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Fragrance's fact

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					                                                                      Objectives

                Trend in Fragrance                               • To be alerted in fragrance trend
                                                                 • To be up to date on aroma material




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       Contents                                                 Fragrance’s fact
       •   Introduction
                                                       - The perfume can be based either on one
       •   Perfume trend                                 scent or a combination of hundreds of
       •   Perfume : from past to present                aromas
       •   Fragrance manufacturing                     - Only about 2,000 of the 250,000 flowering
                                                         plant species produce oils
       •   Fragrance product
                                                       - Synthetic chemicals are used to duplicate
       •   Research in aroma science                     smells
                                                       - Synthetic chemicals are used to create
                                                         scents not found in nature
                                                   3                                                  4




                  Fragrance value                                Perfume Trend 2011
       • Euromonitor International, retail value        •   Grapefruit rhubarb rose (youthful)
         of the world fragrance market, both            •   Seashore driftwood (androgynous)
         premium and mass, is $36.6 billion,            •   White amber/patchouli (shocking)
         based on 2009 figures, and forecast to         •   Mahogany vetiver (relaxed traditional)
         grow to $41.8 billion in 2014                  •   Absinthe (provocative)
                                                        •   Mandarin/orange blossom (simplistically
                                                            fashionable)
                                                        •   Mojito (planned simplicity)
                                                        •   Woody iris (realism)
                                                        •   Satin wood (transparent fashion)
                                                   5
                                                        •   Szechwan pepper (bold accents)            6




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                                                    1
            New fragrance accords                                              Men
       • New floral accords, especially based around the     • Wood fragrances agar, sandal or cedar
         hundreds of species of scented orchid
                                                               woods at base, with patchouli leather,
       • New exotic notes of rare or endangered woods          amber, spices, tobacco and burnt scents
         such as teak, tamboti, hinoki, rosewood and
         cherrywood                                          • Masculinity that have not been this
       • Gourmand or gustative notes such as crème             popular since the 1950s and 60s.”
         brulée, warm rice, warm milk, fresh bread,
         coffee and malt whisky, particularly in the
                                                             • Traditional, solid scents
         women's                                             • Notably, wood
       • Seductive accord, amber, a crème noir accord
         {chocolate and vanilla notes}, patchouli and
         spiced lily                                  7                                              8




                 More new players                               From past to present
     • Prada : Infusion de Tubereuse
       – Tuberose, Petitgrain bigarade, Blood orange
     • Victoria's Secret : Heavenly Flowers
       – Mandarin, Watermelon, Pear, Gardenia, Lily of
         the valley, Apricot flower, Peony, Musk,                                   the 17th century
         Blonde woods
                                                                                    perfumer statue
     • Ferragamo : Incanto Bloom
       – Grapefruit flowers, Freesia, Tea roses,
         Champaca, Musks, Cashmere wood
                                                                                    Only 150 perfumers
                                                                                    now a day
                                                         9                                           10




          Museum of International
               Perfumeries
                                                                           Museum




                                                       11                                            12




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                                                    2
                   Museum                                     Museum




                                         13                                14




                                              Fragrance Manufacturing
                   Museum
                                              1.   Collection
                                              2.   Extraction
                                              3.   Blending
                                              4.   Aging
                                              5.   Quality control


                                         15                                16




       Fragrance Manufacturing                                Collection

                         1. Collection
                           - Plant
                           - Animal
                           - Synthetic




                                         17                                18




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                          3
       Fragrance Manufacturing                     Distillation

       2. Extraction
         - Distillation
         - Solvent extraction : Maceration
         - Enfleurage
         - Expression




                                             19                               20




                                                  Solvent extraction : Maceration




                                             21                               22




     Solvent extraction : Maceration              Solvent extraction : Maceration




                                             23                               24




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                              4
                    Enfleurage                                       Enfleurage




