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Heat_ Electricity_ and Magnetism

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					Heat, Electricity, and Magnetism

                             Friction Experiments

Adapted from MDE: Science Content Expectations: Fourth Grade
Companion Document and Michigan Operation Physics Heat Workshop.

4th Grade Science, Unit 1: Heat, Electricity and Magnetism

GLCEs:
P.EN.E.4 Energy and Temperature – Increasing the temperature of any substance
requires the addition of energy.
 P.EN.04.41 Demonstrate how temperature can be increased in a substance by
adding energy.
P.EN.04.42 Describe heat as the energy produced when substances burn, certain
kinds of materials rub against each other, and when electricity flows through
wire.
S.IP.04.14 Manipulate simple tools (for example, thermometer, stop watch/timer)
to measure temperature.
S.IP.04.15 Make accurate measurements with appropriate units (degrees, Celsius,
Fahrenheit, minutes, seconds) in.
S.IA.04.11 Summarize information from charts and graphs to answer questions
about kinds of fuel that are used to heat buildings.
S.IA.04.12 Share ideas about heat, electricity and magnetism through purposeful
conversation in collaborative groups.
S.IA.04.13 Communicate and present findings of investigations that describe the
strength of magnets and their uses.
S.IA.04.14 Develop research strategies and skills for information gathering and
problem solving about heat energy, electricity sources, global climate changes
and uses of electromagnets.
S.IA.04.15 Compare and contrast sets of data from multiple trials of an
investigation on magnets and their strengths to explain reasons for differences.

Vocabulary:
Heat Energy
Friction
Celsius
Fahrenheit
Degrees
Temperature
Thermometer

Materials:
      Hand-held thermometer
      Styrofoam cups
      Sand
      Strong tape
Experiment 1:

1. Pick up a thermometer and hold it gently in your hand for at least 60 seconds.
Record the temperature in both Celsius and Fahrenheit.

       Fahrenheit temperature___around 88o_________
       Celsius temperature_____around 30o___________

2. Predict what will happen if you rub your hands together quickly for 30
seconds, immediately return the thermometer to your hand, and measure the
temperature.

___They will get warmer. ____________________________________________________

3. Now, rub your hands together quickly for 30 seconds, immediately return the
thermometer to your hand, and measure the temperature.

4. Record the temperature in both Celsius and Fahrenheit; find the difference.

   Fahrenheit around 91o_          Fahrenheit difference____________
   Celsius _ around 33 o __ Celsius difference________________



5. List other examples of friction in your daily life.

__Rubbing sticks together, scuffing feet on a rug or carpet, sanding wood,

washing hands, etc.____________________________________________________

Experiment 2:

1. Fill one Styrofoam cup 1/3 full of sand. Put a thermometer in the sand,
measure the temperature, and record it below.

   Fahrenheit temperature____________
   Celsius temperature________________

2. Place a second cup on top of the first cup. Wrap the seam tightly with tape,
so no sand will leak out.

3. Shake the sand back and forth inside the cups for five minutes.

4. Carefully and slowly make a small hole in the top of one of the cups. Insert
the thermometer into the sand and measure its temperature.

5. Record the temperature in both Celsius and Fahrenheit; find the difference.

   Fahrenheit____________            Fahrenheit difference____________
   Celsius ________________          Celsius difference_______________
Observations:

1. Write what you observed, using evidence from both experiments.

___Rubbing hands increases the temperature and shaking the sand grains
against each other also increases the temperature.____________________________

2. Why do you think this happened?

___Rubbing creates friction, which increases temperature._____________________

3. What type of energy did you measure?

___Heat energy.______________________________________________________________