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The State of the Environment
  In 1996, environmental pollution centered in urban areas continued to worsen and extended to
the rural areas. The scope of ecological damage continued to expand.

1. Atmospheric Environment

 Atmospheric pollution was typical of coal burning pollution. Dust and acid rain generated the
most serious damage to the atmospheric environment and the pollution intensity was increased.

1. I Urban Atmosphere

  In 1996 the atmospheric pollution in cities of north China was more serious than that in
southern China although a few cities in the south also suffered serious atmospheric pollution.

  The phenomenon of exceeding TSP Concentration Standards could be found throughout the
country. The annual TSP concentration for the cities within the State-Controlled-Network reached
               3                                                                             3
79-618 m g/m and the average TSP concentration for the whole country reached 309m g/m
which was8 m g/m lower than that of last year. The average concentration for northern cities was
          3                3                            3             3
387m g/m and 230m g/m for southern cities, 5m g/m and 12m g/m lower than that of last year
respectively. Generally, cities in northern China suffered more serious atmospheric pollution and
85% of the cities exceeded the standard by 3O%.
  The average dust fall-out of the cities over the country reached 16. 2 t/km per month which
was I.5t/km per month lower than that of last year. The aver age dust fall-out in northern cities
                  2                                                 2                      2
reached 23.2 t/km per month and that in southern cities 9. 14 t/km per month, I.5 3 t/km per
month and I. 02 t/km per month lower than that of last year respectively. The average level of
dust pollution was decreased.

   The concentration of SO2, was relatively high and part of the cities suffered serious SO2
pollution. The average air concentration Of SO2 in the cities within the State-Controlled Network
                   3                               3                 3
was 2~418m g/m , that of northern cities 83mg/m hichwas2mg/m igher than last year
                                 3                  3
andthatofsoutherncities76mg/m which was 4m g/m lower than last year. The average
                                                                    3         3
concentration Of S02 for cities over the country reached 79m g/m ,1m g/m lower than that of
last year.

  The exhausted gas pollution from vehicles presented a worsening trend in large cities over the
country. Nitrogen oxides had become the ma or pollutants to the ambient air in few large cities.
The annual average nitrogen oxides concentration within the State Controlled-Network reached
              3                               3
5~I52m g/m , that of northern cities 53m g/m , of southern cities 41, as for the whole country,
the average concentration was 47m g/m , keeping at the same level as that of last year. Nitrogen
oxides pollution happened mostly in the large and super large cities with the population
exceeding I million. Those that suffered the most were Guangzhou and Beijing, and then followed
by Shanghai, An' shan, Wuhan, Zhengzhou. Shenyang, Lanzhou, Dalian and Hangzhou etc.
1. 2 Acid Rain and Its Distribution

   Acid rain was distributed mainly in the areas to the south of Yangtze River and east of Qinghai-
Tibet Plateau and in Sichuan Basin.Changsharepresented the typical characteristics of the acid
rain areas in central China, with tile lowest pH value and the most frequent precipitation, and it
showed a worsening trend year by year. The south-west acid rain areas was less polluted in
comparison with the central China areas. South China as well as eastern coastal China acid rain
areas suffered extensively with relatively serious pollution problems.

   In 1996, the pollution of acid rain was intensified and the distribution areas expanded.
According to the monitoring data for the 84 cities within the State-Controlled Network, the number
of the cities with the annual average pH value of acid rain lower than 5. 6 was 43. The average
pH value for Changsha precipitation was 3. 54, the lowest one among the cities under monitoring.
The cities with the annual average pH value of precipitation lower than 4. 5 were Changsha,
Xiamen, Ganzhou and Ylbin. The acid rain frequency was higher than 60% in 24 cities, among
which Ylbln, Hengyang, Changsha, Ganzhou, Wuzhou, Xiamen, Hualhu a, Nanchang, Tumen, I-
eshan and Guangzhou had it higher than 7O% , with the first 9 higher than 80% and the first 4
higher than 90%.

2. Water Environment

   In 1996, the water of rivers, lakes and reservoirs in China was universally polluted to varying
degrees. Except for some inland rivers and individual branches of water systems, the pollution of
water tended to worsen on the whole. 78%of the rivers flowing through the cities could not be
drinkable any longer and5O% of underground water in the cities were polluted. The pollution of
water adjacent to industrially developed cities and towns was particularly conspicuous.

