> Gravity Loading, then
click on the   icon at the top right
of the screen.




        Clicking on this button will perform the automatic area loading generation based
        on the information provided in the following options and inputs
        Option to make all automatic area loading generation two way spanning

        Option to make all automatic area loading generation one way spanning in the
        north-south direction
        Option to make all automatic area loading generation one way spanning in the
        direction west-east
        (Grey box) Line load value (kN/m) on the area perimeter. Specified for each
        orientation of face
        (Yellow box) Area projection (m) normal to the perimeter members.
        Copy the north face line load and projection to the east, south and west faces
        Delete all Area Loading Group
        Close the automatic area loading generation and return to the editing of member
        area loading groups
The procedure for using the Automatic Generation of Area Loading is as follows.
   1. From the 3D-Model menu select the „Automatic Generation of Area Loading‟
   2. The Bracing Members group is active, therefore add all non vertical members
      which do not influence the distribution of load to this group.

   3. Select the appropriate load distribution method


                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                 14-23
   4. Define any line load        or projection        on each perimeter orientation.

   5. Click on      to generate the various member area loading groups

   6. If you wish to reset this generation and choose different options click on the
      button, repeat step 2 and 3, then click on the         button again.
   7. To exit the Automatic Generation of Area Loading click on the          button inside
      the actual yellow frame.
The user can then make modifications if necessary, since the assumptions made by the
automatic generation of area loading may not be correct for every single structure.
The automatic generation creates 5 member area loading groups as follows.
Group 002 – Internal members. For two way spanning this is all internal members with
two way spanning area loading on the upper and lower side of the member. For north-
south spanning the group includes all east-west direction internal members with one
way spanning to the upper and lower sides. For west-east spanning the group includes
all north-south direction internal members with one way spanning to the upper and lower
sides.
Group 003 – North face members. These are east-west direction members that do not
have a closing panel to their upper side.
Group 004 – South face members. These are east-west direction members that do not
have a closing panel to their lower side.
Group 005 – West face members. These are north-south direction members that do not
have a closing panel to their upper side.
Group 006– East face members. These are north-south direction members that do not
have a closing panel to their lower side.
The default area load intensity is applied in these groups.
Note: If you perform automatic area loading generation where there are existing
member area loading groups, these existing groups will not be disturbed.

Hint: You can also access the automatic generation of area loading via the     button
which appears at the bottom right of the screen in the member area loading groups.
Hint: Any members you individually select while in the Automatic Area Loading
generation are add/removed from the Bracing Member group.




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                   14-24
14.7 Line Loads

The 3D Model Manager also enables the application of general gravity line loads to a
panel in which gravity area loading has been applied. A general line load can be applied
to a panel or over a range of panels and its location is simply measured relative to a
member, which acts as a datum. The line load will be distributed according to the span
characteristics of the panel, i.e. one way or two way spanning.
Each definition of line load is stored in a line load member group. The information held
by the group relates to the position and dimensions of the line load relative to a member
and also the magnitude of dead and live loading in kN/m.
To access the 3D Model Manager Line Loads, select 3D Model> Gravity Loading, then
click the   icon at the top right of the screen.
The line load groups are managed in exactly the same way as the member area loading
groups in terms of adding members to the group, adding groups, clearing groups and
deleting groups. This is described in the previous section „Working with Member Area
Loading Groups‟.

                           As the example below shows, the line load may project onto
                           panels beyond the member from which the line load is
                           dimensioned. A line load group may also contain more than
                           one member, whereby a single line load with the specified
                           dimensions and magnitude is applied relative to each
                           member in the group.




Hint: In a line load group if all the dimensions are zero then the line load is applied over
the full length of the member. Also when both distances of the line load perpendicular to
the member are zero, the line load is applied on the actual member and not on the area
loaded panel.

The display buttons          have the same meaning here as in the member area
loading groups.

                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                    14-25
The line loads may be displayed at any stage inside MasterFrame by pressing down the
   button in conjunction with the   button, which are found on the top tool bar.


14.8 Patch Loads
The 3D Model Manager also enables the application of general gravity patch loads to an
area in which gravity area loading has been applied. A general patch load can be
applied to a panel or over a range of panels and its location is simply measured relative
to a member, which acts as a datum. The distribution of the patch load to the members
is controlled by the panel area loading distribution characteristics, as with the line loads.
To access the 3D Model Manager Patch Loading, select 3D Model> Gravity Loading,
then click the  icon at the top right of the screen.
The 3D Model Manager Patch Loads are controlled in exactly the same way as the line
loads, with each definition of patch load held in the patch load member group.

                              The patch load groups are managed in exactly the same
                              way as the member area loading groups, as described in
                              the previous section „Working with Member Area Loading
                              Groups‟.
                              The patch load must be recto-linear in shape and also
                              orthogonal to the orientation of the member from which it is
                              measured.
                              The patch load magnitude is specified in the Dead and Live
                              text boxes in kN/m2 units. The value of loading entered
                              here is always additional to the loading defined in the
                              member area loading section.




A patch load group may also contain more than one member, whereby a single patch
load with the specified dimensions and magnitude is applied relative to each member in
the group as the example above shows.




                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                     14-26
Note: Patch loads are not designed to act as whole panel loads, and therefore should
not be used to apply an area load to a whole panel or over a number of panel which
define a larger area.

