Introduction-to-Google

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					                                                     10/22/2009




TEAM
SYNERGY
          INTRODUCTION TO GOOGLE




             A Brief Overview | Bajwa, Savage, Xue
                                                                                                  Introduction to Google
                                                                                                                      A Brief Overview
                                                                                                                   Bajwa, Savage, Xue


Contents

Attribution ................................................................................................................................ 4
   Our Contribution ................................................................................................................... 4
   Wikipedia .............................................................................................................................. 4
   Creative ................................................................................................................................. 5
History ....................................................................................................................................... 6
   Main article: History of Google ............................................................................................. 6
       Google in 1998 .................................................................................................................. 6
   Name ..................................................................................................................................... 8
   Financing and initial public offering ...................................................................................... 8
   Growth .................................................................................................................................. 9
   Acquisitions ........................................................................................................................... 9
   Partnerships ........................................................................................................................ 11
Products and services ............................................................................................................. 12
   Advertising .......................................................................................................................... 13
   Software .............................................................................................................................. 13
   Gmail ................................................................................................................................... 15
   Enterprise Products ............................................................................................................ 16
Platform .................................................................................................................................. 16
Corporate affairs and culture.................................................................................................. 16
   Googleplex .......................................................................................................................... 18
       Sign at the Googleplex .................................................................................................... 18
   Innovation Time Off ............................................................................................................ 19
   Easter eggs and April Fool's Day jokes ................................................................................ 19
   IPO and culture ................................................................................................................... 20
   Philanthropy........................................................................................................................ 21
   Network Neutrality ............................................................................................................. 21
* Criticism of Google ............................................................................................................... 22
   Copyright issues .................................................................................................................. 22
   Privacy ................................................................................................................................. 23


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       North America................................................................................................................. 23
       European Union .............................................................................................................. 25
       Norway ............................................................................................................................ 25
       Free Software .................................................................................................................. 25
       Censorship....................................................................................................................... 25
       AdSense/AdWords .......................................................................................................... 25
       Search within search ....................................................................................................... 26
       Digital rights management.............................................................................................. 27
       Energy consumption ....................................................................................................... 27
       Doodles ........................................................................................................................... 27
       Pornography.................................................................................................................... 27
       References ...................................................................................................................... 27
Resources ................................................................................................................................ 28
References .............................................................................................................................. 30
   Section 1.............................................................................................................................. 30
   Section 2.............................................................................................................................. 39




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Attribution
All the content in this report, except for the Top Web Links section is from Wikipedia,
licensed under the Creative Commons Share-Alike 3.0 Unported License (see below for an
overview of both Wikipedia and the Creative Commons). The following picture shows the
full license below (it is also set up as a hyperlink to the original web source for this
license).(Wikipedia, 2009)




Figure 1 Wikipedia Creative Commons License

Our Contribution
We have attempted to add extra value to the content by structuring it in an easy to read,
business report format and to add an informative “Top Web Links” section. We have also
added an index to help you find what you are looking for. We hope you find it useful and
worth the $1 purchase price. We have prepared this report as part of a MS Word 2007
assignment for BSYS 1000 – Computer Applications I that we are taking at the British
Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT). All proceeds will go to student clubs within the
School of Business at BCIT.

Wikipedia

Wikipedia is a multilingual, Web-based, free-content encyclopedia project based
mostly on anonymous contributions. The name “Wikipedia” is a portmanteau of the
words wiki (a type of collaborative Web site) and encyclopedia. Wikipedia’s articles
provide links to guide the user to related pages with additional information.

Wikipedia is written collaboratively by an international (and mostly anonymous)
group of volunteers. Anyone with internet access can write and make changes to
Wikipedia articles. There are no requirements to provide one’s real name when
contributing; rather, each writer’s privacy is protected unless they choose to reveal
their identity themselves. Since its creation in 2001, Wikipedia has grown rapidly into



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one of the largest reference web sites, attracting around 65 million visitors monthly as
of 2009. There are more than 75,000 active contributors working on more than
14,000,000 articles in more than 260 languages. As of today, there are 3,062,069
articles in English. Every day, hundreds of thousands of visitors from around the
world collectively make tens of thousands of edits and create thousands of new
articles to augment the knowledge held by the Wikipedia encyclopedia. (See also:
Wikipedia: Statistics.)

Creative Commons
Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range
of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The
organization has released several copyright-licenses known as Creative Commons
licenses. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and
which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators.




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Google Inc. is an American public corporation, earning revenue from advertising related to
its Internet search, e-mail, online mapping, office productivity, social networking, and video
sharing services as well as selling advertising-free versions of the same technologies. Google
has also developed an open source web browser and a mobile operating system. The Google
headquarters, the Googleplex, is located in Mountain View, California. As of March 31, 2009
(2009 -03-31) [update], the company has 19,786 full-time employees. The company is
running thousands of servers worldwide, which process millions of search requests each day
and about 1 petabyte of user-generated data every hour. [5]



Google was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were students at Stanford
University and the company was first incorporated as a privately held company on
September 4, 1998. The initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, raising $1.67
billion, implying a value for the entire corporation of $23 billion. Google has continued its
growth through a series of new product developments, acquisitions, and partnerships.
Environmentalism, philanthropy and positive employee relations have been important
tenets during the growth of Google. The company has been identified multiple times as
Fortune Magazine's #1 Best Place to Work, [6] and as the most powerful brand in the world.
[7] Alexa ranks Google as the most visited website on the Internet. [8]



Google's mission is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible
and useful".[9] The unofficial company slogan, coined by former employee and Gmail's first
engineer[10] Paul Buchheit, is "Don't be evil".[11][12][13] Criticism of Google includes
concerns regarding the privacy of personal information, copyright, and censorship.




History

Main article: History of Google
Google in 1998
The first iteration of Google production servers was built with inexpensive hardware and
was designed to be very fault-tolerant




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Google began in January 1996, as a research project by Larry Page, who was soon joined by
Sergey Brin, when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California.[14]
They hypothesized that a search engine that analyzed the relationships between websites
would produce better ranking of results than existing techniques, which ranked results
according to the number of times the search term appeared on a page.[15] Their search
engine was originally nicknamed "BackRub" because the system checked backlinks to
estimate the importance of a site.[16][17] A small search engine called Rankdex was already
exploring a similar strategy.[18]



Convinced that the pages with the most links to them from other highly relevant web pages
must be the most relevant pages associated with the search, Page and Brin tested their
thesis as part of their studies, and laid the foundation for their search engine. Originally, the
search engine used the Stanford University website with the domain google.stanford.edu.
The domain google.com was registered on 15 September 1997,[19] and the company was
incorporated as Google Inc. on 4 September 1998 at a friend's garage in Menlo Park,
California. The total initial investment raised for the new company amounted to almost $1.1
million, including a $100,000 check by Andy Bechtolsheim, one of the founders of Sun
Microsystems.[20]



Both Brin and Page had been against using advertising pop-ups in a search engine, or an
"advertising funded search engines" model, and they wrote a research paper in 1998 on the
topic while still students. However, they soon changed their minds and early on allowed
simple text ads.[21]



In March 1999, the company moved into offices in Palo Alto, home to several other noted
Silicon Valley technology startups.[22] After quickly outgrowing two other sites, the
company leased a complex of buildings in Mountain View, California at 1600 Amphitheatre
Parkway from Silicon Graphics (SGI) in 2003.[23] The company has remained at this location
ever since, and the complex has since come to be known as the Googleplex (a play on the
word googolplex). In 2006, Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million.[24]



The Google search engine attracted a loyal following among a growing number of Internet
users, who liked its simple design and useful results.[25] In 2000, Google began selling


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advertisements associated with search keywords.[14] The ads were text-based to maintain
an uncluttered page design and to maximize page loading speed.[14] Keywords were sold
based on a combination of price bid and clickthroughs, with bidding starting at 5 cents per
click.[14] This model of selling keyword advertising was pioneered by Goto.com (later
renamed Overture Services, before being acquired by Yahoo! and rebranded as Yahoo!
Search Marketing).[26][27][28] Goto.com was an Idealab spin off created by Bill Gross, and
was the first company to successfully provide a pay-for-placement search service. Overture
Services later sued Google over alleged infringements of Overture's pay-per-click and
bidding patents by Google's AdWords service. The case was settled out of court, with
Google agreeing to issue shares of common stock to Yahoo! in exchange for a perpetual
license.[29] Thus, while many of its dot-com rivals failed in the new Internet marketplace,
Google quietly rose in stature while generating revenue.[14]



A patent describing part of the Google ranking mechanism (PageRank) was granted on 4
September 2001.[30] The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists
Lawrence Page as the inventor.