                                                      25                                             26




                                     Expression                  Plant extraction
                                                           - Lavender essence 1 kg
                                                              + 200 kg of lavender
                                                           - Neroli essence 1 kg
                                                              + 1,000 kg of orange blossom
                                                           - Rose essence 1 kg
                                                              + > 3,000 kg of roses


                                                      27
                                                           Synthetic fragrances                      28




       Grapefruit                                          Grapefruit with fruity rhubarb
       • Methyl pamplemousse®        O
                                                           • Floropal®
                                                                                             O   O
       • Nootkatone®                                       • Rhubafuran®

       Exp. 3.5 % in Pleasures for Men (E. Lauder, 1997)
                     Aqua Allegoria (Guerlain, 1999)
                     L’ eau de Kenzo masc (Kenzo, 1999)
            8.5 % in Good life (Davidoff, 1998)


                                                      29                                             30




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                                                    5
       Seashore                     Amber
       • Calone 1951®               • Kephalis®
       • (+)-Dictyopterene A        • Amber Core®




                               31                                             32




       Fragrance Manufacturing      Fragrance Manufacturing
       3. Blending                  4. Aging
         - scent creation             - months
         - dilution                   - years

                                    Notes de tete : Top notes
                                    Notes de coeur : Central or Heart notes
                                    Notes de fond : Base notes

                               33                                             34




                       Aging        Fragrance Manufacturing
                                    5. Quality control
                                    • GC
                                    • GC/MS
                                    • GC/MS/MS
                                    • GC/O




                               35                                             36




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                             6
                 Fragrance Products                                            Fragrance Products
       • Diffuser                                                • Lamp
       • USB                                                     • Decorative candle




                                                         37                                                                 38




                        Perfume                                       Ongoing research fragrance
                                                                • P&G "the essence of cricket", grass, a
      - Perfume for antiperspirants and deodorants                cricket bat”
      - Perfume for bath preparations, bubbles
        baths and shampoos                                      • Issey Miyake “freshness with green and
                                                                  citrus notes adding a crispness to
      - Perfume for creams and hand lotions
        (emulsions)                                               fragrance’’
      - Flavor for paste dentrifrices and                       • Marc Jacobs “grapefruit, pink pepper,
        mounthwashes                                              pear and vanilla”
      - Fragrance for depillatories                             • D&G's 10 La Roue de la Fortune “mandarin,
      - Perfume for hair preparations                             pink pepper, pineapple, vanilla and
      - Perfume for lipsticks and make-up                         patchouli”
      - Perfume for powders                                     • Ricci Ricci “rhubarb, patchouli and
      - Soap perfumes                          39                 sandalwood”                            40




                     Oral odorants                                         Oral odor treatment
                                                                Ingredients          Functions            Preparations
       S : hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan
       N : cadaverine, putrescine, indole, amines aniline,      Botanical extracts   Antimicrobials       Tablet
         o-toluidine dimethylamine and trimethylamine.
                                                                Cetylpyridinum       Antimicrobials       Rinse, spray,
       Acid : acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids   chloride                                  dentifrice, oral gel
       Misc: acetone and methylethylketone, n-propanol
                                                                Chlohexidine         Antimicrobials       Rinse

       detection threshold  (mol/dm3)                           Chlorine dioxide     Cysteine and         Wash, dentifrice,
                                                                                     methionine oxidizing spray, chewing gun
         CH3SH (1.0 × 10-11) < CH3N = isovalerate (1.8 ×                             agents
         10-11) < butyrate (2.3 × 10-10) < H2S (6.4 × 10-10)    Dehydroascorbic      Amino acid           Dentifrice
         < putrescine (9.1 × 10-10) < CH3SSCH3 (5.9 × 10-8)     acid                 containing sulphur
                                                                                     oxidizing agent
       * H2S and CH3SH are mainly used for oral malodor         Activated carbon     Odorant absorber     Dentifrice, chewing
         diagnosis                                   41                                                   gum, scraper     42




