; QUIZ Intracranial Hemorrhage
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QUIZ Intracranial Hemorrhage

VIEWS: 70 PAGES: 9

  • pg 1
									CHAPTER 3 QUIZ
Write the letter of the best answer in the space provided.
   ____ 1 The part of the nervous system that extends throughout the body is called
            the ____ nervous system.
                    a) peripheral
                    b) ventral
                    c) somatic
                    d) afferent
   ____ 2. The sympathetic nervous system is also known as the ____ division.
                    (a) feed or breed
                    (b) fight or flight
                    (c) slow or go
                    (d) stand or draw
   ____ 3. The division of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for
            controlling vegetative functions is the ____ nervous system.
                    (a) somatic
                    (b) afferent
                    (c) sympathetic
                    (d) parasympathetic
   ____ 4. The fundamental unit of the nervous system is the:
                    (a) axion.
                    (b) soma.
                    (c) synaptic terminals.
                    (d) nerve cell, or neuron.
    ____ 5. The axon is the portion of a nerve cell that:
                    (a) comes in physical contact with another nerve cell.
                    (b) is stimulated by environmental changes.
                    (c) conducts nerve impulses away from the soma.
                    (d) contains most of the metabolic machinery.
   ____ 6. The membranes covering the brain and spinal cord are collectively called the:
                    (a) dura mater.
                    (b) meninges.
                    (c) pia mater.
                    (d) arachnoid membranes.
   ____ 7. The portion of the brain that is the seat of consciousness and the center of
            higher mental functions is the:
                    (a) cerebellum.
                    (b) medulla oblongata.
                    (c) cerebrum.
                    (d) pons.
   ____ 8. You will find the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the limbic system inside the:
                    (a) cerebellum.
                    (b) midbrain.
                    (c) corpus callosum.
                    (d) diencephalon.
   ____      9. Involuntary actions such as temperature regulation, sleep, water balance,
              stress response, and emotions are the responsibility of the:
                    (a) cerebellum.
                    (b) midbrain.
                    (c) corpus callosum.
                    (d) diencephalon.
   ____       10. A portion of the brain that is NOT considered part of the brainstem is the:
                   (a) mesencephalon.
                   (b) pons.
                   (c) medulla oblongata.
                   (d) cerebellum.
 ____       11. The reticular activating system is responsible for:
                   (a) consciousness and the ability to respond to stimuli.
                   (b) posture, equilibrium, and muscle tone.
                   (c) respiratory, cardiac, and vasomotor activity.
                   (d) motor coordination and eye movement.
 ____     12. One of the two systems that join at the Circle of Willis is the ____ system.
                   (a) venous sinuses
                   (b) internal jugular
                   (c) vertebrobasilar
                   (d) reticular activating
 ____      13. The ____ fibers transmit impulses to the central nervous system from the
                   body.
                   (a) afferent
                   (b) efferent
                   (c) dermerent
                   (d) reflexerent
 ____     14. The 12 pairs of ____ nerves originate in the brain and supply nervous
                   control to the head, neck, and certain thoracic and abdominal organs.
                   (a) cranial
                   (b) arachnoid
                   (c) anterolateral
                   (d) hexaxial
____     15. When stimulated, the sympathetic nervous system:
                   (a) causes a rise in blood sugar.
                   (b) causes an increase in digestive activity.
                   (c) is mediated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
                   (d) is responsible for controlling vegetative functions.
____     16. A mechanism capable of producing alterations in mental status is a structural
                   lesion. One cause of structural lesions is:
                   (a) hepatic failure.
                   (b) hypoglycemia.
                   (c) brain tumor (neoplasm).
                   (d) anoxia.
____    17. Any malfunction of or damage to the peripheral nerves is called
              peripheral:
                   (a) neuropathy.
                   (b) cyanosis.
                   (c) diaphoresis.
                   (d) encephalopathy.
____      18. You can quickly assess a patient's mental status by using the ____ method.
                   (a) SAMPLE
                   (b) AVPU
                   (c) AEIOU-TIPS
                   (d) OPQRST
                   (e)
____      19. Abnormal pupils can be an early indicator of increasing intracranial pressure
            that is compressing cranial nerve:
                   (a) I.
               (b) II.
               (c) III.
               (d) IV.