Name


The name "Google" originated from a misspelling of the word "googol",[31][32] which refers
to 10100, the number represented by a 1 followed by one hundred zeros. Having found its
way increasingly into everyday language, the verb "google" was added to the Merriam
Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary in 2006, meaning "to use
the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet."[33][34]

Financing and initial public offering


The first funding for Google as a company was secured in August 1998, in the form of a
$100,000 contribution from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given to a
corporation which did not yet exist.[35]



On June 7, 1999 a round of funding of $25 million was announced,[36] with the major
investors being rival venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia
Capital.[35]




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The Google IPO took place on 19 August 2004. 19,605,052 shares were offered at a price of
$85 per share.[37][38] Of that, 14,142,135 (another mathematical reference as √2 ≈
1.4142135) were floated by Google, and the remaining 5,462,917 were offered by existing
stockholders. The sale of $1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23
billion.[39] The vast majority of the 271 million shares remained under the control of
Google. Many Google employees became instant paper millionaires. Yahoo!, a competitor of
Google, also benefited from the IPO because it owned 8.4 million shares of Google as of 9
August 2004, ten days before the IPO.[40]



The stock performance of Google after its first IPO launch has gone well, with shares hitting
$700 for the first time on 31 October 2007,[41] due to strong sales and earnings in the
advertising market, as well as the release of new features such as the desktop search
function and its iGoogle personalized home page.[42] The surge in stock price is fueled
primarily by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional investors and mutual
funds.[42]



The company is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol GOOG and
under the London Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GGEA.

Growth


While the primary business interest is in the web content arena, Google has begun
experimenting with other markets, such as radio and print publications. On 17 January 2006,
Google announced the purchase of a radio advertising company "dMarc", which provides an
automated system that allows companies to advertise on the radio.[43] This will allow
Google to combine two niche advertising media—the Internet and radio—with Google's
ability to laser-focus on the tastes of consumers. Google has also begun an experiment in
selling advertisements from its advertisers in offline newspapers and magazines, with select
advertisements in the Chicago Sun-Times.[44] They have been filling unsold space in the
newspaper that would have normally been used for in-house advertisements.

Acquisitions
See also: List of acquisitions by Google




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Since 2001, Google has acquired several companies, mainly focusing on small start-ups.




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In 2004, Google acquired a company called Keyhole, Inc.,[45] which developed a product
called Earth Viewer, renamed in 2005 to Google Earth.



In February 2006, software company Adaptive Path sold Measure Map, a weblog statistics
application, to Google. Registration to the service has since been temporarily disabled. The
last update regarding the future of Measure Map was made on 6 April 2006 and outlined
many of the known issues of the service.[46]



In late 2006, Google bought the online video site YouTube for $1.65 billion in stock.[47]
Shortly after, on 31 October 2006, Google announced that it had also acquired JotSpot, a
developer of wiki technology for collaborative Web sites.[48]



On 13 April 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick. Google agreed to
buy the company for $3.1 billion.[49]



On 2 July 2007, Google purchased GrandCentral. Google agreed to buy the company for $50
million.[50]



On 9 July 2007, Google announced that it had signed a definitive agreement to acquire
enterprise messaging security and compliance company Postini.[51]



On August 5 2009, Google announced the purchase of video software maker On2
Technologies for $106.5 million - its first acquisition of a public company. [52]

Partnerships


In 2005, Google entered into partnerships with other companies and government agencies
to improve production and services. Google announced a partnership with NASA Ames
Research Center to build up 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) of offices and work on
research projects involving large-scale data management, nanotechnology, distributed
computing, and the entrepreneurial space industry.[53] Google also entered into a



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partnership with Sun Microsystems in October to help share and distribute each other's
technologies.[54] The company entered into a partnership with AOL of Time Warner,[55] to
enhance each other's video search services.



The same year, the company became a major financial investor of the new .mobi top-level
domain for mobile devices, in conjunction with several other companies, including
Microsoft, Nokia, and Ericsson among others.[56] In September 2007, Google launched,
"Adsense for Mobile", a service for its publishing partners which provides the ability to
monetize their mobile websites through the targeted placement of mobile text ads,[57] and
acquired the mobile social networking site, Zingku.mobi, to "provide people worldwide with
direct access to Google applications, and ultimately the information they want and need,
right from their mobile devices."[58]



In 2006, Google and Fox Interactive Media of News Corp. entered into a $900 million
agreement to provide search and advertising on the popular social networking site,
MySpace.[59]



Google has developed a partnership with GeoEye to launch a satellite providing Google with
high-resolution (0.41 m monochrome, 1.65 m color) imagery for Google Earth. The satellite
was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 6 September 2008.[60]



In 2008, Google announced that it was hosting an archive of Life magazine's photographs, as
part of a joint effort. Some of the images in the archive were never published in the
magazine.[61] The photos are watermarked and originally had copyright notices posted on
all photos, regardless of public domain status.[62][63]


Products and services
Google appliance as shown at RSA Conference 2008



Google has created services and tools for the general public and business environment alike,
including Web applications, advertising networks and solutions for businesses.




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Advertising


99% of Google's revenue is derived from its advertising programs.[64] For the 2006 fiscal
year, the company reported $10.492 billion in total advertising revenues and only $112
million in licensing and other revenues.[65] Google is able to precisely track users' interests
across affiliated sites using DoubleClick technology[66] and Google Analytics.[67] Google's
advertisements carry a lower price tag when their human ad-rating team working around
the world believes the ads improve the company's user experience.[68] Google AdWords
allows Web advertisers to display advertisements in Google's search results and the Google
Content Network, through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme.[69] Google
AdSense website owners can also display adverts on their own site, and earn money every
time ads are clicked.[70] Google began in March 2009 to use behavioral targeting based on
users' interests.[71]



Google has also been criticized by advertisers regarding its inability to combat click fraud,
when a person or automated script is used to generate a charge on an advertisement
without really having an interest in the product. Industry reports in 2006 claim that
approximately 14 to 20 percent of clicks were in fact fraudulent or invalid.[72]



In June 2008, Google reached an advertising agreement with Yahoo!, which would have
allowed Yahoo! to feature Google advertisements on their web pages. The alliance between
the two companies was never completely realized due to antitrust concerns by the U.S.
Department of Justice. As a result, Google pulled out of the deal in November, 2008.[73][74]

Software


The Google web search engine is the company's most popular service. As of August 2007,
Google is the most used search engine on the web with a 53.6% market share, ahead of
Yahoo! (19.9%) and Live Search (12.9%).[75] Google indexes billions of Web pages, so that
users can search for the information they desire, through the use of keywords and
operators, although at any given time it will only return a maximum of 1,000 results for any
specific search query. Google has also employed the Web Search technology into other
search services, including Image Search, Google News, the price comparison site Google
Product Search, the interactive Usenet archive Google Groups, Google Maps, and more.




