COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL Sector: TOURISM Qualification: NC LEVEL II Unit of Competency: DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE Module Title: DEVELOPING AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Camiguin School of Arts and Trades Lumad, Mambajao, Camiguin HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL Welcome to the module on DEVELOPING AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE. This module contains training materials and activities for you to complete. The unit of competency “DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE" contains knowledge, skills and attitudes required for DEVELOPING AND UPDATING INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE. It is one of the Core Modules at National Certificate (NC II) You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to complete each learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome there are Information Sheets, Resource Sheets and Reference Materials for further reading to help you better understand the required activities. Follow these activities on your own and answer the self-check at the end of each learning outcome. Get the answer key from your instructor and check your work honestly. If you have questions, please don’t hesitate to ask your facilitator for assistance. Your facilitator will always be a available to assist you during the training. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) You may already have some or most of the knowledge and skills covered in this module because you have: been working for some time already completed training in this area. If you can demonstrate to your trainer that you are competent in a particular skill or skills, talk to him/her about having them formally recognized so you don't have to do the same training again. If you have a qualification or Certificate of Competency from previous trainings, show it to your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still current and relevant to the unit/s of competency they may become part of the evidence you can present for RPL. If you are not sure about the currency of your skills, discuss this with your trainer. At the end of this module is a Learner’s Diary. Use this diary to record important dates, jobs undertaken and other workplace events that will assist you in providing further details to your trainer or assessor. A Record of Achievement is also provided for your trainer to complete once you complete the module. This module was prepared to help you achieve the required competency, in DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE. This will be the source of information for you to acquire knowledge and skills in this particular trade independently and at your own pace, with minimum supervision or help from your instructor. In doing the activities to complete the requirements of this module, please be guided by the following: Talk to your trainer and agree on how you will both organize the Training of this unit. Read through the module carefully. It is divided into sections, which cover all the skills, and knowledge you need to successfully complete this module. Work through all the information and complete the activities in each section. Read information sheets and complete the self-check. Suggested references are included to supplement the materials provided in this module. Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager. He/she is there to support you and show you the correct way to do things. Your trainer will tell you about the important things you need to consider when you are completing activities and it is important that you listen and take notes. You will be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions and practice on the job. Make sure you practice your new skills during regular work shifts. This way you will improve both your speed and memory and also your confidence. Talk to more experience workmates and ask for their guidance. Use the self-check questions at the end of each section to test your own progress. When you are ready, ask your trainer to watch you perform the activities outlined in this module. As you work through the activities, ask for written feedback on your progress. Your trainer keeps feedback/ pre-assessment reports for this reason. When you have successfully completed each element, ask your trainer to mark on the reports that you are ready for assessment. When you have completed this module (or several modules), and feel confident that you have had sufficient practice, your trainer will arrange an Appointment with registered assessor to assess you. The results of your assessment will be recorded in your competency Achievement Record. QUALIFICATION : NC Level II UNIT OF COMPETENCY : DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE MODULE TITLE : DEVELOPING AND UPDATING INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE INTRODUCTION : This module covers the knowledge, skills & attitudes in promoting career growth and advancement NOMINAL DURATION : 44 HRS LEARNING OUTCOMES : Upon completion of this module, the trainee/ student must be able to: 1. Identify and access key sources of information on the industry 2. Access, apply and share industry information 3. Update continuously relevant industry knowledge ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1.1 Sources of information on the industry are correctly identified and accessed. 1.2 Information to assist effective work performance is obtained in line with job requirements 1.3 Specific information on sector of work is accessed and updated 1.4 Industry information is correctly applied to day-to-day work activities 2.1 Informal and/or formal research is used to update general knowledge of industry 2.2 Updated knowledge is shared with customers and colleagues as appropriate and incorporated into day-to-day working activities PRE – REQUISETE: Before you tackle this module you must complete first the module on: Basic Tool Competencies Qualification : NC II Unit of Competency : DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE Module Title : DEVELOPING AND UPDATING INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE Learning Outcomes # 1 : Identify and access key sources of information on the industry Assessment Criteria : Sources of information on the industry Information to assist effective work performance Learning Materials : CBLM on Develop and Update Industry Knowledge Related reading materials Equipment : Simulated laboratory room Electronic learning device Computer Television and video set Materials/supplies : LEARNING EXPERIENCES / ACTIVITIES Learning Outcome # 1 Identify and access key sources of information on the industry Learning Activities Special Instructions Are you ready to perform this activity? If ready, take your time and be sure to observe the standard procedures in all your activities. 1. Read information sheet 1 2. Read information sheet 2 3. Answer: self – Check to assess your knowledge 4. Refers to Model Answer #5 for the correct answer of self – check. INFORMATION SHEET 1-LO# 1 Sources of Information on the Industry WHAT IS MEDIA? www.LXTmedia.com Media (the plural of "medium") - referring to those organized means of dissemination of fact, opinion, entertainment, and other information, such as newspapers, magazines, banners and billboards, cinema films, radio, television, the World Wide Web, billboards, books, CDs, DVDs, videocassettes, computer games and other forms of publishing. Types of Media a. Mass Media - is mainly used by academics and media-professionals. When members of the general public refer to "the media" they are usually referring to the mass media, or to the news media. Sometimes mass media (and the news media in particular) are referred to as the "corporate media". b. Mainstream Media - includes outlets that are in harmony with the prevailing direction of influence in the c ulture at large. c. Corporate Media - is often used by leftist media critics to imply that the mainstream media are themselves composed of large multinational corporations, and promote those interests (see e.g., Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting; Herman and Chomsky's "A Propaganda Model"). History During the 20th century, the growth of mass media was driven by technology that allowed the massive duplication of material. Physical duplication technologies such as printing, record pressing and film duplication allowed the duplication of books, newspapers and movies at low prices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed the electronic duplication of information for the first time. Mass media had the economics of linear replication: a single work could make money proportional to the number of copies sold, and as volumes went up, units costs went down, increasing profit margins further. Vast fortunes were to be made in mass media. In a democratic society, independent media serve to educate the public/electorate about issues regarding government and corporate entities (see Mass media and public opinion). Some consider the concentration of media ownership to be a grave threat to democracy. Timeline 1453: Johnannes Gutenberg prints the Bible, using his printing press, ushering in the Renaissance 1825: Nicéphore Niépce takes the first permanent photograph 1830: Telegraphy is independently developed in England and the United States. 1876: First telephone call made by Alexander Graham Bell 1878: Thomas Alva Edison patents the phonograph 1890: First juke box in San Francisco's Palais Royal Saloon. 1890: Telephone wires are installed in Manhattan. 1895: Cinematograph invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere 1896: Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Co. It will become IBM in 1924. 1898: Loudspeaker is invented. 1906: The Story of the Kelly Gang from Australia is world's first feature length film. 1909: RMS Republic, a palatial White Star passenger liner, uses the Marconi Wireless for a distress at sea. She had been in a collision. This is the first "breaking news" mass media event. 1912: Air mail begins 1913: Edison transfers from cylinder recordings to more easily reproducible discs 1913: The portable phonograph is manufactured. 1915: Radiotelephone carries voice from Virginia to the Eiffel Tower 1916: Tunable radios invented. 1919: Short-wave radio is invented. 1920: KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh, United States, becoming the world's first commercial radio station. 1922: BBC is formed and broadcasting to London. 1924: KDKA created a short-wave radio transmitter. 1925: BBC broadcasting to the majority of the UK. 1926: NBC is formed 1927: The Jazz Singer: The first motion picture with sounds debuts 1927: Philo Taylor Farnsworth debuts the first electronic television system 1928: The Teletype was introduced. 1933: Edwin Armstrong invents FM Radio 1934: Half of the homes in the U.S. have radios. 1935: First telephone call made around the world. 1936: BBC opened world's first regular (then defined as at least 200 lines) high definition television service. 1938: The War of the Worlds is broadcast on October 30, causing mass hysteria. 1939: Western Union introduces coast-to-coast fax service. 1939: Regular electronic television broadcasts begin in the U.S. 1939: The wire recorder is invented in the U.S. 1940: The first commercial television station, WNBT (now WNBC-TV)/New York signs on the air 1951: The first color televisions go on sale 1957: Sputnik is launched and sends back signals from near earth orbit 1959: Xerox makes the first copier 1960: Echo I, a U.S. balloon in orbit, reflects radio signals to Earth. 1962: Telstar satellite transmits an image across the Atlantic. 1963: Audio cassette is invented in the Netherlands. 1963: Martin Luther King gives "I have a dream" speech. 1965: Vietnam War becomes first war to be televised. 1967: Newspapers, magazines start to digitize production. 1969: Man's first landing on the moon is broadcast to 600 million people around the globe. 1970s: ARPANET, progenitor to the internet developed 1971: Intel debuts the microprocessor 1972: Pong becomes the first video game to win widespread popularity. 