The display buttons         have the same meaning here as in the member area
loading groups.
The line loads may be displayed at any stage inside MasterFrame by pressing down the
   button in conjunction with the   button, which are found on the top tool bar.




                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                              14-27
14.9 Alternating Load Groups
The loads calculated by the 3D Model Manager are applied to the structure in exactly
the same format as standard MasterFrame member loading. Therefore the 3D Model
Manager loads must also belong to a load group. The distinction is made between dead
and live loads in the member area loads, line loads and patch loads when specifying
their values. In many instances, it is necessary not only to distinguish between dead
and live loading but also between various types in each category. MasterFrame enables
you to do this using a set of labels as shown below.

     Dead    D0     D1     D2     D3     D4     D5      D6     D7     D8     D9
     Live    L0     L1     L2     L3     L4     L5      L6     L7     L8     L9

The reason for defining loads in this way is discussed in detail in the following section of
this manual.

       3.8.1 Load Groups, Loading Cases and Combinations

The Alternating Load Groups function allows you to assign members to a particular
load group, e.g. if member 1 is in the Load Group D1 L1, then all 3D Model Manager
gravity loads applied to member 1 will be in the D1 load group and L1 load group. This
will only affect the load group of the 3D Model Manager loads and not the standard
MasterFrame loads.

To access the 3D Model Manager Alternate Loading Groups, select 3D Model> Gravity
Loading, then click the icon at the top right of the screen.
Important Note! If no Alternating Load Groups are defined, all 3D Model Manager
gravity area loads are assigned to the D1 and L1 load group by default.

Taking the following example of a concrete frame, when considering the design of
concrete beams under alternate loading, it will be necessary to differentiate between the
dead load on odd spans (1, 3, 5, .. etc.) and on even spans (2, 4, 6, .. etc.). The same
rule applies to the live loads.




                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                    14-28
This could be achieved using the following arrangement.
             1. Load Group D1    : Dead Loads on odd spans
             2. Load Group L1    : Live Loads on odd spans
             3. Load Group D2    : Dead Loads on even spans
             4. Load Group L2    : Live Loads on even spans
             5. Load Group UT    : Supports Conditions
      Note : The UT Load Factor is always applied to all Loading Cases.

Hence the Alternating Load Groups should be set up as follows.
  1. Select the Alternate Loading Groups option from the 3D-Model menu
  2. From the drop list select „Load Group D1 L1‟
   3. Ensure that Apply To mode is ON, i.e. the    button is pressed down
   4. Add the odd span members to this group, i.e. members 1-5 and 11-15. This can
      be done by individually clicking on the members or cross windowing them to
      select them as a series.
   5. From the drop list select „Load Group D2 L2‟
   6. Add the even span members to this group, i.e. members 6-10 and 16-20, using
      the same methods as described in step 4.




                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                            14-29
The following loading cases should then be set up to generate the patterned loading.
Loading Loading Case Title                     Loading Combination
Case
01        All Spans Loaded                     1.4 D1 + 1.6 L1 + 1.4 D2 + 1.6 L2 + 1.0 UT
02        Alternate Spans Loaded I             1.4 D1 + 1.6 L1 + 1.0 D2 + 0.0 L2 + 1.0 UT
03        Alternate Spans Loaded II            1.0 D1 + 0.0 L1 + 1.4 D2 + 1.6 L2 + 1.0 UT


      3.8.2 Loading Cases Menu

When the load cases are generated the Frame load diagram        can be used to view the
patterned loading arrangements.




                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                 14-30
14.10 Wind Area Loading
The Wind Loading facilities in the 3D Model Manager enable the application of an area
load in the direction normal to any planar surface. Similar to other 3D Model Manager
loading, the wind loading is controlled by wind loading member groups. Each wind
loading member group defines a planar surface and contains the following information.
   1. All the wind panel members in the planar surface
   2. Up to 8 different wind load intensities on the surface, using wind load groups W1
      to W8, representing eight different wind directions. Each group applies a uniform
      load intensity to its surface.
   3. The side of the surface on which the wind loading is applied
   4. The load distribution characteristics on the surface, i.e. one way or two way
      spanning.
The method of application of the wind loading differs from the method used to apply
gravity area loading.
The 3D Model Manager Wind Loading is accessed from the 3D-Model menu.
The Wind Load groups are managed in exactly the same way as the member area
loading groups in terms of adding members to the group, adding groups, clearing groups
and deleting groups. This is described in the previous section ‟14.4 Working with
Member Groups‟.


The 3D Model Manger Wind Loading facilities can be integrated with the MasterKey
Wind Analysis module. In this case (for general purposes) the user is required to
specify a coefficient of external pressure for each wind direction on each surface. This
is in place of specifying the actual wind load intensity as in point 2 above. The dynamic
wind pressure is then calculated by the MasterKey Wind Analysis BS 6399 module to
arrive at the wind loading on the surface.