  According to the country-wide monitoring results from 2, 222 monitoring stations , based on the
seriousness of pollution, the 7 large river basins could be ranked as: Liaohe River, Haihe River
and, Huaihe River, Yellow River, Songhuajiang River, Zhujiang River and the Yangtze River,
among them the first three were the most heavily polluted rivers. Based on the seriousness of
pollution, the large fresh water lakes could be ranked as: Chaohu (western half of the lake),
Dianchi, Nansihu, Talhu, Hongzhehu, Tongtinghu, Jingbohu, Xingkaihu, Bositenghu, Songhuahu,
Erhal, among them Chaohu, Dianchi, Nansihu and Taihu were the most heavily polluted lakes.

2. 1 River System

    According to the statistics on the focal sections of the seven large river systems only 32. 2 %
of the rivers could meet Grade and of Environmental Quality Standards of Surface Water, 28. 9%
could meet Grade of the Standard and38.9% could meet Grade and . In comparison with that of
last year, the water quality of the Rivers did not change for better and water pollution was
stilldeteriorating and expanding.

   With regard to the Yangtze River system, the water pollution tended to be more serious in
comparison with last year. 38. 8% of the river system could meet Grade and of the Water Quality
Standards, 33. 7% could meet Grade and 2 7. 5 % could meet Grade and. Ammonia nitrogen
permanganate index and volatile phenols were major pollution indicators. Some sections of the
River exceeded the standard of copper. Although the general water quality of her mainstream
was good, the banks along the mainstream still suffered from heavy pollution. The pollution belt
along the mainstream, urban section of the river ex tended for about 500 kilometers.

   Water pollution in the Yellow River was becoming serious increasingly. Only 8. 2% of the whole
river system could meet Grade and of the Standards, 26.4% could meet Grade and 65.4% could
meet Grade and . Ammonia nitrogen, permanganate index and volatile phenols were the major
pollution indicators. With the decrease of the water quantity in the Yellow River and the in crease
of pollutants discharge, the water pollution presented a deteriorating trend. For the river section
from Tuoketuo to Longmen, there were I , I 00 enterprises discharging their polluted waste water
directly into the River and the polluted waste water represented 5% of the total volume of the
daily water flow. With the reduction of water quantity over the upper steam and increase of
diversion for irrigation and water supply to urban areas, the phenomenon of water break off in the
lower stream was getting more and more serious. In 1996, the River had experienced break off
for 136 days with the total length of 700 kilometers, which equals 90% of the downstream part of
the River starting from Zhengzhou section on.

  The general water quality of the Pearl River was good, however some sections of its tributaries
were polluted. 49. 5% of the river system could meet Grade and of the Water Quality Standards
and 31. 2% could meet Grade and 19.3% belonged to Grade and The major pollution indicators
were ammonia nitrogen, permanganate index and arsenides.

   Water pollution of the Huaihe River was very conspicuous. During the low water flow season
the pollution of water was very serious and the heavily polluted sections of the river had extended
to the upper stream. As for those tributaries where the pollution control were regarded as
priorities, the degree of exceeding Standards were decreased. 17. 6% of the River system could
meet Grade I and 11 of the Water Quality Standards, 31. 2% could meet Grade III of the
Standards and 5l.2% belonged to Grade TV and V. The major pollution indicators were ammonia
nitrogen and permanganate index. Ying and Yi Rivers sometimes could reach Grade IV and V.

   Water pollution in Songhuajiang River system and Liaohe River system was very serious. The
major pollution indicators of Songhuajiang River system were total mercury, permanganate index,
ammonia nitrogen and volatile phenols. The section Tongjiang suffered heavily from the pollution
of total mercury and its water quality was worse than all years in the past. The pollution of Liaohe
River system was very serious during the dry season and the water quality of all the sections
which flowed through cities had exceeded Grade of the Surface Water Standards. For the whole
water system, those which was in compliance with the Grade and of the Standards accounted for
only 2. 9%, 24. 3% met the Grade and 72.8% belonged to Grade and . The major pollution
indicators were ammonia nitrogen, permanganate index, volatile phenols, copper, cyanides and
sometimes mercury also exceeded the Standards.