____   20. The breathing pattern characterized by a period of apnea that lasts 10-60
       seconds, followed by gradually increasing depth and frequency of respirations is
       called:
               (a) Kussmaul's respiration.
               (b) Guillian-BarrŽ respiration.
               (c) apneustic respiration.
               (d) Cheyne-Stokes respiration.
____   21. Ataxic respirations are:
               (a) intercostal muscle dysfunctions.
               (b) poor respirations due to CNS damage.
               (c) prolonged inspirations unrelieved by expirations.
               (d) lesions caused by hyperventilation.
____   22. Your patient opens his eyes only when you pinch his shoulder. He has no
       verbal responses, and withdraws from pain. His Glasgow Coma Score Total is:
               (a) 2.
               (b) 3.
               (c) 4.
               (d) 6.
____   23. On the Glasgow Coma Scale, a patient with a total score of ____ or better has
       an estimated 94% favorable outcome.
               (a) 8
               (b) 7
               (c) 6
               (d) 5
____    24.Cushing's reflex is associated with increasing intracranial pressure and:
             (a) decreased blood pressure.
             (b) increased pulse.
             (c) decreased respirations.
             (d) decreased temperature.
____   25. The words ____ and ____ are assigned to the letter "A" in the mnemonic
       AEIOU-TIPS.
           (a) airway, altered
           (b) alert, awake
           (c) abdomen, acute
           (d) acidosis, alcohol
____     26. Stroke is referred to as a "brain attack" because in both a stroke and a heart
         attack:
           (a) overabundance of cerebrospinal fluid is produced.
           (b) a sudden, acute onset is reported by the patient.
           (c) oxygen deprivation causes damage to affected tissue.
           (d) a myocardial infarction may result.
____     27. Studies have proven that ____ and other thrombolytic agents used in the
         treatment of heart attack are also effective in treating certain occlusive strokes.
           (a) epinephrine
           (b) tPa
           (c) morphine sulfate
           (d) lidocaine
____   28.A stroke caused by the gradual development of a blood clot in a cerebral
       artery is called a(n):
         (a) thrombotic stroke.
         (b) embolic stroke.
         (c) hemorrhagic stroke.
         (d) aneurism.
____   29. Symptoms from a transient ischemic attack (TIA) generally resolve within:
         (a) 6 hours.
         (b) 12 hours.
         (c) 24 hours.
         (d) 48 hours.
____   30. When caring for a patient suffering from a nervous system condition or
       disease, your first priority in patient care is to:
         (a) administer thrombolytic therapy.
         (b) assess for any neurological deficits.
         (c) establish and maintain an adequate airway.
         (d) apply high-concentration oxygen by nonrebreather mask.
____   31.A generalized motor seizure which produces a loss of consciousness is
       known as a(n):
         (a) absence seizure.
         (b) tonic-clonic seizure.
         (c) hysterical seizure.
         (d) complex partial seizure.
____   32.The phases of a generalized seizure include all of the following EXCEPT:
         (a) aura.
         (b) loss of consciousness.
         (c) postictal.
         (d) absence.
____   33. Management of the seizure patient includes:
         (e) inserting an oral airway while the patient is seizing.
         (f) protecting the patient from hitting nearby objects.
         (g) establishing an IV containing a dextrose solution.
         (h) holding a tongue blade in the patient's mouth.
____   34. The term "status epilepticus" refers to a:
         (a) chronic seizure patient taking anticonvulsant medication regularly.
         (b) generalized seizure lasting more than 1 minute.
         (c) two or more seizures with no intervening periods of consciousness.
         (d) patient experiencing a seizure for the first time.
____   35. Management of the adult patient in status epilepticus includes administration
       of:
         (a) 5-10 mg diazepam IV push.
         (b) oral glucose if hypoglycemia is present.
         (c) dextrose, Narcan, and thiamine IV push.
         (d) sumatriptan and prochlorperazine.
____   36. A series of one-sided headaches that are sudden, intense, and may continue
       for 15 minutes to 4 hours is referred to as:
         (a) syncope headaches.
         (b) migraine headaches.
         (c) organic headaches.
         (d) cluster headaches.
____   37. Consider a headache a potentially serious condition if the patient describes it
       as:
         (a) sudden in onset and "the worst headache of my life."
         (b) lasting for more than 24 hours.
         (c) being accompanied by nausea and photosensitivity.
         (d) dull or achy pain with a feeling of forceful pressure.
____   38. The term ____ is used to describe the new growth of a tumor.
         (a) malignant
         (b) metastasized
         (c) benign
         (d) neoplasm
____   39. The disease that involves inflammation of certain nerve cells followed by
       demyelination is called:
         (a) dystonia.
         (b) muscular dystrophy.
         (c) multiple sclerosis.
         (d) Alzheimer's disease.
____   40. A neural defect that results from the failure of one or more of the fetal
       vertebrae to close properly during the first month of pregnancy is called:
         (a) myoclonus.