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                  14-31
The Wind Loading Group Information
                                    Vertically spanning load distribution in relation to the
                                    surface template
                                    Horizontally spanning load distribution in relation to
                                    the surface template
                                    Two-Way spanning load distribution in relation to
                                    the surface template
                                    Wind loaded surface template. The span type
                                    options above apply to the orientation of the
                                    template and not the global orientation of the
                                    surface on the building. The template is defined
                                    by the members in the wind load group.
                                    Swap the Template window with the main view
                                    window
                                    Flip template about horizontal axis
                                    Flip Template about vertical axis
                                    Rotate Template 90 clockwise
                                    Values of wind load in groups W0 to W9. The sign
                                    of the value may be +ve or –ve. The +ve direction
                                    is indicated by red vector lines normal to the surface
                                    in the main window as shown below. Also the side
                                    of the surface being viewed in the template window
                                    represents the side on which +ve direction wind
                                    loading is applied.
                                    Define a linear projection of the loaded surface
                                    beyond the centre line of the perimeter members.
                                    Occasionally the default orientation of the surface
                                    template may need to be rotated by an amount
                                    other than 90.
                                    All members which define the panels in the current
                                    wind loaded surface. While Apply to mode is ON
                                    you can add members to this group by clicking on
                                    them individually or cross windowing for multiple
                                    member selection.

          These icons are only used in conjunction with the MasterKey Wind Analysis
module.




                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                  14-32
Setting Up a Wind Loaded Surface
When we access the 3D Model Manager Wind Loading with a file where no previous
wind loading has been applied, an empty wind load group is present. Each wind loading
group applies to one planar surface. Each planar wind loaded surface of the building
should have a separate group.
Taking the example shown above we shall demonstrate the procedure for setting up an
additional wind loaded surface for the north face of the building.




1. Click on the     button to define a new wind loading group
2. Enter a title for the surface in the group drop list, say „North Face‟
3. Select all the members which define the panels in the surface. In this case it is all the
   members shown labelled except members 75 and 76 which are bracing members.



                            14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                   14-33
4. This surface should now be shown in the surface template window. Ensure that the
   template is in the correct orientation. The red lines drawn normal to the surface
   indicate the side of the surface on which the +ve direction wind load is applied. If
   these are being applied to the wrong side of the surface, click on the button to flip
   the template 180 degrees about its vertical axis, therefore changing the direction of
   the arrows.
5. The vertically spanning option is selected by default. In this example we will change
  to the horizontally spanning option     .
6. Enter values for the magnitude of wind loading. The wind load groups could be
   represented as W1- wind from north, W2- wind from south, W3 – wind from side.


We can continue steps 1 to 6 for the remaining wind loaded surfaces on the building.
The Basic Rules of Wind Loading
1. Each wind load group applies a uniform wind load intensity normal to a planar
   surface
2. A wind load group can only apply to one planar surface
3. All the members that define the panels in a planar surface should be added to the
   wind load member group. This is different from the gravity area loading application
   method where only the loaded members are added to the group. The wind loading
   calculations determine which members of the panels are loaded and which are not
   according to the direction of span.
4. Unlike the gravity area loading method, bracing members do not need to be defined
   in a special bracing group, rather they are simply not added to the wind loading
   group and therefore do not affect the distribution of wind area loading.
5. A member can belong to more than one wind load group.
6. A panel must have three or four straight sides. A straight side of a panel can be
   made up of any number of individual elements.

Wind Loading Display Tools
There are several ways in which wind loading can be displayed. While you are viewing a
wind loading group the controls at the bottom of the screen allow you to,
       ON - View the wind load in multi-colour shading. The wind loads being
       distributed to a single member are shown in the same colour. OFF – The wind
       load distribution lines are shown in grey with no coloured shading.
       ON – Show all the wind load groups simultaneously. OFF – Only show the wind
       load distribution diagram of the current group
       ON – View the wind loading with a single colour for each group. The    option
       must also be turned on. This is most useful when used along with the Show all
       groups option.



                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                 14-34
When these three display options are selected the wind loaded surfaces are displayed
and the program performs a hidden surface removal.

There are also several display tools on the top tool bar, which can be used at any stage
inside MasterFrame.
     The 3D Model Manager load display options on the top tool bar are not activated
     until this button is set to ON (pressed down)
     Display all wind loading
     Draw the wind loading in shaded colour
     ON – View the wind loading with a single colour for each group. The      and
     option must also be turned on.
     While the above options are turned on, this button highlights the members in the
     wind loaded surfaces that the wind load is being distributed to.




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                 14-35
14.11 View and Validating the Calculated 3D Model Manager Loads

The various loads applied to the structure using the 3D Model Manager are internally
translated to standard MasterFrame loads. These loads and their values can then be
viewed just like any other MasterFrame Loads.
Using the Frame Load Diagram




By clicking on the    button on the top
tool bar the frame load diagram is
displayed. The Frame Load Diagram
enables you to view and print the applied
loads on the whole frame. You can select
to view loads according to their directions
and density (D), load groups and loading
cases.



Using the Frame View Options
The frame view options allow you to view all the loads applied to a single member in a
written list format as shown below. Simply move to the Mem Loads tab and click on a
member.




This option has the advantage of very clearly showing the types and magnitudes of
loads applied to the member selected. Selecting the     button on this tab will also


                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                              14-36
display the gravity area loading being transmitted to the chosen member from the
surrounding panels. Similarly any wind loading applied to a member is shown
graphically if the   button on this tab is selected.




                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                          14-37
14.12 Dealing With Panels Which are Not Four or Three Sided
The methods used by the 3D Model Manager for the distribution of gravity and wind
area loading are only valid for three and four straight sided panels. The straight side of
a panel can be made up of a number of elements. A few examples of valid panels
where area loading can be automatically calculated are shown below.




The panels shown below are examples of cases where the calculation of area loading
will not be carried out.




Obviously the calculation of two-way spanning area loading for these irregular panels is
difficult, however for one-way spanning loading as shown below, the likely load
distribution is much easier to calculate.