   Haihe River system had suffered heavy pollution for a long time. Some important resources of
surface water had been polluted or were facing the threat of being polluted. Taking reservoirs into
consideration, only 39. 7 %of the river system could be in compliance with Grade and of Water
Quality Standards, l9.2% could meet Grade and 41. I % belonged to Grade and . The major
pollution indicators were ammonia nitrogen, permanganate index, BOD andvolatile phenols.
Except for Juma River and theDouhe,MiyLin.Huairou,Huangblzhuang, Panjiakou, Zhailgz(-, and
Wangkuai Reservoirs where water quality were good, the sections of other large and small sized
rivers and rescrvoirs in the river basin were polluted by and large.

   Water quality in Zhejiang and Fujian was fairiv good, but a few sections of the rivers were
polluted. In terms of water quality , 40. 7 % were in compliance with Grade and Standards, 31.
8% met Grade and 27. 5% belonged to Grade and . Ammonia nitrogen was the major pollution

  Water quality of the inland rivers in China was good. Affected by natural and geographical
conditions, the total hardness and chlorides contents were above the normal levels. In terms of
water quality, 63. 5%met Grade and Standards, 25. 4% were in compliance with Grade
Standards and II. I % belonged to Grade and Standards.

2. 2 Urban Sections of Rivers
  According to the statistics on 138 city river sections, 133 city river sections were polluted to a
varying degree, representing 96. 4% of the target rivers. There were 53 sections with water
quality exceeding Grade Standards, 27 section,; belonging to Grade V, 26 sections belonging to
Grade Standards and 32 sections belonging to Grade and , representing 38. 4% , 19. 6% 18. 8%
and 23. 2% of the total statistical river system respectively. The major pollution indicators were oil
and permanganate index. Suspended Solids exceeding standards could be seen universally.

2. 3 Urban Underground Water

   The quality of underground water in cities were good by and large. In comparison with that of
last year, the underground water quality of most cities was stabilized or turned for better. The
situation of marine water back flow did not changed very much for coastal cities.

   According to statistics, taking both cities as well as suburbs into consideration, the total amount
of exploitation of underground water for 80 large and medium-sized cities was 7.9 billion M3 . The
contradiction between the demand and supply for underground water was alleviated. The level of
underground water in Beijing, Harbin, Shijlazhuang, Baoding, Shenyang, Changzhou and Suzhou
rose to a certain degree, especially for Changzhou, whose level had risen by 2.68 meters, which
had not happened for many years. But in Zibo of Shangdong Province and Cangzhou of Hebei
Province, the over-extraction of underground water was still a serious problem. With the great
increase of annual precipitation, the taper area of the deep underground water expanded twice as
largeas that in last year and reached 2,225 km .

2. 4 Lakes and Reservoirs

   Lakes and reservoirs were polluted universally. The pollution of total phosphorous and total
nitrogen was found extensively and organic pollution covered vast areas. In a few lakes and
reservoirs heavy metal pollution could be found as well.
   The major pollutants for freshwater reservoirs were total phosphorous and nitrogen and the
primary environmental issue was eutrophication. The pollution from oxygen consumed organic
matters was seriously conspicuous yet heavy metal pollution was not so obvious. Chaohu Lake
suffered a serious pollution of total phosphorous and nitrogen, and was heavily eutrophicated.
The major pollution indicators of Dianchi Lake were total phosphorous, nitrogen and
permanganate index. The water quality of Eastern Taihu Iake was still good and the tributaries
that entered into the lakes was also fair in terms of the water quality, which reached Grades -IV
of the Standards of Surface Water. however, along the rivers, the banks were polluted heavily,
among which eutrophication and organic pollution were very serious in Wulihu and Meilianghu
lake. The major pollution indicators were total nitrogen and phosphorous.
   For all the large reservoirs, the major pollution indicators were total nitrogen and phosphorous.
Shimen Reservoir suffered from pollution relatively heavily, Menlou Reservoir suffered less and
Xin' anj'lang Reservoir suffered least. Fenhe Reservoir experienced relatively serious heavy
metal pollution.

