Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles and

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					Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles and
Approaches for Developing Language in
         Children with Autism

            December 9, 2005




     Workshop Materials
                                        Table of Contents


Verbal Operants Chart................................................................................................. Page 3

Reinforcer Checklist.................................................................................................... Page 4

The Behavioral Language Assessment Form.............................................................. Page 8

Language Acquisition Barriers ................................................................................. Page 11

Pairing Data Sheet..................................................................................................... Page 14

Advanced Manding ................................................................................................... Page 15

Intraverbals................................................................................................................ Page 16

Yes/No Manding Protocol......................................................................................... Page 20




                                                                                                                                       2
Verbal Operant       Antecedent             Behavior            Reinforcement
                                                                 (Function)
    Mand            (Establishing           "cookie"                Direct
                     Operation)              Verbal             Reinforcement
                                                              (Child gets cookie)


     Tact              Object               "cookie"                Social
                                             Verbal             Reinforcement
                                         correspondence

 Intraverbal       Verbal stimulus          "cookie"                Social
                 ("what do you eat?)         Verbal             Reinforcement


    Echoic        Verbal stimulus           "cookie"         Social Reinforcement
                    ("Cookie")               Verbal
                                              Exact
                                         correspondence

  Receptive       Verbal stimulus        Touches cookie             Social
                  ("Touch cookie"      Non-verbal response      Reinforcement




                                                                                    3
                                          REINFORCER CHECKLIST

NAME: _________________________________
DATE: ____________________________             AGE: ________

EDIBLE REINFORCERS:
Candy:                      YES    NO                                                  YES    NO
        1. M&M’s            ____   ____                       36. cottage cheese       ____   ____
        2. jelly beans      ____   ____                       37. peanut butter        ____   ____
        3. licorice         ____   ____                       38. jam/jelly            ____   ____
        4. candy cane       ____   ____                       39. ice cream toppings   ____   ____
        5. gum              ____   ____                       40. ________________     ____   ____
        6. Smarties         ____   ____             Others:
        7. lollipops        ____   ____                       41. cake                 ____   ____
        8. chocolate        ____   ____                       42. cup cakes            ____   ____
        9. candy kisses     ____   ____                       43. doughnuts            ____   ____
       10. _________        ____   ____                       44. crackers             ____   ____
Cereals:                                                      45. frosting             ____   ____
        11. Cheerios        ____   ____                       46. corn chips           ____   ____
        12. Cookie Crisps   ____   ____                       47. cheese balls         ____   ____
        13. Fruit Loops     ____   ____                       48. Doritos              ____   ____
        14. Trix            ____   ____                       49. cookies              ____   ____
        15. __________      ____   ____                       50. popcorn              ____   ____
Fruit:                                                        51. Animal Crackers      ____   ____
        16. raisins         ____   ____                       52. Cracker Jacks        ____   ____
        17. apples          ____   ____                       53. raw veggies          ____   ____
        18. oranges         ____   ____                       54. ________________     ____   ____
        19. bananas         ____   ____
        20. __________      ____   ____             MATERIAL REINFORCERS
Liquid:                                                 1. stopwatch                   ____   ____
        21. milk            ____   ____                 2. hand cream                  ____   ____
        22. choc. milk      ____   ____                 3. silly putty                 ____   ____
        23. juice           ____   ____                 4. bubbles                     ____   ____
        24. soda pop        ____   ____                 5. combs                       ____   ____
        25. lemonade        ____   ____                 6. ChapStick                   ____   ____
        26. __________      ____   ____                 7. Play Doh                    ____   ____
Frozen:                                                 8. stickers                    ____   ____
        27. Popsicle        ____ ____                   9. perfume                     ____   ____
        28. ice cream       ____ ____                   10. toy instruments            ____   ____
        29. M & M’s         ____ ____                   11. boats to make              ____   ____
        30. __________      ____ ____                   12. cars to make               ____   ____
Soft:                                                   13. puzzles                    ____   ____
        31. pudding         ____   ____                 14. bubble gum                 ____   ____
        32. Jell-o          ____   ____                 15. straws                     ____   ____
        33. yogurt          ____   ____                 16. powder                     ____   ____
        34. marshmallow     ____   ____                 17. nail polish                ____   ____
        35. cheese          ____   ____                 18. beads                      ____   ____




                                                                                                     4
MATERIAL REINFORCERS (cont)                    OTHER REINFORCERS
                                 YES    NO                                               YES NO
      19. stamps and stickers    ____   ____            1. rocking                       ____ ____
      20. masks                  ____   ____            2. brushing hair                 ____ ____
      21. paper/crayons          ____   ____                (own or others)
      22. fans                   ____   ____            3. clapping hands                ____   ____
      23. balloons               ____   ____            4. carry upside down             ____   ____
      24. badges                 ____   ____            5. airplane rides                ____   ____
      25. bean bags              ____   ____            6. drawing pictures              ____   ____
      26. hats                   ____   ____            7. run outside                   ____   ____
      27. mirrors                ____   ____            8. hide and seek                 ____   ____
      28. toy games              ____   ____            9. piggyback rides               ____   ____
      29. books                  ____   ____            10. chase                        ____   ____
      30. coloring books         ____   ____            11. paper and crayons            ____   ____
      31. whistles               ____   ____            12. finger plays                 ____   ____
      32. blocks                 ____   ____            13. peek-a-boo                   ____   ____
      33. paint brushes          ____   ____            14. sing songs                   ____   ____
      34. crown                  ____   ____            15. imitating kids               ____   ____
      35. colored chalk          ____   ____            16. blowing whistles             ____   ____
      36. ___________            ____   ____            17. New Years snakes             ____   ____
                                                        18. sprinkle glitter             ____   ____
SOCIAL REINFORCERS                                      19. tickles w/ other objects     ____   ____
     1. grab hands/wiggle arms   ____   ____            20. musical instruments          ____   ____
     2. blowing (i.e. face)      ____   ____            21. flashlights                  ____   ____
     3. squeeze above knees      ____   ____            22. shoulder rides               ____   ____
     4. hugging                  ____   ____            23. run in the gym               ____   ____
     5. shaking hands            ____   ____            24. water play                   ____   ____
     6. twitching noses          ____   ____            25. puppets                      ____   ____
     7. kisses                   ____   ____            26. flushing the toilet          ____   ____
     8. tickling                 ____   ____            27. sand/dirt play               ____   ____
     9. winking                  ____   ____            28. trampoline                   ____   ____
     10. give me (5-10)          ____   ____            29. dancing                      ____   ____
     11. pinching cheeks         ____   ____            30. running on ramp              ____   ____
     12. rubbing noses           ____   ____            31. free time in the gym         ____   ____
     13. bumble bee fingers      ____   ____            32. sitting on shelf             ____   ____
     14. smiling                 ____   ____            33. bringing toy from home       ____   ____
     15. duck noises             ____   ____            34. turning lights off/on        ____   ____
     16. playing with lips       ____   ____            35. pouring liquids              ____   ____
     17. patting                                             back and forth
     18. praising                ____   ____            36. rolling ball on ramp         ____   ____
     19. wiggling ears           ____   ____            37. playing in front of mirror   ____   ____
     20. back scratch            ____   ____            38. spreading peanut butter      ____   ____
     21. belly rub               ____   ____            39. pushing walker/cart          ____   ____
     22. nodding                 ____   ____            40. TV watching (videotape)      ____   ____
     23. __________________      ____   ____            41. story on teacher’s lap       ____   ____
                                                        42. squeeze toothpaste           ____   ____
                                                        43. playing with watch           ____   ____