To enable the 3D Model Manager to calculate these loads we may introduce a number
of dummy members, which will effectively subdivide these panels into valid four sided or
three sided sub-panels. The dummy members are effectively standard members and
are generated using the same procedures as for standard members.




                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                  14-38
The dummy members should not receive any gravity area loading, therefore should
preferably run parallel to the direction of span.
Important! In order to ensure that these imaginary members are dummy members and
do not contribute to the stiffness of the structure, they should have a UT De-activate
specification applied to them. To do this,

   1. From the Members menu select Member Loading
   2. Click on the dummy member in the frame geometry area (it becomes highlighted
      in red).
   3. Click on the De-activate (ignore) button (bottom left again) to apply the
      deactivate specification to the highlighted dummy member
   4. Ensure that the Load Group is set to Unity, therefore deactivating the member in
      all loading cases.
   5. Repeat steps 4 to 6 for other dummy members.

The member area loading can now be applied for one way spanning distribution as
shown below, where by the heavy lines represent the members in a one way spanning
member area loading group.




14.13 Grid Lines and Levels

The MasterSeries 3D Model Manager provides the facility to create user-defined grid
lines and levels on structure modelled in MasterFrame. Using grid lines and levels has
several advantages,




                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                14-39
   When a portion of the structure is zoomed into the grid lines can be displayed
    providing a quick and easy indication of the location of the current view within the
    entire structure.
   Frame views can be automatically defined creating sections along the grid lines, and
    plan views on the specified levels
   Members can be referenced to grid lines and levels in design programs, in addition
    to using member numbers.

To set up the grid lines and levels select Grid Lines from the 3D-Model menu inside
MasterFrame.

14.13.1 Defining Grid Lines

A grid line is defined by
two node numbers (or
one node number) and
a letter/number for the
grid line reference. The
process of defining the
grid lines can be done
manually and/or
automatically.




Manual definition

   1. Select the appropriate option for the grid lines you are about to define i.e. lettered
       or numbered, using the radio buttons at the top right of the screen
   2. Enter the line reference letter/number in the Line column of an empty row of the
       grid on the right of the screen.
   3. Position the cursor in the N1 column of the same row. Click on the node in the
       frame geometry that represents one end of the grid line. That node number will
       be returned to the cell.
   4. Click on the node in the frame geometry area that represents the other end of the
       grid line. That node number will be returned to the N2 cell.
This process may be continued for other grid lines.
Tip! – We can tell the program not to draw the letter or number bubble on one side of
the grid line by placing a minus sign in front of the associated node number in either N1
or N2 cell.




                            14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                   14-40
Automatic definition
The automatic grid line generation functions scan the structure and place a grid line
definition in particular orientations. The procedure for using the automatic grid line
generation is as follows.

     1. Select the appropriate option for the grid lines you are about to define i.e. lettered
        or numbered, using the radio button at the top right of the screen
     2. Place the cursor in the Line cell of the first free row in the grid line table.
     3. Click on the left most lighting bolt button at the bottom right side of the screen.
        This will automatically enter either letter or numbers (depending on which option
        was selected in step 1) in the Line column starting from the row selected in step 2
        and also starting from the letter/number entered in the text box to the right of the
        lightening bolt button.
     4. Click on the right most lightening bolt button at the bottom right of the screen. If
        the lettered grid lines are selected, the program will automatically fill the N1 and
        N2 cells, creating grid lines parallel to the X axis (horizontal). If the numbered
        grid lines are selected, grid lines are created parallel to the Z axis (vertical). This
        operation only considers the nodes in the current view, therefore it may be
        convenient to use zoom, view filters and/or named views to improve the
        performance of the automatic grid line generation.
If the grid lines you wish to automatically generate are not parallel with either the X or Z
axis, then the structure can be rotated on plan by enter the amount in degrees in the text
box to the right of the automatic grid line generation button. The frame should be
rotated on plan using the facility until the lettered grid line(s) are purely horizontal on
screen, or the numbered grid line(s) are purely vertical on screen.

14.13.2 Defining Levels

It is essential that levels are defined in order to facilitate the correct application of the
default dead and live loads as indicated in section 14.2. Members associated with a
level will also be referenced to their level in the various design programs.
                                                                 The levels are simply defined
                                                                 by a Y co-ordinate and a level
                                                                 name for reference purposes.
                                                                 For sloping or stepped levels
                                                                 the Y co-ordinate value should
                                                                 be the lowest point. The
                                                                 values of dead and live loads
                                                                 entered in the Area Loading
                                                                 Defaults section are applied
                                                                 from the highest level to the
                                                                 lowest.
                                                               As with the grid lines, levels
                                                               can be defined either
                                                               manually or automatically.




                            14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                      14-41
Manual definition
For manual definition simple enter the Y co-ordinate value of the lowest point of the level
and the level name in any free row of the table. Repeat this for all levels in the structure.

Automatic definition
Automatic level definition is completed in a similar fashion as the grid lines, using the
lightening bolt buttons at the bottom right of the screen.

   1. Place the cursor in the Level cell of the first free row in the levels table.
   2. Click on the left most lighting bolt button at the bottom right side of the screen.
      This will automatically enter „Level #‟ in the Level column of the table, starting
      from the row selected in step 1 and also starting from the number (#) entered in
      the text box to the right of the lightening bolt button.
   3. Click on the right most lightening bolt button at the bottom right of the screen.
      The program will scan the structure and enter a Y Val for each different Y co-
      ordinate in the structure.

