Nucleic Acids

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					Macromolecule: Nucleic Acids
                Genetic Material
Nucleic Acids
 Not a nutrient but still essential for life
 Two types:
   RNA = ribonucleic acid
   DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid
       Deoxy => oxygen removed from the sugar
Monomer: Nucleotide
 Nucleotides consists of:
  Ribose sugar (5 ring)
  Phosphate group(s)
  Nitrogenous bases
      DNA has 4 different
       bases:
        • Adenine (A), Guanine
          (G), Cytosine (C),
          Thymine (T)
      RNA also has 4 bases but
       Uracil (U) instead of
       thymine
DNA Nucleotides
Uracil vs Thymine




                    vs.




        Uracil
Base pairing


 Nitrogenous bases of
  adjacent DNA
  nucleotides chains
  pair up as follows:
  A-T (or T-A)
  C-G (or G-C)
 Allows for DNA to be
  double stranded
Base Pairing: H-Bonding




 Held together by H-bonds
Nucleic Acids
 Distant
  interactions
  result in the
  twisting of
  the double
  strand
 RNA bases
  may
  interact as
  well but
  mainly
  single
  stranded
Differentiation


                   All living things
                    are made up of
                    DNA but
                    organisms are
                    still different
                    from each other
Differentiation

Proteins are responsible for structural and
 functional characteristics of living things
Recall: sequences of proteins are
 determined by genes, segments of DNA
Genes are made up of nucleotide bases
Hence the sequence of nucleotide bases
 determine the code for the protein to be
 made
Differentiation
Differentiation
Proteins with different lengths will have
 different functions
Proteins with the same lengths with
 different sequences of amino acids will
 also have different functions
Since the code on DNA determines these
 sequences of proteins, each organism with
 a unique set of DNA molecules are
 therefore different
Differentiation
Each amino acid is determined by a triplet
 of bases made up of the 4 nitrogenous
 bases
There are 3x as many bases as there are
 amino acids in the protein it codes for
Similar to 26 letters of the alphabet
 (nucleotides) that can be arranged into
 different words (amino acids) when put
 into a sentence has meaning (protein)

				
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