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                                                                           7
                   Oral odor treatment
                                                                                    Oral odor treatment
      Ingredients            Functions           Preparations
                                                                            • Botanical extracts
      Essential oils         Antimicrobials,     Wash, spray,
                                                 dentifrice, lipstick
                                                                               – Piper betel, Glycyrrhiza spp., Camellia spp., Acacia
                             antiseptic and                                      catechu, Polygonum spp., Areca catechu, Potentilla
                             anticaries                                          fragarioides, Rheum, Prunus, Ginkgo biloba,
      Hydrogen peroxide      VSCs reduction      Dentifrice                      Machilus, Elaeagnus, Apocynum, Geranium,
                                                                                 Echinacea angustifolia, Pestacia lentiscus, lavender,
                                                                                 sage
      Sodium bicarbonate     VSCs reduction      Rinse, dentifrice          • Essential oils
      Triclosan              Antimicrobials      Dentifrice                    – Bay, bergamot, caraway, cedar, cinnamon, citronella,
                                                                                 clove, coriander, laurel, lavender, lemon, marjoram,
      Zinc salts             Antimicrobials      Rinse, dentifrice,              mustard, orange, orris, parley, pimento, pine,
                                                 chewing gum                     rosemary, sage, sassafras, terpentine, thyme, witch
                                                                                 hazel
      Enzyme                 Tongue coating      Oral biofilm,              • Enzymes
                             bacterial reduction dentifrice
                                                                               – Protease, papain, hydroxyalkyl cellulose, lipase,
                                                                      43         glycoamylase                                        44




                         Body odorants
       Odourant            Organoleptic property     Threshold
       HMHA                Spicy                     4 ppt
       3M2H                Sweaty                    14 ppb
       Isovaleric acid     Sweaty                    1 ppm
       3M3SH               Sweaty                    1 ppt
       2M3SB               Sweaty                    8 ppt
       3SP                 Sulfuric                  2 ppt
       Androstenone        Urinous                   0.2 ppb
       Androstenol         Musky                     6.2 ppb
                                                                           Corynebacterium sp. in HMHA and 3M2H formations
                                                                      45                                                             46




       Corynebacterium sp. in 3M3SH formation
                                                                      47
                                                                             Odourous steroids formation                             48




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                                                                                    8
               Body odor treatment                                      Fragrance
                                                                        precursors
      • Inhibition of androgen receptor expression
         – Resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and flufenamic
           acids
      • Apocrine secretion odour-binding protein
        (ASOB2) inhibitor
         – Monesin, tunicamycin, amphomycin, diumycin,
           showdomycin, tsushimycin, amphortericine,
           mycospocidin, streptovirudin and D-glucosamine
      • Enzyme inhibitor
         – Ethylendiaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), pentetic acid,
           diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), butylated
           hydroxytoluene (BHT)                               49                                                                                      50




               Body odor treatment                                            Fragrant entrapment
      • Herbal extracts
                                                                       Transferosomes
        – Arctopus spp., Caesalpinia minosoides, Tea, Hibicus
          sabdariffa, Malva sylvestris, Vitis viticola, Daucus         peptides & proteins conjugated and permeate
          carota, Commiphora myrrh, Simmondsia chinensis,              through SC by osmotic force
          Calendula officinalis, Cassia alata, Barleria lupulina,
          Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava, Eupatorium
          odoratum, Ginkgo biloba, Phellodendron amurens, hop,         Microsponges
          licorice, apricot, Sophora flavescens etc.                   microporous bead (10 – 25 μm)
      • Essential oils                                                 time mode releasing + rubbing + temp. + pH
        – Abies cilicica, Anethum graveolens, Grammosciadium
                                                                       Very best for peroxide formulations
          platycarpum, Inula helenium, Melaleuca alternifolia,
          Corriandrum sativum, oregano, thyme, cumin, sweet
          fennel, laurel, mint, marjoram, sage etc.              51                                                                                   52




                                                                                          OH                                          OH

                                                                                               O                                           O
                                                                                 *
                                                                                     HO              O                *
                                                                                                                          HO                      O
                                                                                                         *                                            *
                                                                                               OH                                          NHAc
                                                                                          A                                        B