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In early 2006, the company launched Google Video, which allowed users to both upload
videos, and search and watch videos from the larger Internet.[76] In 2009 uploads to Google
video were discontinued.[77]



Google has also developed several desktop applications, including Google Desktop, Picasa,
SketchUp and Google Earth, an interactive mapping program powered by satellite and aerial
imagery that covers the vast majority of the planet. Many major cities have such detailed
images that one can zoom in close enough to see vehicles and pedestrians clearly.
Consequently, there have been some concerns about national security implications;
contention is that the software can be used to pinpoint with near-precision accuracy the
physical location of critical infrastructure, commercial and residential buildings, bases,
government agencies, and so on. However, the satellite images are not necessarily
frequently updated, and all of them are available at no charge through other products and
even government sources; the software simply makes accessing the information easier. A
number of Indian state governments have raised concerns about the security risks posed by
geographic details provided by Google Earth's satellite imaging.[78]



Google has promoted their products in various ways. In London, Google Space was set-up in
Heathrow Airport, showcasing several products, including Gmail, Google Earth and
Picasa.[79][80] Also, a similar page was launched for American college students, under the
name College Life, Powered by Google.[81]



In 2007, some reports surfaced that Google was planning the release of its own mobile
phone, possibly a competitor to Apple's iPhone.[82][83][84] The project, called Android,
turned out not to be a phone, but an operating system. It provides a standard development
kit that will allow any "Android" phone to run software developed for the Android SDK, no
matter the phone manufacturer. In September 2008, T-Mobile released the first phone
running the Android platform, the G1.



Google Translate aka Google Language Tools is a server-side machine translation service,
which can translate 35 different languages to each other, forming 595 language pairs.
Browser extension tools (such as Firefox extensions) allow for easy access to Google
Translate from the browser. The software uses corpus linguistics techniques from translated
documents, (such as United Nations documents,[citation needed] which are professionally



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translated) to extract translations accurate up to 88 percent. A "suggest a better translation"
feature appears with the original language text in a pop-up text field, allowing users to
indicate where the current translation is incorrect or else inferior to another translation.



On 1 September 2008, Google pre-announced the upcoming availability of Google Chrome,
an open-source web browser,[85] which was released on 2 September 2008.



On 7 July 2009, Google announced the project to develop Google Chrome OS, an open-
source Linux-based operating system in a "window of opportunity"[86][87].

Gmail


Gmail is a free webmail, POP3 and IMAP service provided by Google. In the United Kingdom
and Germany, it is officially called Google Mail.



Gmail was launched as an invitation-only beta release on April 1, 2004 and it became
available to the general public on February 7, 2007. As of July 2009 it has 146 million users
monthly. The service was upgraded from beta status on July 7, 2009, along with the rest of
the Google Apps suite.



With an initial storage capacity offer of 1 GB per user, Gmail significantly increased the
webmail standard for free storage from the 2 to 4MB its competitors offered at that time.
The service currently offers over 7350 MB of free storage with additional storage ranging
from 10 GB to 400 GB available for $20 to $500 (US) per year.



In February 2006, Google released Gmail Chat, using the same tools used in Google Talk.



Gmail has a search-oriented interface and a "conversation view" similar to an Internet
forum. Software developers know Gmail for its pioneering use of the Ajax programming
technique.




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Gmail runs on Google Servlet Engine and Google GFE/1.3 which run on Linux.

Enterprise Products


Google entered the Enterprise market in February, 2002 with the launch of its Google
Search Appliance, targeted toward providing search technology to larger organizations.[88]
Providing search for a smaller document repository, Google launched the Mini in 2005.



Late in 2006, Google began to sell Custom Search Business Edition, providing customers with
an advertising-free window into Google.com's index.[89] In 2008, Google re-branded its next
version of Custom Search Business Edition as Google Site Search.[89]



In 2007, Google launched Google Apps Premier Edition, a version of Google Apps targeted
primarily at the business user. It includes such extras as more disk space for e-mail, API
access, and premium support, for a price of $50 per user per year. A large implementation
of Google Apps with 38,000 users is at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario,
Canada.[90]



Also in 2007, Google acquired Postini[91] and continued to sell the acquired technology[92]
as Google Security Services.[93]


Platform

Google runs its services on several server farms, each comprising thousands of low-cost
commodity computers running stripped-down versions of Linux. While the company
divulges no details of its hardware, a 2006 estimate cites 450,000 servers, "racked up in
clusters at data centers around the world."[94] The company has about 24 server farms
around the world of various configurations. The farm in The Dalles, Oregon is powered by
hydroelectricity at about 50 megawatts.[95]


Corporate affairs and culture
Left to right, Eric E. Schmidt, Sergey Brin and Larry Page




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Google is known for its informal corporate culture, of which its playful variations on its own
corporate logo are an indicator. In 2007 and 2008, Fortune Magazine placed Google at the
top of its list of the hundred best places to work.[6] Google's corporate philosophy
embodies such casual principles as "you can make money without doing evil," "you can be
serious without a suit," and "work should be challenging and the challenge should be
fun."[96]



Google has been criticized for having salaries below industry standards.[97] For example,
some system administrators earn no more than $35,000 per year – considered to be quite
low for the Bay Area job market.[98] However, Google's stock performance following its IPO
has enabled many early employees to be competitively compensated by participation in the
corporation's remarkable equity growth.[99]



After the company's IPO in August 2004, it was reported that founders Sergey Brin and Larry
Page, and CEO Eric Schmidt, requested that their base salary be cut to $1.[100] Subsequent
offers by the company to increase their salaries have been turned down, primarily because,
"their primary compensation continues to come from returns on their ownership stakes in
Google. As significant stockholders, their personal wealth is tied directly to sustained stock
price appreciation and performance, which provides direct alignment with stockholder
interests."[100] Prior to 2004, Schmidt was making $250,000 per year, and Page and Brin
each earned a salary of $150,000.[dubious – discuss][100]



They have all declined recent offers of bonuses and increases in compensation by Google's
board of directors. In a 2007 report of the United States' richest people, Forbes reported
that Sergey Brin and Larry Page were tied for #5 with a net worth of $18.5 billion each.[101]



In 2007 and through early 2008, Google has seen the departure of several top executives.
Gideon Yu, former chief financial officer of YouTube, a Google unit, joined Facebook[102]
along with Benjamin Ling, a high-ranking engineer, who left in October 2007.[103] In March
2008, two senior Google leaders announced their desire to pursue other opportunities.
Sheryl Sandburg, ex-VP of global online sales and operations began her position as COO of
Facebook[104] while Ash ElDifrawi, former head of brand advertising, left to become CMO
of Netshops Inc.[105]


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Google's persistent cookie and other information collection practices have led to concerns
over user privacy. As of 11 December 2007, Google, like the Microsoft search engine, stores
"personal information for 18 months" and by comparison, AOL (Time Warner) "retain[s]
search requests for 13 months"[106], and Yahoo! 90 days.[107]



U.S. District Court Judge Louis Stanton, on July 1, 2008 ordered Google to give YouTube user
data / log to Viacom to support its case in a billion-dollar copyright lawsuit against
Google.[108][109] Google and Viacom, however, on July 14, 2008, agreed in compromise to
protect YouTube users' personal data in the $1 billion copyright lawsuit. Google agreed it
will make user information and Internet protocol addresses from its YouTube subsidiary
anonymous before handing over the data to Viacom. The privacy deal also applied to other
litigants including the FA Premier League, the Rodgers & Hammerstein Organization and the
Scottish Premier League.[110][111] The deal however did not extend the anonymity to
employees, since Viacom would prove that Google staff are aware of uploading of illegal
material to the site. The parties therefore will further meet on the matter lest the data be
made available to the court.[112]

Googleplex
The Googleplex

Main article: Googleplex



Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California, is referred to as "the Googleplex" in a
play of words; a googolplex being 1010100, or a one followed by a googol of zeros, and the
HQ being a complex of buildings (cf. multiplex, Cineplex, etc). The lobby is decorated with a
piano, lava lamps, old server clusters, and a projection of search queries on the wall. The
hallways are full of exercise balls and bicycles. Each employee has access to the corporate
recreation center. Recreational amenities are scattered throughout the campus and include
a workout room with weights and rowing machines, locker rooms, washers and dryers, a
massage room, assorted video games, foosball, a baby grand piano, a pool table, and ping
pong. In addition to the rec room, there are snack rooms stocked with various foods and
drinks.[113]