1976: JVC introduces VHS videotape - becomes the standard consumer format in the 1980s & 1990s. 1980: CNN launches 1980: New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones put news database online. 1981: The laptop computer is introduced by Tandy. 1983: Cellular phones begin to appear 1984: Apple Macintosh is introduced. 1985: Pay-per-view channels open for business. 1991: World-Wide Web (WWW) publicly released by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN. 1993: CERN announces that the WWW will be free for anyone to use. 1995: The internet grows exponentially 1996: First DVD players and discs are available in Japan. Twister is the first film on DVD. Purposes Mass media can be used for various purposes: • Advocacy, both for business and social concerns. This can include advertising, marketing, propaganda, public relations, and political communication. • Enrichment and education, such as literature. • Entertainment, traditionally through performances of acting, music, and sports, along with light reading; since the late 20th century also through video and computer games. • Journalism. Public service announcements. Journalism Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying, and presenting information regarding current events, trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists. Public relations Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image. Examples include: • Corporations use marketing public relations (MPR) - Typically, they support sales in the short and long term, establishing and burnishing the corporation's branding for a strong, ongoing market. • Corporations also use public-relations as a vehicle - they may use public relations to portray themselves as enlightened employers, in support of human-resources recruiting programs. • Non-profit organizations - including schools and universities, hospitals, and human and social service agencies, use public relations in support of awareness programs, fund- raising programs, staff recruiting, and to increase patronage of their services. Politicians use public relations to attract votes and raise money, and, when successful at the ballot box, to promote and defend their service in office, with an eye to the next election or, at career’s end, to their legacy. Forms Electronic media and print media include: • Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for radio and television. • Various types of discs or tape. In the 20th century, these were mainly used for music. Video and computer uses followed. • Film, most often used for entertainment, but also for documentaries. • Internet, which has many uses and presents both opportunities and challenges. Blogs and podcasts, such as news, music, pre-recorded speech and video) • Publishing, in the narrow sense, meaning on paper, mainly via books, magazines, and newspapers. Computer games, which have developed into a mass form of media since devices such as the PlayStation 2 , Xbox, and the Game Cube broadened their use. Broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals (programs) to a number of recipients ("listeners" or "viewers") that belong to a large group. This group may be the public in general, or a relatively large audience within the public. Thus, an Internet channel may distribute text or music world-wide, while a public address system in (for example) a workplace may broadcast very limited ad hoc soundbites to a small population within its range. Film Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. The origin of the name comes from the fact that photographic film (also called filmstock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Films are produced by recording people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects. Internet The Internet (also known simply as "the Net") can be briefly understood as "a network of networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and governmental networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc.; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is accessible via the Internet, along with many other services including e-mail, file sharing. Publishing Publishing is the industry concerned with the production of literature or information – the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include websites, blogs, and the like. Book A book is a collection of sheets of paper, parchment or other material with a piece of text written on them, bound together along one edge within covers. Magazine A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers. Magazines are typically published weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly, with a date on the cover that is in advance of the date it is actually published. They are often printed in color on coated paper, and are bound with a soft cover. Magazines fall into two broad categories: consumer magazines and business magazines Magazines can be classified as: • General interest magazines (e.g. Frontline, India Today, The Week, etc) • Special interest magazines (women's, sports, business, scuba diving, etc) Newspaper A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It may be general or special interest, most often published daily or weekly. The first printed newspaper was published in 1605, and the form has thrived even in the face of competition from technologies such as radio and television. Recent developments on the Internet are posing major threats to its business model, however. Software publishing A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between the developer and the distributor. Software publishers often license software from developers with specific limitations, such as a time limit or geographical region. The terms of licensing vary enormously, and are typically secret. Developers may use publishers to reach larger or foreign markets, or to avoid focusing on marketing. Or publishers may use developers to create software to meet a market need that the publisher has identified. Video and computer games Namco's Pac-Man was a hit, and became a cultural phenomenon. The game spawned merchandise, a cartoon series and pop songs, and was one of the most heavily cloned video games of all-time. A computer game is a computer-controlled game. A video game is a computer game where a video display such as a monitor or television is the primary feedback device. The term "computer game" also includes games which display only text (and which can therefore theoretically be played on a teletypewriter) or which use other methods, such as sound or vibration. There always must also be some sort of input device, usually in the form of button/joystick combinations (on arcade games), a keyboard & mouse/trackball combination (computer games), or a controller (console games), or a combination of any of the above. In common usage, a "computer game" or a "PC game" refers to a game that is played on a personal computer. "Console game" refers to one that is played on a device specifically designed for the use of such, while interfacing with a standard television set. "Video game" (or "videogame") has evolved into a catchall phrase that encompasses the aforementioned along with any game made for any other device, including, but not limited to, mobile phones, PDAs, advanced calculators, etc. LXT Media Press Information INFORMATION 2- LO# 1 INDUSTRY INFORMATION SOURCES Industries are groups of companies that sell the same products or services. For example, companies such as General Motors and Toyota make up the automobile manufacturing industry. Some of the sources on this guide provide short summaries of numerous industries; others analyze particular industries in detail. Some include information on buyers as well as sellers of particular products or services. The sources on this guide are a sample of important print and online industry resources. They include books at Rod Library, online sources to which Rod Library subscribes (marked with an *), and other web sources which at this time are free or partially free. Call numbers are listed under the titles of print sources available at the library. Underlined titles can be accessed via the web. If accessing a Rod Library subscription database from off campus, you will be prompted for your last name and UNI student ID number. Other Library User Guides go into more detail on finding information on topics such as accounting, companies, economics, finance, financial ratios, industries, management, and marketing. Industry Information Sources guide will help you locate information on industries. It is selective, including only major titles in the field. For additional resources check the Library Catalog under the appropriate subject headings, or ask for assistance from a reference librarian. I. ARTICLE INDEXES Business Source Premier, Lexis-Nexis, and Business & Company Resource Center, can all be accessed via the Libraries' homepage, (http://library.lib.binghamton.edu) under metaLink, then Management and Business. Business Source Premier This full text database provides access to over 1000 business and economics journals. It also contains company and industry profiles, country reports, and market research reports. Business & Company Resource Center Click on Industry to search for reports by industry code (SIC or NAICS) or by keyword. Click Articles to find articles from industry and trade magazines. LEXIS-NEXIS To find industry articles, click on Business, then Industry & Market and then select your industry. Articles are full-text. II. INDUSTRY CODES North American Industry Classification System Ref HF 1042 .N66 2002 This is the new system, devised by the Department of Commerce, to replace the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. Numerous business directories and government publications use the codes. Standard Industrial Classification Manual Ref HF 1042 .A55 This is a guide to Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, which are codes assigned to products and services by the U.S. government. Replaced in July 1998 by the NAIC manual, above. Standard International Trade Classification Revision 3 Ref HF 1041 .U56 1986 This is the set of broad industry codes used by the United Nations. There is no relation to either the SIC or NAIC codes used by the United States. Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States Gov. Docs ITC 1.10 International product category codes used by importers and exporters. III. INFORMATION ABOUT INDUSTRIES Standard and Poors' Industry Surveys Ref HC 102 .S8 This quarterly survey provides analysis of U.S. industries. Each section has several statistical tables, and information about individual companies within specific industries. Automotive News Market Data Book Ref HD 9710 .U5 A85 Has detailed statistics for the world auto industry, with the main emphasis on the United States. Includes sales, production, prices, etc. Business & Company Resource Center Internet database Contains industry reports. See description on first page. Business Statistics of the United States Ref Desk HC 101 .A13122 Has historical statistics on production, capacity, employment, orders, inventories, etc. Look in the Table of Contents under "Industry Profiles". County Business Patterns...New York Ref HC 107 .N7 C85 Very basic industry information for Broome County. Industry Review Ref HG .4961 .M68 Has comparative financial statistics on individual public companies arranged by industry. Information, Finance, & Services USA Ref HD 9981.1 .I54 Contains industry analyses, statistics, and information on leading companies. Arranged by NAICS code. Infrastructure Industries USA Ref HC 79 C3 I54 Covers the agriculture, mining, utilities, construction, and transportation industries. Manufacturing & Distribution USA Ref HD 9721.M364 Contains industry analyses, statistics, and information on leading companies. Arranged by NAICS code. Statistical Abstract of the United States Info Commons Ref DeskHA 206 .S8 Published annually by the U.S. government. Look under the industry name in the index. Ward's Automotive Yearbook Ref HD 9710 .U5 W3 Has statistics for the automotive industry, with a focus on North America. IV. BUSINESS RATIOS These sources provide the operating and financial ratios of many industries, arranged by SIC code. Almanac of Business and Industrial Financial Ratios Ref HF 5681 .R25 T68 Industry Norms and Key Business Ratios Ref HF 5681 .R25 I54 RMA Annual Statement Studies Ref HF 5681 .B2 R6 Colleen Hailey/Bartle Reference & Collections/Binghamton University/8-06 Select Philippines Country Country > Trade Information Sources > Selected Printed Information Sources Records 101 to 112 Total Records : 112 Page [ 1 2 3 4 5] Sr.