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DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE_ 4th Edition

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					   COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL




Sector:
                      TOURISM
Qualification:
                      NC LEVEL II
Unit of Competency:
                      DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE

Module Title:
                      DEVELOPING AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE

                  Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
                          Camiguin School of Arts and Trades
                                    Lumad, Mambajao, Camiguin
     HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL


   Welcome to the module on DEVELOPING AND UPDATE INDUSTRY
KNOWLEDGE. This module contains training materials and activities for you to
complete.

   The unit of competency “DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY
KNOWLEDGE" contains knowledge, skills and attitudes required for
DEVELOPING AND UPDATING INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE. It is one of the
Core Modules at National Certificate (NC II)

    You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to
complete each learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome there
are Information Sheets, Resource Sheets and Reference Materials for further
reading to help you better understand the required activities. Follow these
activities on your own and answer the self-check at the end of each learning
outcome. Get the answer key from your instructor and check your work honestly.

    If you have questions, please don’t hesitate to ask your facilitator for
assistance. Your facilitator will always be a available to assist you during the
training.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)
    You may already have some or most of the knowledge and skills covered in
this module because you have:

          been working for some time
          already completed training in this area.

    If you can demonstrate to your trainer that you are competent in a particular
skill or skills, talk to him/her about having them formally recognized so you don't
have to do the same training again.

    If you have a qualification or Certificate of Competency from previous
trainings, show it to your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still current and
relevant to the unit/s of competency they may become part of the evidence you
can present for RPL. If you are not sure about the currency of your skills, discuss
this with your trainer.

   At the end of this module is a Learner’s Diary. Use this diary to record
important dates, jobs undertaken and other workplace events that will assist you
in providing further details to your trainer or assessor. A Record of
Achievement is also provided for your trainer to complete once you complete
the module.
    This module was prepared to help you achieve the required competency, in
DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE. This will be the source of
information for you to acquire knowledge and skills in this particular trade
independently and at your own pace, with minimum supervision or help from your
instructor.

    In doing the activities to complete the requirements of this module, please
     be guided by the following:
   
          Talk to your trainer and agree on how you will both organize the
            Training of this unit. Read through the module carefully. It is divided
            into sections, which cover all the skills, and knowledge you need to
            successfully complete this module.

            Work through all the information and complete the activities in each
             section. Read information sheets and complete the self-check.
             Suggested references are included to supplement the materials
             provided in this module.

            Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager.
             He/she is there to support you and show you the correct way to do
             things.

            Your trainer will tell you about the important things you need to
             consider when you are completing activities and it is important that
             you listen and take notes.

            You will be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions and
             practice on the job. Make sure you practice your new skills during
             regular work shifts. This way you will improve both your speed and
             memory and also your confidence.

            Talk to more experience workmates and ask for their guidance.

            Use the self-check questions at the end of each section to test your
             own progress.

            When you are ready, ask your trainer to watch you perform the
             activities outlined in this module.

            As you work through the activities, ask for written feedback on your
             progress. Your trainer keeps feedback/ pre-assessment reports for
             this reason. When you have successfully completed each element,
             ask your trainer to mark on the reports that you are ready for
             assessment.
   When you have completed this module (or several modules), and
    feel confident that you have had sufficient practice, your trainer will
    arrange an

   Appointment with registered assessor to assess you. The results of
    your assessment will be recorded in your competency Achievement
    Record.
QUALIFICATION      : NC Level II
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY
                     KNOWLEDGE
MODULE TITLE       : DEVELOPING AND UPDATING INDUSTRY
                     KNOWLEDGE

INTRODUCTION               : This module covers the knowledge, skills & attitudes
                             in promoting career growth and advancement
NOMINAL DURATION           : 44 HRS

LEARNING OUTCOMES :

Upon completion of this module, the trainee/ student must be able to:

        1. Identify and access key sources of information on the industry
        2. Access, apply and share industry information
        3. Update continuously relevant industry knowledge

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

        1.1 Sources of information on the industry are correctly identified and
            accessed.
        1.2 Information to assist effective work performance is obtained in line
            with job requirements
        1.3 Specific information on sector of work is accessed and updated
        1.4 Industry information is correctly applied to day-to-day work
            activities

        2.1 Informal and/or formal research is used to update general
            knowledge of industry
        2.2 Updated knowledge is shared with customers and colleagues as
            appropriate and incorporated into day-to-day working activities



PRE – REQUISETE:

           Before you tackle this module you must complete first the module
            on: Basic Tool Competencies
Qualification           : NC II
Unit of Competency      : DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY
                            KNOWLEDGE

Module Title            : DEVELOPING AND UPDATING INDUSTRY
                            KNOWLEDGE

Learning Outcomes # 1   : Identify and access key sources of information on
                           the industry

Assessment Criteria     :
                                Sources of information on the industry
                               Information to assist effective work
                                performance

Learning Materials      :       CBLM on Develop and Update Industry
Knowledge
                                Related reading materials


Equipment               :       Simulated laboratory room
                                Electronic learning device
                                Computer
                                Television and video set

Materials/supplies      :
LEARNING EXPERIENCES / ACTIVITIES

 Learning Outcome # 1 Identify and access key sources of information
 on the industry
        Learning Activities               Special Instructions

Are you ready to perform this
activity?

If ready, take your time and be sure
to observe the standard procedures
in all your activities.

   1. Read information sheet 1
   2. Read information sheet 2

   3. Answer: self – Check to
      assess your knowledge

   4. Refers to Model Answer #5
      for the correct answer of self
      – check.
            INFORMATION SHEET 1-LO# 1
                        Sources of Information on the Industry




WHAT IS MEDIA?
www.LXTmedia.com

Media (the plural of "medium") - referring to those organized means of dissemination of
fact, opinion, entertainment, and other information, such as newspapers, magazines,
banners and billboards, cinema films, radio, television, the World Wide Web,
billboards, books, CDs, DVDs, videocassettes, computer games and other forms of
publishing.

Types of Media

a. Mass Media - is mainly used by academics and media-professionals. When members
               of the general public refer to "the media" they are usually referring to the
               mass media, or to the news media. Sometimes mass media (and the
               news media in particular) are referred to as the "corporate media".

b. Mainstream Media - includes outlets that are in harmony with the prevailing direction
              of influence in the c ulture at large.

c. Corporate Media - is often used by leftist media critics to imply that the mainstream
               media are themselves composed of large multinational corporations,
               and promote those interests (see e.g., Fairness and Accuracy in
               Reporting; Herman and Chomsky's "A Propaganda Model").

History
During the 20th century, the growth of mass media was driven by technology that
allowed the massive duplication of material. Physical duplication technologies such as
printing, record pressing and film duplication allowed the duplication of books,
newspapers and movies at low prices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed
the electronic duplication of information for the first time. Mass media had the economics
of linear replication: a single work could make money proportional to the number of
copies sold, and as volumes went up, units costs went down, increasing profit margins
further. Vast fortunes were to be made in mass media. In a democratic society,
independent media serve to educate the public/electorate about
issues regarding government and corporate entities (see Mass media and public
opinion). Some consider the concentration of media ownership to be a grave threat
to democracy.
Timeline
1453: Johnannes Gutenberg prints the Bible, using his printing press, ushering in the
Renaissance
1825: Nicéphore Niépce takes the first permanent photograph
1830: Telegraphy is independently developed in England and the United States.
1876: First telephone call made by Alexander Graham Bell
1878: Thomas Alva Edison patents the phonograph
1890: First juke box in San Francisco's Palais Royal Saloon.
1890: Telephone wires are installed in Manhattan.
1895: Cinematograph invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere
1896: Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Co. It will become IBM in 1924.
1898: Loudspeaker is invented.
1906: The Story of the Kelly Gang from Australia is world's first feature length film.
1909: RMS Republic, a palatial White Star passenger liner, uses the Marconi Wireless for a
distress at sea. She had been in
a collision. This is the first "breaking news" mass media event.
1912: Air mail begins
1913: Edison transfers from cylinder recordings to more easily reproducible discs
1913: The portable phonograph is manufactured.
1915: Radiotelephone carries voice from Virginia to the Eiffel Tower
1916: Tunable radios invented.
1919: Short-wave radio is invented.
1920: KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh, United States, becoming the world's first commercial radio
station.
1922: BBC is formed and broadcasting to London.
1924: KDKA created a short-wave radio transmitter.
1925: BBC broadcasting to the majority of the UK.
1926: NBC is formed
1927: The Jazz Singer: The first motion picture with sounds debuts
1927: Philo Taylor Farnsworth debuts the first electronic television system
1928: The Teletype was introduced.
1933: Edwin Armstrong invents FM Radio
1934: Half of the homes in the U.S. have radios.
1935: First telephone call made around the world.
1936: BBC opened world's first regular (then defined as at least 200 lines) high definition
television service.
1938: The War of the Worlds is broadcast on October 30, causing mass hysteria.
1939: Western Union introduces coast-to-coast fax service.
1939: Regular electronic television broadcasts begin in the U.S.
1939: The wire recorder is invented in the U.S.
1940: The first commercial television station, WNBT (now WNBC-TV)/New York signs on the air
1951: The first color televisions go on sale
1957: Sputnik is launched and sends back signals from near earth orbit
1959: Xerox makes the first copier
1960: Echo I, a U.S. balloon in orbit, reflects radio signals to Earth.
1962: Telstar satellite transmits an image across the Atlantic.
1963: Audio cassette is invented in the Netherlands.
1963: Martin Luther King gives "I have a dream" speech.
1965: Vietnam War becomes first war to be televised.
1967: Newspapers, magazines start to digitize production.
1969: Man's first landing on the moon is broadcast to 600 million people around the globe.
1970s: ARPANET, progenitor to the internet developed
1971: Intel debuts the microprocessor
1972: Pong becomes the first video game to win widespread popularity.
1976: JVC introduces VHS videotape - becomes the standard consumer format in the 1980s &
      1990s.
1980: CNN launches
1980: New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones put news database online.
1981: The laptop computer is introduced by Tandy.
1983: Cellular phones begin to appear
1984: Apple Macintosh is introduced.
1985: Pay-per-view channels open for business.
1991: World-Wide Web (WWW) publicly released by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN.
1993: CERN announces that the WWW will be free for anyone to use.
1995: The internet grows exponentially
1996: First DVD players and discs are available in Japan. Twister is the first film on DVD.