                                                                                                       5
44. games                     ____   ____    88. basketball games           ____   ____
45. being the teacher         ____   ____    89. finger paint
46. talking on the phone      ____   ____         w/ pudding                ____ ____
47. markers and pens          ____   ____         w/ soap                   ____ ____
48. draw on chalkboard        ____   ____         w/ paint                  ____ ____
49. lunch/snack helper        ____   ____    90. blowing in bottles         ____ ____
50. pushing cart              ____   ____    91. pulling toilet paper/
51. pulling wagon             ____   ____          towel out of holder      ____   ____
52. field trip                ____   ____    92. racing                     ____   ____
53. twirling in the air       ____   ____    93. different seat on bus      ____   ____
54. hanging pictures          ____   ____    94. front seat on bus          ____   ____
55. mom come to class         ____   ____    95. wagon rides                ____   ____
56. mom leave class           ____   ____    96. thrown in the air          ____   ____
57. blanket over head         ____   ____    97. raiding refrigerator       ____   ____
58. take their picture        ____   ____    98. pushing copier button      ____   ____
59. throw things in trash     ____   ____    99. watering plants            ____   ____
60. helping cook              ____   ____   100. feeding the fish           ____   ____
61. roll down hill            ____   ____   101. watching cars go by
62. teacher make dough        ____   ____           and waving              ____   ____
63. paint w/ cotton balls     ____   ____   102. watching fire engines      ____   ____
64. climb on tractor          ____   ____   103. walk on balance beam       ____   ____
65. teacher’s helper          ____   ____   104. going for walks            ____   ____
66. make picture                            105. making Kool-Aid            ____   ____
      w/ popcorn              ____   ____   106. wiping off tables          ____   ____
      w/ noodles              ____   ____   107. taking trash out           ____   ____
      w/ string               ____   ____   108. icing cupcakes             ____   ____
67. have therapist whistle    ____   ____   109. spraying bottles           ____   ____
68. running errands           ____   ____   110. watching popcorn pop       ____   ____
69. climbing in boxes         ____   ____   111. machines                   ____   ____
70. pushing stapler           ____   ____   112. opening refrigerator       ____   ____
71. playing with jewelry      ____   ____   113. carrying the ball          ____   ____
72. dressing up               ____   ____   114. tape, tear, put on         ____   ____
73. drink out of pop bottle   ____   ____   115. opening/closing window     ____   ____
74. sliding/jumping on mats   ____   ____   116. playing with tools         ____   ____
75. time alone to stim        ____   ____   117. birthday parties           ____   ____
76. Simon says                ____   ____   118. helping with other kids    ____   ____
77. playing with money        ____   ____   119. play with timer beads      ____   ____
78. climbing                  ____   ____   120. pushing buttons            ____   ____
79. rocking a boat            ____   ____   121. play with other kids       ____   ____
80. cutting pictures          ____   ____   122. play with zippers and
81. playing with glue         ____   ____            pockets                ____ ____
82. tour of school            ____   ____   123. walk with feet on top of
83. treasure hunt             ____   ____             of therapist’s feet   ____   ____
84. playing with cards        ____   ____   124. blow bubbles with straw    ____   ____
85. crawling under table      ____   ____   125. walking with stilts        ____   ____
86. looking at pictures       ____   ____   126. swimming                   ____   ____
87. riding bicycle            ____   ____   127. listening to watches       ____   ____

                                                                                          6
    128. listen to tape recorder   ____   ____
    129. have a shadow show        ____   ____
    130. play with computer        ____   ____
    131. stringing beads           ____   ____
    132. turn water off/on         ____   ____
    133. sunshine and shadows      ____   ____
    134. hinges                    ____   ____
    135. smelling spices           ____   ____
    136. __________________        ____   ____

PROCESSES REINFORCERS

    1. fishing game                ____   ____
    2. train delivery              ____   ____
    3. bean bag throw              ____   ____
    4. dart board                  ____   ____
    5. grab bag                    ____   ____
    6. surprise box                ____   ____
    7. spinner                     ____   ____
    8. reinforcers hidden
          between worksheets       ____ ____
    9. random timer bell           ____ ____
    10. __________________         ____ ____




                                                 7
                                                               The Behavioral Language Assessment Form


                               Request                                Vocal Imitation   Match to                                 Receptive by   Conversation    Letters &     Social
                 Cooperation   (Mand)     otor itation
                                         M Im            Vocal Play     (Echoic)        Sam ple    Receptive   Labeling (Tact)      FFC         (Intraverbal)   Num  bers   Interaction

        5
        4
Score




        3
        2
        1

  For the following questions, indicate the level of performance that best describes the learner’s typical level of performance.


  1.        COOPERATION WITH ADULTS _____ (enter score)

  How easy is it to work with the child?

            1.      Always uncooperative, avoids work, engages in negative behavior
            2.      Will do only one brief and easy response for a powerful behavior
            3.      Will give 5 responses without disruptive behavior
            4.      Will work for 5 minutes without disruptive behavior
            5.      Works well for 10 minutes at a table without disruptive behavior

  2.        REQUESTS (Mands) ______

  How does the learner let his needs and wants to be known?

            1.      Cannot ask for reinforcers; or engages in negative behavior
            2.      Pulls people, points, or stands by reinforcing items
            3.      Uses 1-5 words, signs, or pictures to ask for reinforcers
            4.      Uses 5-10 words, signs or pictures to ask for reinforcers
            5.      Frequently requests using 10 or more words, signs, or pictures

  3.        MOTOR IMITATION ______

  Does the learner copy actions?

            1.      Cannot imitate anybody’s motor movements
            2.      Imitates a few gross motor movements modeled by others
            3.      Imitates several gross motor movements on request
            4.      Imitates several fine and gross motor movements on request
            5.      Easily imitates any fine or gross movements, often spontaneously

  4.        VOCAL PLAY ______

  Does the learner spontaneously say sounds and words?

            1.      Does not make any sounds (mute)
            2.      Makes a few speech sounds at a low rate
            3.      Vocalizes many speech sounds varied intonations
            4.      Vocalizes frequently with varied intonation and says a few words
            5.      Vocalizes frequently and says many clearly understandable words

  5.        VOCAL IMITATION (Echoic) ______

  Will the learner repeat sounds or words?

            1.      Does not make any sounds (mute)
            2.      Makes a few speech sounds at a low rate

                                                                                                                                                                                          8
     3.   Vocalized many speech sounds with varied intonations
     4.   Vocalizes frequently with varied intonation and says a few words
     5.   Vocalizes frequently and says many clearly understandable words

6.   MATCHING-TO-SAMPLE

Will the learner match objects, pictures, and designs to presented samples?

     1.   Cannot match any objects or pictures to a sample
     2.   Can match 1 or 2 objects or pictures to a sample
     3.   Can match 5-10 objects or pictures to a sample
     4.   Can match 5-10 colors, shapes, or designs to a sample
     5.   Can match most items and match 2 to 5 block designs

7.   RECEPTIVE ______

Does the learner understand any words or follow directions?

     1.   Cannot understand any words
     2.   Will follow a few instructions related to daily routines
     3.   Will follow a few instructions to do actions or touch items
     4.   Can follow many instructions and point to at least 25 items
     5.   Can point to at least 100 items, actions, persons, adjectives

8.   LABELING (Tacts) ______

Does the learner label or verbally identify any items or actions?

     1.   Cannot identify any items or actions
     2.   Identifies only 10 to 5 items or actions
     3.   Identifies 6 to 15 items or actions
     4.   Identifies 16 – 50 items or actions
     5.   Identifies over 100 items or actions and emits short sentences

9.   RECEPTIVE BY FUNCTION, FEATURE, AND CLASS ______

Does the learner identify items when given information about those items?

     1.   Cannot identify items based on information about them
     2.   Will identify a few items given synonyms or common functions
     3.   Will identify 10 items given 1 of 3 functions or features
     4.   Will identify 25 items given 4 functions, features, or classes
     5.   Will identify 100 items given 5 functions, features, or classes

10. CONVERSATIONAL SKILLS (Intraverbals) ______

Can the learner fill-in missing words or answer questions?

     1.   Cannot fill-in missing words or parts of songs
     2.   Can fill-in a few missing words or provide animal sounds
     3.   Can fill-in 10 non-reinforcing phrases or answer at least 10 simple questions
     4.   Can fill-in 20 phrases or can answer 20 questions with variation
     5.   Can answer at least 30 questions with variation

11. LETTERS AND NUMBERS ______

Does the learner know any letters, numbers, or written words?