# Title Year Publisher 101 Philippine Exporters Confederation Philippine Exporters Confederation, Inc. 102 Philippines. Board of Investments Philippines. Board of Investments Philippines. Center for International Center for International Trade Expositions 103 and Missions Trade Expositions and Missions Philippines. Chamber of Furniture Philippines. Chamber of Furniture 104 Industries Industries Philippines. Department of Trade and Philippines. Department of Trade Industry. Trade and Industry Information 105 and Industry Center 106 Philippines. e-Yellow Pages Philippines. E-Yellow Pages Philippines. Investor Relations 107 Philipines. Investor Relations Office Office Philippines. Motor Vehicle Parts Philippines. Motor Vehicle Parts 108 Manufacturers Association Manufacturers Association Philippines. National Economic and Philippines. National Economic 109 Development Authority Development Authority (NEDA) Philippines. Official Government 110 Portal Philippines. Department of Trade and 111 Tradeline Philippines Industry. Bureau of Export Trade Promotion United Coconut Associations of the United Coconut Associations of the 112 Philippines, Inc. Philippines, Inc. (UCAP) Information Technology in The Philippines Impacts of National Information Technology Environments on Business Sources and Links The Philippine Star, A daily newspaper from Manila Business World - Internet Edition American Journalism Review, A List of Philippines Newspapers Republic of the Philippines, National Statistics Office The Asia/Pacific IT Forum, A conference in Asia on IT issues. The theme of this year's (January 2000) will be "Navigating the New Economy in the World's Most Dynamic IT Markets." The Philippine Commission on Year 2000 Compliance, The Philippines' official Y2K website on preparing for the millenium bug. The Philippines, A country study done by the Library of Congress. Information on the Philippines, another country study with various links to country information. IT Matters Daily News, from Manila ASEAN, The Associaton of South East Asian Nations The World Bank Group, data and statistics on third world/developing countries US State Department, Bureau of Consular Affairs, The Philippines Consular Information Sheet Embassy of the United States in Manila The Philippines Government, Department of Trade and Industry The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, the country's major telecommunications provider The International Telecommunications Union Ecommerce Today, an Australian site providing great articles on ecommerce in the Asia-Pacific region NUA Internet Surveys, the latest on Internet development and progress Telecommunications at a Glance, statistics provided by ITU by country or telecom operator Telegeography, Inc., statistics, maps and reports on network infrastructure around the globe Philippines sites,provided by Jetlink, a Filipino ISP ISP directory, for the Philippines Philippines search engines, and other great links to informational sites on the Philippines, provided by the Department of Trade and Industry Philippines Information, more links to sites on the Philippines Doing Business in the Philippines, Provided by Far East Bank and Trust Company Internet Software Consortium, resource for Host counts done by Network Wizards Global Crossing, owns most of the trans-oceanic cable APEC, Asian Pacific Economic Corporation Federal Communications Commission, International Bureau Asian Development Bank, data and statistics for the Asia-Pacific region Footnotes General Information on the Philippines 1 "Destination the Philippines," Lonely Planet (http://www.lonelyplanet.com/dest/sea/phil.html), current November 11, 1999. Telecommunications Infrastructure 1 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 2 "Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. 1999 Planning Session Report," Prepared for MCI WorldCom, October 15, 1998, Pasig City, Philippines. 3 "Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. 2000 Communications Plan Report," Prepared for MCI WorldCom, October, 1999, Pasig City, Philippines. 4 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 5 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999 and "Basic Indicators of Teledensity in the World," International Telecommunications Union (November 1999), (http://www.itu.int/ti/industryoverview/index.htm), current November 30, 1999. 6 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 7 "Cellular Subscribers in the World," International Telecommunications Union (November 1999), (http://www.itu.int/ti/industryoverview/index.htm), current November 30, 1999. 8 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 9 "Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) Builds Path to Next- Generation Network Services with Cisco Systems Equipment," (December 6, 1999) Cisco System's Asia Pacific New and Information (http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/146/asia_pr/december99/2.html), current December 9, 1999. 10 "PLDT - Company Information," PLDT (http://www.pldt.com.ph), current December 2, 1999. 11 "Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) Builds Path to Next- Generation Network Services with Cisco Systems Equipment," (December 6, 1999) Cisco System's Asia Pacific New and Information (http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/146/asia_pr/december99/2.html), current December 9, 1999. 12 "PhIX Network," PhIX - Philippines Internet Exchange (http://www.phix.net.ph/phix/network.html), current December 2, 1999. 13 "Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. Brand Review," Prepared for MCI WorldCom, April 15, 1999, Pasig City, Philippines. 14 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. Privatization and Deregulation 1 "Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. Brand Review," Prepared for MCI WorldCom, April 15, 1999, Pasig City, Philippines. 2 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 "Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. Brand Review," Prepared for MCI WorldCom, April 15, 1999, Pasig City, Philippines. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid. 13 "Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. 1999 Planning Session Report," Prepared for MCI WorldCom, October 15, 1998, Pasig City, Philippines. Internet Activity 1 "MosCom - Company Information," MosCom (http://www.mozcom.com/company/profile.html), current December 2, 1999. 2 "Paul Budde Communcations: 240 Percent Growth in Asia Since 1996," (August 14, 1997) NUA Internet Surveys (http://www.nua.ie/surveys), current November 9, 1999. 3 "Paul Budde Communcations: Asian ISP Market Needs to Focus," (December 18, 1998) NUA Internet Surveys (http://www.nua.ie/surveys), current November 9, 1999. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 "Techserver: Demographic Projections for Asia," (September 10, 1998) NUA Internet Surveys (http://www.nua.ie/surveys), current November 9, 1999. 8 Yao-Endriga, M. "Philcomsat Pins Hopes on Satellite Internet Services," The Philippine Star, October 15, 1999. 9 "Internet Domain Survey," (July 1999) Internet Software Consortium (http://www.isc.org/ds/WWW-9907/dist-bynum.html), current November 30, 1999. 10 "PhIX Frequently Asked Questions," PhIX - Philippines Internet Exchange (http://www.phix.net.ph/phix/faq.html), current December 2, 1999. 11 "PhilWorld Online Internet Services," PhilWorld Online (http://www.cebu.pworld.net.ph/services.htm), current December 6, 1999. 12 "MosCom - Company Information,"MosCom (http://www.mozcom.com/company/profile.html), current December 2, 1999. 13 Ibid. 14 Ibid. 15 Each ISP was surveyed individually (via the website or personal communication) for pricing plans or quotes for services provided. Last current December 2, 1999. Hardware Manufacturing 1 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. Software Development 1 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. Electronic Commerce 1 "Singapore Business Times: Malaysia to Lead Internet Growth in Asia," (October 29, 1997) NUA Internet Surveys (http://www.nua.ie/surveys), current November 9, 1999. 2 "Briefing Paper on ASEAN Economic Integration," Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) (hhttp://www.asean.or.id), current November 20, 1999. 3 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," (September 1999), World Bank Group (http://www.worldbank.org), current November 20, 1999. 4 "Statistics on the size of sales for exports and imports in the Philippines," The Philippines Department of Trade and Industry (http://www.philtins.dti.gov.ph), current November 20, 1999. IT Usage 1 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. IT Financing 1 "Philippines to invest US$582 million in IT," (April 7, 1999), ComputerWorld Philippines (http://it.idg.net/crd_it_9-51553.html), current December 10, 1999. 2 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 3 "Philippines to invest US$582 million in IT," (April 7, 1999), ComputerWorld Philippines (http://it.idg.net/crd_it_9-51553.html), current December 10, 1999. 4 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 5 Ibid. 6 "Philippines to invest US$582 million in IT," (April 7, 1999), ComputerWorld Philippines (http://it.idg.net/crd_it_9-51553.html), current December 10, 1999. IT Labour Market 1 "Quantum DDB Philippines Inc. Brand Review," Prepared for MCI WorldCom, April 15, 1999, Pasig City, Philippines. 2 Ferriols, D. "Number of Japanese Firms with Backroom Operations in RP Seen to Double," The Philippine Star, October 30, 1999. 3 Ibid. 4 Goad, G.P. "At Your Service," Far Eastern Economic Review, September 2, 1999. 5 Ibid. 6 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. 11 Goad, G.P. "At Your Service," Far Eastern Economic Review, September 2, 1999. 12 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 13 Ibid. Government Policies 1 "The Dynamics of the Information Technology Industry in the Philippines," IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century (October 1997), National Information Technology Council (http://www.neda.gov.ph/IT21/IT21Final%20Text%20(Web).htm), current December 9, 1999. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. This site was developed for Impacts of National Information Technology Environments on Business Kogod School of Business American University, Washington, DC. Created by Bree Connally This page was last updated: December 13, 1999 INFORMATION 3- LO# 1 PHILIPPINE TOURISM INDUSTRY AND ITS SERVICES 1Mission The Department of Tourism (DOT) shall be the primary government agency charged with the responsibility to encourage, promote, and develop tourism as a major socio-economic activity to generate foreign currency and employment and to spread the benefits of tourism to both the private and public sector. History 1950s - Started as a private initiative, the Philippine Tourist & Travel Association was organized. 1956 - The Board of Travel & Tourist Industry was created by law. 1973 - The Department of Tourism (DOT), Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA), and Philippine Convention Bureau (PCB) were created by the Philippine government. 