Purposes
Mass media can be used for various purposes:
• Advocacy, both for business and social concerns. This can include advertising,
            marketing, propaganda, public relations, and political communication.
• Enrichment and education, such as literature.
• Entertainment, traditionally through performances of acting, music, and sports,
            along with light reading; since the late 20th century also through video and
            computer games.
• Journalism. Public service announcements.

Journalism
Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying, and presenting information
regarding current events, trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism
are known as journalists.

Public relations
Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an
organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image.
Examples include:
• Corporations use marketing public relations (MPR) - Typically, they support sales in the
short and long term, establishing and burnishing the corporation's branding for a strong,
ongoing market.
• Corporations also use public-relations as a vehicle - they may use public relations to
portray themselves as enlightened employers, in support of human-resources recruiting
programs.
• Non-profit organizations - including schools and universities, hospitals, and human and
social service agencies, use public relations in support of awareness programs, fund-
raising programs, staff recruiting, and to increase patronage of their services. Politicians
use public relations to attract votes and raise money, and, when successful at the ballot
box, to promote and defend their service in office, with an eye to the next election or, at
career’s end, to their legacy.
Forms
Electronic media and print media include:
• Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for radio and television.
• Various types of discs or tape. In the 20th century, these were mainly used for music.
Video and computer uses followed.
• Film, most often used for entertainment, but also for documentaries.
• Internet, which has many uses and presents both opportunities and challenges. Blogs
and podcasts, such as news, music, pre-recorded speech and video)
• Publishing, in the narrow sense, meaning on paper, mainly via books, magazines,
and newspapers. Computer games, which have developed into a mass form of media
since devices such as the PlayStation 2 , Xbox, and the Game Cube broadened their
use.

Broadcasting
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals (programs) to a
number of recipients ("listeners" or "viewers") that belong to a large group. This group
may be the public in general, or a relatively large audience within the public. Thus, an
Internet channel may distribute text or music world-wide, while a public address
system in (for example) a workplace may broadcast very limited ad hoc soundbites to a
small population within its range.

Film
Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the
field in general. The origin of the name comes from the fact that photographic film (also
called filmstock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying
motion pictures. Films are produced by recording people and objects with cameras, or
by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects.

Internet
The Internet (also known simply as "the Net") can be briefly understood as "a network of
networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected
computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard
Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business,
and governmental networks, which together carry various information and services,
such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and
other documents of the World Wide Web.

Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not
synonymous: the Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by
copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc.; the Web is a collection of
interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.

The World Wide Web is accessible via the Internet, along with many other services
including e-mail, file sharing.
Publishing
Publishing is the industry concerned with the production of literature or information –
the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases, authors may
be their own publishers. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works
such as books and newspapers. With the advent
of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to
include websites, blogs, and the like.

       Book
A book is a collection of sheets of paper, parchment or other material with a piece of
text written on them, bound together along one edge within covers.

       Magazine
A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally
financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers. Magazines are typically published
weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly, with a date on the cover that is in
advance of the date it is actually published. They are often printed in color on coated
paper, and are bound with a soft cover.
Magazines fall into two broad categories: consumer magazines and business magazines

Magazines can be classified as:
• General interest magazines (e.g. Frontline, India Today, The Week, etc)
• Special interest magazines (women's, sports, business, scuba diving, etc)


       Newspaper
A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually
printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It may be general or special interest, most
often published daily or weekly. The first printed newspaper was published in 1605, and
the form has thrived even in the face of competition from technologies such as radio and
television. Recent developments on the Internet are posing major threats to its business
model, however.

       Software publishing
A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between the
developer and the distributor.
Software publishers often license software from developers with specific limitations, such
as a time limit or geographical region. The terms of licensing vary enormously, and are
typically secret. Developers may use publishers to reach larger or foreign markets, or to
avoid focusing on marketing. Or publishers may use developers to create software to
meet a market need that the publisher has identified.
       Video and computer games
Namco's Pac-Man was a hit, and became a cultural phenomenon. The game spawned
merchandise, a cartoon series and pop songs, and was one of the most heavily
cloned video games of all-time. A computer game is a computer-controlled game. A
video game is a computer game where a video display such as a monitor or television
is the primary feedback device. The term "computer game" also includes games which
display only text (and which can therefore theoretically be played on a teletypewriter) or
which use other methods, such as sound or vibration. There always must also be some
sort of input device, usually in the form of button/joystick combinations (on arcade
games), a keyboard & mouse/trackball combination (computer games), or a controller
(console games), or a combination of any of the above. In common usage, a "computer
game" or a "PC game" refers to a game that is played on a personal computer.
"Console game" refers to one that is played on a device specifically designed for the
use of such, while interfacing with a standard television set. "Video game" (or
"videogame") has evolved into a catchall phrase that encompasses the aforementioned
along with any game made for any other device, including, but not limited to, mobile
phones,

PDAs, advanced calculators, etc.
LXT Media Press Information
                                   INFORMATION 2- LO# 1
                             INDUSTRY INFORMATION SOURCES


Industries are groups of companies that sell the same products or services. For
example, companies such as General Motors and Toyota make up the
automobile manufacturing industry. Some of the sources on this guide provide
short summaries of numerous industries; others analyze particular industries in
detail. Some include information on buyers as well as sellers of particular
products or services.

The sources on this guide are a sample of important print and online industry
resources. They include books at Rod Library, online sources to which Rod
Library subscribes (marked with an *), and other web sources which at this time
are free or partially free. Call numbers are listed under the titles of print sources
available at the library. Underlined titles can be accessed via the web. If
accessing a Rod Library subscription database from off campus, you will be
prompted for your last name and UNI student ID number.

Other Library User Guides go into more detail on finding information on topics
such as accounting, companies, economics, finance, financial ratios, industries,
management, and marketing.


Industry Information Sources guide will help you locate information on industries. It is selective,
including only major titles in the field. For additional resources check the Library Catalog under
the appropriate subject headings, or ask for assistance from a reference librarian.

I. ARTICLE INDEXES

Business Source Premier, Lexis-Nexis, and Business & Company Resource Center, can all
be accessed via the Libraries' homepage, (http://library.lib.binghamton.edu) under metaLink, then
Management and Business.
Business Source Premier
This full text database provides access to over 1000 business and economics journals. It also
contains company and industry profiles, country reports, and market research reports.
Business & Company Resource Center
Click on Industry to search for reports by industry code (SIC or NAICS) or by keyword. Click
Articles to find articles from industry and trade magazines.
LEXIS-NEXIS
To find industry articles, click on Business, then Industry & Market and then select your industry.
Articles are full-text.
II. INDUSTRY CODES

North American Industry Classification System Ref HF 1042 .N66 2002
This is the new system, devised by the Department of Commerce, to replace the Standard
Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. Numerous business directories and government publications
use the codes.
Standard Industrial Classification Manual Ref HF 1042 .A55
This is a guide to Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, which are codes assigned to
products and services by the U.S. government. Replaced in July 1998 by the NAIC manual,
above.
Standard International Trade Classification Revision 3 Ref HF 1041 .U56 1986
This is the set of broad industry codes used by the United Nations. There is no relation to either
the SIC or NAIC codes used by the United States.
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States Gov. Docs ITC 1.10
International product category codes used by importers and exporters.

III. INFORMATION ABOUT INDUSTRIES

Standard and Poors' Industry Surveys Ref HC 102 .S8
This quarterly survey provides analysis of U.S. industries. Each section has several statistical
tables, and information about individual companies within specific industries.
Automotive News Market Data Book Ref HD 9710 .U5 A85
Has detailed statistics for the world auto industry, with the main emphasis on the United States.
Includes sales, production, prices, etc.
Business & Company Resource Center Internet database
Contains industry reports. See description on first page.
Business Statistics of the United States Ref Desk HC 101 .A13122
Has historical statistics on production, capacity, employment, orders, inventories, etc. Look in the
Table of Contents under "Industry Profiles".
County Business Patterns...New York Ref HC 107 .N7 C85
Very basic industry information for Broome County.
Industry Review Ref HG .4961 .M68
Has comparative financial statistics on individual public companies arranged by industry.
Information, Finance, & Services USA Ref HD 9981.1 .I54
Contains industry analyses, statistics, and information on leading companies. Arranged by NAICS
code.
Infrastructure Industries USA Ref HC 79 C3 I54
Covers the agriculture, mining, utilities, construction, and transportation industries.
Manufacturing & Distribution USA Ref HD 9721.M364
Contains industry analyses, statistics, and information on leading companies. Arranged by NAICS
code.
Statistical Abstract of the United States Info Commons Ref DeskHA 206 .S8
Published annually by the U.S. government. Look under the industry name in the index.
Ward's Automotive Yearbook Ref HD 9710 .U5 W3
Has statistics for the automotive industry, with a focus on North America.

