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Halloween and Cultural Diffusion The Basic Idea of

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					Halloween and Cultural Diffusion
    The Basic Idea of Halloween

   One story says that, on that day, the
    disembodied spirits of all those who had
    died throughout the preceding year would
    come back in search of living bodies to
    possess for the next year. It was believed
    to be their only hope for the afterlife. The
    Celts believed all laws of space and time
    were suspended during this time, allowing
    the spirit world to intermingle with the
    living.
                   Halloween as a Religious
                          Practice


   The word itself, "Halloween," actually has its
    origins in the Catholic Church. It comes from a
    contracted corruption of All Hallows Eve.
    November 1, "All Hollows Day" (or "All Saints
    Day"), is a Catholic day of observance in honor of
    saints. But, in the 5th century BC, in Celtic Ireland,
    summer officially ended on October 31. The holiday
    was called Samhain (sow-en), the Celtic New year.
         Stimulus Diffusion and Religion
   The Romans adopted the Celtic practices. In the first
    century AD, Samhain was assimilated into
    celebrations of some of the other Roman traditions
    that took place in October, such as their day to
    honor Pomona, the Roman goddess of fruits and
    trees. Pomona's symbol is the apple, which might
    explain the origin of bobbing for apples.
   The idea of celebrating Halloween survived but the
    holiday had to change as it spread and as the
    Christians came and converted people. Is this
    stimulus diffusion? How is this holiday a folk
    culture item at this time?
        Relocation and then Expansion
           Diffusion and Halloween
   The custom of Halloween was
    brought to America in the
    1840's by Irish immigrants
    fleeing their country's potato
    famine. Like most folk
    customs it expanded through
    relocation diffusion.
   Ireland is the hearth area
           Halloween as Folk Culture
   The Jack-o-lantern custom
    probably comes from Irish
    folklore: A man named Jack, who
    was notorious as a drunkard and
    trickster, tricked Satan into
    climbing a tree. Jack then carved
    an image of a cross in the tree's
    trunk, trapping the devil up the
    tree. Jack made a deal with the
    devil that, if he would never tempt
    him again, he would promise to let
    him down the tree.
           Halloween as Folk Culture
   After Jack died, he was denied
    entrance to Heaven because of his
    evil ways, but he was also denied
    access to Hell because he had tricked
    the devil. Instead, the devil gave him
    a single ember to light his way
    through the frigid darkness. The
    ember was placed inside a hollowed-
    out turnip to keep it glowing longer.
   How do the turnip and the character
    of Satan make this tale a folk culture
    tale?
          Folk versus Popular Culture
   Folk- traditionally practiced by
    small, homogeneous groups
    living in isolated areas (usually
    rural)‫‏‬
   Popular- found in large,
    heterogeneous societies that
    share certain habits despite
    differences in other areas.
   Folk territory is smaller in scale
 Folk, Popular
and Halloween
     CTD

   Folk- tend to have anonymous hearths and come
    from areas that are isolated and can often have
    separate areas that independently originate an idea
   Popular- tends to come from MDC's + goes along
    extra leisure time, disposable income +
    industrialization.
   Popular culture items tend to stay away from anything
    that would identify them with one group
   How will the continuing globalization of the world
    affect folk and popular cultures?
                              Folk, Popular and
                               Halloween CTD