1986 - Under Executive Order no. 120 and 120-A, DOT and PCB were reorganized structurally and functionally. PCB was renamed Philippine Convention & Visitors Corporation. Functions Office of the Secretary The Office of the Secretary provides leadership, direction, and substance to the overall operations of the Department. It formulates policies, plans , programs, rules, and regulations; reviews and evaluates the performance of the Tourism Master Plan and advises the President on all matters affecting the tourism program of the country. Tourism Promotions Sector The Tourism Promotion Sector has the primary function of promoting the Philippines as a tourist destination domestically and internationally. It devises integrated marketing and promotional activities such as information dissemination, public relations, special events, and related tourism programs. It likewise supervises the overseas field offices established to implement and enhance the tourism development and promotion program of the Department in the international field. Tourism Services and Regional Offices Sector The Tourism Services and Regional Offices Sector is tasked to ensure the pleasant entry, stay, and exit of tourists. It formulates standards of quantity and efficiency for tourism-oriented establishments, among others, done through an accreditation system. Tourist establishments' compliance to policies are monitored to make sure that their facilities and services are operated and maintained according to acceptable international norms. The Sector also supervises DOT's regional operations established to implement the policies, plans, programs, and regulations of the Department and to maintain the delivery of efficient and effective frontline services for the tourism industry. Planning, Product Development and Coordination The Tourism Planning, Product Development and Coordination Sector is responsible for the formulation and updating of the Tourism Master Plan, together with its component programs. The Sector monitors the effective implementation of the Tourism Master Plan and, in coordination with the private sector and other government institutions , develops and conceptualizes new products and investment opportunities designed to enhance tourist sites and facilities. Internal Services Sector The Internal Services Sector ensures the smooth and legal functioning of the operations of the Department through the provision of effective and efficient advice and services in the areas of personnel management, human resources development, general services administration, computerization and information technology services, budgetary, financial and management services, and including investigatory and advisory services. Primer on Tourism Investment Who may invest? Anyone, regardless of nationality, is welcome to invest in the Philippines. With the liberalization of the foreign investment law, 100% foreign equity may be allowed in all areas of investment except those reserved for Filipinos by mandate of the Philippine Constitution and existing laws.. What requirements must be complied with before a foreign corporation can do business in the Philippines? A foreign corporation must first secure the necessary licenses or registrations from the appropriate government bodies. In the case of corporations or partnerships, the necessary incorporation papers from the Securities and Exchange Commission must first be obtained. In the case of single proprietorship, registration from the Bureau of Trade Regulation & Consumer Protection of the Department of Trade and Industry must be secured. What is the general policy of the government for foreign investments? The government recognizes the pivotal role of private sector investments and, thereby, commits to continuously enhance the business climate. Foreign investments are encouraged to fill in capital gaps, help provide employment, increase production, and provide a base for the overall development of the economy. Investment rules and regulations have thus been liberalized to facilitate entry of foreign investments. Are foreigners allowed to lease land? Foreign investors investing in the Philippines can now lease private lands up to 75 years. Based on R.A. No. 7652, entitled “Investor’s Lease Act”, lease agreements may be entered into with Filipino landowners. Lease period is 50 years, renewable once for another 25 years. For tourism projects, the lease shall be limited to projects with an investment of not less than US$5M, 70% of which shall be infused in said project within 3 years from signing of the lease contract. INFORMATION SHEET 4-LO# 1 Information to assist effective work performance Six Ways to Become More Efficient at Work And At Home By Shafir Ahmad Most of us are eager to give of ourselves and then give some more. Whether it's giving advice to friends or coworkers, volunteering for activities in the community or at our child's school or just saying yes to every request that comes our way. What happens with all this giving is you become so buried under a mountain of responsibilities that the most important things in your life suffer. You have to take time for yourself and your family. One way to do this is to become more efficient in every area of your life. Let's look at six ways to become efficient. 1) Schedule your day. If you have to, get up an hour early each day and write out your plan for the day. Then prioritize each task on your list and put it in order of priority. Schedule what you need to do into a planning sheet and block out time to get it accomplished. Do this every single day, even on the weekends. 2) Stop trying to multi-task. Turn off the email notification function on your computer. Email kills your concentration and makes you lose focus on what you were doing. Don't get side lined by interruptions from others. If you are trying to finish a report for an important client or meeting, don't accept a request from a drop-in visitor who "just has a quick question" 3) Learn to control self-interruption. You are at your desk absorbed in your work, when all of a sudden you brain starts talking to you. It reminds you of something that you need to tell a coworker or an important task that you need to take care of. Instead of grabbing the phone or shooting off an email, write down what you need to tell that person or the task that you need to do in a separate binder that you keep for such purposes. Keep working on your current project and set aside time later to take care of things on your binder list. 4) Say NO more often. Know what your priorities are. When someone requests something of you and it doesn't fit into your priorities, just say no. You don't have to justify your answer with a long explanation or excuse. 5) Delegate as much as you can. We often think we can do everything ourselves, or that others will not devote as much care to the task as we would have. That is delusion, as we do not have enough time to do all that anyway. Other coworkers or other members of your family could easily do some of the tasks. Get away from the thinking that you are the only one who can do the job right. 6) Stop trying to be perfect. Some tasks can be done and are just as successful even if they are not perfect. Trying to be perfect with everything will slow you down and cause too much un-needed stress in your life. Your time is a very precious resource that should not be wasted. Efficiency is the key to getting things accomplished in your work and at home. Implement the above steps and you will find yourself accomplishing more in less time, and with less stress. Time Management What is Time Management? by: Joe Dostal What is time management, then? Time management is the proper delegation of the time we have in order that the most important tasks are achieved before the more menial and less-important ones. It means getting the maximum value and benefit out of every activity accomplished, no matter how small or big. It means accepting that not everything can be completed at the same time and that there are things that can be achieved within the limitations of our human faculties If we waste time, there is no bank where we can withdraw time we previously saved to replace the time wasted. To come to terms with our mortality is to realize that our time is limited. Given this realization and probability that you would like to better organize your time, here are some techniques that you can use in your professional and private lives. How To Organize Your Time Time management technique 1: Assess how you spend your time As a first step in managing time better, you might want to analyze how you spend your time now. To do this, divide your day into fifteen-minute segments, then record what you are doing every fifteen minutes. Afterward, review this time diary and total the time spent on each activity throughout the day. For instance, you might that you spent three hours watching television, one hour exercising, one hour studying, and two hours shopping. Next, evaluate the use of time. You might decide you spend too much time watching TV and too little time studying. Based upon this evaluation, decide on an adjustment, but make it specific. A good way to make this change is to draw up a contract with yourself that includes a reward for being successful. Time management technique 2: Set Goals The most important thing you can do to manage time is to set goals: daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and long-range. If you don’t have a clear sense of where you are headed just yet, you will not be able to plan how to get there. Your use of time should be organized to maximize the chances of achieving your goals. Time management technique 3: Learn to prioritize Once you have defined your goals, you need to prioritize them and your activities. Not all of your goals will be equally important. Focus on those goals that are of major importance to you, and work on the other goals secondarily. Likewise, focus on activities most important to the achievement of your highest goals and on other activities afterward. Time management technique 4: If you can't juggle,delegate It’s okay to admit that you’re not superman or superwoman. We’re only human and we simply cannot do everything at once, no matter how hard we try. Some people have attempted at juggling too many things at the same time and ended up with work that is half-baked. Seek the assistance of other people to do the other things for you. Conversely, do not just accept and say ‘yes’ when people ask you to do things for them when you know you don’t have the time to do so. Time management technique 5: Saying ‘no’ is not bad If you really have to turn someone or something down, don’t hesitate to say ‘no’. Assess what is really important to you and go with that, instead. Some people feel guilty when they say ‘no’. You shouldn’t. It is your right and privilege to turn somebody down when he or she asks a favor from you. Remember, you own your time. Allowing other people to dictate what you should do with it is a disservice to yourself. Time management technique 6: Keep a schedule Once you’ve prioritized your activities, you can then schedule them into you day. Time of meetings - When will you go to the library? When will you shop for groceries? Don’t forget to schedule some relaxation and recreation, as well. Time management technique 7: Maximize your rewards In scheduling your activities, remember what some time management experts say: we get 80% of our rewards on only 20% of our activities and, conversely, get only 20% of our rewards on 80% of the time we spend. What this tells us is that we need to make sure we identify and engage in the 20% of the activities that give us 80% of our rewards before we move to the other activities. Maximize your rewards by organizing your time. As you can see from the techniques mentioned above, time, while short and fleeting, is something that can be managed even by mere human beings like us. The best way to cope with it is to know early on what we want to happen to our lives and which directions we’d like to head, in order for us to more effectively map out a life plan. If we don’t know what our plans are, then it wouldn’t really make sense to get into time management because we’ll just end up with one big mess of activities. Determine what you want first and then seek to manage your time. Remember, every second is precious, so you need to speed up. It’s for your own sake, anyway. SELF IMPROVEMENT 1. Creativity - Intuitive or Learned by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD Have you wondered why some people seem to have a lot of creativity? Some believe we are born with such gifts and others believe it is learned. It is probably a combination of both-creative expression is enhanced with the ability to be fully aware of and present in the moment one is in. 2. Intuitive Decision Making by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD The majority of people only recognize decision-making as a powerful step when it is done for major important issues-where to go for vacation, spending money, changing a job/career, moving, etc. However, it is all the little decisions in your life that creates where you are today. 