         (b) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
         (c) poliomyelitis.
         (d) spina bifida.
CHAPTER 3 REVIEW
Write the word or words that best complete each sentence in the space(s) provided.
1.     The central nervous system is made up of the _______________ and
       _______________ _______________ .
2.     The _______________ nervous system extends throughout the body.
3.     Voluntary bodily functions are controlled by the _______________ nervous
       system.
4.     The _______________ nervous system controls involuntary bodily
       functions.
5.     The _______________ nervous system is the division of the autonomic
       nervous system that prepares the body for stressful situations.
6.     The _______________ nervous system is the division of the autonomic
       nervous system that controls vegetative functions.
7.     A(n) _______________ is a substance that is released from the axon
       terminal of a presynaptic neuron upon excitation.
8.     The membranes covering and protecting the brain and spinal cord are called
       the _______________ .
9.     The portion of the brain lying beneath the cerebrum and above the brainstem
       is called the _______________ .
10.    The _______________ _______________ is the lower portion of the
       brainstem, connecting the pons and the spinal cord. It contains major centers
       for control of _______________ , _______________ , and
       _______________ activity.
11.    The system responsible for consciousness is the _______________
       _______________ system.
12.    _______________ fibers transmit impulses to the central nervous system
       from the body, while _______________ fibers carry impulses from the
       central nervous system to the body.
13.    There are 12 pairs of _______________ nerves that extend from the lower
       surface of the brain.
14.    The _______________ nervous system is often referred to as the "fight-or-
       flight" system, and the _______________ nervous system is referred to as
       the "feed-and-breed" system.
15.    Anoxia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and renal failure are among the various
       causes of _______________ - _______________ states, which can produce
       diffuse depression of both sides of the cerebrum.
16.    Brain tumor, intracranial hemorrhage, parasites, and trauma are among the
       causes of _______________ _______________ , which are capable of
       producing alterations in mental status.
17.    Any malfunction or damage of the peripheral nerves is called
       _______________ _______________ .
18.    The "A" in the mnemonic _______________ means the patient is alert and
       aware of his surroundings.
19.    Breathing characterized by a prolonged inspiration that is unrelieved by
       expiration attempts is called _______________ respiration.
20.    Poor respirations due to CNS damage, causing ineffective thoracic muscular
       coordination, are called _______________ .
21.    A(n) _______________ posture is one in which the patient presents with the
       arms flexed, fists clenched, and legs extended.
22.    A(n) _______________ posture is one in which the patient presents with
       stiff and extended extremities and retracted head.
23.   A collective change in vital signs associated with increasing intracranial
      pressure is called _______________ reflex.
24.   _______________ syndrome is a condition characterized by loss of memory
      and disorientation, and is associated with chronic alcohol intake and a diet
      deficient in thiamine.
25.   Ischemic or hemorrhagic lesion to a portion of the brain, resulting in damage
      or destruction of brain tissue, is called a(n) _______________ .
26.   "Brain attacks" are divided into two broad categories: _______________
      and _______________ .
27.   Seizures that begin as an electrical discharge in a small area of the brain but
      spread to involve the entire cerebral cortex, causing widespread
      malfunction, are called _______________ seizures.
28.   In the _______________ phase of a generalized seizure, the patient may
      awaken confused and fatigued.
29.   A type of generalized seizure with sudden onset, characterized by a brief
      loss of awareness and rapid recovery, is called a(n) _______________
      seizure.
30.   A series of two or more generalized motor seizures without any intervening
      periods of consciousness is called _______________ _______________ .
31.   _______________ is a sedative and anticonvulsant medication used in
      treating seizures.
32.   The term _______________ is used to describe the new growth of a tumor.
33.   Alzheimer's disease, muscular dystrophy, and multiple sclerosis are all
      examples of _______________ _______________ disorders.
34.   Lou Gehrig's disease, or _______________ _______________
      _______________ , is a progressive degeneration of specific nerve cells that
      control voluntary movement.
35.   Thousands of survivors of _______________ , an infectious, inflammatory
      viral disease of the CNS that can result in permanent paralysis, require
      supportive care.
TREATMENT IN NERVOUS SYSTEM EMERGENCIES
A number of treatments are performed for the patient with CNS problems. For each one
described below, give a brief rationale of why the treatment is beneficial.
       1.     Administration of oxygen