IV. BUSINESS RATIOS

These sources provide the operating and financial ratios of many industries, arranged by SIC
code.
Almanac of Business and Industrial Financial Ratios Ref HF 5681 .R25 T68
Industry Norms and Key Business Ratios Ref HF 5681 .R25 I54
RMA Annual Statement Studies Ref HF 5681 .B2 R6
Colleen Hailey/Bartle Reference & Collections/Binghamton University/8-06
                                                                                                         Select
 Philippines                                                                                           Country
Country > Trade Information Sources > Selected Printed Information Sources
Records 101 to 112                                  Total Records : 112                           Page [ 1 2 3 4 5]

Sr.#                         Title                         Year                    Publisher
101 Philippine Exporters Confederation                              Philippine Exporters Confederation, Inc.
102 Philippines. Board of Investments                               Philippines. Board of Investments
        Philippines. Center for International                       Center for International Trade Expositions
103                                                                 and Missions
        Trade Expositions and Missions
        Philippines. Chamber of Furniture                           Philippines. Chamber of Furniture
104                                                                 Industries
        Industries
                                                                    Philippines. Department of Trade and
        Philippines. Department of Trade                            Industry. Trade and Industry Information
105
        and Industry                                                Center
106 Philippines. e-Yellow Pages                                     Philippines. E-Yellow Pages
        Philippines. Investor Relations
107                                                                 Philipines. Investor Relations Office
        Office
        Philippines. Motor Vehicle Parts                            Philippines. Motor Vehicle Parts
108                                                                 Manufacturers Association
        Manufacturers Association
        Philippines. National Economic and                          Philippines. National Economic
109                                                                 Development Authority
        Development Authority (NEDA)
        Philippines. Official Government
110
        Portal
                                                                    Philippines. Department of Trade and
111 Tradeline Philippines                                           Industry. Bureau of Export Trade
                                                                    Promotion
        United Coconut Associations of the                          United Coconut Associations of the
112                                                                 Philippines, Inc.
        Philippines, Inc. (UCAP)
Information Technology in The Philippines

Impacts of National Information Technology Environments on Business

Sources and Links


 The Philippine Star, A daily newspaper from Manila

 Business World - Internet Edition

 American Journalism Review, A List of Philippines Newspapers

 Republic of the Philippines, National Statistics Office

 The Asia/Pacific IT Forum, A conference in Asia on IT issues. The theme of
this year's (January 2000) will be "Navigating the New Economy in the World's
Most Dynamic IT Markets."

 The Philippine Commission on Year 2000 Compliance, The Philippines' official
Y2K website on preparing for the millenium bug.

 The Philippines, A country study done by the Library of Congress.

 Information on the Philippines, another country study with various links to
country information.

 IT Matters Daily News, from Manila

 ASEAN, The Associaton of South East Asian Nations

 The World Bank Group, data and statistics on third world/developing countries

 US State Department, Bureau of Consular Affairs, The Philippines Consular
Information Sheet

 Embassy of the United States in Manila

 The Philippines Government, Department of Trade and Industry

 The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, the country's major
telecommunications provider

 The International Telecommunications Union
 Ecommerce Today, an Australian site providing great articles on ecommerce in
the Asia-Pacific region

 NUA Internet Surveys, the latest on Internet development and progress

 Telecommunications at a Glance, statistics provided by ITU by country or
telecom operator

 Telegeography, Inc., statistics, maps and reports on network infrastructure
around the globe

 Philippines sites,provided by Jetlink, a Filipino ISP

 ISP directory, for the Philippines

 Philippines search engines, and other great links to informational sites on the
Philippines, provided by the Department of Trade and Industry

 Philippines Information, more links to sites on the Philippines

 Doing Business in the Philippines, Provided by Far East Bank and Trust
Company

 Internet Software Consortium, resource for Host counts done by Network
Wizards

 Global Crossing, owns most of the trans-oceanic cable

 APEC, Asian Pacific Economic Corporation

 Federal Communications Commission, International Bureau

 Asian Development Bank, data and statistics for the Asia-Pacific region
Footnotes

General Information on the Philippines
1
 "Destination the Philippines," Lonely Planet
(http://www.lonelyplanet.com/dest/sea/phil.html), current November 11, 1999.


Telecommunications Infrastructure
1
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
2
"Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. 1999 Planning Session Report," Prepared for
MCI WorldCom, October 15, 1998, Pasig City, Philippines.
3
 "Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. 2000 Communications Plan Report," Prepared
for MCI WorldCom, October, 1999, Pasig City, Philippines.
4
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
5
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999 and "Basic Indicators of Teledensity in the World,"
International Telecommunications Union (November 1999),
(http://www.itu.int/ti/industryoverview/index.htm), current November 30, 1999.
6
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
7
 "Cellular Subscribers in the World," International Telecommunications Union
(November 1999), (http://www.itu.int/ti/industryoverview/index.htm), current
November 30, 1999.
8
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
9
 "Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) Builds Path to Next-
Generation Network Services with Cisco Systems Equipment," (December 6,
1999) Cisco System's Asia Pacific New and Information
(http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/146/asia_pr/december99/2.html), current
December 9, 1999.
10
 "PLDT - Company Information," PLDT (http://www.pldt.com.ph), current
December 2, 1999.
11
 "Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) Builds Path to Next-
Generation Network Services with Cisco Systems Equipment," (December 6,
1999) Cisco System's Asia Pacific New and Information
(http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/146/asia_pr/december99/2.html), current
December 9, 1999.
12
 "PhIX Network," PhIX - Philippines Internet Exchange
(http://www.phix.net.ph/phix/network.html), current December 2, 1999.
13
 "Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. Brand Review," Prepared for MCI WorldCom,
April 15, 1999, Pasig City, Philippines.
14
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
15
    Ibid.
16
    Ibid.



Privatization and Deregulation
1
"Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. Brand Review," Prepared for MCI WorldCom,
April 15, 1999, Pasig City, Philippines.
2
"The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
3
Ibid.
4
Ibid.
5
Ibid.
6
Ibid.
7
"Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. Brand Review," Prepared for MCI WorldCom,
April 15, 1999, Pasig City, Philippines.
8
Ibid.
9
Ibid.
10
    Ibid.
11
    Ibid.
12
    Ibid.
13
 "Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. 1999 Planning Session Report," Prepared for
MCI WorldCom, October 15, 1998, Pasig City, Philippines.



Internet Activity
1
 "MosCom - Company Information," MosCom
(http://www.mozcom.com/company/profile.html), current December 2, 1999.
2
 "Paul Budde Communcations: 240 Percent Growth in Asia Since 1996," (August
14, 1997) NUA Internet Surveys (http://www.nua.ie/surveys), current November
9, 1999.
3
 "Paul Budde Communcations: Asian ISP Market Needs to Focus," (December
18, 1998) NUA Internet Surveys (http://www.nua.ie/surveys), current November
9, 1999.
4
Ibid.
5
Ibid.
6
Ibid.
7
 "Techserver: Demographic Projections for Asia," (September 10, 1998) NUA
Internet Surveys (http://www.nua.ie/surveys), current November 9, 1999.
8
Yao-Endriga, M. "Philcomsat Pins Hopes on Satellite Internet Services," The
Philippine Star, October 15, 1999.
9
 "Internet Domain Survey," (July 1999) Internet Software Consortium
(http://www.isc.org/ds/WWW-9907/dist-bynum.html), current November 30, 1999.
10
 "PhIX Frequently Asked Questions," PhIX - Philippines Internet Exchange
(http://www.phix.net.ph/phix/faq.html), current December 2, 1999.
11
 "PhilWorld Online Internet Services," PhilWorld Online
(http://www.cebu.pworld.net.ph/services.htm), current December 6, 1999.
12
 "MosCom - Company Information,"MosCom
(http://www.mozcom.com/company/profile.html), current December 2, 1999.
13
    Ibid.
14
    Ibid.
15
 Each ISP was surveyed individually (via the website or personal
communication) for pricing plans or quotes for services provided. Last current
December 2, 1999.



Hardware Manufacturing
1
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
2
Ibid.
3
Ibid.
4
Ibid.

Software Development
1
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
2
Ibid.
3
Ibid.



Electronic Commerce
1
 "Singapore Business Times: Malaysia to Lead Internet Growth in Asia," (October
29, 1997) NUA Internet Surveys (http://www.nua.ie/surveys), current November
9, 1999.
2
"Briefing Paper on ASEAN Economic Integration," Association of South East
Asian Nations (ASEAN) (hhttp://www.asean.or.id), current November 20, 1999.
3
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines,"
(September 1999), World Bank Group (http://www.worldbank.org), current
November 20, 1999.
4
 "Statistics on the size of sales for exports and imports in the Philippines," The
Philippines Department of Trade and Industry (http://www.philtins.dti.gov.ph),
current November 20, 1999.



IT Usage
1
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
2
Ibid.
3
Ibid.
4
Ibid.
5
Ibid.
6
Ibid.
7
Ibid.
8
Ibid.
9
Ibid.



IT Financing
1
"Philippines to invest US$582 million in IT," (April 7, 1999), ComputerWorld
Philippines (http://it.idg.net/crd_it_9-51553.html), current December 10, 1999.
2
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
3
"Philippines to invest US$582 million in IT," (April 7, 1999), ComputerWorld
Philippines (http://it.idg.net/crd_it_9-51553.html), current December 10, 1999.
4
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
5
Ibid.
6
"Philippines to invest US$582 million in IT," (April 7, 1999), ComputerWorld
Philippines (http://it.idg.net/crd_it_9-51553.html), current December 10, 1999.



IT Labour Market
1
"Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. Brand Review," Prepared for MCI WorldCom,
April 15, 1999, Pasig City, Philippines.
2
 Ferriols, D. "Number of Japanese Firms with Backroom Operations in RP Seen
to Double," The Philippine Star, October 30, 1999.
3
Ibid.
4
 Goad, G.P. "At Your Service," Far Eastern Economic Review, September 2,
1999.
5
Ibid.
6
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
7
Ibid.
8
Ibid.
9
Ibid.
10
    Ibid.
11
 Goad, G.P. "At Your Service," Far Eastern Economic Review, September 2,
1999.
12
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
13
    Ibid.


Government Policies
1
 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT
Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information
Technology Council
(http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current
December 9, 1999.
2
Ibid.
3
Ibid.
4
Ibid.




                              This site was developed for
        Impacts of National Information Technology Environments on Business
                               Kogod School of Business
                        American University, Washington, DC.

                             Created by Bree Connally

                  This page was last updated: December 13, 1999
                          INFORMATION 3- LO# 1
                    PHILIPPINE TOURISM INDUSTRY AND ITS SERVICES



1Mission
The Department of Tourism (DOT) shall be the primary government agency charged with the responsibility
to encourage, promote, and develop tourism as a major socio-economic activity to generate foreign currency
and employment and to spread the benefits of tourism to both the private and public sector.


