Docstoc

Science Unit teacher notes

Document Sample
Science Unit teacher notes Powered By Docstoc
					                     Unit 30A: Ch.13 The Nervous System
Course Notes

         13.1      THE IMPORTANCE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM [Nelson, pp.406–10]

                                          Today’s Objectives
                  Today you must be able to:
                      1. describe the general structure and function of a neuron and the
                         myelin sheath.
                      2. identify the principal structures of the central and peripheral
                         nervous systems.

           Parkinson’s Disease:

                A good reason to study the nervous system:
                     Do you recognize this face?

                             o This is _____________________
                               (A Canadian actor)
                             o Michael was born in Edmonton,
                               Alberta in 1961
                             o Michael is famous for many TV
                               shows and movies in his younger
                               days.
                             o Now, Michael is commonly seen
                               on TV promoting awareness for

                               ____________________________.
                             o He first started to show signs of the disease in 1990 while shooting
                               the film “Doc Hollywood”.

                         What is Parkinson’s Disease?
                            o It is a progressive degenerative nerve disorder that affects _______
                                 activity.
                                     – The cells that degenerate and die belong to two areas of the
                                         brain:
                                             » substantia nigra (basal ganglia)
                                     – Normally, these cells secrete two chemicals
                                         (neurotransmitters) called:

                                            »   _____________________

                                            »   _____________________




           Woods                                                                                  1
Unit 30A: Nervous System                                                            Course Notes


The Importance of the Nervous System:

     What does the nervous system do for me?
         Your nervous system undertakes many tasks, including, but not limited to,
            the following:

                   o ___________________________________:
                        – depth of breathing
                        – condition of breathing muscles
                        – amount of water in the respiratory tract
                        – sensory information
                           (temp., odour, light intensity, touch, etc.)

                   o ______________:
                        – happy times; sad times
                        – hopes for the future (ambitions)

                   o ______________:
                        – The chemical composition of our brain strongly influences
                           how we feel.
                        – The way our brain responds to external events in our lives
                           will determine the chemical composition of our brain and
                           thus set our mood.

              In a nutshell, the nervous system allows us to respond to our ___________
               environment.

Organization of the Nervous System:

     There are 2 main divisions of the nervous system:

              The ______________ Nervous System (_______):

                   o Consists of the _______ and the _____________________.
                   o Acts as a coordinating center for incoming and outgoing
                     information.

              The ______________ Nervous System (_______):

                   o Consists of nerves carrying information between ______________

                       and the _______.




2                                                      13.1 – The Importance of the Nervous System
Unit 30A: Nervous System                                                           Course Notes


                       o The PNS is further subdivided:

                                –    ______________ nerves:
                                        » Controls skeletal muscles, bones, and skin.

                                         »    Consists of __________ and ___________ neurons.

                                –    ______________ nerves:
                                        » Contains special motor nerves that control the

                                              internal _______ of the body.

                                         »    There are 2 divisions of the ANS:

                                              _____________________ nervous system

                                              ____________________________ nervous system




Anatomy of a Nerve Cell:

     Cells of the Nervous System:

                 The ______________:
                     o The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system.
                           – Neurons are specialized cells that are able to conduct

                                     __________________________ impulses over substantial
                                     distances very quickly.




13.1 – The Importance of the Nervous System                                                  3
Unit 30A: Nervous System                                                            Course Notes


              _______ Cells:

                   o _____________________ cells.
                   o Important for structural support and metabolism of neurons.

     Anatomy of a Nerve Cell:

              _____________________:
                  o contains the nucleus and is responsible for routine maintenance
                     of the neuron.

              ___________________:
                  o carries impulses ______________ the cell body.

              _______:
                  o conducts nerve impulses _______ from the cell body.

              _____________________:

                   o glistening ______________ coat of fatty protein.

                   o acts as _____________________ for the neurons.

                           –   prevents the loss of charged _______ from the neuron.
                               (More on this in a couple of classes)

                   o formed by special glial cells called ______________ cells.

              _____________________:
                  o found on all nerve fibres in the _______.

                   o a thin outer membrane, formed by ______________ cells,
                     which surrounds the neuron.

                   o promotes _____________________ of damaged axons.

              _____________________:

                   o the _______ between sections of myelin sheaths.

                   o important for ______________ of nerve impulses.

              _____________________:

                   o the _______ of the axon.




4                                                      13.1 – The Importance of the Nervous System
Unit 30A: Nervous System                                                            Course Notes


                 _____________________:

                       o contain _____________________, like dopamine.

                                –    chemicals that can ______________, or ____________, the
                                     firing of a post-synaptic neuron.

                 ______________:

                       o the ______ between the synaptic end of one neuron (presynaptic
                         neuron) and a dendrite of another neuron (postsynaptic neuron).