       2.     Initiating IV normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution (and not 5% dextrose)




       3.     Determining the blood glucose level




       4.     Protecting the airway




       5.     Providing assurance to the patient




       6.     Monitoring cardiac rhythm
NERVOUS SYSTEM ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Write the word or words that best complete each sentence in the space(s) provided.
1. The fundamental unit of the nervous system is the nerve cell, or _______________ . The
   nerve cell includes the cell body, which contains the _______________ ; the
   _______________ , which carry nervous impulses to the cell body; and the
   _______________ , which transmit nervous impulses away from the cell body.
2. The transmission of impulses in the nervous system resembles the conduction of
   electrical impulses through the _______________ . When stimulated, _______________
   rapidly enters the cell and _______________ rapidly leaves it, producing a positive
   charge at the entry site. This positive charge, which is called the _______________
   _______________ , is subsequently transmitted down the neuron at extremely high
   velocity. The neuron joins with other neurons at junctions called _______________ . The
   neurons do not come into direct contact with each other. Instead, upon reaching the
   junction, the cell causes the release of a chemical _______________ . The chemical
   associated with the parasympathetic and voluntary nervous systems is _______________
   . The chemical found at the terminals of sympathetic nerves is _______________ .
3. The entire central nervous system is covered in protective membranes called the
   _______________ . The outermost layer is called the _______________
   _______________ . The middle layer is known as the _______________ membrane. The
   innermost layer, directly overlying the central nervous system, is called the
   _______________ _______________ . Both the brain and the spinal cord are bathed in
   _______________ fluid.
4. Of the six main divisions of the brain, the largest one is called the _______________ . It
   consists of _______________ hemispheres and is the seat of _______________ and the
   center of the higher mental functions.
5. The superior most portion of the brain stem is called the _______________ . It contains
   the thalamus, the _______________ , and the limbic system. This area is responsible for
   many involuntary actions, such as _______________ .
6. The _______________ , or the midbrain, controls _______________ _______________
   and _______________ _______________ . The _______________ is located between
   the midbrain and the medulla oblongata and contains connections between the brain and
   the spinal cord. The _______________ _______________ is the lower portion of the
   brainstem, connecting the pons and the spinal cord. The _______________ is located in
   the posterior fossa of the cranial cavity.

								
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