   Hierarchical Diffusion usually plays a role in the
    diffusion of a trait that goes from folk to a popular
    culture characteristic.
   Rap music is an example of hierarchical diffusion of a
    folk culture item that became a popular culture item.
   Folk cultures usually spread through relocation
    diffusion (migration). Example: The Amish.
   How can geography explain whether or not a country
    has popular culture or folk cultures?
                    Trick or Treat
    The custom of trick-or-treating is thought to have
    originated not with the Irish Celts, but with a ninth-
    century European custom called souling. On
    November 2, All Souls Day, early Christians would
    walk from village to village begging for "soul
    cakes," made out of square pieces of bread with
    currants. The more soul cakes the beggars would
    receive, the more prayers they would promise to say
    on behalf of the dead relatives of the donors. At the
    time, it was believed that the dead remained in
    limbo for a time after death, and that prayer, even by
    strangers, could expedite a soul's passage to heaven.
               Trick or Treat
                 Business
   Candy makes the holiday more marketable,
    and returns a higher profit while secularizing
    the holiday so it can reach a wider base. All of
    these items are complaints about globalization
    and its effects on folk culture.
   In Sweden, even as Halloween's popularity has
    increased, so have views of the holiday as an
    "unnecessary, bad American custom," said
    Bodil Nildin-Wall, an expert at the Language
    and Folklore Institute in Uppsala.
      Halloween and Clash of Cultures
   Halloween "undermines our cultural
    identity," complained the Rev. Giordano
    Frosini, a Roman Catholic theologian who
    serves as vicar-general in the Diocese of
    Pistoia near Florence, Italy.
   Frosini denounced the holiday as a
    "manifestation of neo-paganism" and an
    expression of American cultural
    supremacy. "Pumpkins show their
    emptiness," he said.
   What does the second statement mean?
     Halloween and Clash of Cultures
   Halloween went from being folk culture to
    popular. A new popular Halloween culture
    from America threatens the folk culture
    that Europeans have for that time of year.
   Critics see it as the epitome of crass, U.S.-
    style commercialism. Clerics and
    conservatives contend it clashes with the
    spirit of traditional Nov. 1 All Saints' Day
    remembrances.
   What is it about the American popular
    style that would annoy them?
              Halloween and MNC's
   Many worry that globalization and big business
    will drive out local customs
   To be sure, Halloween is big business in
    Europe.
   Germans alone spend nearly $170 million, on
    Halloween costumes, sweets, decorations and
    parties. The holiday has become increasingly
    popular in Romania, home to the Dracula myth,
    where discotheques throw parties with bat and
    vampire themes.
   How do big businesses quite often undermine
    folk values as in the case of Halloween?
       Summary of Folk Culture
Folk cultures tend to be:
-Homogeneous in ethnic and cultural
  background and leery of outsiders
-Have food and clothing that is locally made
-Have strong family values that promote
  having children and go against alternate
  lifestyles
-Tend to be male dominated and women
  tend to have lower education levels and
  not to have a choice of not having
  children or being independent and single.
  There are low divorce rates in such a
  country
-The customs of the group tend to be united
  by religion.
-Conflict can often occur with those of
  outside cultures or those of differing folk
  cultures popular cultures.
      Folk Diffusion Methods and the
       Reasons for Why it Uses that
                   Method
   Folk culture countries lack industry,
    transportation, and communication networks.
   Folk countries also have people that lack leisure
    time and extra cash for leisure activities
   Folk cultures also tend to be homogeneous.
    This tends to limit their ability to think of things
    that go outside of that culture or worse yet
    these cultures will view modernization as a
    threat to their way of life. Some do not like the
    idea of becoming a stage 4 country. Why?
   Given all of these factors, why is relocation the
    main method for diffusion of folk cultures?
      Summary of Popular Culture
Popular cultures tend to:
-Be more about individuality and
  individual rights
-People have more money and free
  time and have the industries that
  can exploit this.
-Popular culture items are created
  based off of marketing strategies not
  religious or ethnic connections. An
  example of this can be found in the
  differences between a McDonald's
  restaurant and an Italian restaurant.
-Have less family values as they allow
  for DINKS, higher divorce rates,
  LATs, and other alternative lifestyles
            Popular Culture Diffusion
   Popular culture countries have all of the things
    that folk countries lack: industry, communication
    networks, people with leisure time (middle
    class) and excellent transportation networks.
   Popular culture items are usually based off of
    the business market. They try to appeal to all
    people no matter what.
   Popular culture items
    tend to homogenize
    the cultural and physical
    landscape.
   How does this
    modernization threaten
    folk societies? Or does
    it?
                             Globalization and
                                 Growth

   World economy is taking off. Of the world's six billion
    people, five billion have seen a change in their lives
    (in terms of economic growth) over the last twenty
    years.
   More and more countries are becoming developed or
    are on their way and more and more people are
    travelling.
   What changes will happen culturally because of this?
    How will this affect folk customs and
    holidays?
   How will societies react to these
    changes?
   Mr. Lewis wonders
    how this relates to
    the issue of
    migration.
   Think of what the
    migrants have come
    from to what they are
    going to.
   How do chain
    migration and ethnic
    hoods relate to the
    nature of folk versus
    popular culture?

				
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