     1.   Cannot identify an letters, numbers, or written words
     2.   Can identify at least 3 letters or numbers
     3.   Can identify at least 15 letters or number
                                                                                          9
    4.   Can read at least 5 words and identify 5 numbers
    5.   Can read at least 25 words and identify 10 numbers

12. Does the learner initiate and sustain interactions with others?

    1.   Does not initiate interactions with others
    2.   Physically approaches others to initiate an interaction
    3.   Readily asks adults for reinforcers
    4.   Verbally interacts with peers and prompts
                                           5. Regularly initiates and sustains verbal interactions with peers




                                                                                                                10
                            Language Acquisition Barriers
                               Quick Assessment- Part II
                                Adapted from Mark Sundberg, Ph.D.

                                   Mild               Moderate           Severe
                                   Problem            Problem            Problem


Defective Mand                     1         2           3          4        5

Scrolling Responses                1         2           3          4        5

Prompt Dependent                   1         2           3          4        5

Escape/Avoidance Behaviors         1         2           3          4        5

Rote Responding                    1         2           3          4        5

Instructional Control              1         2           3          4        5

Echolalia                          1         2           3          4        5

Self-Stimulation                   1         2           3          4        5

Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior      1         2           3          4        5

Response Requirements              1         2           3          4        5
     Weakens Motivation

Reinforcement Dependent            1         2           3          4        5

Does Not Attend to People          1         2           3          4        5

Does Not Attend to Material        1         2           3          4        5

Negative Behaviors                 1         2           3          4        5

Lack of Spontaneous Language       1         2           3          4        5

                                                                    SCORE: _______
                                                                                     11
Definitions of Terms:

Defective Mand-The learner has inappropriate behaviors related to requesting items
or activities. (i.e. negative behaviors serve as mands such as grabbing or screaming,
they have access to free reinforcers at all times so they don’t HAVE to request, the
response requirement may be too difficult related to the item, etc.)

Scrolling-The learner goes through a variety of signs or vocalizations to request an
item/activity. Example: A learner may chain together the signs for “candy”, “cookie”,
“ball”, “milk” until they get the item they are wanting. They aren’t sure which sign is
correct, so they go through several until they are reinforced.

Prompt Dependent-The learner will wait until someone prompts (gestural, physical or
verbal) them to request for all requests (i.e. they are dependent on a prompt to
request—e.g. “What do you want?” or physical prompt

Escape/Avoidance-The learner tries to get away from you/the table/the materials at
all costs.

Instructional Control-Your behaviors as a teacher do not “control” the learner’s
behaviors (i.e. they do not WANT to learn from you).

Echolalia-Inappropriately repeating what is said spontaneously rather than responding
correctly. Example: The teacher says to the learner, “What’s your name?” and the
learner responds “What’s your name?” instead of answering “Justin”.

Self-Stimulation-The learner’s self-stimulatory behaviors interfere with their
learning.

Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors-Learner cannot take their focus off of one particular
item (i.e. Thomas the train or wheels on a car), which interferes with their learning.
NOTE: This needs to be looked at as a possible escape behavior.



                                                                                          12
Response Requirements Weakens Motivation-The work you are asking the learner is
too difficult in relation to the reinforcement. Example: Requiring the student to talk
in a complete sentence to request an item (i.e. “Say, I want to eat a piece of candy”)
when they can barely say the one word of the item (“candy”).

Reinforcement Dependent-The learner will ONLY respond when they know that they
will be given a reinforcer immediately after it.

Does Not Attend to People-Look at approach behavior of a learner to measure they
are attending to people.

Does Not Attend to Materials-Look at whether a child picks up or manipulates the
materials presented to him/her.

Negative Behaviors- Other behaviors that interfere with the learner’s language
acquisition such as hitting, running away (elopement), spitting, etc.

Lack of Spontaneous Language- The learner does not spontaneously and independently
use language while in their natural environment.




                                                                                         13
                                              PAIRING DATA SHEET

Learner: _____________________        Instructor: _________________Date: __________

Instructions: Cross off a numeral each time a reinforcer is delivered. Describe the behavior of the learner during the
pairing session, e.g. approaches, looks at instructor, moves away when instructor approaches, will not accept items, etc.

                                       SESSION 1

   1   2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

   26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

   51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

   76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

 Activity       Describe Reinforcement                       Behaviors




Comments:



                                                                                                                      14
                     Advanced Manding – Mands for Information

-Teach these ONLY after F1 to F12 are complete in your ABLLS grid.
-Manding with carrier phrases should be very strong (but do not teach carrier phrases)
Teach in the sequence below:

F14 Where

F 15 Who/Whose

F16 Which

F17 When

F13 What

F18 How

F20 Why




Adapted from Workshop 4, Conducted by Holly Kibbe, BCaBA and Cherish Richards, BCaBA

                                                                                         15
                                           Intraverbals

H-1,2,6 Fill in songs, fun activities and common activities
-Teach these in the NET
-mix up what you are leaving blank as the children master them

H-3 Signs
-Teach both in NET and ITT for children learning sign language only
-teach this right after the mand is mastered

H-4 Animal sounds
-Teach both in NET when EO is present, and ITT

H-5 Personal Information

H-7, H-10, H-12 Intraverbal Feature, Function and Class (IFFC’s)
-Teach this skill only using mastered tacts that are very strong
-Teach this skill using a TFFC to IFFC transfer procedure
-Choose two features, two functions and a class for each item if applicable (set these as your “carrier
phrases”)
-Choose carrier phrases that contain words commonly heard in the child’s environment
-With some children, you will teach one carrier phrase at a time, with others you will teach many
phrases at one time.
-With some children, you will use a fill in the blank to a “wh” question. Ex.
      “Something you…is a …” then transfer to a “wh”; “What do you…?”
-Do not ask all of the questions about an item consecutively.
-Be sure to mix and vary easy skills when teaching this objective
-If they respond correctly but not with the name you were looking for, do not implement the error
correction procedure.

H-8, H-9, H-11 Intraverbal Feature, Function and Class Reversals
-Typically teach these after many mastered IFFC phrases
-Teach these using mastered IFFC phrases- no picture prompt (non-verbal stimulus) is necessary to
teach this skill
-Use echoic to intraverbal transfer procedure
-i.e. “What do you cut with…scissors” ---- “Scissors are something you…cut with”




Adapted from Workshop 4, Conducted by Holly Kibbe, BCaBA and Cherish Richards, BCaBA
                                                                                                     16
H-13 Categories
-Teach this skill with very strong and articulate tacts
-Teach this skill using backward chaining
-Keep the cards in the same order (number the back of cards if necessary)
-Do not mass trial this skill
-4-5 answers in a category only
Teach: Have 3 pictures out and say “Tell me some animals…pig, cat, bird (pictures).
Each time turn one picture over and give the same Sd until all pictures are turned over. Keep the
pictures in the same order.

H-14 Category Reversals
-Teach this skill using mastered intraverbal categories (H13)

H15 Opposites
-Teach this skill using mastered tacts of attributes

Intraverbal Stories
-Only teach using mastered IFFC phrases (no picture present)
-May need to start by requiring only a few fill in responses for each story
-Don’t script these stories
-Can use some mastered pictures to prompt your self to start the story.

Practice teaching intraverbals!
Specifically…H13 Categories, H7, 10, 12 and H8, 9, 11 IFFC’s and reversals, H15 opposites, H3
Intraverbal signs and intraverbal stories.