Sign at the Googleplex




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In 2006, Google moved into 311,000 square feet (28,900 m2) of office space in New York
City, at 111 Eighth Ave. in Manhattan.[114] The office was specially designed and built for
Google and houses its largest advertising sales team, which has been instrumental in
securing large partnerships, most recently deals with MySpace and AOL.[114] In 2003, they
added an engineering staff in New York City, which has been responsible for more than 100
engineering projects, including Google Maps, Google Spreadsheets, and others.[114] It is
estimated that the building costs Google $10 million per year to rent and is similar in design
and functionality to its Mountain View headquarters, including foosball, air hockey, and
ping-pong tables, as well as a video game area.[114] In November 2006, Google opened
offices on Carnegie Mellon's campus in Pittsburgh.[115] By late 2006, Google also
established a new headquarters for its AdWords division in Ann Arbor, Michigan.[116]



Google is taking steps to ensure that their operations are environmentally sound. In October
2006, the company announced plans to install thousands of solar panels to provide up to 1.6
megawatts of electricity, enough to satisfy approximately 30% of the campus' energy
needs.[117] The system will be the largest solar power system constructed on a U.S.
corporate campus and one of the largest on any corporate site in the world.[117] Google
has faced accusations in Harper's Magazine[118] of being extremely excessive with their
energy usage, and were accused of employing their "Don't be evil" motto as well as their
very public energy saving campaigns as means of trying to cover up or make up for the
massive amounts of energy their servers actually require.



In 2009 Google announced it was deploying herds of goats to keep grassland around the
Googleplex short, helping to prevent the threat from seasonal bush fires while also reducing
the carbon footprint of mowing the extensive grounds.[119][120]

Innovation Time Off


As a motivation technique (usually called Innovation Time Off), all Google engineers are
encouraged to spend 20% of their work time (one day per week) on projects that interest
them. Some of Google's newer services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense
originated from these independent endeavors.[121] In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa
Mayer, Google's Vice President of Search Products and User Experience, stated that her
analysis showed that 50% of the new product launches originated from the 20% time.[122]

Easter eggs and April Fool's Day jokes
Main article: Google's hoaxes


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Google has a tradition of creating April Fool's Day jokes—such as Google MentalPlex, which
allegedly featured the use of mental power to search the web.[123] In 2002, they claimed
that pigeons were the secret behind their growing search engine.[124] In 2004, they
featured Google Lunar (which claimed to feature jobs on the moon),[125] and in 2005, a
fictitious brain-boosting drink, termed Google Gulp was announced.[126] In 2006, they
came up with Google Romance, a hypothetical online dating service.[127] In 2007, Google
announced two joke products. The first was a free wireless Internet service called TiSP
(Toilet Internet Service Provider)[128] in which one obtained a connection by flushing one
end of a fiber-optic cable down their toilet and waiting only an hour for a "Plumbing
Hardware Dispatcher (PHD)" to connect it to the Internet.[128] Additionally, Google's Gmail
page displayed an announcement for Gmail Paper, which allows users of their free email
service to have email messages printed and shipped to a snail mail address.[129]



Google's services contain a number of Easter eggs; for instance, the Language Tools page
offers the search interface in the Swedish Chef's "Bork bork bork," Pig Latin, "Hacker"
(actually leetspeak), Elmer Fudd, and Klingon.[130] In addition, the search engine calculator
provides the Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything from Douglas Adams' The
Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.[131] As Google’s search box can be used as a unit
converter (as well as a calculator), some non-standard units are built in, such as the Smoot.
A newly discovered Easter egg is the spell-checker's result for the properly spelled word
"recursion". The spell-checker built into Google search returns "Did you mean: recursion?"
in a recursive link back to the same page.[132] Google also routinely modifies its logo in
accordance with various holidays or special events throughout the year, such as Christmas,
Mother's Day, or the birthdays of various notable individuals.[133]

IPO and culture


Many people speculated that Google's IPO would inevitably lead to changes in the
company's culture,[134] because of shareholder pressure for employee benefit reductions
and short-term advances, or because a large number of the company's employees would
suddenly become millionaires on paper. In a report given to potential investors, co-founders
Sergey Brin and Larry Page promised that the IPO would not change the company's
culture.[135] Later Mr. Page said, "We think a lot about how to maintain our culture and the
fun elements. We spent a lot of time getting our offices right. We think it's important to
have a high density of people. People are packed together everywhere. We all share offices.




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We like this set of buildings because it's more like a densely packed university campus than
a typical suburban office park."[136]



However, many analysts[who?] are finding that as Google grows, the company is becoming
more "corporate". In 2005, articles in The New York Times and other sources began
suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy.[137][138][139] In an
effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google has designated a Chief Culture
Officer in 2006, who also serves as the Director of Human Resources. The purpose of the
Chief Culture Officer is to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep true
to the core values that the company was founded on in the beginning—a flat organization
with a collaborative environment.[140]



Google has faced allegations of sexism and ageism from former employees.[141][142]

Philanthropy


In 2004, Google formed a not for-profit philanthropic wing, Google.org, with a start-up fund
of $1 billion.[143] The express mission of the organization is to create awareness about
climate change, global public health, and global poverty. One of its first projects is to
develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain 100 mpg. The founder is Dr
Larry Brilliant[144] and the current director is Megan Smith.[145]



In 2008 Google announced its "project 10100" which accepted ideas for how to help the
community and then will allow Google users to vote on their favorites.[146]

Network Neutrality


Google is a noted supporter of network neutrality. According to Google's Guide to Net
Neutrality:



  "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be in control of what
content they view and what applications they use on the Internet. The Internet has
operated according to this neutrality principle since its earliest days... Fundamentally, net



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neutrality is about equal access to the Internet. In our view, the broadband carriers should
not be permitted to use their market power to discriminate against competing applications
or content. Just as telephone companies are not permitted to tell consumers who they can
call or what they can say, broadband carriers should not be allowed to use their market
power to control activity online." [147]



On February 7, 2006, Vinton Cerf, a co-inventor of the Internet Protocol (IP), and current
Vice President and "Chief Internet Evangelist" at Google, in testimony before Congress, said,
"allowing broadband carriers to control what people see and do online would fundamentally
undermine the principles that have made the Internet such a success."[148]




  * Criticism of Google
Google, as a corporation that compiles information and makes it searchable via the Internet,
has received criticism regarding issues such as intellectual property, internet privacy, and
censorship. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it
universally accessible and useful," [1] but the means used to accomplish this mission have
been questioned by others. Much of the criticism of Google pertains to issues yet to be
addressed by cyber law. In addition, the energy usage required for Google's servers has also
been criticized.

Copyright issues


Kazaa and the Church of Scientology have used the Digital Millennium Copyright Act to
demand that Google remove references to allegedly copyrighted material on their
sites.[2][3] While Google potentially faces lawsuits when not removing such links,[4] critics
argue that Google has an obligation to direct users to intended content and not censor
results based on copyright.



The New York Times has complained that the caching of their content during a web crawl, a
feature utilized by search engines including Google Web Search, violates copyright.[5]
Google observes Internet standard mechanisms for requesting that caching be disabled via
the robots.txt file, which is another mechanism that allows operators of a website to
request that part or all of their site not be included in search engine results, or via META


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tags, which allow a content editor to specify whether a document can be crawled or
archived, or whether the links on the document can be followed. The U.S. District Court of
Nevada ruled that Google's caches do not constitute copyright infringement under American
law in Field v. Google and Parker v. Google.[6][7]



On September 20, 2005, the Authors Guild, a group that represents 8,000 U.S. authors, filed
a class action suit in federal court in Manhattan against Google over its unauthorized
scanning and copying of books through its Google Library program. Google states that it is in
compliance with all existing and historical applications of copyright laws regarding books.[8]
The publicized contract between Google and the University of Michigan makes it clear that
Google will provide only excerpts of copyright text in a search. The contract says[citation
needed] that it will comply with "fair use", an exemption in copyright law that allows people
to reproduce portions of text of copyrighted material for research purposes.