3. Danger of the Fear Story by Mark I Myhre Everybody loves a good story. But when it comes to fear, telling yourself a story about it can be dangerous. Learn how you do it, and how to end it. 4. Being There - The Greatest Gift by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD The greatest gift you can give someone is an act of 'just being there.' This concept is nearly unfathomable to many people. Whether your 'just being there' is related to a specific situation or is an ongoing commitment, you each benefit from the experience. To be there for some one is to 'be there' in challenging times as well as the good times. 5. Innocence by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD We are born with complete innocence-free of guilt, sin, with purity of heart and blameless. As we assimilate a myriad of adaptations and indoctrinations from our family, culture, neighborhood, religion, education, etc., we lose our innocence. By reconnecting with our inner child, we can experience the world with the same wonder and joy we experienced as a child. 6. We Were Abused Children - How Do We Recover? by Glen D. Williams Sure, there are rare cases where kids suffer continuous, extensive abuse over multiple years, but the vast majority of abused children have experienced at most, a few traumatic sexual or violent abuse events over the course of 18 years of childhood. I don't mean to minimize what you may have suffered... even one traumatic event is too much. As tragic as it is, the biggest tragedy is the way we often ruin decades of our lives by not facing it, putting it in perspective and putting it behind us. Recovery is possible for all of us if we want it enough to work for it. 7. Intent by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD Intent is the key to achieving your goals. Frequently we are doing one thing- thinking that we are creating another. We need to systematically focus on the intent of our actions at every step. There is nothing wrong with multitasking, which seems necessary with today's demands. However, balancing multitasking with intentional activity provides valuable insight into the benefits of doing one thing at a time, being totally present with the task of our intent. 8. Programming Your Mind For Self Development by Pushpa Pal Singh The human mind is the master computer which controls your body and your actions. It's like an empty hard drive therefore you're affected by whatever you install into it. The functions you install can be either positive or negative. You are bombarded with different thoughts, sounds, people, and images all the time. The human mind is such that it takes into account everything that's around you. What you truly need to learn is how to program this master computer to ignore the negative thoughts and only concentrate the positive ones. Therefore what are the steps to controlling this master computer? Read on to find out. 9. Achieve The Impossible - Break The Rules by Pushpa Pal Singh Everyone wants to become special; everyone has a dream to make it big some day. Everyone get out of his house each day with an aim in his mind but not all of them end up achieving their goals. Most of us hold ourselves back waiting for the right moment or the perfect circumstance. But you know what they moment never comes until you make it happen. Every person wants to become successful and achieve the impossible overnight but you must understand that it's not as easy as it sounds. You need to take the first step towards your goal first. You need to make progress, Progress might be slow at first but with time you would realize that the process speeds up as you get better at it. 10. Having Faith In Your Own Talents by Steven Fu Why are you doing something that you do not like to do to earn a small amount of money, when you can easily do what you love to do and earn more money. 11. Great Individuals Take Action by Steven Fu Most people have great thoughts to improve their lives but they just remain as that... 12. What Life Means - What 'Meaning' Means by G.B. Singh Before we ask the question as to what life means, we must answer the more basic question as to what meaning, in itself, means. 13. How To Be A Strong Communicator by Pushpa Pal Singh You can listen to thousands of people watch & listen to millions of TV or radio shows but that does not mean that you would be the same when it comes to the mastery of words. In the process of communication it's all about the delivery of right words with the right physical expressions. Therefore how to master this art of conversation? The best way to start is by recording your own voice. 14. Write Your Own Destiny - Take Control Right Now by Pushpa Pal Singh One of the most common phrase which is very widely used is- "This is my destiny". Many people think their life is pre-written and whatever events or circumstances they go through are already planned by some higher power. Remember one simple fact about life - "Circumstances do not make a man they reveal him". Just like this saying circumstances only give you an indication that your life is not in your control. Circumstances are made by the man himself. Events don't just happen they are a direct result of the actions taken by you. 15. How To Change Your Life For Good by Pushpa Pal Singh Are you really happy with your life? Are you living your dream? Is this really what you wanted out of your life? If you are confused about all these questions than you definitely need a change. Almost everyone aspires to get the most out of life in whatever shape or form it might be. But some of us get carried away by the circumstances so much that we don't know where we are in life and whether we are living our dreams or not. All of us go through several problems and sometimes it becomes a big obstacle and we forget our dreams and talk about reality. We get so negative that we forget our dreams and think this is life and we need to survive. 16. Discovered - First Thought by Ralston Heath A skill for a better life. 17. What Is Your Vibration? That Is The Question To Know by Liesl Anderson What are the vibrations you are putting out into the universe? Find out how to bring into your life peace, happiness, wealth and more by changing your focus and your vibrations. 18. Dream On - The Top 10 Ways to Reconnect to Your Dreams by Kamin Bell Do you have a dream for your life? Does it feel like it's too far away to make a reality? Do you have a plan and a vision for realizing your dreams? I truly know what it's like to have a dream that seems unattainable but that just won't leave you alone. And, I know the exhilaration of creating a plan and seeing my dream manifest. In this article you will learn ten ways to reconnect with your dreams and move toward making them come true. 19. Keeping Control And Building Momentum by Sam S K Khan If you see that something's not working, you make adjustments. But man, the worst thing you can do is quit. 20. Brainwashed? by H. Bernard Wechsler Are you in danger of becoming a Cyborg? 21. Alternatives to Speed by Mike Scantlebury Who do we think we are fooling? When we rush around hectically, always hurrying, do we seriously think that people are conned into believing that what we are doing is important, and where we are going means anything? Are we rushing in order to convince ourselves that any of it really matters? 22. Hinduism, Karma and the Law of Attraction by Paul Warren Positive thinking, which is an oft quoted phrase in the law of attraction, also finds its place in Hinduism. 23. FEAR - The Dream Killer! by Royleena Nicholas Many online marketers live in fear on a daily basis, fear of failure and fear of success. Have your been marketing your heart out, do you feel like you're making no headway to profit, then perhaps fear is stopping you from reaching the monetary success you desire. To make money online, it is best to face your negative unproductive thoughts, learn positive strategies and set goals with a realistic time frame to achieve online success. 24. The Magic Of Love by Helene Rothschild Would you like to receive the magic of love? Are you willing to give it? Try this - For one day, consciously make an effort to be loving or kind to everyone you see, with no expectations of receiving anything in return. 25. Freedom or Security by Jeffrey De Lara Financial security or financial freedom? What will you choose? Are you confident enough to pursue your dream? 26. How To Stop The Inner Critic by Colin Smith A short article that describes how we can change our 'inner critics', enabling us to experience more inner peace. 27. Ways to Connect and Give Back by Joanna Engelman This article is about the importance of connecting to others and giving back. The most precious part of being alive is being seen and heard and seeing and hearing others. 28. Get Your Mind Right by Dianna Hobbs Until you get your mind right you'll never be able to get your life right. Why? Because nothing in your life can exceed your level of thinking. Your reality cannot supersede your mentality. So, if you want bigger and better results, then you've got to get a bigger and better vision for your life. You can think your way to a whole new plateau or to an all-time low. Which will it be? 29. How to Become A Money Magnet and Attract Wealth Effortlessly by Hanif Khaki How to become a money magnet at the push of a button. SELF-CHECK – LO 1 DIRECTIONS: Check your knowledge in Sources of Information on the Industry . Note: Pls. refer to your instructor for the sets of questionnaire. Answer Key, LO 1 Qualification : NC Level II Unit of Competency : DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE Module Title : DEVELOPING AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE Learning Outcomes # 2 : Access, apply and share industry information Assessment Criteria : Completing demands are prioritized to achieve personal , team and organizational goals and objectives Resources are utilized efficiently and effectively to manage with priorities and commitments Practice long economic use and maintenance equipment and facilities are followed as per established procedures. Resources : Equipment : Simulated laboratory room Electronic learning device Computer Television and video set Materials/Supplies : case studies prints and media workplace/location assessment LEARNING EXPERIENCES / ACTIVITIES Learning Outcome # 2 Access, apply and share industry information Are you ready to perform this activity? If ready, take your time and be sure to observe the standard procedures in all your activities. 1. Read: Information sheet 1 2. Answer: self – Check to assess your knowledge 3. Refers to Model Answer # 1 for the correct answer of self – check. INFORMATION SHEET- 1, LO 2 Different sectors of the industry and Services 2.1 Different sectors of the industry and Services available in each sector. The Primary sector of industry- generally involves the changing process of natural resources into primary products. Major businesses in this sector include agriculture , agribusiness , fishing , forestry and mining and quarrying industries . Primary industry is a larger sector in developing countries for instance ,animal husbandry is more common in Africa than in Japan mining in southern Wales is a case study of how an economy can come to rely on one form of business. The tertiary sector of industry (also known the service sector on the service industry ) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy the other being the secondary industry (manufacturing ) and primary industry (extraction such as mining , agriculture and fishing .) Service are defined conventional economic literature as “ intangible goods 2.2 Relationship Between Tourisms And Hospitality TOURISM-is traveling for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel. The world tourism organization defines tourists as people who “travel to and stay and places out side their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure business and other purposes ,not related to the exercise of and activity from within the place visited “tourism has a popular global leisure activity and 2004 there was over 763 millions international tourists arrival . HOSPITALITY - Refers to the relationship process between a guest and a host and it also refers to the act of practice of being hospitable with liberality and goodwill . Hospitality frequently refers to the hospitality industry job for hotel , restaurants casinos , catering resort , clubs and any other service position that deals with tourists. 