Adapted from Workshop 4, Conducted by Holly Kibbe, BCaBA and Cherish Richards, BCaBA
                                                                                                    17
                                             Notes on NET

H-16, 17, 19, 20-23 Answering WH questions in the context of an MO
-H16 and higher are skills to be taught in the NET

H-18 & H-32 Recalling past events

H25 Describe steps in a sequence

H26 State activity when told steps in the sequence

H-28 Intraverbal Yes/No




Adapted from Workshop 4, Conducted by Holly Kibbe, BCaBA and Cherish Richards, BCaBA

                                                                                       18
                               Correlating ABLLS Goals

G2      C23 Objects

G4      C24 Pictures

G5      C33 Actions

G6      C34 Pictures of actions

G9      C17 Body Parts

G11     C40 Attributes

G12-14, C20-22, H7, 10 & 12 FFC

G27 C36 Community Helpers

G28 C39 Sounds

G30 C47 Prepositions

G32 before C48 Pronouns

G15-16, H8&11 Reversals

R16 and R18, C46




Adapted from Workshop 4, Conducted by Holly Kibbe, BCaBA and Cherish Richards, BCaBA
                                                                                       19
                     Yes/No Manding Protocol -- F9 on the ABLLS

                    Developed by Mary Barbera, RN, MSN, BCBA
                            PA Verbal Behavior Project
Yes/No Manding is an important skill

Example:
Do you want a cookie? “Yes”
Do you want pudding? “No”

This is a very different skill then yes/no tacting (Is this a bed?) or yes/no intraverbals (Does a cow say quack?)
Because of the motivative operation (MO) issues, Yes/No manding should be taught prior to yes/no tacting or
yes/no intraverbals.

Start Yes/No manding only when F1-F6 on the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (The
ABLLS) is solid. Encouraging the use of yes/no manding prior to this will most likely reduce the use of
spontaneous mands and could lead to defective manding..

Choose 2-3 items that the student loves (and can already spontaneously mand for out of sight and can tact)
and 2-3 things the child dislikes (but can tact). Use these 4-6 items for all beginning yes/no mand sessions.

Make sure child really wants or does not want the item by testing for MO (Offer item to child, see if he reaches
or pushes away) periodically throughout the session. Do not use items that the child likes at times but refuses
at other times. When in doubt, assume the Yes items are going to be Yes and the No items will be No so you
can fully prompt before an error.

Limit yes/no mand sessions to one 10-20 minute session/day. (Do not focus on yes/no mands outside of this
session or you may notice a decrease in the student’s spontaneous manding).

Continue to require regular spontaneous mands at all other times and do not prompt yes/no mands outside of
the yes/no mand sessions.

Fully prompt and transfer at least one yes and one no per minute during yes/no mand sessions..




Do you want a cookie…                  Prompt “Yes” as you nod your head.
                                       Child echoes “yes”
                                       Do you want a cookie?…fade prompt to gestural or partial echoic if
                                       possible Fade prompt completely when possible.
Do you want applesauce                 Prompt “No” as you shake head no
                                       Child echoes “no” as he pushes it away
                                       Do you want applesauce…fade prompt level or prompt, if possible


If the child echoes “pretzel yes” or “juice no,” re-present the SD and get the child to echo just yes or no. If
necessary in the beginning, you can replace the label of the item with “Do you want this?” since the child will
be less likely to echo “this, yes.” However, replace the item name as quickly as possible because you will
need to use the item name as you fade the item out of sight.

                                                                                                                  20
Hold item close to student out of the bag. Tangibles such as applesauce should be on a spoon, juice should
be poured, and one chip should be out of the bag held in front of the child when the SD is presented.

Alternate randomly between yes and no
              3 no’s, 2 yes’s

Count spontaneous versus prompted yes/no mands during the session.

Once spontaneous mands are at least 2/minute during mand sessions and prompted mands are less then
1/minute, start to fade these 4-6 items out of sight by putting things in closed bags, in cabinets, etc. Also, you
may begin introducing other preferred and non-preferred foods in sight then fade them out of sight during mand
sessions.

Once spontaneous yes/no mands are very strong within mand sessions (with very few prompts needed), stop
yes/no manding sessions and begin counting yes/no mands throughout the day or during a NET session.
Make sure to continue to encourage spontaneous manding and occasionally throw in yes/no mands.

Teach everyone in the home and school setting that if you ask the child “Do you want _______?”, the answer
needs to be yes or no. The child will fall back to echoing the item name if he is reinforced intermittently by
some people in the environment.

If yes or no become weak, do yes/no mand sessions to bring the skill back and make sure everyone is aware
of how to prompt this skill and the correct procedure for error correction and transfer trials is being followed.

Throughout the entire process continue to monitor frequency of mands for specific items, actions, etc. If a
drastic drop in rate of mands for specific items occurs, consider increasing rate of mand trials for specific items
or if the drop is very significant, placing yes/no procedure on hold.




                                                                                                                 21
            Advanced Verbal Behavior
          Principles and Approaches for
         Developing Language in Children
           with Autism-Teleconference

                          December 9, 2005

                            Debra Namey, MS, CCC-SLP

                            Anne Katona, M.Ed., BCBA

                             Educational Consultants


                Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network

                              6340 Flank Drive, Suite 600

                              Harrisburg, PA 17112-2764

                                     800-360-7282 

                                    www.pattan.net





           Learner Outcomes
           Participants will be able to:
             Identify and describe strategies to
             teach advanced requesting skills.
             Identify and describe strategies to
             teach advanced conversational skills
             (Intraverbals).
             Implement advanced language
             development procedures using
             reinforcement of those skills.




             Principles of Applied 

            Behavior Analysis as the 

             Foundation of Verbal 

                   Behavior





Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                               1
           ABA Myths
            ABA involves punishment techniques and
            aversive controls.
            ABA is for animal trainers.
            ABA is dangerous because it can eventually
            lead to a population of children susceptible
            to mind control.
            ABA is inhumane because it takes away
            from the individual's freedom of choice.




           ABA Myths (cont’d)
            ABA is token reinforcement.
            ABA is M&M’s and Tootsie rolls.
            ABA is when you ignore all student
            misbehavior and only reward good behavior.
            ABA is equivalent to bribery.
            ABA reinforcement programs undermine
            intrinsic motivation.




           Three aspects of applied behavior
           analysis


            1) Procedures (Behavior Modification)

            2) Analysis (Principles of Behavior)

            3. Experimental control (Data)




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                2
           1) Procedures/Behavior Modification

             Prompting
             Fading
             Pairing
             Modeling
             Shaping
             Chaining
             Differential reinforcement procedures (e.g., DRO, DRI, DRL)
             Intermittent reinforcement procedures (e.g., FR, VR, FI, VI)
             Extinction procedures (e.g., planned ignoring)
             Punishment procedures (e.g., reprimands, time out, overcorrection)
             Generalization
             Discrimination training
             Errorless learning
             Transfer of stimulus control
             Fluency




                    Applied Behavior Analysis

                                      Direct
          Discrete Trial            Instruction                    Verbal
                                                                  Behavior
            Teaching
                                    Intensive
              Lovaas
                                    behavioral                    Incidental
             Therapy               Intervention                    Teaching


                              Precision Teaching
                        Fluency Based Instruction




             2) Analysis (Principles of
                     Behavior)




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                                       3
           Three (Really Four) Term
           Contingency

        Antecedent--Behavior--Consequences




           Motivation is now seen as playing a
          significant role in this model (Michael)




           Basic Behavioral Principles

            Antecedent - any stimulus that
            happens before a behavior

            Behavior - an observable and
            measurable act of an individual

            Consequence - any stimulus that
            happens after a behavior




          BEHAVIOR
           1. Form
             (topography)
                 the way a behavior looks, what we observe,
                 a precise, specific description of the
                 behavior.
           2. Function
                 the purpose that the behavior serves
                     to get something
                     to avoid, delay, or escape something




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                   4
           Examples of behavior analysis


            Antecedent      Response       Consequence




            “Tantrum” (functional analysis)

            “Red” (verbal behavior functional

            analysis)





              CONSEQUENCES
                 any event that follows a behavior

           1. Reinforcement
                a consequence that results in
                increasing or maintaining the future
                rate of the behavior it follows
           2. Punishment
                a consequence that results in
                decreasing the future rate of the
                behavior it follows




          Language intervention is a major
         goal of most programs for children
                    with autism




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                              5
          Most “ABA/discrete trial” language
          programs are based on non-
          behavioral theories of language,
          but many use behavior modification
          techniques




                 ABA Terms                SLP Terms

             pair with reinforcement establish rapport

             antecedents             treatment stimuli

             operant level           baseline
             shaping                 successive
                                     approximations
             manipulation of        treatment
             antecedents, behavior,
             consequences to
             effect desirable
             change in behavior




           What constitutes a behavioral
              analysis of language?
                 (Skinner, 1957)




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                              6
          Language is learned behavior under
               the functional control of
                environmental variables




           The verbal operant is the unit of
            analysis (e.g., mands, tacts, &
                     intraverbals)




           Traditional Unit of Analysis

            Words, phrases, sentences,
            mean length of utterances
            (MLU): nouns, verbs,
            prepositions, adjectives,
            adverbs, etc.