History
1950s - Started as a private initiative, the Philippine Tourist & Travel Association was organized.

1956 - The Board of Travel & Tourist Industry was created by law.

1973 - The Department of Tourism (DOT), Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA), and Philippine Convention
Bureau (PCB) were created by the Philippine government.

1986 - Under Executive Order no. 120 and 120-A, DOT and PCB were reorganized structurally and
functionally. PCB was renamed Philippine Convention & Visitors Corporation.


Functions
Office of the Secretary
The Office of the Secretary provides leadership, direction, and substance to the overall operations of the
Department. It formulates policies, plans , programs, rules, and regulations; reviews and evaluates the
performance of the Tourism Master Plan and advises the President on all matters affecting the tourism
program of the country.

Tourism Promotions Sector
The Tourism Promotion Sector has the primary function of promoting the Philippines as a tourist destination
domestically and internationally. It devises integrated marketing and promotional activities such as
information dissemination, public relations, special events, and related tourism programs. It likewise
supervises the overseas field offices established to implement and enhance the tourism development and
promotion program of the Department in the international field.

Tourism Services and Regional Offices Sector
The Tourism Services and Regional Offices Sector is tasked to ensure the pleasant entry, stay, and exit of
tourists. It formulates standards of quantity and efficiency for tourism-oriented establishments, among
others, done through an accreditation system. Tourist establishments' compliance to policies are monitored
to make sure that their facilities and services are operated and maintained according to acceptable
international norms. The Sector also supervises DOT's regional operations established to implement the
policies, plans, programs, and regulations of the Department and to maintain the delivery of efficient and
effective frontline services for the tourism industry.
Planning, Product Development and Coordination
The Tourism Planning, Product Development and Coordination Sector is responsible for the formulation and
updating of the Tourism Master Plan, together with its component programs. The Sector monitors the
effective implementation of the Tourism Master Plan and, in coordination with the private sector and other
government institutions , develops and conceptualizes new products and investment opportunities designed
to enhance tourist sites and facilities.
Internal Services Sector
The Internal Services Sector ensures the smooth and legal functioning of the operations of the Department
through the provision of effective and efficient advice and services in the areas of personnel management,
human resources development, general services administration, computerization and information technology
services, budgetary, financial and management services, and including investigatory and advisory services.

Primer on Tourism Investment


Who may invest?

Anyone, regardless of nationality, is welcome to invest in the Philippines. With the liberalization of the
foreign investment law, 100% foreign equity may be allowed in all areas of investment except those
reserved for Filipinos by mandate of the Philippine Constitution and existing laws..


What requirements must be complied with before a foreign corporation can do business in the
Philippines?

A foreign corporation must first secure the necessary licenses or registrations from the appropriate
government bodies. In the case of corporations or partnerships, the necessary incorporation papers from the
Securities and Exchange Commission must first be obtained. In the case of single proprietorship,
registration from the Bureau of Trade Regulation & Consumer Protection of the Department of Trade and
Industry must be secured.


What is the general policy of the government for foreign investments?

The government recognizes the pivotal role of private sector investments and, thereby, commits to
continuously enhance the business climate. Foreign investments are encouraged to fill in capital gaps, help
provide employment, increase production, and provide a base for the overall development of the economy.

Investment rules and regulations have thus been liberalized to facilitate entry of foreign investments.


Are foreigners allowed to lease land?

Foreign investors investing in the Philippines can now lease private lands up to 75 years. Based on R.A. No.
7652, entitled “Investor’s Lease Act”, lease agreements may be entered into with Filipino landowners. Lease
period is 50 years, renewable once for another 25 years. For tourism projects, the lease shall be limited to
projects with an investment of not less than US$5M, 70% of which shall be infused in said project within 3
years from signing of the lease contract.
                  INFORMATION SHEET 4-LO# 1
                     Information to assist effective work performance




Six Ways to Become More Efficient at

Work And At Home
By Shafir Ahmad




    Most of us are eager to give of ourselves and then give some more. Whether it's
    giving advice to friends or coworkers, volunteering for activities in the community
    or at our child's school or just saying yes to every request that comes our way.
    What happens with all this giving is you become so buried under a mountain of
    responsibilities that the most important things in your life suffer. You have to take
    time for yourself and your family. One way to do this is to become more efficient
    in every area of your life. Let's look at six ways to become efficient.

    1) Schedule your day. If you have to, get up an hour early each day and write
    out your plan for the day. Then prioritize each task on your list and put it in order
    of priority. Schedule what you need to do into a planning sheet and block out
    time to get it accomplished. Do this every single day, even on the weekends.

    2) Stop trying to multi-task. Turn off the email notification function on your
    computer. Email kills your concentration and makes you lose focus on what you
    were doing. Don't get side lined by interruptions from others. If you are trying to
    finish a report for an important client or meeting, don't accept a request from a
    drop-in visitor who "just has a quick question"

    3) Learn to control self-interruption. You are at your desk absorbed in your
    work, when all of a sudden you brain starts talking to you. It reminds you of
    something that you need to tell a coworker or an important task that you need to
    take care of. Instead of grabbing the phone or shooting off an email, write down
    what you need to tell that person or the task that you need to do in a separate
    binder that you keep for such purposes. Keep working on your current project
    and set aside time later to take care of things on your binder list.
4) Say NO more often. Know what your priorities are. When someone requests
something of you and it doesn't fit into your priorities, just say no. You don't have
to justify your answer with a long explanation or excuse.

5) Delegate as much as you can. We often think we can do everything
ourselves, or that others will not devote as much care to the task as we would
have. That is delusion, as we do not have enough time to do all that anyway.
Other coworkers or other members of your family could easily do some of the
tasks. Get away from the thinking that you are the only one who can do the job
right.

6) Stop trying to be perfect. Some tasks can be done and are just as
successful even if they are not perfect. Trying to be perfect with everything will
slow you down and cause too much un-needed stress in your life.

Your time is a very precious resource that should not be wasted. Efficiency is the
key to getting things accomplished in your work and at home. Implement the
above steps and you will find yourself accomplishing more in less time, and with
less stress.
Time Management

What is Time Management?
by: Joe Dostal

What is time management, then? Time management is the proper delegation of
the time we have in order that the most important tasks are achieved before the
more menial and less-important ones. It means getting the maximum value and
benefit out of every activity accomplished, no matter how small or big. It means
accepting that not everything can be completed at the same time and that there are
things that can be achieved within the limitations of our human faculties

If we waste time, there is no bank where we can withdraw time we previously saved
to replace the time wasted. To come to terms with our mortality is to realize that our
time is limited. Given this realization and probability that you would like to better
organize your time, here are some techniques that you can use in your professional
and private lives.

How To Organize Your Time

Time management technique 1: Assess how you spend your time
As a first step in managing time better, you might want to analyze how you spend
your time now. To do this, divide your day into fifteen-minute segments, then record
what you are doing every fifteen minutes. Afterward, review this time diary and total
the time spent on each activity throughout the day.

For instance, you might that you spent three hours watching television, one hour
exercising, one hour studying, and two hours shopping. Next, evaluate the use of
time. You might decide you spend too much time watching TV and too little time
studying. Based upon this evaluation, decide on an adjustment, but make it specific.
A good way to make this change is to draw up a contract with yourself that includes
a reward for being successful.

Time management technique 2: Set Goals
The most important thing you can do to manage time is to set goals: daily, weekly,
monthly, yearly and long-range. If you don’t have a clear sense of where you are
headed just yet, you will not be able to plan how to get there. Your use of time
should be organized to maximize the chances of achieving your goals.

Time management technique 3: Learn to prioritize
Once you have defined your goals, you need to prioritize them and your activities.
Not all of your goals will be equally important. Focus on those goals that are of major
importance to you, and work on the other goals secondarily. Likewise, focus on
activities most important to the achievement of your highest goals and on other
activities afterward.

Time management technique 4: If you can't juggle,delegate
It’s okay to admit that you’re not superman or superwoman. We’re only human and
we simply cannot do everything at once, no matter how hard we try. Some people
have attempted at juggling too many things at the same time and ended up with
work that is half-baked. Seek the assistance of other people to do the other things
for you. Conversely, do not just accept and say ‘yes’ when people ask you to do
things for them when you know you don’t have the time to do so.

Time management technique 5: Saying ‘no’ is not bad
If you really have to turn someone or something down, don’t hesitate to say ‘no’.
Assess what is really important to you and go with that, instead. Some people feel
guilty when they say ‘no’. You shouldn’t. It is your right and privilege to turn
somebody down when he or she asks a favor from you. Remember, you own your
time. Allowing other people to dictate what you should do with it is a disservice to
yourself.

Time management technique 6: Keep a schedule
Once you’ve prioritized your activities, you can then schedule them into you day.
Time of meetings - When will you go to the library? When will you shop for
groceries? Don’t forget to schedule some relaxation and recreation, as well.

Time management technique 7: Maximize your rewards
In scheduling your activities, remember what some time management experts say:
we get 80% of our rewards on only 20% of our activities and, conversely, get only
20% of our rewards on 80% of the time we spend. What this tells us is that we need
to make sure we identify and engage in the 20% of the activities that give us 80% of
our rewards before we move to the other activities. Maximize your rewards by
organizing your time.




As you can see from the techniques mentioned above, time, while short and fleeting,
is something that can be managed even by mere human beings like us. The best way
to cope with it is to know early on what we want to happen to our lives and which
directions we’d like to head, in order for us to more effectively map out a life plan. If
we don’t know what our plans are, then it wouldn’t really make sense to get into
time management because we’ll just end up with one big mess of activities.