On July 14, 2008, Viacom compromised to protect YouTube users' personal data in their $1
billion copyright lawsuit. Google agreed it will anonymize user information and internet
protocol addresses from its YouTube subsidiary before handing the data over to Viacom.
The privacy deal also applied to other litigants including the FA Premier League, the Rodgers
& Hammerstein organization and the Scottish Premier League.[9][10] The deal however did
not extend the anonymity to employees, since Viacom would prove that Google staff are
aware of the uploading of illegal material to the site. The parties therefore will further meet
on the matter lest the data be made available to the court.[11]

Privacy
North America


Google originally placed a cookie on each registered user's computer, which can be used to
track that person's search history, and that cookie was not set to expire until 2038.[12] As of
2007, Google's cookie now expires in two years but renews itself when a Google service is
used.[12] There is no evidence that Google turns over information to the FBI or the NSA,
though some users remain anxious about the possibility.[12] In response, Google claims
cookies are necessary to maintain user preferences between sessions and offer other search
features. Other popular search engines, such as Yahoo! Search and Microsoft's Bing, use
cookies with distant expiration dates as well.




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Privacy International has raised concerns regarding the dangers and privacy implications of
having a centrally-located, widely popular data warehouse of millions of Internet users'
searches, and how under controversial existing U.S. law, Google can be forced to hand over
all such information to the U.S. government[13]. In early 2005, the United States
Department of Justice filed a motion in federal court to force Google to comply with a
subpoena for, "the text of each search string entered onto Google's search engine over a
one-week period (absent any information identifying the person who entered such
query)."[14] Google fought the subpoena, due to concerns about users' privacy.[15] In
March 2006, the court ruled partially in Google's favor, recognizing the privacy implications
of turning over search terms and refusing to grant access.[16]



Steve Ballmer (Microsoft's CEO)[17], Liz Figueroa[18], Mark Rasch[19], and the editors of
Google Watch[20] believe the processing of email message content by Google's Gmail
service goes beyond proper use. Google claims that mail sent to or from Gmail is never read
by a human being beyond the account holder, and is only used to improve relevance of
advertisements.[21] Whether Google is the only one doing this or simply the only one who
publicly admits it is unknown, since the privacy policies of other popular email services, like
Hotmail and Yahoo, allows for collection and utilizing of personal information for ads when
using their services, but do not specify precisely what information and which
services[22][23].



Google's online map service, "Street View" has been accused of taking pictures and coming
too close inside people's private homes and/or people who walk down the street not
knowing they are being watched on Google's service.[24][25] Aaron and Christine Boring, a
Pittsburgh couple, sued Google for "invasion of privacy". They claimed that Street View
made a photo of their home available online, and it diminished the value of their house,
which was purchased for its privacy.[26] They lost their case in a Pennsylvania court. "While
it is easy to imagine that many whose property appears on Google's virtual maps resent the
privacy implications, it is hard to believe that any – other than the most exquisitely sensitive
– would suffer shame or humiliation," Judge Hay ruled.[27]



In its 2007 Consultation Report, Privacy International ranked Google as "Hostile to Privacy",
its lowest rating on their report, making Google the only company in the list to receive that
ranking.[28][29]




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Carl Hewitt noted that intimate personal information is a "toxic asset" in Google datacenters
because it will lead to government regulation "analogous to nuclear power plants,"
Consequently, he recommended that Google should perform semantic integration in clients'
clouds so that client information in Google datacenters could be decrypted only by using a
client's private key.[30]

European Union


European Union (EU) data protection officials (the Article 29 working party who advise the
EU on privacy policy) have written to Google asking the company to justify its policy of
keeping information on individuals’ internet searches for up to two years. The letter
questioned whether Google has “fulfilled all the necessary requirements” on the EU laws
concerning data protection.[31] The probe by the EU into the data protection issue, As of 24
May 2007 (2007 -05-24)[update] is continuing. On 1 June Google agreed that its privacy
policy is vague, and that they are constantly working at making it clearer to users.[32] The
resulting modifications to its privacy policies have been met with praise[33].

Norway


The Data Inspectorate of Norway (Norway is not a member of the EU) has investigated
Google (and others) and has stated that the 18- to 24-month period for retaining data
proposed by Google was too long.[34]

Free Software


Google makes money on free software, but does not open the source of modified products
it uses to power its servers, since even the most popular GNU GPL license does not require
to open the source of remotely accessed software. Google Code does not allow the GNU
Affero GPL license, which closes this loophole[35], for hosted projects.

Censorship


Google has been criticized for various instances of censoring its search results, most notably
in cooperation with the government of China. Google has acted to remove certain types of
hate websites such as jewwatch.com and the neo-Fascist newspaper[36]. However many
white power sites such as the American Nazi Party still appear in Google searches.

AdSense/AdWords




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In August 2008, Google closed the AdSense account of a site that carried a negative view of
Scientology and this was the second closing of such a site within 3 months.[37] It is not
certain if the account revocations actually were on the grounds of anti-religious content,
however the cases have raised questions about Google's terms in regards to
AdSense/AdWords. The Adsense policy defines that "Sites displaying Google ads may not
include" ... "advocacy against any individual, group, or organization",[38] which allows
Google to revoke the above mentioned AdSense accounts. Also, Google's AdWords policy
defines that "Advertising is not permitted for the promotion of religious content."[39].



Google reserves the right to close AdSense accounts for unproven reasons, such as alleged
click fraud, without giving the publishers any tangible alleged facts to disprove.[citation
needed] In such instances Google withholds all payment from the publisher.[citation
needed] In addition, people claiming to be Google employees have approached AdSense
users with closed accounts and offered to re-open them for a fee.

Search within search


For some search results, Google provides a secondary search box within search page that
enables the user to find what they are looking for within a particular website. This idea
originated from the way users were searching. According to software engineer Ben Lee and
Product Manager Jack Menzel, “teleporting” on the web is what helps Google users to
complete their search. Google took this concept a step further and instead of just
“teleporting”, which means users need only to type part of the name of a website into
Google (no need to remember the entire URL) in order to find the correct site, users could
type in keywords to search within the website of their choice.[40] It appeared that users
were often not finding exactly what they needed while trying to explore within a company
site.



Although this is an innovative search tool for users, it sparked some controversy among
some online publishers and retailers. Google result pages display pay per click ads from rival
companies, who do not want google to spread its shades throughout the world which sell
ads against brands.[41] “While the service could help increase traffic, some users could be
siphoned away as Google uses the prominence of the brands to sell ads, typically to
competing companies.”[42] In order to combat this controversy, Google has offered to turn
off this feature for companies who request to have it removed.[42]




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Digital rights management


Announced on January 6, 2006 at the CES in Las Vegas, Nevada, the Google Video store
began selling copyrighted content at the Google Video website. Initially, this service was
restricted to the United States and certain other countries. To protect copyright of some
video programming, Google created a Google DRM (Digital Rights Management) lock for
certain paid content.[43]



On 2007-08-15 Google discontinued its DTO/DTR (download-to-own/rent) program. Videos
which had been previously purchased under that program, as a result of the embedded
DRM licenses being revoked, are no longer viewable despite being purchased for ownership.
Google chose to refund all its customers by issuing "gift certificates" (or "bonuses") to their
"Google Checkout Account" accounting for the full amount spent on videos.[44][45]

Energy consumption


Google has been criticized for the high amount of energy necessary to maintain its
servers.[46] Google has pledged to spend millions of dollars on investigating cheap, clean,
renewable energy, and has installed solar panels on the roofs at its Mountain View
facilities.[47][48]

Doodles


Google was criticized in 2007 for not featuring versions of the Google logo (known as
"Doodles") for American patriotic holidays such as Memorial Day and Veterans Day.[49]
That year, Google featured a logo commemorating Veterans Day.[50]



Pornography


Google is criticized for providing links to pornographic content in countries where such
content is illegal.[51]

References
For the references related to the Criticisms of Google please refer to References Section 2.




                                                                                 Page 27 of 42
Resources
Here is a list of what we feel are at the top of the websites to help better understand the history of Google.