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                    7
           Behavioral Unit of Analysis


           MO/SD       Response        Consequence

           The Elementary Verbal Operants




           The elementary verbal operants are
           separate repertoires and each must be
           taught

           Speaker and listener skills are separate
           repertoires and both must be taught




            Behavioral Classification of Basic
            Language Terms (Verbal Operants)

            Mand- Asking for reinforcers that you want.
            A tendency to ask for a dog because you
            want one. Note: mands can also include asking
            for information or attention.
            Tact- Naming or identifying objects, action,
            events, etc. A tendency to say ”dog” because
            you see a dog.
            Intraverbal- Answering questions or
            conversations where your words are
            controlled by other words. A tendency to
            say “dog” when someone says “Lassie.”




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                 8
                     Behavioral Classification of Basic
                     Language Terms
                     (Verbal Operants)
                Echoic- Repeating what is heard. A tendency to
                say “dog” after someone else says “dog”.
                Receptive following instructions or complying with
                the mands (requests) of others. A tendency to
                touch a picture of a dog when ask to touch the
                dog.
                FFC- Identifying specific items when given some
                description (it’s function, feature or class) of the
                item. A tendency to touch a dog when someone
                asks, “which one barks?”
                     NOTE: FFC is NOT a basic operant but a component of
                     behavior that alters any of the other operants: one can
                     tact by FFC (ie. TFFC); one can respond with an intraverbal
                     by FFC (ie. IFFC)




                     Behavioral Classification of Basic
                     Language Terms
                     (Verbal Operants)


                Textual- Reading written words. A
                tendency to say “dog” because you see the
                written word “dog”.
                Writing- Writing and spelling words when
                spoken to you. A tendency to write “dog”
                because you heard it spoken.




        Verbal Operant        Antecedent          Behavior        Reinforcement
                                                                   (Function)
            Mand              (Establishing       "cookie"            Direct
                               Operation)          Verbal         Reinforcement
                                                                (Child gets cookie)
             Tact                Object           "cookie"            Social
                                                   Verbal         Reinforcement
                                               correspondence
         Intraverbal        Verbal stimulus       "cookie"            Social
                            ("what do you          Verbal         Reinforcement
                                 eat?)
            Echoic          Verbal stimulus       "cookie"            Social
                              ("Cookie")           Verbal         Reinforcement
                                                    Exact
                                               correspondence
          Receptive          Verbal stimulus   Touches cookie         Social
                            ("Touch cookie."     Non-verbal       Reinforcement
                                                  response




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                                           9
              Applications to Language

                    Intervention





             The verbal operants are used
             for language assessment, IEP
             development, tracking language
             acquisition, and the basis of the
             curriculum (ABLLS)




             Echoic, imitation, tacting,
             receptive language, and
             matching-to-sample should
             be added ASAP




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                      10
              Sessions contain a mixture
              of the verbal operants
              (mixed verbal behavior) with
              the opportunity to mand as
              the main reinforcement for
              the target response




                 Use typical language
              development as a guide for
             advancement in the program




                 Establish a strong and
               generalized mand, tact, and
              receptive repertoire prior to
                  moving on to multiple
              responses, complex concepts
               (e.g., adjectives, pronouns,
                 prepositions), RFFC, or
                   intraverbal training




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                   11
              Conduct verbal behavior
            analyses of language barriers
             encountered along the way




          Things to Do BEFORE starting
           a Verbal Behavior Program




           Reinforcement Assessment

            The first thing we do before working
            with children with language disorders
            is find out what reinforces them—
            Reinforcer Assessment




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                         12
           Where do we get started?


                  Steps to begin a Verbal 

                    Behavior Program





           How do I effectively teach my students
           with autism spectrum disorders?

             Teach them the way you teach all students.
               Teach to the child, not the label. Hold high
               expectations for all of them. Build on their
              strengths. Ensure their success. Continually
               evaluate their progress and celebrate the
                  learning that occurs! Regie Routman, 2003

           AND OF COURSE…continue to develop your
             skills as an educator and learn from other
                             disciplines!




          Motivation
            Behavioral term is Motivational Operation
            or MO (previously known as Establishing
            Operation or EO)
            In common sense terms, it is concerned
            with wants, needs, desires and so on
            (Michael).
            Motivation (MO) makes the effectiveness
            of reinforcement either greater or
            lesser, and increases or decreases the
            frequency of the behavior related to the
            reinforcement.




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                   13
           MO Examples
            Food deprivation
              increases the reinforcing effectiveness of
              food
              increases the current frequency of all
              behavior that has been reinforced with food
            Food ingestion
              decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of
              food
              decreases the current frequency that has
              been reinforced with food


                                                  Michael




           Implications of Motivation

            It is important to take into account
            the effects of motivation on their
            behavior.
            Motivation helps in gaining
            “Instructional Control” over the
            individual in order for us to “teach”.
            Important when choosing reinforcers.




           Where do we get started?
           1. Use the BLAF to do a quick
              assessment of the learner’s skills.
              (Part I)
           1. Assess barriers to language
              acquisition (Quick Assessment-Part
              II)
                While the above steps are occurring, the
                “teacher” should be focused on pairing
                themselves with reinforcement by giving
                free things to the child and refraining
                from putting demands on the child.




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                 14
           Where do we get started?
           (cont)
           3. Work on gaining Instructional Control until
              the learner is independently approaching the
              “teacher”, table, or other activity. (Keep
              data on approach behaviors)
           4. Use the assessments (Part I and II) to begin
              implementing an initial language intervention.
           5. Complete the baseline ABLLS by doing 1 or 2
              sections at a time, and by using input from
              professionals and family—possibly assign
              sections to other professionals in their area
              of expertise (ie. gross and fine motor
              sections assigned to OT).




           Where do we get started?
           (cont.)
            6. Develop Intensive Teaching (ITT) and
               Natural Environment (NET) goals based
               on the learner’s ABLLS.
            7. Develop Implementation Plan:
              A.        Who will implement each goal?
              B.        When will they be implemented?
                   i.     How much time will be spent doing ITT?
                   ii.    How much time will be spent doing NET?
              C.        What are the materials needed?
              D.        How and when will data be collected?




                                                    Step 1


                         Use the BLAF to do a quick
                         assessment of the learner’s
                                     present skills.