2.3 Relationship between industry and other industries. INDUSTRY-(from latin industrius, diligent, industrious.’)is the segment of economy concerned with production of goods. -is the quality, action , or habit of earnest, steady , and continue attention or devotion to any useful or productive work or task, manual or mental. -is diligence applied to some vocation, business, or profession, hence, by derived use, the occupation itself. 2.4 WORKING CONDITIONS Many production jobs in food manufacturing involve repetitive, physically demanding work. Food manufacturing workers are highly susceptible to repetitive-strain injuries to their hands, wrists, and elbows. This type of injury is especially common in meat- processing and poultry-processing plants. Production workers often stand for long periods and may be required to lift heavy objects or use cutting, slicing, grinding, and other dangerous tools and machines. To deal with difficult working conditions, ergonomic programs have been introduced to cut down on work-related accidents and injuries. Furthermore, meat and poultry plants must comply with a wide array of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations ensuring a safer work environment. Some workers wear protective hats, gloves, aprons, and shoes. In many industries, uniforms and protective clothing are changed daily for reasons of sanitation. Working conditions also depend on the type of food being processed. For example, some bakery employees work at night or on weekends and spend much of their shifts near ovens that can be uncomfortably hot. In contrast, workers in dairies and meat-processing plants typically work daylight hours and may experience cold and damp conditions. Some plants, such as those producing processed fruits and vegetables, operate on a seasonal basis, so workers are not guaranteed steady, year-round employment and occasionally travel from region to region seeking work. These plants are increasingly rare, however, as the industry continues to diversify and manufacturing plants produce alternative foods during otherwise inactive periods. 2.5 LEGISLATION THAT AFFECTS THE INDUSTRY LIQUOR HEALTH & SAFETY HYGIENE GAMING WORKERS COMPENSATION CONSUMER PROTECTION DUTY OF CARE BUILDING REGULATIONS LIQUOR Findings are based on workers’ anonymous responses to questions about how often, when and where they drank alcohol and about their attitudes on social drinking. They were asked if they thought alcohol boosted workplace morale, was good for business, alleviated boredom, improved their health, was harmful or set a bad example. . “At-work” drinking was defined as having consumed beer, wine or liquor during the workday or two hours before going to work; drinking during lunch or a work break; drinking while working; drinking before driving a vehicle on company business; or drinking at a company-sponsored event in the 30 days prior to the study. The rates of heavy, frequent and workplace drinking were significantly lower in organizations that discouraged social drinking than in those that most tolerated it. HEALTH & SAFETY OSH) Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) cross- is a cross- , disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare safety employment. of people engaged in work or employment. As a secondary effect, OSH may co- also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, suppliers, impacted nearby communities, and other members of the public who are impacted by the workplace environment. The reasons for establishing good occupational safety and health standards are frequently identified as: Moral - An employee should not have to risk injury at work, nor should others associated with the work environment. Economic - many governments realize that poor occupational safety and health performance results in cost to the State (e.g. through social security payments to the incapacitated, costs for medical treatment, and the loss of the employability" "employability" of the worker). Employing organisations also sustain costs in the event of an incident at work (such as legal fees, fines, compensatory damages, investigation time, lost production, lost goodwill from the workforce, from customers and from the wider community). HYGIENE Industrial hygiene is the science of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling workplace conditions that may cause worker injury or illness. Industrial hygienists use environmental monitoring and analytical methods to detect the extent of worker exposure and employ engineering, work practice controls, and other methods to control potential health hazards. GAMING Behaviors Observable in the Workplace Compulsive gambling has been called the "hidden disease," as there are few covert signs of it in the workplace until the problem is in its most advanced stage. An educational pamphlet on compulsive gambling lists these indicators that may be observed at work: bad Late to work (due to late night card game, casino venture, or bad night's sleep gambling- worrying about gambling-related problems). (off- Long lunches (off-track betting, meeting bookmaker or loan shark or creditors). track, off- Mysterious disappearance in the afternoon (typically at the track, off-track events). betting, afternoon card or dice game, or listening to sporting events). Sick days taken right when they become available rather than allowed toallowed accumulate (uses sick days to gamble). Vacation used in isolated days rather than blocks. radio Excessive use of rest room (reads sports pages or listens to radio in the rest room). off- Excessive use of the telephone (calls to off-track betting, bookie, creditors, or to find money; calls from bookie or creditors). from Reads newspaper and sports literature at work (scratch sheet from race track, racing form, sporting news, etc.). Operates office sports pool or paycheck pool (the person running these sometimes has a gambling problem). off- Collects money from other employees for off-track betting or lottery (ostensibly co- does this as convenience for co-workers but actually so he or she can place bets). junkets Organizes trips to Atlantic City, Las Vegas, or other gambling junkets (may indicate familiarity through frequent visits). Operates as bookmaker or runner for bookmaker (many bookmakers and and runners are themselves compulsive gamblers and do this in order to gamble more). WORKER’S COMPENSATION Worker's compensation is a system of laws outlining specific lost benefits to which an injured employee is entitled, including lost wages and medical expenses. In other words, it's an important safety net for for job. employees when they are injured on the job or as a result of a job. WORKER’ WORKER’S COMPENSATION provides insurance to cover medical care and compensation for employees who are injured in the course of employee's employment, in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence. Most employees who for are injured on the job have an absolute right to medical care for that resulting injury, and in many cases, monetary payments to compensate for resulting temporary or permanent disabilities. Most employers are required to employer subscribe to insurance for workers' compensation, and an employer who does not may have financial penalties imposed. The perennial problem for the court in each new situation has been to decide whether a duty of care was owed and, if so, what its scope was to be. The first judicial approach was to identify specific and distinctive situations in which a duty would exist. The law therefore developed in a piecemeal fashion. Most businesses must have workers' compensation insurance to cover its employees. Filing a workers' compensation claim is similar to filing any other insurance claim. It isn't a lawsuit against an employer, rather a request for benefits. Under most workers' compensation programs, an injured employee is entitled to: Medical Care The injured party has the right to all reasonable necessary treatment to cure or relieve the effects of the injury. Included under medical treatment compensation are all medical bills, prescriptions and even roundtrip mileage to the hospital. Temporary Disability If the injured party must take time away from work due to medical reasons related to the injury, they may be entitled to temporary disability payments. That would provide partial compensation for lost wages. There are specific maximum and minimum limits to the pay rate, but this normally equals about two- two-thirds of average weekly gross pay and is paid out every two weeks. After the doctor verifies inability to work, the first temporary disability check should arrive within a few weeks. Permanent Disability If a worker can't completely recover from the effects of the inj ury, they may be entitled to a monetary award. Permanent disability means that the injured party has lost some ability to compete in the open labor market of uninjured workers. The amount and rate at which it is paid depends on the limitation the injury places on activities. Other elements taken into consideration are age, occupation and earnings at the time of injury. Vocational Rehabilitation If the injury prevents a return to the former job, assistance in getting another job may be included in the benefits. During vocational rehabilitation, a partial income is distributed, similar to temporary disability. The vocational rehabilitation benefit usually has a maximum monetary limit and may be replaced by an offer of modified or different work from the employer. CONSUMER PROTECTION Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. For example, a government may require businesses to disclose detailed information about products—particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food. Consumer protection is linked to the idea of consumer rights (that consumers have various rights as consumers), and to the formation of consumer organizations which help consumers make better choices in the marketplace DUTY OF CARE a Duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they exercise a reasonable standard of care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. For negligence, an action in negligence, there must be an identified duty of care in law. Duty of care may be considered a formalization of the implicit responsibilities held by an individual towards another individual within society. It is not a requirement that a duty of care be defined by law, though it will often develop through the jurisprudence of common law. law. Doctors will be held to reasonable standards for members of their profession, rather than those of the general public in cases related to their fields. BUILDING REGULATIONS Building regulations may refer to: Building code, a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects A building code, or building control , is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. structures. The main purpose of the building codes is to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate authority. 2.6 Learning Outcomes No. 2 Information to Assist Effective Work Performance 2.4. Industry working conditions 2.5. Legislation that affects the Industry liquor health hygiene gaming workers compensation consumer protection duty of care building regulation 2.6. Trade Unions Environmental issues & requirements Trade union A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members ("rank and file" members) and negotiates labor contracts with employers. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The agreements negotiated by the union leaders are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. Most unions claim a right of exclusivity. The union has the authority to determine who may be a member of the union and who may not. Most unions assert a right to mandate that only its members, and no others, may be permitted to work at certain jobs. Furthermore, the union contract is exclusive with regard to the employer, an employer is generally not permitted to seek out the services of another labor union or hire another competing labor union even if he is dissatisfied with the performance of the current labor union. These organizations may be comprised of individual workers, professionals, past workers, or the unemployed. The most common, but by no means only, purpose of these organizations is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment“ Over the last three hundred years, trade unions have developed into a number of forms, influenced by differing political and economic regimes. The immediate objectives and activities of trade unions vary, but may include: Provision of benefits to members: Early trade unions, like Friendly Societies, often provided a range of benefits to insure members against unemployment, ill health, old age and funeral expenses. In many developed countries, these functions have been assumed by the state; however, the provision of professional training, legal advice and representation for members is still an important benefit of trade union membership. Collective bargaining: Where trade unions are able to operate openly and are recognized by employers, they may negotiate with employers over wages and working conditions. Industrial Action: Trade unions may organize strikes or resistance to lockouts in furtherance of particular goals. Political activity: Trade unions may promote legislation favorable to the interests of their members or workers as a whole. To this end they may pursue campaigns, undertake lobbying, or financially support individual candidates or parties (such as the Labour Party in Britain) for public office. History of trade unions Beginning in the eighteenth century, much of Western society (with most changes occurring earliest in Britain) witnessed a transformation from an agrarian culture with craft-based production to a culture shaped by the first industrial revolution. Some of the changes brought on by this new order, such as new work methods and downward pressure on traditional wage structures, sparked rising alarm in the crafts and guilds of the time, who feared encroachment on their established jobs. Additionally, the rapid expansion of industrial society was to draw women, children, rural workers, and immigrants to the work force in larger numbers and in new roles. This pool of unskilled and semi- skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, and would later be an important arena for the development of trade unions. 2.7 INDUSTRY RELATIONS ISSUES AND MAJOR ORGANIZATIONS Specific issues (i) The employers' response To date, many Asian and Pacific entrepreneurs - small, medium and large - have relied on the low cost of goods and services and speed of delivery as the core of their competitive advantage. On this basis, an employers' strategy in the area of employment relations must focus on achieving: 1. appropriate attitudinal and behavioral changes, not only at enterprise, but at other, levels; 2. a modern policy, legislative and institutional framework which ensures an effective industrial relations system; 3. compensation systems linked to enterprise performance; 4. a more literate, skilled and adaptable workforce, which is capable of experimentation and innovation; 5. more flexible forms of work organization and management; and 6. culturally sensitive management strategies, as firms invest within and beyond the region. Attitudinal and behavioural changes Greater worker involvement in the enterprise should be reinforced by management making stronger efforts to improve relations with workers' representatives (particularly, trade unions, where they are present). In addition, collective bargaining remains an effective way to address issues of mutual concern. All of these elements - both IR and HRM - have to be properly integrated into the corporate culture. Modern labor polices, legislation and institutions Employers should be seeking "modern" labor policies, legislation and institutions which encourage industrial harmony (by emphasizing prevention not resolution of conflict). In particular, legislation should be proactive and facilitative in relation to the parties' needs, and avoid unnecessary complexity, while maintaining fair and reasonable minimum employment standards. Compensation systems linked to enterprise performance The trend towards decentralized collective bargaining and IR arrangements in the region has been based on the need to address efficiency and productivity issues at their source, the individual enterprise business competitiveness is to be achieved or maintained. As such payment systems are increasingly seen as integral to HRM policies in enterprises, and are thereby linked to achieving particular business objectives. A skilled and adaptable workforce Education and training will play a vital role in promoting labor efficiency through the enhancement of workforce skills, and the World Bank has emphasized the significant link between skills development and a country's manufacturing export capacity (World Bank 1993: 43 - 48). Training of workers in narrow skills is no longer appropriate. Modern technology is increasingly demanding broader skills and new mixes of previously quite distinct skills. In addition, the rapid pace of technological change demands an ability to adapt quickly; so, the formation of skills has to rely not only on initial training, but equally on opportunities for retraining and upgrading existing skills. Flexible forms of work organization and management Flexibility at the workplace requires workers to have several skills and a broader understanding of the production or work process to enable them to carry out a range of activities. To achieve this outcome, managers and supervisors need to be forward looking, inform and involve workers, and use approaches which enable people to develop and use properly their talents and abilities. In particular, they need to pay far greater attention to training and skills development. The ability to adjust working time arrangements and the identification and removal of restrictive work and management practices are also important. Culturally-sensitive management strategies Globalization involves managers and workers moving from one country to another. In doing so, they enter into a new society and culture. Some aspects of these cultures are obvious (eg, another language, other laws and customs, etc) and can with the necessary goodwill be adapted to. But there are other elements of culture which are not so visible. They include the assumptions made and premises relied on by the members of a certain society; values and unwritten codes of behaviour; and patterns of thinking and problem- solving. They are what the people in that society take for granted. These elements are the essence of a particular culture and are the most difficult to detect. A manager or worker coming from and entirely different culture - with its own never-questioned assumptions and values - may not perceive or understand these elements or have difficulty accepting them. As such they can be the basis for tension and conflict in the workplace. Managers assuming work responsibilities in a new country must acquaint themselves with both visible and invisible cultural traits, and adopt appropriate strategies to ensure that cultural mismanagement considerations do not become a source of reduced enterprise performance. Implementing a reform strategy In implementing a reform agenda based on the above considerations, individual firms should be encouraged (through, for example, "best practice" programmes) to experiment in relation to skills development, work organization and other forms of improved IR/HRM practices and seek to use the outcomes as a basis for broader government or industry programmes to diffuse new practices on a wider basis. Such initiatives might be undertaken through informal contact with the wider group of firms with whom they conduct their business, and could include local benchmarking exercises. (ii) The roles of employers' organizations Employers' organizations, like trade unions, face a difficult situation in assisting their constituents in the face of the new demands being placed on them by globalization. A key function of employers' organizations has always been to act as the mouthpiece for employers in seeking to influence the broad policy environment in a manner conducive to their constituents' interests (in this respect, it might be noted that the IR function was originally, and in many cases has remained, the cornerstone of the operations of many employers' organizations). (de Silva 1996:3). To achieve this objective, it is suggested that employers' organizations should organize their operations around two functional "poles", supported by a range of subsidiary services. Employers' organizations need to be prepared to have a view on an increasingly broader range of issues (eg, skills development, including in the context of training and re-training, and covering both delivery and compensation aspects; industry (including investment and taxation) policy; the implications for business of privatization strategies; and the like). (iii) The roles of government and trade unions As noted previously, whatever policies or actions may be promoted or undertaken by one or more of the industrial relations parties will require a response from or have repercussions for other parties or interests. This section of the paper examines interactions with government and trade unions in the context of progressing the agenda of employers' and their organizations. The role of government 1. encourage and regulate foreign participation in national economic development 2. ensure that the economic reforms currently being implemented in various countries are accompanied by proper safety net programmes 3. Decide which industries to stimulate and how they can integrate various macro- and micro-policies through a network of institutions that promote economic growth with equity (Frenkel and Royal 1996:10). 4. Responsibility to ensure that these standards are met by all employers, and, where those employers are foreign companies or MNC's, they must be encouraged to adopt socially responsible attitudes in relation to employment relationships and standards in their host country. 5. To take measures to equip workers with the skills to take up new positions and to move from declining to new industries, possibly to new localities. 6. Facilitate structural adjustment in an equitable manner (including, for example, tax exemptions and development subsidies to firms, and subsidies to workers, to assist relocation). 7. Support trade union strategies to encourage democratic governance, awareness raising on key policy issues and training for union representatives on organizational and technical issues. 8. Support of globalization has to rely on policy planning and delivery services provided by the public sector. 9. Include trade unions in any public sector reform process and take account of their major concerns. 