     Top Web Sources                                Source                                                   URL
Official weblog, with news      Google Blog                                     http://googleblog.blogspot.com/
of new products, events
and glimpses of life inside
Google.
Find local businesses, view     Google Maps                                     http://www.google.org/
maps and get driving
directions in Google Maps
Search and watch millions       Google Videos                                   http://www.google.org/
of videos. Includes forum
and personalized
recommendations.
The philanthropic arm of        Google Activities                               http://www.google.org/
the company. Lists its
activities.
Aggregated headlines and a      Google News                                     http://news.google.ca/
search engine of many of
the world's news sources.
See what the world is           Google Labs                                     http://www.googlelabs.com/
searching for. Google
Trends allows you to enter
up to five topics and see
how often they've been
searched on Google
Google Images. The most         Google Images                                   http://images.google.com/
comprehensive image
                                                                          Introduction to Google
                                                                                   A Brief Overview
                                                                                 Bajwa, Savage, Xue


search on the web.
Searchable archive of more    Google Groups   http://groups.google.com/
than 700 million Usenet
postings from a period of
more than 20 years.
Offers maps and satellite     Google Earth    http://earth.google.com/
images for complex or
pinpointed regional
searches.
Google's official developer   Google Code     http://code.google.com/
site. Featuring APIs,
developer tools and
technical resources.




                                                                                      Page 29 of 42
References

Section 1
 1. Incorporation document. April 29, 2004.
http://kepler.sos.ca.gov/corpdata/ShowAllList?QueryCorpNumber=C2119530. Retrieved
2008-09-27.

 2. http://www.google.com/intl/en/about.html

 3. a b c d e "Financial Tables". Google Investor Relations.
http://investor.google.com/fin_data.html. Retrieved 2009-01-23.

 4. "Google Announces Third Quarter 2009 Financial Results". October 15, 2009.
http://investor.google.com/releases/2009Q3_google_earnings.html. Retrieved 2009-10-15.

 5. "Why Is Obama's Top Antitrust Cop Gunning for Google?". Wired Magazine. 20. July,
2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009.

 6. a b "100 Best Companies to Work For 2007". Fortune Magazine (link published by CNN).
22 January 2007. Retrieved on January 8, 2007.

 7. BrandZ Top 100 2008 Report (PDF)

 8. "Alexa Traffic Rank for Google (three month average)". Alexa Internet.
http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/google.com. Retrieved 2009-09-06.

 9. Google Corporate Information

 10. History of Gmail at Wikipedia

 11. Paul Buchheit on Gmail, AdSense and More Google Blogoscoped

 12. Don't Be Evil, a Trigger for Ethical Questions Google Operating System Blog

 13. Small Talk with Mr. Paul Buchheit - Creator of Gmail, Adsense & FriendFeed!
CrazyEngineers

 14. a b c d e "Corporate Information: Google Milestones". Google. Retrieved on 23
February 2007.

 15. Page, Lawrence; Brin, Sergey; Motwani, Rajeev; Winograd, Terry. "The PageRank
Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web". 11 November 1999.

 16. Battelle, John. "The Birth of Google". Wired Magazine. August, 2005.
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                                                                            A Brief Overview
                                                                          Bajwa, Savage, Xue


 17. "BackRub" becomes "Google"

 18. Li, Yanhong. "Toward a qualitative search engine." Internet Computing, IEEE. 2 (4), July-
August, 1998, 24–29.

 19. "WHOIS - google.com". http://whois.dnsstuff.com/tools/whois.ch?ip=google.com.
Retrieved 2008-08-18.

 20. Google. "Google Milestones." Retrieved on 12 July 2006.

 21. Stross, Randall, Planet Google: One Company's Audacious Plan to Organize Everything
We Know, New York : Free Press, September 2008. ISBN 978-1-4165-4691-7 Cf. pp.3-4.

 22. Fried, Ian. "A building blessed with tech success." CNET. 4 October 2002. Retrieved on
25 February 2007.

 23. Olsen, Stefanie. "Google's movin' on up." CNET. 11 July 2003. Retrieved on 25 February
2007.

 24. Staff Writer. "Google to buy headquarters building from Silicon Graphics." Silicon
Valley / San Jose Business Journal. 16 June 2006. Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 25. Thompson, Bill. "Is Google good for you?" BBC News. 19 December 2003. Retrieved on
25 February 2007.

 26. Sullivan, Danny. "GoTo Going Strong." The Search Engine Report. 1 July 1998.

 27. Pelline, Jeff. "Pay-for-placement gets another shot." CNET. 19 February 1998.

 28. Glaser, Ken. "Who Will GoTo.com?" OnlinePress.com. 20 February 1998.

 29. Google, Yahoo bury the legal hatchet, Stefanie Olsen, CNET News.com, August 9, 2004

 30. Page, Lawrence. "Method for node ranking in a linked database." European Patent
Organisation. 4 September 2001. Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 31. Koller, David. "Origin of the name, "Google." Stanford University. January, 2004.

 32. Hanley, Rachael. "From Googol to Google: Co-founder returns." The Stanford Daily. 12
February 2003. Retrieved on 14 July 2006.

 33. Harris, Scott D. ""Dictionary adds verb: to google". Archived from the original on 2006-
07-15.
http://web.archive.org/web/20060715065927/http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercur




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ynews/business/14985574.htm. ." San Jose Mercury News. 7 July 2006. Retrieved on 7 July
2006.

 34. Bylund, Anders. "To Google or Not to Google (archived)." The Motley Fool via MSNBC.
5 July 2006. Retrieved on 7 July 2006.

 35. a b Kopytoff, Verne; Fost, Dan. "For early Googlers, key word is $$." San Francisco
Chronicle. 29 April 2004. Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 36. Google (June 7, 1999). "Google Receives $25 Million in Equity Funding". Press release.
http://web.archive.org/web/20000309205910/http://google.com/pressrel/pressrelease1.ht
ml. Retrieved 2009-02-16.

 37. Elgin, Ben. "Google: Whiz Kids or Naughty Boys?" Business Week. 19 August 2004.
Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 38. untitled

 39. Webb, Cynthia L. "Google's IPO: Grate Expectations." Washington Post. 19 August
2004. Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 40. Kuchinskas, Susan. "Yahoo and Google Settle." internetnews.com. 9 August 2004.
Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 41. Daily Telegraph Issue 47,409 Business Section Page B5 date, 7 November 2007

 42. a b La Monica, Paul R. "Bowling for Google." CNN. 25 May 2005. Retrieved on 28
February 2007.

 43. Levingston, Steven. "Google Buys Company To Expand Into Radio." Washington Post.
18 January 2006.

 44. Gonsalves, Antone. "Google Confirms Testing Ads in Sun-Times Newspaper."
Information Week. " 10 January 2006.

 45. "Google press announcement: Google acquires Keyhole, Inc.

 46. "Measure Map Forum - Known issues." Google Groups. 6 April 2006. Retrieved on 10
September 2007.

 47. La Monica, Paul R. "Google to buy YouTube for $1.65 billion." CNN. 9 October 2006.
Retrieved on 9 October 2006.

 48. Google Buys Wiki Startup JotSpot. 31 October 2006.




                                                                                Page 32 of 42
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                                                                         Bajwa, Savage, Xue


 49. Louise Stort and Miguel Helft. "Google Buys DoubleClick for $3.1 Billion." The New York
Times. 13 April 2007. Retrieved on 13 April 2007.

 50. Wesley Chan. "[1]." Official Google Blog. Retrieved on 6 January 2009.

 51. "Google to acquire Postini". Google (Press release). 9 July 2007.
http://www.google.com/intl/en/press/pressrel/postini_20070709.html. Retrieved 2007-07-
18.

 52. "Google to Acquire On2 Technologies". Google Press release. 2009-08-05.
http://www.google.com/intl/en/press/pressrel/ir_20090805.html. Retrieved 2009-08-05.