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                        15
                            Behavior Language Assessment
                            Form (BLAF)
                              12 sections that cover early language and related
                              areas (pp 15-46 Teaching Language to Children Manual)
                              Helps to determine where to start a language
                              intervention program
                              Score by indicating the typical performance of
                              the student
                              Useful with children with limited verbal behavior
                              Brief assessment, much less time consuming than
                              complete ABLLS
                              Help Identify which skills to teach first and
                              perhaps, which response form to use (vocal, signs,
                              picture selection)




                                                                         BLAF
                                                                        Tanner

                   6
                   5
       Score




                   4
                   3
                   2
                   1
                   0
                                                                                                                        n
                       io n




                                                                                                                     ve




                                                                                                                       C
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                                                                                                                      rs
                                               n
                                nd




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                                                                   n

                                                                             le
                                                       y




                                                                                                                   t io
                                                                                                                  lin
                                           t io




                                                                                                                FF
                                                               t io




                                                                                                                 t io
                                                   P la




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                                                                          mp


                                                                                       p ti
                              Ma
                        t




                                                                                                             e ra
                                                                                                             be
                    er a




                                       it a




                                                            ita




                                                                                                             ac
                                                                                                          um
                                                                                     ce




                                                                                                            ve
                                                                       Sa
                                                    l




                                                                                                         La
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                                     Im




                                                                                                        ter
                                                           Im




                                                                                                         nv
                  op




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                                                                                                       p ti




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                                               Vo




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                                                                                                    l In
                                 tor
               Co




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                                                      ca




                                                                                                 an
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                               Mo




                                                                                                cia
                                                                                                Re
                                                    Vo

                                                             Ma




                                                                                              rs

                                                                                             So
                                                                                           tte
                                                                                        Le




                                                                                                   Step 2


                                                                     Assess Barriers to
                                                                   Language Acquisition




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                                                                                 16
           Language Acquisition Barriers
           Form-Quick Assessment - Part II

            Determine what are the issues that
            need to be addressed first that can
            interfere with the learner’s further
            progress in developing language.
            This quick assessment will be used in
            conjunction with the BLAF.




                                     Language Acquisition Barriers
                                        Quick Assessment- Part II

                                        Adapted from Mark Sundberg, Ph.D.


                                                 Mild              Moderate            Severe
                                                 Problem           Problem             Problem


             Defective Mand                      1         2         3        4           5


             Scrolling Responses                 1         2         3        4           5


             Prompt Dependent                    1         2         3        4           5


             Escape/Avoidance Behaviors          1         2         3        4           5


             Rote Responding                     1         2         3        4           5


             Instructional Control               1         2         3        4           5


             Echolalia                           1         2         3        4           5


             Self-Stimulation                    1         2         3        4           5


             Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior       1         2         3        4           5


             Response Requirements               1         2         3        4           5

                  Weakens Motivation


             Reinforcement Dependent             1         2         3        4           5


             Does Not Attend to People           1         2         3        4           5


             Does Not Attend to Material         1         2         3        4           5


             Negative Behaviors                  1         2         3        4           5


                                                                         Total Score
                                                                         ___________




           Pairing
            In order to be associated with
            positive reinforcement (improving
            conditions) the teacher will need to
            be associated with the child’s
            favorite activities.
            This process will initially involve
            adults controlling reinforcers and
            delivering them to the student
            without any demands.




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                                                      17
           Pairing: Suggestions
            Limit access to reinforcers
            Hold item and let child approach teacher (avoid
            delivering items when child is moving away from
            you.)
            Be sure to deliver items that the child wants when
            they want it (be sure there is an MO in effect.)
            Deliver items that you can later teach the child to
            request
            Monitor the strength and frequency of the child’s
            approach behavior: data can be kept with clicker
            counter and graphed (i.e daily rate of approach
            behavior)




                                            Step 3


                    Gain Instructional Control




           Instructional Control

            Instructional control is the likelihood
              that your instructions will evoke a
             correct response from your student.

                Your instructions “control” the
                 responses from your student.
                                      2001, Behavior Analysts, Inc.




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                           18
           Why Do We Need to “Establish”
           Instructional Control?

              Many learners with autism have a
              history that has established the
              presence of the teacher, the teaching
              context, and the presentation of the
              demand as an aversive condition
                      This condition evokes problem
                      behavior which interferes
                      with learning
                                       Dr. Vincent J. Carbone, 2004




           Why Do We Need to “Establish”
           Instructional Control? (cont.)

            When we recognize that “we” (“teachers”,
            environment, demands, etc.) can become
            these aversive (unpleasant) conditions, we
            need to think about ways we can change
            this to increase learning.
            We want to use interventions that put an
            end to teachers, environment, demands,
            etc. as being signals for unpleasant
            conditions, and stop problem behavior.




           Instructional Control

              In order to teach effectively, the
              student and the teacher must engage in
              a reciprocal interaction
              When teaching, the teacher should be
              able to elicit cooperative responses from
              the student.
              Children with autism have a difficult
              time entering into such reciprocal
              interactions.




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                           19
           Establishing Instructional
           Control
            Be a giver, not a taker: offer toy when
            child is bored, deliver special food, etc.
            Do not remove ongoing reinforcer to
            deliver a demand
            Pair interactions with positive
            reinforcers
            Assess “approach” behavior
            Place problem behavior on extinction
            Begin obtaining compliance with easy
            tasks




           Reducing Problem Behavior with
           Instructional Control

             If we fail to recognize this concept,
             we may be stalling attempts to
             reduce problem behavior or may
             result in an over-reliance on aversive
             procedures.             Dr. Vincent J. Carbone, 2004




                                             Step 4


                       Perform Baseline ABLLS




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                         20
                                         Example of an ABLLS for an 

                                          Intermediate to Advance 

                                                  Learner





                                                                                 Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills
      S t ud e nt :   T                                                                       Skills Tracking System
      As s es s o r           Date    C o lo r C o d e
                                                             C 52
           SB             12 / 0 3                           C 51
           MB                 3 /04                          C 50
                                                             C4 9
                                                             C4 8
                                                             C4 7
                                                             C4 6
                                                             C4 5
      AB LLS REGISTR ATION #                                 C4 4
                                                             C4 3
                                                             C4 2                                                                             G4 2            H4 2
                                                             C41                                                                              G4 1            H4 1
                                                             C4 0                                                                             G4 0            H4 0
                                                             C3 9                                                                             G3 9            H3 9
                                                             C3 8                                                                             G3 8            H3 8
                                                             C3 7                                                                             G3 7            H3 7
                                                             C3 6                                                                             G3 6            H3 6
                                                             C3 5                                                                             G3 5            H3 5
                                                             C3 4                                                                             G3 4            H3 4
                                                             C3 3                                                                             G3 3            H3 3
                                                             C3 2                                                                             G3 2            H3 2
                                                             C31                                                                              G3 1            H3 1
                                                             C3 0                                                                             G3 0            H3 0
                                                             C2 9                                                                             G2 9            H2 9
                                                             C2 8                                                                             G2 8            H2 8
                                                             C2 7                                                          F2 7               G2 7            H2 7
                                                             C2 6                                                          F2 6               G2 6            H2 6
                                                             C2 5                                                          F2 5               G2 5            H2 5
                                                             C2 4                                                          F2 4               G2 4            H2 4
                                                             C2 3                                                          F2 3               G2 3            H2 3
                                                             C2 2                                                          F2 2               G2 2            H2 2
                                      B2 1                   C21                                                           F2 1               G2 1            H2 1
                                      B2 0                   C2 0                                                          F2 0               G2 0            H2 0
                                      B 19                   C 19                                                          F 19               G19             H19
                                      B 18                   C 18                                                          F 18               G18             H18
                                      B 17                   C 17                                                          F 17               G17             H17
                                      B 16                   C 16                                                          F 16               G16             H16
                                      B 15                   C 15                                                          F 15               G15             H15
                                      B 14                   C 14                                                          F 14               G14             H14
                                      B 13                   C 13                   D13                                    F 13               G13             H13
                                      B 12                   C 12                   D12                                    F 12               G12             H12
       A11                            B 11                   C 11                   D11                                    F11                G11             H11
       A10                            B 10                   C 10                   D10                                    F 10               G10             H10
        A9                             B9                     C9                     D9                E9                   F9                 G9              H9                  I9
        A8                             B8                     C8                     D8                E8                   F8                 G8              H8                  I8
         A7                            B7                     C7                     D7                E7                   F7                 G7              H7                  I7
        A6                             B6                     C6                     D6                E6                   F6                 G6              H6                  I6
        A5                             B5                     C5                     D5                E5                   F5                 G5              H5                  I5
        A4                             B4                     C4                     D4                E4                   F4                 G4              H4                  I4
        A3                             B3                     C3                     D3                E3                   F3                 G3              H3                  I3
        A2                             B2                     C2                     D2                E2                   F2                 G2              H2                  I2
        A1                             B1                     C1                     D1                E1                   F1                 G1              H1                  I1