     Types of Neurons:
          There are 3 distinct types of neurons:

                       o ______________ neurons: (______________ neurons)
                            – Detect stimuli via sensory receptors (like taste buds) and

                                     transmit the stimulus _________________ for processing.
                                –    Cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in clusters

                                     called ______________ located outside of the spinal cord.

                       o _____________________:
                            – Link neurons to other neurons.

                                –    Located only within the _______.

                       o ______________ Neurons: (______________ neurons)

                                –    Transmit impulses _____________________ to muscles,
                                     organs, or glands.
                                        » Muscles, organs, and glands are classified as

                                              ____________ because they produce ___________
                                              to the stimuli.




13.1 – The Importance of the Nervous System                                                      5
Unit 30A: Nervous System                                                          Course Notes




                                  Closure
        Can you: (Use a check mark in the box to indicate that you can)
            1. describe the general structure and function of a neuron             
               and the myelin sheath.
            2. identify the principal structures of the central and                
               peripheral nervous systems.


    Homework:     Nelson (2007), p.410
                       Practice Questions #1–4
                  Nelson (2007), p.414
                       Section 13.1 Question #6

    *** DON’T FORGET TO HAND IN YOUR 3–2–1 EXIT PASS BEFORE YOU LEAVE ***



                                 Today’s Objectives
        Today you must be able to:
            1. describe, using an example, the organization of neurons into
               nerves.
            2. describe, using an example, the composition and function of reflex
               arcs; e.g., the patellar reflex, the pupillary reflex
            3. design and perform an experiment to investigate the physiology of
               reflex arcs

Anatomy of a Nerve Cell:

     Nerves:
          Recall from last class:
              o There are 3 types of neurons:
                       – Sensory, Interneurons, and Motor.
          Within the CNS:
              o The CNS consists of mainly _____________________ that highly
                   interconnected.
                       – This permits the complex _____________________ that
                          goes on in the brain.
              o The CNS does send output and receive input to and from the ____.

                           – This is done by ________ (output) and _________ (input)
                             neurons.
               Within the PNS:
                   o Neurons are typically organized into _______, or nerve bundles.
                           – Neurons that connect to similar parts of the body will be
                             bundled, or grouped, together.


6                                                    13.1 – The Importance of the Nervous System
Unit 30A: Nervous System                                                            Course Notes


                                –    For example,
                                        » Sensory neurons that terminate in the left index
                                            finger will be bundled together.
                                        » They will connect to the spinal cord as a unified
                                            group.




The Reflex Arc:

     Reflexes:
          Reflexes allow you to respond to the _____________________ without
             thinking.
                 o This is very important, as you are able to react to a situation

                           before your brain has time to ______________ the information.

                 Reflexes are a ______________ mechanism.
                     o When working properly, they should allow you to react to a

                           situation in order to minimize ______________ to your body.

     The Physiology of a Reflex Arc:
          The Components:

                       1. A _____________________:
                             – pain, pressure, photo/light, sound, temperature, etc.

                       2. A ______________ neuron.

                       3. An ______________.

                       4. A ______________ neuron.

                       5. An ___________:
                             – Usually a ______________ of some type.

                 The Sequence of Events:
                     1. Sensory receptor:
                            – A sensory receptor is _____________________ by some
                               external factor. (i.e., your finger touches a tack)




13.1 – The Importance of the Nervous System                                                   7
Unit 30A: Nervous System                                                             Course Notes


                   2. Sensory neuron:
                         – The sensory receptor then sends an __________ down the

                             sensory neuron towards the ____ (usually the spinal cord).
                   3. Interneuron:
                          – In the CNS, the sensory neuron relays the impulse to an

                               ______________.

                           –   The interneuron will send the impulse:

                                      to other __________________ sending the impulse

                                       up the CNS to the _______ (for processing).

                                 to a ______________ neuron.
                   4. Motor neuron:
                        – An impulse travels down the motor neuron towards the

                             effector (usually a ______________).
                   5. Effector:
                          – The muscle ______________.

                                  Closure
        Can you: (Use a check mark in the box to indicate that you can)
            1. describe, using an example, the organization of neurons                
               into nerves.
            2. describe, using an example, the composition and function               
               of reflex arcs; e.g., the patellar reflex, the pupillary reflex
            3. design and perform an experiment to investigate the                    
               physiology of reflex arcs


    Homework:      Nelson (2007), p.413
                        Section 13.1 Question #1–3

    *** DON’T FORGET TO HAND IN YOUR 3–2–1 EXIT PASS BEFORE YOU LEAVE ***




8                                                       13.1 – The Importance of the Nervous System

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:3
posted:4/26/2011
language:English
pages:8