 53. Mills, Elinor. "Can Google beat the new-office curse?" CNET. 28 September 2005.
Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 54. Kessler, Michelle; Acohido, Byron. "Google, Sun make 'big deal' together." USA Today.
3 October 2005. Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 55. Mills, Elinor. "What the Google-AOL deal means for users." CNET. 28 December 2005.
Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

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 57. "Google AdSense for Mobile unlocks the potential of the mobile advertising market."
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Multi-Year Pact Calls for Google to Provide Search and Advertising across Fox Interactive
Media's Growing Online Network Including the MySpace Community." Business Wire. 7
August 2006. Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 60. Reuters - GeoEye launches high-resolution satellite

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D94I7JBO0. Retrieved 2008-11-19. "Google Inc. has opened an online photo gallery that will
include millions of images from Life magazine's archives that have never been seen by the
public before."

 62. http://searchengineland.com/google-to-host-10-million-time-life-unpublished-images-
15513



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 63. http://tech.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=08/11/18/2230217

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Without Explicit Consent". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company).
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s.google.com%2Fselect%2Fgaiaauth%3Fapt%3DNone%26ugl%3Dtrue

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en-ha&utm_medium=ha&utm_term=adsense&gsessionid=O---pJlnnf2wFZF8qu81Lg.
Retrieved 2009-10-11.

 71. Helft, Miguel (March 11, 2009). "Google to Offer Ads Based on Interests". The New
York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/11/technology/internet/11google.html.
Retrieved 2009-03-10.

 72. Mills, Elinor. "Google to offer advertisers click fraud stats." c net. 25 July 2006.
Retrieved on 29 July 2006.

 73. Bloggingstocks "Yahoo and Google may dump their deal." Mclntyre, Douglas. Oct. 31,
2008.

 74. The Official Google Blog. "Ending our agreement with Yahoo!" Drummond, David. Nov.
5, 2008.

 75. "August 2007 Search Share for Top 10 Search Engines from Nielsen//NetRatings 26
October 2007. Retrieved on 26 October 2007.



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 76. Tyler, Nathan. "Google to Launch Video Marketplace." Google. 6 January 2006.
Retrieved on 23 February 2007.

 77. http://googlevideo.blogspot.com/2009/01/turning-down-uploads-at-google-
video.html

 78. Sharma, Dinesh C. "Indian president warns against Google Earth." c net. 17 October
2005. Retrieved on 23 July 2006.

 79. "Googlespace Website." Google. Retrieved on 26 February 2007.

 80. Donoghue, Andrew. "Google turns Heathrow into testing lab." ZDNet. 24 November
2005. Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 81. "College Life, Powered by Google Website." Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

 82. Orlowski, Andrew. "Google Phone - it's for real." The Register. 16 March 2007.
Retrieved on 1 April 2007.

 83. Smith, David. "The future for Orange could soon be Google in your pocket." The
Guardian. 17 December 2006. Retrieved on 1 April 2007.

 84. Ricker, Thomas. "The Google Switch: an iPhone killer?." Engadget. 18 January 2007.
Retrieved on 1 April 2007.

 85. Google Blog - A fresh take on the browser

 86. Google Blog - Introducing the Google Chrome OS

 87. , Google sees window of opportunity to launch operating system, Los Angeles Times,
July 9, 2009

 88. Google - Corporate Information

 89. a b Search Engine Land - Google Rebrands Custom Search "Business Edition" as
"Google Site Search"

 90. Rickwood, Lee. "Google Apps: Killer software or killer decision?." PCWorld.ca. 23
March 2007. Retrieved on 25 March 2007.

 91. The Official Google Blog - We've Officially Acquired Postini

 92. Google Press Center - Google Adds Postini's Security and Compliance Capabilities to
Google Apps




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 93. Google - Google Security Services

 94. Carr, David F. "How Google Works." Baseline Magazine. 6 July 2006. Retrieved on 7
February 2008.

 95. "Google’s Green Agenda Could Pay Off". New York Times. October 27, 2008.
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/28/technology/internet/28google.html?pagewanted=2
&_r=1&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss. Retrieved 2008-10-30. "Still, a picture of the scale of its
data center operations has emerged through various reports. The company is believed to
have about two dozen data centers around the world of various sizes. Some, like the one it
built in The Dalles, Ore., which is largely powered by hydroelectricity, are among the largest
in the industry. Two people familiar with that facility, who spoke on the condition of
anonymity, said that it was operating at about 50 megawatts—enough to power 37,500
homes—but was built to handle even more capacity."

 96. "Google Corporate Philosophy." Google. Retrieved on 31 August 2006.

 97. "Google Employee Salaries Data Survey —Retrieved from mydanwei.com

 98. Penenberg, Adam L. "Why Google Is Like Wal-Mart." Wired. 21 April 2005. Retrieved
on 25 February 2007.

 99. Shinal, John. "Google IPO achieved its major goal: It's all about raising cash for the
company and rewarding employees, early investors." San Francisco Chronicle. 22 August
2004. Retrieved on 25 February 2007.

100. a b c La Monica, Paul R. "Google leaders stick with $1 salary." CNN. 31 March 2006.
Retrieved on 28 February 2007.

101. "The 400 Richest Americans." Forbes. 20 September 2007. Retrieved on 22 September
2007.

102. ""Another Googler goes to Facebook: Sheryl Sandburg becomes new COO"". Venture
Beat. 2008-03-04. http://venturebeat.com/2008/03/04/facebook-hires-sheryl-sandberg-to-
be-its-new-coo/. Retrieved 2008-03-31.

103. ""Top Google exec jumps to Facebook"". Fortune. 2008-03-04.
http://money.cnn.com/2008/03/04/news/newsmakers/moritz_google_exec.fortune/.
Retrieved 2008-03-31.

104. ""Facebook Raids Google for Executive"". Washington Post. 2008-03-05.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
dyn/content/article/2008/03/04/AR2008030402766.html. Retrieved 2008-03-31.



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105. ""Netshops Inc. Appoints Ash ElDifrawi as Company's First Chief Marketing Officer"".
PR Newswire. 2008-03-26. http://www.prnewswire.com/. Retrieved 2008-03-31.

 106. Liedtke, Michael (11 December 2007). "Ask.com will purge search info in hours".
Journal Gazette (Fort Wayne Newspapers).
http://www.journalgazette.net/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071211/BIZ/712110335.
Retrieved 2007-12-11.

107. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/dec/18/business/fi-yahoo18

108. Afp.google.com, Judge orders Google to give YouTube user data to Viacom

109. bbc.co.uk, Google must divulge YouTube log

110. reuters.com, Lawyers in YouTube lawsuit reach user privacy deal

111. guardian.co.uk/media, Google and Viacom reach deal over YouTube user data

112. brandrepublic.com, Viacom backs down over YouTube lawsuit

113. "About the Googleplex." Google. Retrieved on 5 March 2008.

114. a b c d Reardon, Marguerite. "Google takes a bigger bite of Big Apple." c net. 2
October 2006. Retrieved on 9 October 2006.

115. "Google Completes Pittsburgh Office, Holds Open House". WTAE
ThePittsburghChannel. 17 November 2006.
http://www.thepittsburghchannel.com/technology/10346550/detail.html. Retrieved 2008-
01-13.

116. "Inside Google's Michigan Office". InformationWeek. 24 October 2007.
http://www.informationweek.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=202600809.

117. a b Richmond, Riva. "Google plans to build huge solar energy system for
headquarters." MarketWatch. 17 October 2006. Retrieved on 17 October 2006.

118. Strand, Ginger. "Keyword: Evil." Retrieved on 2008-04-09.

119. "Official Google Blog: Mowing with goats". Google. 01 May 2009.
http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/05/mowing-with-goats.html.

120. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
dyn/content/article/2009/05/04/AR2009050400027.html




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121. "What's it like to work in Engineering, Operations, & IT?." Google. Retrieved on 2
August 2006.

122. Mayer, Marissa. "MS&E 472 Course: Entrepreneurial Thought Leaders Seminar
Series." (video link; an audio podcast is also available in MP3 format). ETL Seminar
Series/Stanford University. 17 May 2006. Retrieved on 2 August 2006.

123. "Google MentalPlex." Google. 1 April 2000. Retrieved on 22 February 2007.

124. "The technology behind Google's great results." Google. 1 April 2002. Retrieved on 22
February 2007.

125. "Google Copernicus Center is hiring." Google. 1 April 2004. Retrieved on 22 February
2007.