Determine what you want first and then seek to manage your time. Remember,
every second is precious, so you need to speed up. It’s for your own sake, anyway.
                          SELF IMPROVEMENT


1. Creativity - Intuitive or Learned by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD
   Have you wondered why some people seem to have a lot of creativity? Some
   believe we are born with such gifts and others believe it is learned. It is
   probably a combination of both-creative expression is enhanced with the
   ability to be fully aware of and present in the moment one is in.
2. Intuitive Decision Making by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD
   The majority of people only recognize decision-making as a powerful step
   when it is done for major important issues-where to go for vacation, spending
   money, changing a job/career, moving, etc. However, it is all the little
   decisions in your life that creates where you are today.
3. Danger of the Fear Story by Mark I Myhre
   Everybody loves a good story. But when it comes to fear, telling yourself a
   story about it can be dangerous. Learn how you do it, and how to end it.
4. Being There - The Greatest Gift by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD
   The greatest gift you can give someone is an act of 'just being there.' This
   concept is nearly unfathomable to many people. Whether your 'just being
   there' is related to a specific situation or is an ongoing commitment, you each
   benefit from the experience. To be there for some one is to 'be there' in
   challenging times as well as the good times.
5. Innocence by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD
   We are born with complete innocence-free of guilt, sin, with purity of heart
   and blameless. As we assimilate a myriad of adaptations and indoctrinations
   from our family, culture, neighborhood, religion, education, etc., we lose our
   innocence. By reconnecting with our inner child, we can experience the world
   with the same wonder and joy we experienced as a child.
6. We Were Abused Children - How Do We Recover? by Glen D. Williams
   Sure, there are rare cases where kids suffer continuous, extensive abuse over
   multiple years, but the vast majority of abused children have experienced at
   most, a few traumatic sexual or violent abuse events over the course of 18
   years of childhood. I don't mean to minimize what you may have suffered...
   even one traumatic event is too much. As tragic as it is, the biggest tragedy is
   the way we often ruin decades of our lives by not facing it, putting it in
   perspective and putting it behind us. Recovery is possible for all of us if we
   want it enough to work for it.
7. Intent by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD
   Intent is the key to achieving your goals. Frequently we are doing one thing-
   thinking that we are creating another. We need to systematically focus on the
   intent of our actions at every step. There is nothing wrong with multitasking,
   which seems necessary with today's demands. However, balancing
   multitasking with intentional activity provides valuable insight into the
   benefits of doing one thing at a time, being totally present with the task of
   our intent.
8. Programming Your Mind For Self Development by Pushpa Pal Singh
   The human mind is the master computer which controls your body and your
   actions. It's like an empty hard drive therefore you're affected by whatever
   you install into it. The functions you install can be either positive or negative.
   You are bombarded with different thoughts, sounds, people, and images all
   the time. The human mind is such that it takes into account everything that's
   around you. What you truly need to learn is how to program this master
    computer to ignore the negative thoughts and only concentrate the positive
    ones. Therefore what are the steps to controlling this master computer? Read
    on to find out.
9. Achieve The Impossible - Break The Rules by Pushpa Pal Singh
    Everyone wants to become special; everyone has a dream to make it big
    some day. Everyone get out of his house each day with an aim in his mind
    but not all of them end up achieving their goals. Most of us hold ourselves
    back waiting for the right moment or the perfect circumstance. But you know
    what they moment never comes until you make it happen. Every person
    wants to become successful and achieve the impossible overnight but you
    must understand that it's not as easy as it sounds. You need to take the first
    step towards your goal first. You need to make progress, Progress might be
    slow at first but with time you would realize that the process speeds up as
    you get better at it.
10. Having Faith In Your Own Talents by Steven Fu
    Why are you doing something that you do not like to do to earn a small
    amount of money, when you can easily do what you love to do and earn more
    money.
11. Great Individuals Take Action by Steven Fu
    Most people have great thoughts to improve their lives but they just remain
    as that...
12. What Life Means - What 'Meaning' Means by G.B. Singh
    Before we ask the question as to what life means, we must answer the more
    basic question as to what meaning, in itself, means.
13. How To Be A Strong Communicator by Pushpa Pal Singh
    You can listen to thousands of people watch & listen to millions of TV or radio
    shows but that does not mean that you would be the same when it comes to
    the mastery of words. In the process of communication it's all about the
    delivery of right words with the right physical expressions. Therefore how to
    master this art of conversation? The best way to start is by recording your
    own voice.
14. Write Your Own Destiny - Take Control Right Now by Pushpa Pal Singh
    One of the most common phrase which is very widely used is- "This is my
    destiny". Many people think their life is pre-written and whatever events or
    circumstances they go through are already planned by some higher power.
    Remember one simple fact about life - "Circumstances do not make a man
    they reveal him". Just like this saying circumstances only give you an
    indication that your life is not in your control. Circumstances are made by the
    man himself. Events don't just happen they are a direct result of the actions
    taken by you.
15. How To Change Your Life For Good by Pushpa Pal Singh
    Are you really happy with your life? Are you living your dream? Is this really
    what you wanted out of your life? If you are confused about all these
    questions than you definitely need a change. Almost everyone aspires to get
    the most out of life in whatever shape or form it might be. But some of us get
    carried away by the circumstances so much that we don't know where we are
    in life and whether we are living our dreams or not. All of us go through
    several problems and sometimes it becomes a big obstacle and we forget our
    dreams and talk about reality. We get so negative that we forget our dreams
    and think this is life and we need to survive.
16. Discovered - First Thought by Ralston Heath
    A skill for a better life.
17. What Is Your Vibration? That Is The Question To Know by Liesl Anderson
    What are the vibrations you are putting out into the universe? Find out how to
    bring into your life peace, happiness, wealth and more by changing your focus
    and your vibrations.
18. Dream On - The Top 10 Ways to Reconnect to Your Dreams by Kamin Bell
    Do you have a dream for your life? Does it feel like it's too far away to make a
    reality? Do you have a plan and a vision for realizing your dreams? I truly
    know what it's like to have a dream that seems unattainable but that just
    won't leave you alone. And, I know the exhilaration of creating a plan and
    seeing my dream manifest. In this article you will learn ten ways to reconnect
    with your dreams and move toward making them come true.
19. Keeping Control And Building Momentum by Sam S K Khan
    If you see that something's not working, you make adjustments. But man,
    the worst thing you can do is quit.
20. Brainwashed? by H. Bernard Wechsler
    Are you in danger of becoming a Cyborg?
21. Alternatives to Speed by Mike Scantlebury
    Who do we think we are fooling? When we rush around hectically, always
    hurrying, do we seriously think that people are conned into believing that
    what we are doing is important, and where we are going means anything? Are
    we rushing in order to convince ourselves that any of it really matters?
22. Hinduism, Karma and the Law of Attraction by Paul Warren
    Positive thinking, which is an oft quoted phrase in the law of attraction, also
    finds its place in Hinduism.
23. FEAR - The Dream Killer! by Royleena Nicholas
    Many online marketers live in fear on a daily basis, fear of failure and fear of
    success. Have your been marketing your heart out, do you feel like you're
    making no headway to profit, then perhaps fear is stopping you from reaching
    the monetary success you desire. To make money online, it is best to face
    your negative unproductive thoughts, learn positive strategies and set goals
    with a realistic time frame to achieve online success.
24. The Magic Of Love by Helene Rothschild
    Would you like to receive the magic of love? Are you willing to give it? Try this
    - For one day, consciously make an effort to be loving or kind to everyone
    you see, with no expectations of receiving anything in return.
25. Freedom or Security by Jeffrey De Lara
    Financial security or financial freedom? What will you choose? Are you
    confident enough to pursue your dream?
26. How To Stop The Inner Critic by Colin Smith
    A short article that describes how we can change our 'inner critics', enabling
    us to experience more inner peace.
27. Ways to Connect and Give Back by Joanna Engelman
    This article is about the importance of connecting to others and giving back.
    The most precious part of being alive is being seen and heard and seeing and
    hearing others.
28. Get Your Mind Right by Dianna Hobbs
    Until you get your mind right you'll never be able to get your life right. Why?
    Because nothing in your life can exceed your level of thinking. Your reality
    cannot supersede your mentality. So, if you want bigger and better results,
    then you've got to get a bigger and better vision for your life. You can think
    your way to a whole new plateau or to an all-time low. Which will it be?
29. How to Become A Money Magnet and Attract Wealth Effortlessly by Hanif
    Khaki
    How to become a money magnet at the push of a button.
                          SELF-CHECK – LO 1

DIRECTIONS: Check your knowledge in Sources of Information on
                       the Industry
.

    Note: Pls. refer to your instructor for the sets of questionnaire.
Answer Key, LO 1
Qualification                : NC Level II
Unit of Competency           : DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY
                               KNOWLEDGE

Module Title                 : DEVELOPING AND UPDATE INDUSTRY
                               KNOWLEDGE

Learning Outcomes # 2        : Access, apply and share industry
                             information

Assessment Criteria         :
                            Completing demands are prioritized to
                              achieve personal , team and organizational
                              goals and objectives
                            Resources are utilized efficiently and
                              effectively to manage with priorities and
                              commitments

                            Practice long economic use and maintenance
                             equipment and facilities are followed as per
                             established procedures.

      Resources             :


      Equipment             :
                               Simulated laboratory room
                               Electronic learning device
                               Computer
                               Television and video set

                            

      Materials/Supplies    :
                                   case studies
                                   prints and media
                                   workplace/location
                                   assessment
LEARNING EXPERIENCES / ACTIVITIES

 Learning Outcome # 2 Access, apply and share industry information



Are you ready to perform this
activity?

If ready, take your time and be sure
to observe the standard procedures
in all your activities.


   1. Read: Information sheet 1

   2. Answer: self – Check to
      assess your knowledge

   3. Refers to Model Answer # 1
      for the correct answer of self
      – check.




      INFORMATION SHEET- 1, LO 2
         Different sectors of the industry and Services
2.1 Different sectors of the industry and Services available in each sector.


The Primary sector of industry- generally involves the changing process of natural
resources into primary products. Major businesses in this sector include agriculture ,
agribusiness , fishing , forestry and mining and quarrying industries .