                                                                      Chitosan            OH                              OH
                                                                                                                                                          NH2
                                                                                               O                               O       HO                       *
                                                                                 *                   O       *
                                                                                                                 HO                    O
                                                                                     HO                  *                                                O
                                                                                               NH2                             NHAc

                                                                                          C                                           D

                                                                                                                 cellulose (A), chitin (B),
                                                                                                                 chitosan (C)
      Transferosome &                                                                                            and partial
      Microsponge                                                                                                deacetylated chitosan
                                                                                                                 (D) repeating units

                                                                 53                                                                                   54




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                                                                                                              9
        Cubosomes                                            Cyclodextrins
        two bicontinuous separate but not intersect                6, 7 or 8 glucopyranose units of
        hydrophilic cubic phases divided by a lipid layer     oligosaccharide external hydrophilic, internal
        higher bilayer area-to-particle volume ratio          hydrophobic
        high viscosity, strong bioadnesive                          for poor stability & water solubility,
        For lipophilic, amphiphilic and water soluble         irritate & bad odor actives entrap.
        molecules: NEW                                              control released by
                                                             rubbing with SC




                                                        55                                                     56




       Cyclodextrins                                         Encapsulated fragrance products
                                                              • Fragrant paper
                                                              • Fragrant textile
                                                              • Fragrant ink




                                                        57                                                     58




       Fragrant paper : Scratch ‘N Sniff™                    Fragrant paper : Scratch ‘N Sniff™

       - Scented oil are encapsulated in plastic              Raw Materials
         or gelatin, and with specialized printing            - water
         techniques, the beads are printed on                 - oil
         paper                                                - scent
       - The scent does not leak out until the                - gelatin or a water soluble polymer
         beads are deliberately broken by                       (polyoxymethylene urea)
         friction                                             - chemical catalyst
                                                              - water-soluble adhesive

                                                        59                                                     60




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                                                              10
           Fragrant textile                                                        Fragrant textile
       •   Hosiery                                                       • Sensory Perception TechnologyTM fabrics
       •   Lingerie                                                      • LYCRA®Body Care Collection
       •   Athletic apparel                                              • Nike Precool System running shirt
       •   Denim
       •   Sheets                             Hermes
       •   Bedding                            Annick Goutal
       •   Curtains                           Jean Patou
       •   Carpet                             La Perla             61                                            62




                       Fragrant textile                                                            Fragrant ink
       Hosiery : legs self moisturizing and anti-                                                    • Fragrance
        cellulite treatments                                                                           entrapped
       Socks, bedding : resist fungal and bacterial                                                  in microcapsule
        attackand reduce the presence of bed                                                         • Printing ink
        mites
                                                                                                     • Ball pen ink
       Bed sheets, Duvets : aromatherapy sleep
                                                                                                     • Tattoo ink
        inducing fragrances


                                                                   63                                            64




           References
      1.    Kraft P, Bajgrowicz JA, Denis C, Fráter G. Odds and
            trends: recent developments in the chemistry of
            odorants. Angrew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39, 2980-3010, 2000.
      2.    Lourith N. and Kanlayavattanakul M. Oral malodour and
            active ingredients for treatment. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci.
            32, 321-329, 2010.
      3.    Ikemoto T., Mimura K., Kitahara T. Formation of
            fragrant materials from odourless glycosidically-bound
                                                                                              Thank you for
            volatiles on skin microflora (Part 2). Flavour Fragr. J.
            18, 45-47, 2003.
                                                                                               your attention
      4.    Jafari MHS., Parvinzadeh M., Najafi F. Preparation of
            Fragrant Microencapsules and Coating on Textiles. AIP.
            Conf. Proc. 929, 224-227, 2007.
      5.    Kanlayavattanakul M. and Lourith N. Body malodours
            and their topical treatment agents. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci.65                                           66
            (accepted)




Nattaya Lourith, Ph.D.                                                                                                 11

				
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