10. Promote bipartite and tripartite institutions and processes to establish appropriate labour policy and standards. (iiii) The role of workers and their organizations There is no question that trade unions still have a role in Asia and the Pacific. But there is a need for more effective unionism. Unionism which focuses on working with employers (and their organizations) in implementing strategies to improve enterprise competitiveness and the quality of work through improvements in work organization, Labour-management relations and skills development, on the basis that an equitable share for workers in productivity gains will be achieved (Frenkel and Royal 1996:31). This form of unionism is therefore proactive and strategic in approach, and is no longer concerned with union actions which are restrictive in nature (eg, seeking, by various means, to limit change). The development of effective unionism (and, indeed, of trade union movements everywhere) is contingent on the recognition and application of the rights of freedom of association, to organize and to bargain collectively. The needs of trade union organizations will vary from country to country in seeking to build effective unions. For example, awareness raising and training in relation to their role in a market oriented economy will have a much higher priority in the case of trade unions in countries in transition. But whatever individual country circumstances, key objectives of national trade union organizations must be to attract more workers into unions by improving recruitment, offering better services and communicating more effectively with and between members and officials. Strong leadership from, and agreement and coordination on priority strategies among, trade union centres is critical. In order to maintain support and influence at enterprise level, it will be necessary to build and maintain an active workplace union organization. The availability of more skilled and technically capable union representatives in the workplace, supported by more professional and better resourced unions at higher levels will also be crucial in achieving these objectives. The extent to which trade unions can adopt and achieve advances through this more proactive role will depend on a number of considerations, including: government policy and attitudes at domestic and international levels; the response(s) of employers and their organizations; and union leadership, organization and strategies. However, given the considerable traditional and current difficulties still facing trade union movements in Asia and the Pacific, a fundamental change in union and worker fortunes may not arise until individual countries develop and adopt higher cost and higher skill-based modes of production. This will provide increased opportunities for worker involvement in decision- making, requiring more democratic and independent representation for the workforce. But it is also likely that additional legislative prescription to provide labour with a more significant voice at both enterprise and national levels, and better protection for workers' representatives in undertaking their functions, will be required. Industrial relations The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly group of workers represented by a union. -also called organizational relations the behavior of workers in organizations in which they earn their living. Perspective theories -When studying the theories of industrial relations, there are three major perspectives that contrast on their approach to the nature of workplace relations the three views are generally described as the unitary, pluralist, and Marxist perspective. The Marxist perspective is sometimes referred to as the conflict model. Unitary perspective In unitarism, the organization is perceive as an integrated and harmonious whole with the ideal of “one happy family” where are management and other members of the staff all share a common purpose, emphasizing mutual cooperation. Pluralistic perspective In pluralism the organization is perceived as being made up of powerful and divergent sub-groups, each with its own legitimate loyalties and with their own set of objectives and traders . Marxist perspective This view of industrial relations looks the nature of the capitalist society, where there is a fundamental division of interest between capital and labor, and sees workplace relations against this background. 2.8 CAREER OPPORTUNITIES-is the sum total of all the work you have done and will do in your lifetime. Most hotel, motel and resort desk clerks received orientation and training on the job. Orientation may include an explanation of the job duties and information about the establishment, such as arrangement of sleeping rooms, availability of additional services such as a business or fitness center, and location of guest facilities. A hospitality management career is highly energy and social. The skills and knowledge developed in this field study are leadership, marketing qualitive skills, research and evaluation, programming [recreation, leisure and meetings] planning and policy, legal aspects, and communication. With preparation in tourism management individuals have skills related to management and leadership which would contribute to any type of position sought in the tourism industry. The tourism industry is within the top industries of most countries in the world and provides numerous career opportunities at a variety levels of service production and management. The curriculum combines strengths in management with technical skills and internship opportunities in each area. The hospitality and tourism industry is critical to the world, national, and regional economy. The hospitality and tourism industry is becoming more complex. Accordingly demand is increasing for college educated managers. APTITUDES QUALITIES Strong interpersonal skills High energy level Ability to multi-ask and prioritize Ability to work well under pressure 1. Create your free account. -Put your best foot forward with a free online portfolio. Public or private. Create your fee account and access all the tools on the site. 2. Research your industry. -Stay up to date on the latest trends and information in your industry by selecting your career channel below. 3. Search jobs -With your resume and portfolio, you’ll be able to search and contact employers with one quick step! RESOURCE CENTER Resume make over 5 ways to make a great first impression. -Now more than ever before candidate seeking positions in the hospitality industry must display professionalism and a steadfast commitment to quality in every phase of the application process. How to master the behavior interview -If you are seeking the job within the competitive hospitality industry, you need to be aware that employers are frequently turning to the use of behavioral interviewing rather than traditional modes. Maximize your career potential -Advance your career and increase your job opportunities while continuing to work.Online education is convenient and flexible, allowing you to maintain professional and personal commitment while pursuing a highly-quality education. Be on time. 2.10 QUALITY ASSURANCE Quality assurance (QA) is the activity of providing evidence needed to establish confidence among all concerned, that quality-related activities are being performed effectively. All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. For products, quality assurance is a part and consistent pair of quality management proving fact- based external confidence to customers and other stakeholders that a product meets needs, expectations, and other requirements. QA assures the existence and effectiveness of procedures that attempt to make sure - in advance - that the expected levels of quality will be reached. QA covers all activities from design, development, production, installation, servicing to documentation. It introduced the sayings "fit for purpose" and "do it right the first time". It includes the regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components; services related to production; and management, production, and inspection processes. The term Quality Assurance, as used in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix B, comprises all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a structure, system, or component will perform satisfactorily in service. Quality assurance includes quality control, which comprises those quality assurance actions related to the physical characteristics of a material, structure, component, or system which provide a means to control the quality of the material, structure, component, or system to predetermined requirements. One of the most widely used paradigms for QA management is the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) approach, also known as the Shewhart cycle Quality management is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design, develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance. Stakeholder may refer to: Stakeholder (corporate), a party who affects, or can be affected by, the company's actions o Stakeholder theory, identifies and models the groups which are stakeholders of a corporation Stakeholder (law), a third party who temporarily holds money or property while its owner is still being determined PDCA ("Plan-Do-Check-Act") is an iterative four-step problem-solving process typically used in quality control. It is also known as the Deming Cycle, Shewhart cycle, Deming Wheel, or Plan-Do-Study-Act PLAN Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the specifications. DO Implement the processes. CHECK Monitor and evaluate the processes and results against objectives and Specifications and report the outcome. ACT Apply actions to the outcome for necessary improvement. This means reviewing all steps (Plan, Do, Check, Act) and modifying the process to improve it before its next implementation. SELF-CHECK Note: Please ask to your instructor for the set of questionnaire. Answer Key Qualification : NC Level II Unit of Competency : DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE Module Title : DEVELOPING AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE Learning Outcomes # 3 : Update continuously relevant industry knowledge Assessment Criteria : Training and career opportunities are identified and availed of based on job requirements Recognitions are sought/ received and demonstrated as proof of career advancement Obtain and renew licenses and/or certifications relevant to job and career Resource : Internet Learning Materials : Materials/Supplies : Certificates and licenses Pen and paper LEARNING EXPERIENCES / ACTIVITIES Learning Outcome # 3 Update continuously relevant industry knowledge Are you ready to perform this activity? If ready, take your time and be sure to observe the standard procedures in all your activities. 4. Read: Information sheet 1 5. Answer: self – Check to assess your knowledge 6. Refers to Model Answer # 1 for the correct answer of self – check. INFORMATION SHEET 1-LO# 3 History/Status of Tourism in Camiguin Island History/Status of Camiguin Island SELF-CHECK Learning Outcome 3 (Update continuously relevant industry knowledge) Requirement: Select two resorts existing in our province and update your knowledge by knowing the ff: Short history of resorts you’ve been selected. Services offered for their client or guests Accommodations Compensation offered by the establishment towards their employees. Amenities available/in one department (based on your field of specialization) Attach some pictures of amenities of the resort you’ve selected Note: - All information must be computerized and submit it to your instructor in a form of soft copy. - You can use some sources of information as your reference/tools/materials of information. RECORDS OF ACHIEVEMENT Module Title: DEVELOPING AND UPDATING INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE LO 1 : Identify and access key sources of information on the industry Assessment Criteria: 1.5 Sources of information on the industry are correctly identified and accessed. 1.6 Information to assist effective work performance is obtained in line with job requirements 1.7 Specific information on sector of work is accessed and updated 1.8 Industry information is correctly applied to day-to-day work activities 2.3 Informal and/or formal research is used to update general knowledge of industry 2.4 Updated knowledge is shared with customers and colleagues as appropriate and incorporated into day-to-day working activities COMMENTS: Learner has satisfied the above performance criteria. Learner’s has Signature: Trainer’s Signature: Date: LEARNER’S DIARY DIARY NOTES Records important dates, jobs undertaken and other workplace events that will assist you in providing further details.