Primary industry is a larger sector in developing countries for instance ,animal husbandry
is more common in Africa than in Japan mining in southern Wales is a case study of how
an economy can come to rely on one form of business.

The tertiary sector of industry (also known the service sector on the service industry )
is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy the other being the
secondary industry (manufacturing ) and primary industry (extraction such as mining ,
agriculture and fishing .) Service are defined conventional economic literature as “
intangible goods

2.2 Relationship Between Tourisms And Hospitality

TOURISM-is traveling for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or the
provision of services to support this leisure travel. The world tourism organization
defines tourists as people who “travel to and stay and places out side their usual
environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure business and other
purposes ,not related to the exercise of and activity from within the place visited
“tourism has a popular global leisure activity and 2004 there was over 763 millions
international tourists arrival .

HOSPITALITY - Refers to the relationship process between a guest and a host and it
also refers to the act of practice of being hospitable with liberality and goodwill .
Hospitality frequently refers to the hospitality industry job for hotel , restaurants casinos ,
catering resort , clubs and any other service position that deals with tourists.

2.3 Relationship between industry and other industries.

INDUSTRY-(from latin industrius, diligent, industrious.’)is the segment of economy
          concerned with production of goods.
          -is the quality, action , or habit of earnest, steady , and continue attention
          or devotion to any useful or productive work or task, manual or mental.
          -is diligence applied to some vocation, business, or profession, hence, by
            derived use, the occupation itself.

2.4 WORKING CONDITIONS
Many production jobs in food manufacturing involve repetitive, physically demanding
work. Food manufacturing workers are highly susceptible to repetitive-strain injuries to
their hands, wrists, and elbows. This type of injury is especially common in meat-
processing and poultry-processing plants. Production workers often stand for long
periods and may be required to lift heavy objects or use cutting, slicing, grinding, and
other dangerous tools and machines. To deal with difficult working conditions,
ergonomic programs have been introduced to cut down on work-related accidents and
injuries.

Furthermore, meat and poultry plants must comply with a wide array of Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations ensuring a safer work
environment. Some workers wear protective hats, gloves, aprons, and shoes. In many
industries, uniforms and protective clothing are changed daily for reasons of sanitation.

Working conditions also depend on the type of food being processed. For example, some
bakery employees work at night or on weekends and spend much of their shifts near
ovens that can be uncomfortably hot. In contrast, workers in dairies and meat-processing
plants typically work daylight hours and may experience cold and damp conditions.
Some plants, such as those producing processed fruits and vegetables, operate on a
seasonal basis, so workers are not guaranteed steady, year-round employment and
occasionally travel from region to region seeking work. These plants are increasingly
rare, however, as the industry continues to diversify and manufacturing plants produce
alternative foods during otherwise inactive periods.


 2.5


               LEGISLATION THAT
             AFFECTS THE INDUSTRY

        LIQUOR
          HEALTH & SAFETY
          HYGIENE
          GAMING
          WORKERS COMPENSATION
          CONSUMER PROTECTION
          DUTY OF CARE
          BUILDING REGULATIONS
                            LIQUOR
     Findings are based on workers’ anonymous responses
     to questions about how often, when and where they
     drank alcohol and about their attitudes on social
     drinking. They were asked if they thought alcohol
     boosted workplace morale, was good for business,
     alleviated boredom, improved their health, was harmful
     or set a bad example.

 .

  “At-work” drinking was defined as having consumed beer, wine or liquor
during the workday or two hours before going to work; drinking during
lunch or a work break; drinking while working; drinking before driving a
vehicle on company business; or drinking at a company-sponsored event in
the         30        days         prior        to       the        study.
         The rates of heavy, frequent and workplace drinking were
significantly lower in organizations that discouraged social drinking than
in          those         that           most         tolerated         it.




     HEALTH & SAFETY
                                  OSH)
  Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)                                 cross-
                                                                  is a cross-
                                                        ,
  disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare
                                                  safety
                                employment.
  of people engaged in work or employment. As a secondary effect, OSH may
               co-
  also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, suppliers,
                                                                 impacted
  nearby communities, and other members of the public who are impacted by
  the workplace environment.
The   reasons   for    establishing good
occupational safety and health standards
are frequently identified as:

Moral - An employee should not have to risk injury at work,
nor should others associated with the work environment.


Economic         - many governments realize that poor
occupational safety and health performance results in cost to
the State (e.g. through social security payments to the
incapacitated, costs for medical treatment, and the loss of the
 employability"
"employability" of the worker). Employing organisations also
sustain costs in the event of an incident at work (such as legal
fees, fines, compensatory damages, investigation time, lost
production, lost goodwill from the workforce, from customers
and from the wider community).




                       HYGIENE

      Industrial       hygiene    is the science of
anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling
workplace conditions that may cause worker injury or
illness.  Industrial   hygienists   use  environmental
monitoring and analytical methods to detect the extent
of worker exposure and employ engineering, work
practice controls, and other methods to control
potential health hazards.
                              GAMING

            Behaviors Observable in the
                    Workplace
       Compulsive gambling has been called the "hidden
    disease," as there are few covert signs of it in the
    workplace until the problem is in its most advanced
    stage. An educational pamphlet on compulsive gambling
    lists these indicators that may be observed at work:



                                                                    bad
     Late to work (due to late night card game, casino venture, or bad night's sleep
                      gambling-
     worrying about gambling-related problems).
                   (off-
     Long lunches (off-track betting, meeting bookmaker or loan shark or creditors).
                                                                      track, off-
     Mysterious disappearance in the afternoon (typically at the track, off-track
                                                                    events).
     betting, afternoon card or dice game, or listening to sporting events).
    Sick days taken right when they become available rather than allowed toallowed
     accumulate (uses sick days to gamble).
    Vacation used in isolated days rather than blocks.
                                                                     radio
     Excessive use of rest room (reads sports pages or listens to radio in the rest
     room).
                                                off-
     Excessive use of the telephone (calls to off-track betting, bookie, creditors, or
     to find money; calls from bookie or creditors).
                                                                     from
     Reads newspaper and sports literature at work (scratch sheet from race track,
     racing form, sporting news, etc.).
    Operates office sports pool or paycheck pool (the person running these
     sometimes has a gambling problem).
                                                 off-
     Collects money from other employees for off-track betting or lottery (ostensibly
                                      co-
     does this as convenience for co-workers but actually so he or she can place
     bets).
                                                                        junkets
     Organizes trips to Atlantic City, Las Vegas, or other gambling junkets (may
     indicate familiarity through frequent visits).
    Operates as bookmaker or runner for bookmaker (many bookmakers and            and
     runners are themselves compulsive gamblers and do this in order to gamble
     more).
   WORKER’S COMPENSATION
Worker's compensation              is a system of laws outlining specific
                                                             lost
benefits to which an injured employee is entitled, including lost wages and
medical expenses. In other words, it's an important safety net for      for
                                                               job.
employees when they are injured on the job or as a result of a job.

WORKER’
WORKER’S COMPENSATION            provides insurance to cover medical care
and compensation for employees who are injured in the course of
                                                                employee's
employment, in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's
right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence. Most employees who
                                                                   for
are injured on the job have an absolute right to medical care for that
                                                                  resulting
injury, and in many cases, monetary payments to compensate for resulting
temporary or permanent disabilities. Most employers are required to
                                                              employer
subscribe to insurance for workers' compensation, and an employer who
does not may have financial penalties imposed.



        The perennial problem for the court in
  each new situation has been to decide
  whether a duty of care was owed and, if so,
  what its scope was to be. The first judicial
  approach    was    to  identify specific and
  distinctive situations in which a duty would
  exist. The law therefore developed in a
  piecemeal fashion.

       Most businesses must have workers'
  compensation       insurance   to   cover   its
  employees. Filing a workers' compensation
  claim is similar to filing any other insurance
  claim. It isn't a lawsuit against an employer,
  rather a request for benefits.
   Under most workers' compensation programs, an
   injured employee is entitled to:
       Medical Care
         The injured party has the right to all reasonable necessary
         treatment to cure or relieve the effects of the injury.
         Included under medical treatment compensation are all
         medical bills, prescriptions and even roundtrip mileage to the
         hospital.
       Temporary Disability
         If the injured party must take time away from work due to
         medical reasons related to the injury, they may be entitled to
         temporary disability payments. That would provide partial
         compensation for lost wages. There are specific maximum and
         minimum limits to the pay rate, but this normally equals about
         two-
         two-thirds of average weekly gross pay and is paid out every two
         weeks. After the doctor verifies inability to work, the first
         temporary disability check should arrive within a few weeks.
       Permanent Disability
       If a worker can't completely recover from the effects of the inj ury,
          they may be entitled to a monetary award. Permanent disability
          means that the injured party has lost some ability to compete in
          the open labor market of uninjured workers. The amount and rate
          at which it is paid depends on the limitation the injury places on
          activities. Other elements taken into consideration are age,
          occupation and earnings at the time of injury.

        Vocational     Rehabilitation
      
          If the injury prevents a return to the former job, assistance
          in getting another job may be included in the benefits. During
          vocational rehabilitation, a partial income is distributed,
          similar to temporary disability. The vocational rehabilitation
          benefit usually has a maximum monetary limit and may be
          replaced by an offer of modified or different work from the
          employer.



      CONSUMER PROTECTION

 Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which
protects the interests of consumers. For example, a government
may require businesses to disclose detailed information about
products—particularly in areas where safety or public health is an
issue, such as food. Consumer protection is linked to the idea of
consumer rights (that consumers have various rights as
consumers), and to the formation of consumer organizations which
help consumers make better choices in the marketplace




                 DUTY OF CARE
                    a Duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an
                     individual  requiring   that    they   exercise  a
                     reasonable standard of care while performing
                     any acts that could foreseeably harm others. For
                                     negligence,
                     an action in negligence, there must be an
                     identified duty of care in law.