126. "Quench your thirst for knowledge." Google. 1 April 2005. Retrieved on 22 February
2007.

127. Fox, Lynn. "Google to Organize World's Courtship Information with Google Romance."
Google. 1 April 2006. Retrieved on 22 February 2007.

128. a b "Welcome to Google TiSP." Google. 1 April 2007. Retrieved on 1 April 2007.

129. "Gmail Paper." Google. 1 April 2007. Retrieved on 1 April 2007.

130. "Language Tools." Google. Retrieved on 24 January 2007.

131. "Google Search Results for 'answer to life the universe and everything'." Google.
Retrieved on 24 January 2007.

132. Google results for "recursion"

133. "Holiday logos." Google. Retrieved on 21 May 2007.

134. Associated Press. "Quirky Google Culture Endangered?" Wired Magazine. 28 April
2004.

135. Baertlein, Lisa. "Google IPO at $2.7 billion." CIOL IT Unlimited. 30 April 2004.

136. Vise, David A. "Tactics of 'Google Guys' Test IPO Law's Limits." Washington Post. 17
August 2004. Retrieved on 23 February 2007.

137. Rivlin, Gary. "Relax, Bill Gates; It's Google's Turn as the Villain." New York Times. 24
August 2005.




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138. Gibson, Owen; Wray, Richard. "Search giant may outgrow its fans." The Sydney
Morning Herald. 25 August 2005.

139. Ranka, Mohit. "Google - Don't Be Evil."OSNews. 17 May 2007.

140. Mills, Elinor. "Meet Google's culture czar." ZDNet. 30 April 2007. Retrieved on 30 April
2007.

 141. Kawamoto, Dawn. "Google hit with job discrimination lawsuit." c|net news.com. 27
July 2005.

142. Staff Writer. "Google accused of ageism in reinstated lawsuit." CTV. 6 October 2007.
Retrieved on 5 April 2008.

143. "About the Foundation." Google.org. Retrieved on 11 October 2007.

144. Hafner, Katie. "Philanthropy Google’s Way: Not the Usual." The New York Times. 14
September 2006. Retrieved on 11 October 2007.

145. Google Chief for Charity Steps Down on Revamp

146. Project 10 to the 100th

147. Net Neutrality

 148. Cerf, Vinton (2006-02-07). "The Testimony of Mr. Vinton Cerf, Vice President and Chief
Internet Evangelist, Google" (PDF). pp. 8.
http://commerce.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Hearings.Testimony&Hearing_I
D=dc5f850f-8c38-4501-9f05-478dcafe63c0&Witness_ID=b9a1d672-ad72-4da8-a7e2-
e10b0870935c. Retrieved 2008-05-04.



Section 2
References For the criticisms of Google002E



 1. http://www.google.com/intl/en/corporate/ Google Corporate Page

 2. Technology News: News: Google Pulls P2P Links Over Kazaa Copyright Claims

 3. New Economy; A copyright dispute with the Church of Scientology is forcing Google to
do some creative linking. - New York Times




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                                                                             A Brief Overview
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 4. "Linking to infringing content is probably illegal in the US". WebTVWire. 2006-09-12.
http://www.webtvwire.com/linking-to-infringing-content-is-probably-illegal-in-the-us/.
Retrieved 2006-10-12.

 5. Google cache raises copyright concerns - CNET News.com

 6. Case No. CV-S-04-0413-RCJ-LRL. United States District Court (District of Nevada). Filed
on January 19, 2006. Retrieved on July 7, 2006.

 7. Case No. 04-CV-3918. United States District Court (Eastern District of Pennsylvania).
March 10, 2006. Retrieved on July 7, 2006.

  8. Martin, China (2007-11-26). "Google hit with second lawsuit over Library project".
InfoWorld.
http://www.infoworld.nl/idgns/bericht.phtml?id=00256F6C005C22FC0025709F006132F6.

 9. reuters.com, Lawyers in YouTube lawsuit reach user privacy deal

 10. guardian.co.uk/media, Google and Viacom reach deal over YouTube user data

 11. brandrepublic.com, Viacom backs down over YouTube lawsuit

 12. a b c Agger, Michael (2007-10-10). "Google's Evil Eye: Does the Big G know too much
about us?". http://www.slate.com/id/2175651/. Retrieved 2007-10-23.

 13. BBC NEWS | Technology | Google ranked 'worst' on privacy

 14. "ACLU v. Alberto R. Gonzales." United States District Court (Northern District of
California). August 25, 2005. Retrieved on April 13, 2007.

 15. Wong, Nicole. "Response to the DOJ Motion." Google. [[{February 17]], 2006.
Retrieved on April 13, 2007.

 16. Broache, Anne. "Judge: Google must give feds limited access to records." CNET. March
17, 2006. Retrieved on April 13, 2007.

 17. Microsoft's Ballmer: Google Reads Your Mail ChannelWeb, October 2007

 18. Google's Gmail could be blocked BBC News, April 2004

 19. The Register - Google Gmail: Spook Heaven

 20. Gmail is too creepy Google-Watch

 21. Google Privacy Center - Privacy Policy



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 22. Yahoo Privacy Policy

 23. Microsoft Privacy Policy

 24. EFF lawyer is smokin' on Google Street View The Register, June 2007

 25. All-seeing Google Street View prompts privacy fears Times Online, June 2007

 26. "Couple Sues Google Over "Street View".". The Smoking Gun.
http://www.thesmokinggun.com/archive/years/2008/0404081google1.html. Retrieved
2008-04-04.

 27. "Google wins Street View privacy case". The Guardian. 19 February 2009.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/feb/19/google-wins-street-view-privacy-case.
Retrieved 2009-02-19. "An American couple who attempted to sue Google over what they
claimed was its "privacy invading" Street View technology have lost their case in a
Pennsylvania court."

 28. Privacy International 2007 Consulation Report

 29. Google ranked 'worst' on privacy BBC News, June 2007

 30. Is intimate personal information a toxic asset in cloud datacenters? August 17, 2009

 31. "EU probes Google grip on data" (Accessed 26-May-2007)

 32. "Google admits privacy policy is vague with EU Probe looming" (Accessed 01-June-
2007) [1]

 33. Earth Times - Google's data Limiting Initiative Gets EU Praise

 34. "Google Data on Users May Break EU Law, Watchdog Says" (Accessed 26-May-2007)
[2]

 35. http://groups.google.com/group/google-code-
hosting/browse_thread/thread/1714c5c0ef5d9f9f/7d59a938d295bb8f

 36. Piper, P. "Google and Privacy". Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 10:3, p.201

 37. Google murders second Anonymous AdSense account

 38. AdSense Help Center - Google AdSense Program Policies

 39. AdWords Help Center - Religion




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 40. Regan, Keith (2008-03-24). ""Google's Search-Within-Search Draws Scutiny"". E-
Commerce Times.
http://www.ecommercetimes.com/rsstory/62270.html?welcome=1206452899.

 41. Stamoulis, Nick (2008-03-24). ""Why Companies Are Upset With Google's Search-
Within-Search"". Search Engine Optimization Journal.
http://www.searchengineoptimizationjournal.com/2008/03/24/why-companies-are-upset-
about-googles-search-within-search/.

 42. a b Tedeschi, Bob (2008-03-24). "A New Tool From Google Alarms Sites". New York
Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/24/business/media/24ecom.html.

 43. Is Google DRM crippling culture as great as it seems? The Register, Jan 2006

 44. Cory Doctorow, "Google Video robs customers of the videos they "own"."
boingboing.net 2007-08-10.

 45. John C. Dvorak, "Google Pulls Plug, Everyone Misses Point". PC Magazine (online).
2007-08-14.

 46. Keyword: Evil Harpers Magazine, March 2008

 47. Google to enter clean-energy business CNET News, November 2007

 48. Google’s Next Frontier: Renewable Energy New York Times, November 2007

 49. Tweaks send Google critics into orbit - Los Angeles Times

 50. More Google: Holiday Logos

 51. http://www.reuters.com/article/bigMoney/idUS301290404020090619 China's Google
Porn Crackdown




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