2. 5 Marine Areas

  Pollution in the four major marine areas still happened in near shore sea waters and presented
a deteriorating trend. The major pollution indicators were in organic nitrogen, inorganic
phosphorous and mineral oil. The inorganic nitrogen exceeded Grade I of Sea Water Quality
Standards by the ratios as follows: Dong hai Sea 83%, Bohai Sea 60% , Huanghai Sea 58% ,
Nanhal Sea 52%. Inorganic phosphorous exceeded Grade I of Sea Water Quality Standards by
the ratios as follows:

    Donghai 77% , Bohai 49% , Huanghai47% and Nanhal 20%. Oil exceeded Grade I Standards
by the ratios as follows: Bohai 64% , Huanghai 53% , Nan-hai 33% and Donghai 18%. The sea
areas of Zhujiang Estuary was still one of the most heavily polluted areas among the near shore
seas. Inorganic nitrogen, inorganic phosphorous and oil exceeded the Standards universally, and
the phenomenon of pH value and dissolved oxygen exceeding the Standards could also be
found. The inorganic nitrogen, phosphorous and oil in Jiaozhou Gulf areas exceeded the
Standardsalsopervasively. The inorganic nitrogen and phosphorousin Estuary of Yangtze River,
Hangzhou Gulf, Zhoushan Fishery Site, Zhejiang Coastal area and Liaodong Gulf also
universallyexceededtheStandards.Inorgamenitrogen and oil pollution exceeding the standard in
Dalian Gulf and Jinzhou Gulf were also relatively serious.

3. Urban Noise

   According to the monitoring of 44 cities of the State-Controlled-Network, the equivalent sound
level of regional environmental noise was between 51. 5 -65.8 dB (A) and the average equivalent
sound level (areas weighted average)was56.8 dB(A). Among these, the five cities (Luoyang,
Datong, Kaifeng, Haikou and Lanzhou) exceeded 6OdB(A) of the equivalent sound level of
regional environmental noise.

   According to the monitoring of 49 cities of the State-Controlled-Network, the equivalent sound
level of road traffic noise was between 68. 0~76. 3dB (A) and the average equivalent sound level
road (length weighted) was 71. 1 dB(A) , among which Kaifeng of Henan Province suffered most
with highest figure of 76.3dB(A).

   For the cities within the State-Controlled-Network, the ratios of exceeding the maximum limit
for different functional areas were as follows: special residential areas 81. 8% ; residential,
cultural and educational areas 63. O% ; mixing areas (residential , commercial and industrial) 60.
5 % ; industrial areas 30. 4 % and areas along the main traffic road82.2%.

4. Forest, Grassland and Desertification Land

   Currently China has a forested area of 133. 7 million hectares, with the forest coverage rate up
to 13. 92% of the total land area of the country and the forest stock amounting to II. 78z') billion
cubic meters. According to the survey con ducted in 1996, the amount of forest resources
consumption of the whole country in 1995 was 301-861 million cubic meters and the amount of
bamboo consumption 496. 15 million pieces(Taiwan and Xizang uncovered in the survey). The
survey indicated that the increase in forest stock continues to surpass the consumption of forest

   In 1996, 5,005 forest fires happened with 186,666. 2 hectares of forest areas affected. The rate
of the forest areas affected by the forest fire had been decreased to below 0. 75‰ , maintaining a
nine consecutire years record of lowest level in history. The total area of the forest affected by the
forest pest disease was 6. 62 million hectares, a slight decrease compared with that in the
previous year .The area of the forest under pest control was 4.263 million hectares, accounting
for 64%of the total area fo the forest affected by the pest disease,a slight decrease over that of
the previous year.

   In 1996, the area of the forest in 11 provinces in north China affected by the grassland rats and
insect pests was 39. 31 million hectares, among which the area affected by the rats accounted for
78. 7% and that by the pests for 21. 3% exceeding not only the critical density for control but also
the disaster causing area by 23.4 million hectares, compared with the previous year there was 9.
3% increase. The area under control of grassland rats and pests was 4. 54 million hectares, with
the area under rat control coming up to 3. 336 million hectares and that under pest control to I.
206 million hectares, with the total area under control increased by 0. 53 million hectares, 13. 2Yo
upper over that of the previous year. It was estimated that a loss of I. 07 billion kilograms of grass
for grazing, which was worth 184 million yuan, was avoided through rat and pest control. In this
case, the ratio of input to output was I : 5. 5. There were two hundred and seventy-nine grassland
fires happened, among which 17 were major fires and 11 very big fires. The area of the grassland
affected by these fires was I. 384 million hectares and the casualty and injury of livestock as a
result of these fires amounted to 10,676 heads. Compared with that in the previous year, the area
affected by grassland fires increased by 0. 864 million hectares.