The automatic level definition process may pick-up many Y co-ordinates which do not
represent levels in your structure. Section 14.10.3 outlines how these can be removed
and edited.

14.13.3 Grid Line and Level Editing Utilities

During either the manual or automatic generation of grid lines and level definition, the
following editing utilities are useful.

        Insert new row above the currently selected row
        Move current line/level definition up or down the table. The order of the grid
        lines/levels in the table does not influence the grid line/level reference. If,
        however you wish to renumber/letter the current set of grid lines/levels using the
        automatic numbering/lettering function then the order is important since the grid
        lines/levels are renamed alphabetically or ascending from the current row
        downwards through the table.
        Delete current row, i.e. grid line/level definition.      During the automatic
        generation of grid lines/levels it is quite common to obtain more grid line/level
        definitions than required. These can easily be deleting using this function.
        Copy information from current row to clip board.
        Paste information from clip board to current row
        Grid lines only. Change all the N1 grid line node number to negative, i.e do not
        draw the letter or number bubble on that nodes side of the grid line. Similar for
        N2.




                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                     14-42
 14.14 Integrated Composite Beam Design
 The 3D Model Manager provides the facility to proceed from frame analysis to integrated
 MasterBeam Composite Beam design. The MasterSeries MasterBeam Composite
 Design has traditionally be used as a stand alone program, where composite beams
 were designed on an element by element basis with the user specifying the beam
 geometry, loading and design parameters. The integration of MasterBeam Composite
 with Frame and the 3D Model Manager area loading has enabled much of this
 information to be linked, hence preventing the need to input repetitive information and
 improving accuracy.

 14.14.1 Setting up the Composite Design Frame in MasterFrame
 The geometry of the structure should be generated in the normal way. It is possible to
 design only part of a frame as composite design. Only members with the following
 conditions will be valid for applying integrated composite design briefs to.
a)      Steel I sections.
     b) In the case of
         structural
         members
         consisting of more
         than one analysis
         element, such as a
         primary beam with
         incoming
         secondary beams,
         then this structural
         member must be
         defined as an
         analysis or design
         super member.
         Some examples of
         this are shown
         opposite.




                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                14-43
      c) Simply supported
         members, i.e. no
         member end major
         axis moments.
         Single members
         must have a major
         axis member end
         release applied to
         both ends.
         Analysis/Design
         super members
         must have a major
         axis member end
         release applied to
         each extreme end.

     d) Non-vertical members
     e) East-West direction members with the lower node number having the smaller x
        co-ordinate. North-South direction members with the lower node number having
        the smaller z co-ordinate. MasterSeries attempts to number members using this
        scheme, however if this is not the case a global renumbering may be required.
     f) While it is not necessary it is advisable to apply the stiff deck criterion to the
        members that are to be designed compositely. Stiff Deck can easily be applied in
        member releases area.

It is important that gravity area loading is applied to the floor area you wish to design
compositely. The dead and live area loading intensities specified will be appropriately
distributed to the members in floor, however in addition to this the floor area along with
specified slab thickness and metal deck profile is used to calculate the slab self-
weight. Thus in terms of the composite design the slab self-weight is applied as the
self-weight dead loading and the dead load intensity specified is treated as the super-
imposed dead load. Therefore the dead load intensity entered in either the default
area loading section or in the member area loading groups, should not include the
slab self-weight.


14.14.2 Integrated Composite Design Basic Data
In MasterFrame we must active the composite basic data to inform MasterFrame that
there will be an element of integrated composite design carried out with this frame. To
do this,
1. From the 3D Model menu
    select Area Loading
    Defaults
2.        Click on the
     Composite Construction
     button.



                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                  14-44
In doing this loading cases numbers 1 to 5 have been generated and are dedicated
integrated composite beam design loading cases. Any existing loading cases are
retained but are simply displaced in the list of the loading cases. The first five composite
design loading cases are as follows.

Load Group Labels
 Load Group UT              Unity Load Factor (All Cases)
 Load Group D0              Dead Load (Self Weight)
 Load Group D1              Super Imposed Dead Load
 Load Group L0              Construction Load
 Load Group L1              Live Load

Loading       Title                                Combination
Case
01            Ultimate Limit State (Final          + 1.00 UT + 1.40 D0 + 1.40 D1 + 1.60
              Stage)                               L1
02            Ultimate         Limit      State    + 1.00 UT + 1.40 D0 + 1.60 L0
              (Construction Stage)
03            Live Load (Serviceability)           + 1.00 UT + 1.00 L1
04            Super        Imposed        Load     + 1.00 UT + 1.00 D1
              (Serviceability)
05            Dead     Load      -   Selfweight    + 1.00 UT + 1.00 D0
              (Serviceability)

The thickness of the slab must also be defined in MasterFrame for the calculating the
slab self weight and also as an integrated parameter of the composite beam design.
The slab thickness is defined in the Frame Load Data tab, beneath the default dead and
live area loading values (as shown above). The default slab thickness can be defined
for each level in the building in the same as the default dead and live load is defined
(see section 14.2). The slab thickness can also be defined in the Member Area Loading
Group information as described in section 14.3.

Note: The default dead load in the Frame Loading Data should only be the super-
imposed dead load and should not include the slab self-weight.