                    Duty of care may be considered a formalization
                     of the implicit responsibilities held by an
                     individual towards another       individual within
                     society. It is not a requirement that a duty of
                     care be defined by law, though it will often
                     develop through the jurisprudence of common
                     law.
                     law. Doctors will be held to reasonable standards
                     for members of their profession, rather than
                     those of the general public in cases related to
                     their fields.
    BUILDING REGULATIONS
Building regulations may refer to:
 Building code, a set of rules that specify the minimum
  acceptable level of safety for constructed objects


 A building code, or building control ,                is a set of
  rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for
  constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding
  structures.
  structures. The main purpose of the building codes is to protect
  public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the
  construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The
  building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when
  formally enacted by the appropriate authority.
2.6


                               Learning Outcomes
                                            No. 2


             Information to Assist
                   Effective
              Work Performance




      2.4. Industry working conditions
      2.5. Legislation that affects the Industry
             liquor
             health
             hygiene
             gaming
             workers compensation
             consumer protection
             duty of care
             building regulation
      2.6. Trade Unions
             Environmental issues & requirements
                    Trade union

     A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers.
     The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the
 employer on behalf of union members ("rank and file"
 members) and negotiates labor contracts with employers. This
 may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint
 procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of
 workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The
 agreements negotiated by the union leaders are binding on the
 rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on
 other non-member workers.



       Most unions claim a right of exclusivity. The union
  has the authority to determine who may be a member of
  the union and who may not.
       Most unions assert a right to mandate that only its
  members, and no others, may be permitted to work at
  certain jobs.
       Furthermore, the union contract is exclusive with
  regard to the employer, an employer is generally not
  permitted to seek out the services of another labor union or
  hire another competing labor union even if he is
  dissatisfied with the performance of the current labor
  union.




       These organizations may be comprised of individual
  workers, professionals, past workers, or the unemployed.
  The most common, but by no means only, purpose of these
  organizations is "maintaining or improving the conditions
  of their employment“

Over the last three hundred years, trade unions have
  developed into a number of forms, influenced by differing
  political and economic regimes.
     The immediate objectives and activities of
        trade unions vary, but may include:

 Provision of benefits to members:
      Early trade unions, like Friendly Societies, often provided a
  range of benefits to insure members against unemployment, ill
  health, old age and funeral expenses. In many developed
  countries, these functions have been assumed by the state;
  however, the provision of professional training, legal advice and
  representation for members is still an important benefit of trade
  union membership.
 Collective bargaining:
      Where trade unions are able to operate openly and are
  recognized by employers, they may negotiate with employers
  over wages and working conditions.




       Industrial Action:
             Trade unions may organize strikes or resistance to
        lockouts in furtherance of particular goals.

       Political activity:
             Trade unions may promote legislation favorable to the
        interests of their members or workers as a whole. To this
        end they may pursue campaigns, undertake lobbying, or
        financially support individual candidates or parties (such as
        the Labour Party in Britain) for public office.
              History of trade unions
        Beginning in the eighteenth century, much of
Western society (with most changes occurring
earliest in Britain) witnessed a transformation from
an agrarian culture with craft-based production to a
culture shaped by the first industrial revolution.
Some of the changes brought on by this new order,
such as new work methods and downward pressure
on traditional wage structures, sparked rising alarm
in the crafts and guilds of the time, who feared
encroachment on their established jobs.
        Additionally, the rapid expansion of industrial
society was to draw women, children, rural workers,
and immigrants to the work force in larger numbers
and in new roles. This pool of unskilled and semi-
skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and
starts throughout its beginnings, and would later be
an important arena for the development of trade
unions.
 2.7 INDUSTRY RELATIONS ISSUES AND MAJOR ORGANIZATIONS

 Specific issues
(i) The employers' response
To date, many Asian and Pacific entrepreneurs - small, medium and large - have relied on
the low cost of goods and services and speed of delivery as the core of their competitive
advantage. On this basis, an employers' strategy in the area of employment relations must
focus on achieving:

   1.   appropriate attitudinal and behavioral changes, not only at enterprise, but at other,
        levels;
   2.   a modern policy, legislative and institutional framework which ensures an
        effective industrial relations system;
   3.   compensation systems linked to enterprise performance;
   4.   a more literate, skilled and adaptable workforce, which is capable of
        experimentation and innovation;
   5.   more flexible forms of work organization and management; and
   6.   culturally sensitive management strategies, as firms invest within and beyond the
        region.

   Attitudinal and behavioural changes
Greater worker involvement in the enterprise should be reinforced by management
making stronger efforts to improve relations with workers' representatives (particularly,
trade unions, where they are present). In addition, collective bargaining remains an
effective way to address issues of mutual concern.
All of these elements - both IR and HRM - have to be properly integrated into the
corporate culture.

   Modern labor polices, legislation and institutions
Employers should be seeking "modern" labor policies, legislation and institutions which
encourage industrial harmony (by emphasizing prevention not resolution of conflict). In
particular, legislation should be proactive and facilitative in relation to the parties' needs,
and avoid unnecessary complexity, while maintaining fair and reasonable minimum
employment standards.

   Compensation systems linked to enterprise performance
The trend towards decentralized collective bargaining and IR arrangements in the region
has been based on the need to address efficiency and productivity issues at their source,
the individual enterprise business competitiveness is to be achieved or maintained. As
such payment systems are increasingly seen as integral to HRM policies in enterprises,
and are thereby linked to achieving particular business objectives.

   A skilled and adaptable workforce
Education and training will play a vital role in promoting labor efficiency through the
enhancement of workforce skills, and the World Bank has emphasized the significant link
between skills development and a country's manufacturing export capacity (World Bank
1993: 43 - 48).
Training of workers in narrow skills is no longer appropriate. Modern technology is
increasingly demanding broader skills and new mixes of previously quite distinct skills.
In addition, the rapid pace of technological change demands an ability to adapt quickly;
so, the formation of skills has to rely not only on initial training, but equally on
opportunities for retraining and upgrading existing skills.

   Flexible forms of work organization and management
Flexibility at the workplace requires workers to have several skills and a broader
understanding of the production or work process to enable them to carry out a range of
activities. To achieve this outcome, managers and supervisors need to be forward
looking, inform and involve workers, and use approaches which enable people to develop
and use properly their talents and abilities. In particular, they need to pay far greater
attention to training and skills development. The ability to adjust working time
arrangements and the identification and removal of restrictive work and management
practices are also important.

   Culturally-sensitive management strategies
Globalization involves managers and workers moving from one country to another. In
doing so, they enter into a new society and culture. Some aspects of these cultures are
obvious (eg, another language, other laws and customs, etc) and can with the necessary
goodwill be adapted to. But there are other elements of culture which are not so visible.
They include the assumptions made and premises relied on by the members of a certain
society; values and unwritten codes of behaviour; and patterns of thinking and problem-
solving. They are what the people in that society take for granted. These elements are the
essence of a particular culture and are the most difficult to detect. A manager or worker
coming from and entirely different culture - with its own never-questioned assumptions
and values - may not perceive or understand these elements or have difficulty accepting
them. As such they can be the basis for tension and conflict in the workplace.
Managers assuming work responsibilities in a new country must acquaint themselves
with both visible and invisible cultural traits, and adopt appropriate strategies to ensure
that cultural mismanagement considerations do not become a source of reduced
enterprise performance.

   Implementing a reform strategy
In implementing a reform agenda based on the above considerations, individual firms
should be encouraged (through, for example, "best practice" programmes) to experiment
in relation to skills development, work organization and other forms of improved
IR/HRM practices and seek to use the outcomes as a basis for broader government or
industry programmes to diffuse new practices on a wider basis. Such initiatives might be
undertaken through informal contact with the wider group of firms with whom they
conduct their business, and could include local benchmarking exercises.
(ii) The roles of employers' organizations

Employers' organizations, like trade unions, face a difficult situation in assisting their
constituents in the face of the new demands being placed on them by globalization.

A key function of employers' organizations has always been to act
       as the mouthpiece for employers in seeking to influence the broad policy
       environment in a manner conducive to their constituents' interests (in this respect,
       it might be noted that the IR function was originally, and in many cases has
       remained, the cornerstone of the operations of many employers' organizations).
       (de Silva 1996:3).
       To achieve this objective, it is suggested that employers' organizations should
       organize their operations around two functional "poles", supported by a range of
       subsidiary services.
       Employers' organizations need to be prepared to have a view on an increasingly
       broader range of issues (eg, skills development, including in the context of
       training and re-training, and covering both delivery and compensation aspects;
       industry (including investment and taxation) policy; the implications for business
       of privatization strategies; and the like).

(iii) The roles of government and trade unions

As noted previously, whatever policies or actions may be promoted or undertaken by one
or more of the industrial relations parties will require a response from or have
repercussions for other parties or interests. This section of the paper examines
interactions with government and trade unions in the context of progressing the agenda of
employers' and their organizations.

The role of government

   1.   encourage and regulate foreign participation in national economic development
   2.   ensure that the economic reforms currently being implemented in various
        countries are accompanied by proper safety net programmes
   3.   Decide which industries to stimulate and how they can integrate various macro-
        and micro-policies through a network of institutions that promote economic
        growth with equity (Frenkel and Royal 1996:10).
   4.   Responsibility to ensure that these standards are met by all employers, and, where
        those employers are foreign companies or MNC's, they must be encouraged to
        adopt socially responsible attitudes in relation to employment relationships and
        standards in their host country.
   5.   To take measures to equip workers with the skills to take up new positions and to
        move from declining to new industries, possibly to new localities.
   6.   Facilitate structural adjustment in an equitable manner (including, for example,
        tax exemptions and development subsidies to firms, and subsidies to workers, to
        assist relocation).
   7.  Support trade union strategies to encourage democratic governance, awareness
       raising on key policy issues and training for union representatives on
       organizational and technical issues.
   8. Support of globalization has to rely on policy planning and delivery services
       provided by the public sector.
   9. Include trade unions in any public sector reform process and take account of their
       major concerns.
   10. Promote bipartite and tripartite institutions and processes to establish appropriate
       labour policy and standards.