           A C o o p erat io n &        B Vis ual              C R ecep t ive         D Imit at io n    E Vo cal             F R eq ues t s     G Lab eling     H Int raverb les   I    S p o nt

               R einfo rcer                  P erfo rmance          Lang uag e                              Imit at io n                                                                Vo cali

               Effect ivenes s




                                                         Foundation for Language 

                                                               Acquistion



                                                                                 Manding





Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                                                                                                                                                        21
             The Mand


                                                Specific
              MO              Response
                                             Reinforcement

         Child wants cookie   “cookie”        Child receives cookie




             Importance of the Mand
                Mands are the first type of VB acquired by
                typical children
                Manding is the only verbal operant that
                benefits the speaker
                Manding allows one to get what he/she
                wants, when it is wanted
                Manding brings about desired changes or
                conditions
                Manding allows one to control the social
                environment




             Importance of the Mand
                Effective manding can decrease negative
                behaviors that serve the mand function
                Mand training helps to establish speaker as
                well as listener roles
                Mand trials can be used as reinforcers for
                other forms of VB
                Mands do not emerge by training on the
                other verbal operants
                Neglect of the mand can impair language
                development




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                           22
              Training should be done in
             formal training sessions and
            in the natural environment as
              often as possible (create a
               “language based” learning
                     environment)




              The teaching procedures
                make use of the basic
             techniques (e.g., prompting,
             fading, shaping, transfer of
            stimulus control, differential
            reinforcement) derived from
                behavior modification




           Training should be made as fun
           as possible by:

            Using lots of mand trials
            Pairing yourself with free reinforcers
            Errorless learning procedures
            Vary pacing, materials, settings, tone
            of voice, people, context, etc.
            Minimize the use of aversives and
            punishment
               Remember: They are KIDS!




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                          23
           Early Learner Mands F1-F6

            Response form
            Item in sight
            Item out of sight
            Keeping data on spontaneous vs.
            prompted mands




          Data Collection
           Baseline:
            data that reflects the pre-
            intervention level of behaviors
              used to provide a direct measure of the
              level of behavior
              used to compare the level of behavior
              prior to intervention to the level of
              behavior under intervention (measure of
              effectiveness)




                 Anecdotal Recording 

                         vs. 

                  Graphing of Data





Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                             24
                                   Anecdotal Data Collection
                                       Example:
                                       Aryssa was able to request items
                                       without prompting at very low rates
                                       or not at all in the beginning of the
                                       intervention. After many sessions
                                       of mand training, she was able to
                                       request independently at higher
                                       rates for preferred items and
                                       prompts were faded.




                                       Graphic Display of Data




                                             Aryssa's Prompted vs Spontaneous Mands/Requests (with object present)

                                                              Spontaneous    Prompted    Linear (Spontaneous)

                         250




                         200




                         150
       Number of Mands




                         100




                          50




                           0
                               0   5    10     15     20     25     30      35     40     45      50      55    60   65   70   75



                         -50
                                                                                 Days




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                                                                                         25
           Intermediate Learner Mands
           F7-F12

            Using transitive mo’s to increase
            manding
            Manding for actions
            Peer to peer manding
            Manding for attention
            Modeling for manding when mo is
            strong




           Advanced Mands F13-F27

            Manding for information




           Requesting Hierarchy
           Adapted from ABLLS by Sundberg
           and Partington
           1. Requests reinforcer (object or
              activity) via contact gesture, distal
              gesture, or proximity cues.

           2. Requests with reinforcer (present)
               with single word/sign with vocal
               (echoic) or gestural (mimetic)
               prompt.




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                           26
           Requesting Hierarchy
           Adapted from ABLLS by Sundberg
           and Partington
           3. Requests with reinforcer present
               when asked
              “What do you want?”
               -Skip
               -Prompt Dependency

           4. Requests with reinforcer not present
               when asked…




           Requesting Hierarchy
           Adapted from ABLLS by Sundberg
           and Partington
           5. Mands for reinforcer,
              spontaneously, no prompts
           -Change the criteria to 40 items
           -Flash, Bag, Open cupboard,
             Closed Cupboard, Kitchen…




           Requesting Hierarchy
           Adapted from ABLLS by Sundberg
           and Partington
           6. Requests actions
                -of others
                -self*
                -transitive MO (action, change in
                position or location, etc)*
             Change the Criteria to 20-25 actions




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                          27
           Transitive MO’s
             Temporarily alter the value of otherwise
             non-reinforcing items (establishing them as
             reinforcers) because they are necessary to
             access a terminal reinforcer.
             Example: if a child is motivated to go
             outside, now putting on shoes, opening
             door, putting on jacket all become
             reinforcers that lead to the terminal
             reinforcer (going outside)




             “Flexible”
             Pivot Phrases as Mands

            Establish a base of mands for
            objects/actions/people/protest/location
            via mand training and playful obstruction
            Slow chain initial two word combinations
            which are often part echoic/part
            mand/part tact/ part intraverbal or cued
            via sign or the previous question or fill in.
            (See Handout)
            Reduce cues within each manding session




                          Pivot Phrases
                      Blow as Pivot (Action + Object)

                           Blow          Bubble


                                           Horn


                                         Candles


                                        Harmonica


                                         Balloon




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                 28
           Pivot Phrases
                   Bubble as Pivot (Action+ Object)


                          Blow       Bubble


                           Pop


                          Push


                        Squeeze




           Requesting Hierarchy
           Adapted from ABLLS by Sundberg
           and Partington
           7. Requests attention-Wait to teach
           Requires 2 people
              -Attention must serve as a
              reinforcer.
              -Mand attention to show or tact
              something

           8. Requests missing items




           Requesting Hierarchy
           Adapted from ABLLS by Sundberg
           and Partington
           9. Requests with “yes” and “no”
           (Refer Handout “Yes/No Manding
               Protocol” by Mary Barbera)
           10. Requests using sentences- Less
               emphasis. Reinforce spontaneous
               occurrences.
              I want…              Can I have…
              I would like…        Give me…
                           I need…




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                           29
            Manding Hierarchy
            Adapted from ABLLS by Sundberg
            and Partington

          11. Requests help

          12.Requests removal or
            cessation of an activity/item




            Requesting Hierarchy
            Adapted from ABLLS by Sundberg
            and Partington
           13-20. Requests information using…

                  -What                          -When
                  -Where                         -How
                  -Who                           -Can/Do/Does/Will
                  -Whose                         -Why
                  -Which




            Manding Hierarchy
            Adapted from ABLLS by Sundberg
            and Partington
           21. Requests future events
           22-25. Requests using:
                    adjectives
                    prepositions
                    adverbs
                    pronouns

           26-27. Generates novel, spontaneous
              requests without training
           *Items added or modified by author.




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                          30
        Verbal Plus Nonverbal Stimulus Control
         Multiple Verbal SDs Single               Response with

                               Nonverbal          Multiple 

                             Stimulus               Properties

           What is it?

           What color is it?
         A Toy Car     “Car”
                                                    “Black”
           What sound does it                       “Vroom”

           make?
                                   “Play with it”
           What do you do with it?                  “Metal”

           What’s it made out of?
                  “Hard”

           What does it feel like?
                 “Two dollars”
           How much did it cost?                    “Mine”

           Whose car is it?
                        “On the table”
           Where is the car?                        “Little”

           What size is the car?
                   “Garage”

           Where do you park it?
                   “Fast”

           How do you drive it?
                    “Daddy”

           Who drives this car?