The Frame Loading Data tab has now additional composite design data regarding,




                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                    14-45
1. The type of metal deck profile to
    be used
2. An indicator for each level as to
    weather the floor is a solid slab
    (S) or uses the specified metal
    deck profile (P)
3. An indicator for each level as to
    weather the floor is composite
    construction (C) or non-
    composite construction (N)
4. Additional default loads in kN/m2
    for partitions (D1), services and
    finishes (D1), construction load
    (L0), steel mesh self-weight and
    metal deck self weight (D0).
5. The wet density of the concrete
    as used for calculating the slab
    self weight (D0)
Apart from the metal deck profile all other parameters here are defined for each level in
the same way as the default dead and live loadings. In a four story building the above
example translates as follows.
Level     Live    Super Slab       Deck    Const Partiti Serv.     Const Mesh       Conc.
applied   Load    Impos thick      type    . type on     & fin.    .     &          Wet
to…       kN/m    ed                                               Load Deck        Densi
          2             D0                         L1        D1
                  Dead                                                   Load       ty
                                                                   L0
                  Load
          L1                                                               D0       D0
                  kN/m2
                  D1
Roof      5       0        200     Solid   Non-    0         0     0       0        2350
Plan                                       Com
                                           p
Level 3   5       0        150     MD      Com     1         0.5   0.5     0.2      2350
                                   60      p
Level 2   5       0        150     MD      Com     1         0.5   0.5     0.2      2350
                                   60      p
Level 1   5       0        150     MD    Non- 1          0.5    0.5      0.2    2350
                                   60    Com
                                         p
Once this information has been defined the frame can be analysed in the normal fashion
enabling us to proceed to integrated composite design.




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                  14-46
14.14.3 Mixed Composite Non-Composite Construction
The composite design data defined in the area loading defaults applies globally to an
entire floor of the structure. The 3D Model Manager provides a „Mix Composite / Non-
Composite Construction‟ option, which allows the default global composite design data
to be changed for local members.
To access the 3D Model Manager Mixed Construction, select 3D Model> Gravity
Loading, then click the icon at the top right of the screen.
                             To use the Mixed Construction option:
                              1. Enter a title for the member group
                              2. Check the appropriate boxes relating to the
                                 composite design data you wish to change for a
                                 particular group of members.
                              3. Enter the modified data
                              4. Select the members to add them to this group


                              To apply a different set of changes to another group of
                              members, then add a new group and repeat the
                              process.




                         14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                               14-47
14.14.4 User Defined Composite Beam Design Groups

Design groups can be used to:
  a) Define a common set of design parameters for a group of members, and/or
  b) Specify that a group of member must be designed to have the same section size

Although not essential, design groups are recommended since they allow a more
controllable and rational design to be achieved, particularly when allowing the composite
design program to perform an automatic design.

To define a composite design group:
   1. Select Multi-Storey or 3D Model> Steel and
       Composite Design Groups.
   2. Enter a group name in the drop list at the top right
       hand side, e.g. Edge Beams
   3. From the design group type drop list below this,
       select Composite Beam
   4. Enter the common design parameters, i.e. deflection
       criteria, maximum depth and/or minimum depth.
   5. Check „Change data for whole group‟ to employ the
       design parameters entered for all members in this
       group.
   6. Check „Change Section for whole group‟ if you wish
       all members in this group to have exactly the same
       section size.
   7. Select the members to be included in this group by
       either individual selection or multi member window
       selection.

                                These buttons perform the
same functions as in all member groups described in
section 14.4 of this manual.

The deflection limit value entered is generally the Span/ over value, which is used for the
live load only service deflections. More intelligently when a value between 1 and 20 is
entered a deflection limit pattern is used.
Deflection limit patterns are
defined inside the Composite
Beam Design program from
the     MasterFrame       menu.
Deflection limit patterns allow
different “span over” values to
be      used      for   different
combinations of serviceability
cases.
In addition to this absolute mm deflection limits can also be set in this area. For
example entering “360; 10” in row 2 on the Live column means that for deflection limit


                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                    14-48
pattern number 2 live load only deflections will be check against Span/360 and also
against an absolute deflection of 10.0mm.

14.14.5 Entering Integrated Composite Beam Design
                           From the Design menu select Composite Design.

                           The integrated MasterBeam design uses design briefs, which
                           follow the same format and contain the same information as
                           the deisgn briefs in the stand-alone MasterBeam composite
                           design program. If you are unfamiliar with the stand-alone
                           composite program it may be beneficial to review it manual
                           documentation at this stage before proceeding further.

                                         7. Masterbeam: Composite Beam Design

The integrated composite beam design operates on the basic principle that a design
brief is applied to any member that is to be designed compositely. Each design brief
contains a set of parameters, which produce the design results. Some of these
parameters are set by the integrated link from MasterFrame, while other more obvious
variable design parameters such as section size, shear stud arrangement etc. can be
changed in each individual design brief.