(iiii) The role of workers and their organizations

There is no question that trade unions still have a role in Asia and the Pacific. But there is
a need for more effective unionism.
Unionism which focuses on working with employers (and their organizations) in
implementing strategies to improve enterprise competitiveness and the quality of work
through improvements in work organization, Labour-management relations and skills
development, on the basis that an equitable share for workers in productivity gains will
be achieved (Frenkel and Royal 1996:31). This form of unionism is therefore proactive
and strategic in approach, and is no longer concerned with union actions which are
restrictive in nature (eg, seeking, by various means, to limit change). The development of
effective unionism (and, indeed, of trade union movements everywhere) is contingent on
the recognition and application of the rights of freedom of association, to organize and to
bargain collectively.
The needs of trade union organizations will vary from country to country in seeking to
build effective unions. For example, awareness raising and training in relation to their
role in a market oriented economy will have a much higher priority in the case of trade
unions in countries in transition. But whatever individual country circumstances, key
objectives of national trade union organizations must be to attract more workers into
unions by improving recruitment, offering better services and communicating more
effectively with and between members and officials. Strong leadership from, and
agreement and coordination on priority strategies among, trade union centres is critical.
In order to maintain support and influence at enterprise level, it will be necessary to build
and maintain an active workplace union organization. The availability of more skilled
and technically capable union representatives in the workplace, supported by more
professional and better resourced unions at higher levels will also be crucial in achieving
these objectives.
The extent to which trade unions can adopt and achieve advances through this more
proactive role will depend on a number of considerations, including: government policy
and attitudes at domestic and international levels; the response(s) of employers and their
organizations; and union leadership, organization and strategies. However, given the
considerable traditional and current difficulties still facing trade union movements in
Asia and the Pacific, a fundamental change in union and worker fortunes may not arise
until individual countries develop and adopt higher cost and higher skill-based modes of
production. This will provide increased opportunities for worker involvement in decision-
making, requiring more democratic and independent representation for the workforce.
But it is also likely that additional legislative prescription to provide labour with a more
significant voice at both enterprise and national levels, and better protection for workers'
representatives in undertaking their functions, will be required.

                                   Industrial relations

The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and
workers, particularly group of workers represented by a union.
-also called organizational relations the behavior of workers in organizations in which
they earn their living.
Perspective theories
-When studying the theories of industrial relations, there are three major perspectives that
contrast on their approach to the nature of workplace relations the three views are
generally described as the unitary, pluralist, and Marxist perspective. The Marxist
perspective is sometimes referred to as the conflict model.
Unitary perspective
In unitarism, the organization is perceive as an integrated and harmonious whole with the
ideal of “one happy family” where are management and other members of the staff all
share a common purpose, emphasizing mutual cooperation.
Pluralistic perspective
In pluralism the organization is perceived as being made up of powerful and divergent
sub-groups, each with its own legitimate loyalties and with their own set of objectives
and traders .
Marxist perspective
This view of industrial relations looks the nature of the capitalist society, where there is a
fundamental division of interest between capital and labor, and sees workplace relations
against this background.

2.8


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES-is the sum total of all the work you have done and
will do in your lifetime.

Most hotel, motel and resort desk clerks received orientation and training on the
job. Orientation may include an explanation of the job duties and information
about the establishment, such as arrangement of sleeping rooms, availability of
additional services such as a business or fitness center, and location of guest
facilities.

A hospitality management career is highly energy and social.

The skills and knowledge developed in this field study are leadership, marketing
qualitive skills, research and evaluation, programming [recreation, leisure and
meetings] planning and policy, legal aspects, and communication.
With preparation in tourism management individuals have skills related to
management and leadership which would contribute to any type of position
sought in the tourism industry. The tourism industry is within the top industries of
most countries in the world and provides numerous career opportunities at a
variety levels of service production and management.

The curriculum combines strengths in management with technical skills and
internship opportunities in each area.

The hospitality and tourism industry is critical to the world, national, and regional
economy. The hospitality and tourism industry is becoming more complex.
Accordingly demand is increasing for college educated managers.
                                   APTITUDES QUALITIES

       Strong interpersonal skills
       High energy level
       Ability to multi-ask and prioritize
       Ability to work well under pressure
1. Create your free account.
-Put your best foot forward with a free online portfolio. Public or private. Create your
fee account and access all the tools on the site.
2. Research your industry.
-Stay up to date on the latest trends and information in your industry by selecting your
career channel below.
3. Search jobs
-With your resume and portfolio, you’ll be able to search and contact employers with
one quick step!

                                RESOURCE CENTER

Resume make over 5 ways to make a great first impression.
-Now more than ever before candidate seeking positions in the hospitality industry
must display professionalism and a steadfast commitment to quality in every phase of
the application process.
How to master the behavior interview
-If you are seeking the job within the competitive hospitality industry, you need to be
aware that employers are frequently turning to the use of behavioral interviewing
rather than traditional modes.
Maximize your career potential
-Advance your career and increase your job opportunities while continuing to
work.Online education is convenient and flexible, allowing you to maintain professional
and personal commitment while pursuing a highly-quality education.
Be on time.
2.10 QUALITY ASSURANCE

Quality assurance (QA) is the activity of providing evidence needed to establish confidence
among all concerned, that quality-related activities are being performed effectively. All those
planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service
will satisfy given requirements for quality.

For products, quality assurance is a part and consistent pair of quality management proving fact-
based external confidence to customers and other stakeholders that a product meets needs,
expectations, and other requirements. QA assures the existence and effectiveness of procedures
that attempt to make sure - in advance - that the expected levels of quality will be reached.

QA covers all activities from design, development, production, installation, servicing to
documentation. It introduced the sayings "fit for purpose" and "do it right the first time". It
includes the regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components;
services related to production; and management, production, and inspection processes.

The term Quality Assurance, as used in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission
regulation 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix B, comprises all those planned and systematic actions
necessary to provide adequate confidence that a structure, system, or component will perform
satisfactorily in service. Quality assurance includes quality control, which comprises those
quality assurance actions related to the physical characteristics of a material, structure,
component, or system which provide a means to control the quality of the material, structure,
component, or system to predetermined requirements.

One of the most widely used paradigms for QA management is the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act)
approach, also known as the Shewhart cycle

      Quality management is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design,
       develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the
       system and its performance.

Stakeholder may refer to:

      Stakeholder (corporate), a party who affects, or can be affected by, the company's actions
            o Stakeholder theory, identifies and models the groups which are stakeholders of a
                 corporation
      Stakeholder (law), a third party who temporarily holds money or property while its owner
       is still being determined
     PDCA ("Plan-Do-Check-Act") is an iterative four-step problem-solving process typically
     used in quality control. It is also known as the Deming Cycle, Shewhart cycle, Deming
     Wheel, or Plan-Do-Study-Act

PLAN
        Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the
        specifications.
DO
    Implement the processes.
CHECK
    Monitor and evaluate the processes and results against objectives and Specifications and
    report the outcome.
ACT
    Apply actions to the outcome for necessary improvement. This means reviewing all steps
    (Plan, Do, Check, Act) and modifying the process to improve it before its next
    implementation.
                                 SELF-CHECK


Note:

Please ask to your instructor for the set of questionnaire.
Answer Key
Qualification            : NC Level II

Unit of Competency       : DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY
                           KNOWLEDGE

Module Title             : DEVELOPING AND UPDATE INDUSTRY
                           KNOWLEDGE
Learning Outcomes # 3    : Update continuously relevant industry knowledge

Assessment Criteria      :
                         Training and career opportunities are identified and
                          availed of based on job requirements
                         Recognitions are sought/ received and
                          demonstrated as proof of career advancement
                         Obtain and renew licenses and/or certifications
                          relevant to job and career

Resource                 : Internet


Learning Materials       :



Materials/Supplies       :
                         Certificates and licenses
                         Pen and paper
LEARNING EXPERIENCES / ACTIVITIES


 Learning Outcome # 3 Update continuously relevant industry knowledge



Are you ready to perform this
activity?

If ready, take your time and be sure
to observe the standard procedures
in all your activities.


   4. Read: Information sheet 1

   5. Answer: self – Check to
      assess your knowledge

   6. Refers to Model Answer # 1
      for the correct answer of self
      – check.
          INFORMATION SHEET 1-LO# 3
                 History/Status of Tourism in Camiguin Island


History/Status of Camiguin Island
                                  SELF-CHECK



Learning Outcome 3 (Update continuously relevant industry knowledge)

Requirement: Select two resorts existing in our province and update your knowledge by knowing
the ff:

      Short history of resorts you’ve been selected.
      Services offered for their client or guests
      Accommodations
      Compensation offered by the establishment towards their employees.
      Amenities available/in one department (based on your field of specialization)
      Attach some pictures of amenities of the resort you’ve selected

Note: - All information must be computerized and submit it to your instructor in a form
        of soft copy.

       - You can use some sources of information as your reference/tools/materials of
         information.
                             RECORDS OF ACHIEVEMENT


Module Title: DEVELOPING AND UPDATING INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE


LO 1 : Identify and access key sources of information on the industry

Assessment Criteria:

            1.5 Sources of information on the industry are correctly identified and
                accessed.
            1.6 Information to assist effective work performance is obtained in line
                with job requirements
            1.7 Specific information on sector of work is accessed and updated
            1.8 Industry information is correctly applied to day-to-day work activities

            2.3 Informal and/or formal research is used to update general
                knowledge of industry
            2.4 Updated knowledge is shared with customers and colleagues as
                appropriate and incorporated into day-to-day working activities
        


COMMENTS:




Learner has satisfied the above performance criteria.

Learner’s has Signature:

Trainer’s Signature:

Date:
                               LEARNER’S DIARY



DIARY NOTES


Records important dates, jobs undertaken and other workplace events that will assist you
in providing further details.

				
DOCUMENT INFO