Try the all-new QuickBooks Online for FREE.  No credit card required.

PHIL 480 Modern Philosophy

Document Sample
PHIL 480 Modern Philosophy Powered By Docstoc
					    PHIL 480
Modern Philosophy
Wars of religion and intolerance
Scientific revolution
Newton as enlightenment figure
               • Analytic method
               • Nature governed by
                 regular laws
               • Mechanism and
John Locke (1632-1704)
           • Empiricism
           • Religious and political
           • Liberalism
           • Individualism (social
David Hume (1711-76)
          •   Empiricism
          •   Skepticism
          •   Limits of knowledge
          •   Critique of metaphysics
          •   Redefining knowledge
              and reasonable belief
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
             • Attempt to reconcile
               knowledge (necessary
               and a priori) with
               natural scientific
               knowledge (contingent
               and a posteriori)
             • An epistemic
               ‘Copernican revolution’
John Locke (1632-1704)
           • Anglican
           • Father fought with
             Cromwell &
             parliamentarians in
             English Civil War (1642-
             51) against King Charles I
             & monarchists
           • Chas. I beheaded (1649)
           • More power for
             parliament; less for
             monarch (Chas. II);
             constitutional monarchy
• 1675   Trip to France – associated with Gassendi &
         critics of Cartesianism
• 1679   Return to England; Lord Shaftesbury vs
         Charles II
• 1681   Shaftesbury tried for treason (acquitted)
• 1683   Locke & Shafte. flee to Holland; Chas. II
         revokes L’s position at Oxford
• 1685   Chas. II dies (deathbed conversion to
         Catholicism); brother James II (Catholic)
         takes throne; Edict of Nantes revoked (no
         protection for protestants in France);
         Monmouth’s failed rebellion; Locke denounced
         as traitor
• 1688   Glorious Revolution: William and Mary of
         Orange assume throne (Dutch protestants)
• 1689   Locke returns to England; An Essay Concerning
         Human Understanding published
           Locke’s philosophy
• Empiricist
• Reason final arbiter of faith and ‘revealed
• Skeptical attitude – don’t assume you know
  more than your evidence and arguments will
  establish  caution, anti-dogmatism
• “For where is the man, that has incontestable
  evidence of the truth of all that he holds, or of
  the falsehood of all he condemns; or can say
  that he has examined, to the bottom, all his
  own, or other men’s opinions?” (Essay IV, xvi, 4)
         The New Way of Ideas
• Epistemology – knowledge of world mediated
  (indirectly known) through ideas

• Analytical, naturalistic, empirical,
  psychologistic (reliant upon introspection)
David Hume (1711-76)
          •   Empiricism
          •   Skepticism
          •   Limits of knowledge
          •   Critique of metaphysics
          •   Redefining knowledge
              and reasonable belief
•   5 years old when Locke died
•   Hume died year of the American war of Independence
•   Educated at Edinburgh University
•   Moved to La Fleche University in France to study more
•   1746-47 nearly served as secretary to Lieutenant-General
    James St Clair on a military expedition against Quebec
•   1756 librarian at Edinburgh & scandal over ‘indecent’ books
•   Assistant to English ambassador in Paris (1763-66); hung out
    with Rousseau and other philosophes
•   1767-68 Undersecretary of State, London
•   Retired comfortably back to Edinburgh till death (wealthy
    from sales of his History of England)
• Treatise of Human Nature (1739)
  – Fell ‘dead-born from the press’
• Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
• Natural History of Religion (1757)
• History of England 6 vols. (1756-61)
• Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1779)