14.14.6 Setting up the integrated composite design briefs

Unlike the MasterKey steel design program there is only one type of design brief, which
is applicable to all types of composite beams. When a composite design brief is applied
to a member in the structure the program automatically identifies the composite beam
type as one of the following,

   a)   Secondary internal beam
   b)   Primary internal beam
   c)   Mixed primary-secondary beam
   d)   Primary edge beam
   e)   Secondary edge beam




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                14-49
Upon entering the integrated
composite beam design for the
first time there will be one
design brief, which is not
attached to any member in the
structure. The purpose of the
initial brief is to allow you to
change the default design
parameters that will be used
for the application of further
design         briefs.     Some
parameters that you may
decide to change in the initial
brief are concrete grade, mesh
reinforcement area, modular
ratio and shear connector type.
The next step is then to apply a design brief (based on the initial default brief) to each
member in the structure that you wish to design compositely. This can be done with
varying levels of automation as described below.
Note: In the frame geometry window members that are coloured grey are not valid
composite beam member as specified in section 14.11.1 and are unable to receiving a
composite design brief. Members with a composite design brief attached to them are
coloured black. Valid composite members with no design brief attached to them are
coloured green.

Apply design briefs on a member by member basis
Firstly apply the initial brief to a member in the structure. You will notice that with the
initial brief the Apply To mode       (top of frame geometry area) is automatically active.
While in Apply To mode, whichever member we select from the frame geometry area,
the current design brief is applied to that member. Hence simply click on a member to
apply the brief to it. By doing this, the design brief is attached to the member and the
brief now obtains the integrated information necessary to complete the design. The
design results for the selected member are displayed in the main design output window.
To add further design briefs to more members, change to Copy To       mode (top of
frame geometry area). Click on a member or cross-window a group of members to
apply a composite design brief to them. When design briefs have been applied to the
appropriate members, change to Search mode        to ensure that further clicking on
members does not produce additional unwanted design briefs.

Automatically apply design briefs to the entire structure
If all, or indeed the majority, of all the beams in the structure are of composite
construction, then it may be more convenient to allow the program to apply an integrated
composite design brief to all valid composite members (coloured green) in the frame.
From the menu bar inside the integrated composite beam program select
MasterFrame> Create All Composite Design Briefs. This process may have added


                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                   14-50
composite beam design briefs to members that are not composite. These briefs can be
deleted by clicking on the member while in search mode     , then clicking the       button
below the frame geometry window to delete the current brief.

Automatically apply design briefs to the current view
Selecting MasterFrame> Add Briefs for Members in Current View will add composite
design briefs to all valid composite beam members that are currently displayed. Hence
for example if only a certain floor of a structure is of composite construction, then the
current view can be filtered/zoomed to display only the composite construction floor.
The current view can be customised using the following tools in conjunction with each
other.
1. The „Frame View Options‟. To access the Frame View Option click on the       button
   on the top tool bar and select the View Filter tab. These tools can be used to
   display only certain parts of the structure based on current section sizes, member
   orientations and user defined member groups. It may be most useful to create a
   number of member groups in MasterFrame that contain sets of composite members
   (in MasterFrame select Members Groups from the Members menu). The view can
   be filter to show only the members in the defined groups.




   2. The Zooming function    as used in MasterFrame.
   3. The Frame Views drop list on the top tool bar to display user-defined views.

      3.2 MasterFrame Top Tool Bar



Navigating the Design Briefs
Having applied an integrated composite beam design brief to the composite members
then engineer must be able to easily move between the design of one member and
another. This can be done by one of the following methods.
   1. Ensure that you are in Search for next brief mode         . Click on a member to
      display its design results. The member must have a design brief applied to it, i.e.
      it will be coloured black.
   2. Alternatively you may select the design brief attached to the member form the
      design brief drop list at the bottom of the Beam Section tab.


                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                  14-51
Unlinking a Design Brief From a Member
After applying a design brief to a member and establishing the integrated MasterFrame
information, the MasterFrame link may be removed, thus converting the integrated
design brief to an independent one. This gives the engineer the flexibility to alter
MasterFrame linked parameters in the design brief that are other wise unavailable for
change while the brief is linked.
To unlink a design brief from a member,
    1. Go to the design brief to unlink, either clicking on the member that the brief is
       attached to while in Search mode, or slecting the brief from the design brief drop
       list in the Beam Section tab.
    2. Change to Apply To mode
    3. Click on the member that the design brief is currently attached to (this member
       will be highlighted in red) and a dialog box will appear asking if wish to remove
       the link from MasterFrame. Reply Yes to continue.

With composite beam design briefs applied to the appropriate members in the structure
the engineer may begin to review the design output and design each composite beam
member.


14.14.7 The Editing Area
The Editing Area at the bottom of screen contains the design parameters for the current
design brief. It is divided into 6 tabs: Floor Information, Beam Section, Additional Loads,
Web Openings, Open Library and Defaults. Much of the information in the editing tabs
for integrated design briefs are greyed out since they are determined by the integrated
link with the frame analysis.
The design output is updated automatically and instantaneously as any influential input
data is changed. Each of the six input tabs are as per the stand alone MasterBeam
composite design program and are described in more detail in its respective manual
document.