                   Verbal Conditional
                    Discriminations
              Verbal SD 1 Verbal SD 2 Verbal
                                  + Æ Response
                  “Wear”              “Bed”          “Pajamas”
                  “Find”              “Bed”          “Pillow”
                  “Wear”              “Beach”        “Swimsuit”
                  “Find”              “Kitchen”      “Food”
                  “Play”              “Beach”        “Sand”
                  “Do”                “Kitchen”      “Food”




          Teaching Manding and 

           Intraverbals in NET





Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                          31
           Natural Environmental Training
                    (NET)

            Unstructured teaching that uses the
            learner’s motivation and NOT teacher
            selected set of materials as a basis
            for learning.
            NET aides in the development of
            functional and generalized
            communication




           Characteristics of NET
            Learner initiated activities
            Tasks and activities vary frequently
            Preferred items/activities chosen by child
            serves as basis for learner-teacher
            interaction
            Reinforcement is direct and specific to
            activity
            Loose structure and multiple exemplars
            support generalization of concepts




           Early Leaner NET
            Put very few demands on the learner and pair
            yourself with reinforcers
            Have learner take reinforcers from you
            Gradually increase reponse requirement
            Begin errorless teaching of mands with full
            complement of prompts and then fade prompts
            Intersperse a few instructional demands for easy
            tasks to develop compliance
            Fill in the blank intraverbals with songs, nursery
            rhymes and other fun activities (Ready,Set,Go)




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                      32
           Intermdiate Learner NET

            Teach within the context of the
            activities which are reinforcing and
            motivating for the child
            Teach mands, simple tacts, receptive,
            RFFC and simple intraverbals
            Transfer across operants




           Advanced Learner NET
            Teach within the context of the
            reinforcing or motivational activities of the
            learner
            Complex VB modules that are conversations
            within non-verbal contexts
            Include answers to “wh” questions
            (intraverbals) as well as manding for
            information (asking “wh” questions)
            Have similar but less complex
            conversations in the intensive teaching
            settings.




           Intraverbal
           Task Analysis and Levels: Level 1
            Student entry skills
               Established mand and tact repertoire
               Good echoic, imitation, receptive and matching-to-sample
               skills
            Verbal SDs
               English-Sign (Signers only)
               Sign-English (Signers only)
               Song fill-ins
               Animal sounds
               Fill-ins involving fun activities
            Teaching objectives
               Break verbal responding free from echoic and tact
               control
               Use motivational variables to begin to establish
               intraverbal control




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                               33
           Intraverbal Level 2
             Student entry skills
                Successful performance on level 1 IV activities
                100+ tacts and receptive discriminations
                Strong mand, echoic/imitative, and MTS
                Good generalization skills
                Good performance on RFFC tasks
             Verbal SDs
                Continue level one activities
                In context fill-ins
                RFFC to intraverbal, less than 5 sec delay
                RFFC to intraverbal, 1 distractor trial, 5 sec delay




           Intraverbal Level 2 cont.
             Teaching objectives
                Strengthen intraverbal repertoire by expanding the
                content and variation of the verbal SDs and the
                verbal responses (stimulus and response classes)
                Break verbal responding free from mand and tact
                control
                Work toward fluent intraverbal responding free
                from prompting




           Intraverbal Level 3
            Student entry skills
               Successful performance on level 1 and 2 intraverbal
               activities
            Verbal SDs
               Continue level 1 and 2 activities
               Out of context fill-ins
               Reverse fill-ins
               RFFC to intraverbal, less than 15 sec delay
               RFFC to intraverbal, two distractor trials, 30 sec delay
               “Eat” and “drink” intraverbal categorization
               Common associations
            Teaching objectives
               Expand IV stimulus and response content and classes
               Develop fluent responding
               Break free from tact control
               Beginning verbal categorization and intraverbal association




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                                  34
           Intraverbal Level 3 cont.
            Red flags
               Rote responding
               Negative behavior/escape and avoidance during
               training
               High rate of forgetting
               High error rate/mixing of learned responses
               Long latencies
               Large number of teaching trials for each new
               relation
               Failure to generalize
               Failure to emit intraverbal behavior in the natural
               environment




           Intraverbal Level 4
            Student entry skills
               Success on levels 1, 2, & 3
               Minimal red flags
               Strong noun-verb tact and RD, strong RFFC
               Intraverbal activities become a greater focus of the daily
               language program.
            Verbal SDs
               Continue level 1, 2, 3 activities
               Fill-ins to WH questions
               Reverse fill-ins to reverse WH questions
               “What?” only questions
               Tact to intraverbal function
               Expansion of intraverbal responses (multiple Rs)
               Increase verbal exchanges on a single topic
               Peer intraverbal responding
               Beginning verbal categorizations




           Intraverbal Level 4 cont.
            Teaching objectives
               Increase the frequency and expand the content of
               intraverbal interactions
               Beginning conversation, generalized and fluent
               responding, and careful attending to verbal SDs




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                                 35
           Intraverbal Level 5
            Student entry skills
               Success on level 1, 2, 3 & 4
               Emitting 3-4 word sentences, including adjectives,
               prepositions, pronouns, adverbs, articles, etc.
            Verbal SDs
               Multiple verbal SDs (verbal conditional
               discrimination)
               Multiple verbal and nonverbal SDs (tact & IV)
               Intraverbal questions following short passages
               Answering Where and Who questions
               Intraverbal yes/no questions
               Verbal sequences
               Expansion of verbal responding and exchanges
               More advanced peer intraverbal activities
               Personal information




           Intraverbal Level 5 cont.
            Teaching objectives
               Develop verbal knowledge
               Increase social and peer verbal interactions
               Increase complexity of verbal stimuli and verbal
               responses
               Student should be in a very verbal educational
               environment (e.g., inclusion)




           Intraverbal Level 6
            Student entry skills
               Success on all previous levels
               Emitting sentences with correct syntax and grammar
               Focus is on academic skills
            Verbal SDs
               Multiple verbal SDs evoking multiple verbal responses
               Current events, community, social, political, etc.
               Past and future events
               When and How questions
               Academic content questions and discussion
               Conversation involving manding for information and
               intraverbals
               Telling stories, jokes, poems, etc.
               Intraverbals involving prepositions, adjectives, adverbs,
               pronouns, etc.




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                                36
           Intraverbal Level 6 cont.
            Teaching objectives
              Beginning academic development
              Expanding social and conversational repertoires
              Developing intellectual repertoires
              Student should be in a typical educational setting




           Data Systems
            Yes/No Probe Sheets
            Weekly probe Sheets
            Skill Tracking Sheet
            Notebooks arranged by ABLLS
            Graph data: cumulative graphs for
            acquistion
            Remember patterns of data over time will
            provide you with the best means of making
            informed instructional deisions




           Data Review: Instruction
           Issues
            Is intervention being done correctly?
            Is intervention being done consistently?
            Are interention concepts/stimuli arranged
            faultlessly?
            Is intervention being done often enough?
            Is data accurate?
            Is enough time alloted to do the intervention?
            Are intervention procedures clearly stated?
            Are staff able to adjust prompt level and
            reinforcement on a moment to moment basis?




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                                        37
                   Effective Team 

                    Collaboration





          Effective Teams….
            Believe students        Communicate
            are going to be         regularly
            successful
                                    Treat parents as
            Work diligently to      equal partners
            create a common
                                    Come to consensus,
            language
                                    work together and
            Create a safe           learn from each
            environment to          other
            solve problems and
            respectfully
            disagree




          Successful Team Collaboration
            Listen actively
            Request clarification
            Provide clarification
            Express knowledge simply
            Respect others’ perspectives
            Train & learn from others
            Role release
            Mutual sharing of responsibilities




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                              38
           Benefits of Effective
           Teaming
            More comprehensive assessment of
            student’s strengths and needs
            Planning is more cohesive with goals
            being effectively prioritized
            Everyone shares the responsibility
            for instruction of all goals
            Progress is more easily monitored
            when responsibilities are shared




           The Most Important Members
           of Our Team are The Students
                     We Serve




Advanced Verbal Behavior Principles,
December 05                                        39