14.14.8 The MasterBeam Tool Bar
The MasterBeam tool bar is located beneath the Frame Geometry area and provides a
short cut to some of the option available in the editing tabs, as well as functions for
saving coping and pasting design briefs.
      Save current file
      Delete the current brief
      Copy the current brief to clipboard
      Add new brief form clipboard
      Add new brief based on current defaults


                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                  14-52
      Enter global editing mode (changes all briefs)
      Graphics always on top in the deign output window
      Un-propped during construction stage
      Propped during construction stage
      Use continuous metal deck profile
      Apply circular web openings
      Apply rectangular web opening
      Export / print graphics ON/OFF
      Project title and Job references
      Print current brief
      Print all briefs
      Export current brief to Word
      Export all briefs to Word
Non integrated composite design briefs only
      Make current brief into secondary beam
      Make current brief into primary beam with one transverse beam
      Make current brief into primary beam with two transverse beam
      Make current brief into general (User defined) beam
      Convert current brief to mixed primary secondary beam
      Apply transverse beams (Primary beams ON/OFF)
      Apply additional point loads (as defined in the additional loads tab)
      Apply additional uniformly distributed load (Additional Loads)



14.14.9 The Design Output
Graphics
The on screen graphics of the current design brief changes dynamically with any
modifications to the information in the editing area. The overall graphics scale may be
altered using the spin button as indicated below. By clicking the Graphics always on top
button in the MasterBeam tool bar the graphics will remain visible as you scroll through
the design output.




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                 14-53
Change scale of                                                                                    Composite beam
beam graphics                                                                                      type
                                    Member and grid line reference that the
                                    brief applies to                          Metal deck profile



                  Rectangular                  Stiffened circular                Secondary
                  web opening                  web opening                       beams


                                                                                                   Detailed design
                                                                                                   output



 Detailed Design Output
 The design output is presented in a detailed and concise format. The various deign
 checks are clearly divided into headed sections. The results are generally displayed
 over four columns, in the format;
 Column 1 – Description of calculation, item or numerical value.
 Column 2 – Design data or calculation.
 Column 3 – Calculation result or permissible values.
 Column 4 – Design check verdict, OK or Warning.
 The design output includes;
  Summary of design data – details of beam geometry, steel section, metal deck
    profile, concrete slab, reinforcement, shear connectors, and applied loading.
  Section Properties
  Ultimate limit state – beam shear, shear connection, axial resistance and moment
    capacity design checks at critical locations along the beam.
  Transverse reinforcement
  Serviceability limit state – deflection, steel stress and concrete stress design checks.
  Vibration Analysis – natural frequency check
  Openings – summary of location and size. Composite / Non-composite moments,
    Vierendeel moment, axial force design check. Upper and lower web-flange
    classifications, with axial and shear force capacity checks. Dimensional checks.

 Design Summary Area


 The design summary area permits immediate evaluation of the fundamental design
 checks. The unity ratios are dynamically updated with any alteration of information in
 the editing area.
 By clicking on any of the items in the design summary area, the corresponding detailed
 design output is displayed. The paragraph and section navigator spin buttons also
 provide useful tools for scrolling the detailed design output.


                                14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                                     14-54
Any unity ratios
exceeding 1.0 represent
a design failure and are
highlighted in red. The
background colour of the
design output and
graphics area also
changes to Cyan, making
any design failure
immediately apparent.




14.14.10 Designing the Composite Beams
The composite beams can be designed on a member by member basis or by group
design.

Single Member Design
To design a single composite beam,
1. While in Search for next brief mode     click on the member you wish to design. This
   member should already have an integrated composite design brief applied to it as
   described above in section14.11.3.
2. The Design output for selected member is displayed in the design output window.
   Based on these results various design parameters in the editing tabs may be
   changed to arrive at the most optimum design.            The Auto Design button
                   in the Beam Section tab can also be used to arrive at a suitable
   section size, area of transverse shear reinforcement and arrangement of shear stud
   connectors.
All changes to the design brief, including steel section size, are automatically
stored when changed. Corrections are made to the applied bending moment to
account for the change in section self weight.
Grouped Member Design


                           14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                           14-55
The integrated composite beam
design has a very powerful
function to perform intelligent
member grouping. By clicking
on the     button in the frame
geometry area the program will
automatically scan the structure
and highlight all similar beams
to the current beam, as shown
opposite. This selection is
based on member length,
applied moment, web openings
and section type.



If no other members are highlighted then no similar beams have been found. While in
group mode the design output refers to all members in the group and indeed all the
member numbers and grid line references are listed at the beginning of the design
output. Any change to the information in the editing tabs is applied to all members in the
group and their associated design briefs. The member group can be designed in the
same way as the single member design by changing the information in the editing tabs.
The Auto Design button                  in the Beam Section tab can also be used while
in group mode. To turn off group mode and continue designing on a member by
member basis simple click on the      button again to return it to the off (up) position.

14.14.11 Printing the Design Results
The MasterBeam buttons below the frame geometry area provide printing facilities for
the design results produced by the various design briefs applied to the members in the
structure.
       Export / print MasterBeam graphics ON/OFF. This refers to the composite beam
       graphic at the beginning of the design output window.
       Edit Project title and Job references. This information appears in the tile block
       area of the calculation sheets.
       Print current brief. Prints the design results as shown in the current design
       output area. If the current design output refers to a group design then the group
       information will ber printed.
       Print all briefs. Prints the design results for all design briefs in the structure.
       This option is most likely only suitable if the number of design briefs is small.
       Export current brief to Word (PowerPad / Calculation Wizard users only)
       Export all briefs to Word (PowerPad / Calculation Wizard users only)




                          14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                                   14-56
14.14.12 Ending the Integrated Composite Beam Design Session

To end your current integrated composite beam design session, from the menu bar
select File >Exit MasterBeam. You will be prompted to save the file. Reply Yes to
permanently save the changes you have made to your design. Reply No if you wish to
exit this session without saving any of the changes you have made.




                        14 MasterSeries 3D Model Manager                             14-57

				
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