  By the end of 1996, the area of landdesertification in China had reached2.
622millionsquarekilometers, accounting for 27. 3%fthetotallandareaofthecountry. The area of
salinizedlandwas44.086millionhectares, among which S. 784 million hectares of arable land were

5. Climate Change and Natural Disasters

   In 1996, there was a good distribution of sun shine, heat and rainfall during the seasons critical
for the growth of agricultural crops. The climatic conditions in general fell into that better than
normal years in terms of agricultural production. The annual average temperature was generally
slightly higher in the northern part of the country and lower in-the southern part of the country.
Compared with the temperature of the same period, the winter temperature of north and
northeast China was I to 2° C higher. In most parts of Heilongjiang Province, the temperature was
3 to 4° c higher than normal. In north China, there had been warm winters for ten consecutive
years. The annual precipitation in most of the parts of the country was close to or a little higher
than the average annual level. Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province had the rainfall twice as much as the
averageamount last year. During the rainy season I the frequency of heavy rain and rainstorm
was very high in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. According to the statistics,
the precipitation during June and July in most of these areas ranged from 350 to 650 millimeters.
In western and northern parts of Hunan Province, eastern part of Hubei Province, southern part of
Anhui Province, eastern part of Guizhou Province, northern part of Guangxi Autonomous Region
and southeastern part of Sichuan Province, the precipitation was as high as 700 to 1,000
millimeters, with local rainfall in some parts even exceeding 1,000 mm. The precipitation in
Anqing, Anhui Province, Kaili, Guizhou Province, Chongqing and Peiling, Sichuan Province and
some other areas, reached the highest level of the same period in the past forty years. Yuan
River, Zi River and Dongting Lake in the Yangtze River Basin, some river sections in the middle
reach of the Yangtze River and Liu River in the Pearl River Basin witnessed the highest water
level in history according to the on-site monitoring and measurement.

   In 1996, various meteorological disasters happened frequently, in particular the floods as a
result of heavy rainfall, which caused the disasters widely and ,severely and 1996 to be one of
the few years of severe disasters since 1949. In mid-July. a historically unprecedented flood
happened inundating more than 20counties and cities in Xinjiang. In early August, a strongest
rainstorm attacked north China since it entered the flooding season. The precipitation on the ten
days basis in central, southern parts of north China and southern parts of northeast China ranged
in general from 100 to 250 mm, one to three times more than that of the same period in a normal
year. The precipitation in Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province was as high as 471 mm, five times more
than the annual average. Huayuankou located in the lower reach of the Yellow River witnessed
the highest water level in history. Ziya River, Zhangwei River and Daqlng River in the Haihe River
Basin experienced the biggest flood in the past thirty three years. The upper reach of Hutuo River
witnessed an extremely big flood which had never hap pened in the past hundred years. In early
November, heavy rains and rainstorms occurred widely in most of the parts in Huaihe River and
Hanhe River Basins and the western parts of the southern region of the lower reaches of the
Yangtze River, with the precipitation on ten days basis coming up to 100 to 160 mm, three to five
times more than that of the same period in a normal year and even six to eight times more than in
local parts, which led to the Autumn flood in main stream of Huaihe River rarely seen since 1949
and the biggest flood in Wuhan section of Han River at the same period in history.

  This year there were seven typhoons attacking China. According to incomplete statistics from
Guandong Province and Guangxi Autonomous Region which were more severely affected by
typhoons, the direct economic losses caused by the typhoons exceeded 20 billion yuan. In terms
of geological disaster, the level of 1996 was intermediate. The casualties and injuries resulting
from such abruptly occurring accidents as collapses, landslide and mud-rock flows were 1,029
and 7,689 respectively.

6. Industrial Pollution

6.1 Industries at the County and Above Level

   The emission of pollutants from industrial waste gases was decreased in 1996. The emission
of soot was 7. 58 million tons, 9. 5% lower than last year. The emission of ash and dust was 5. 62
million tons, 12. 1% decrease from that of the previous year. The emission of sulfur dioxide was
13. 97 million tons, the level similar to that of the previous year.

   The discharge of industrial waste water was 20. 59 billion tons, 7. 2% lower than the previous
year. The treated amount of industrial waste water was 23. 87 billion tons and the discharged
industrial waste water meeting discharged standard amounted to 12. 17 billion tons. The contents
of COD and heavy metals in discharged industrial waste water were 7. 04 million tons and 1, 541
tons, 8. 4 % and 14. 3% decrease respectively from that of the previous year. The emission of
arsenic was 1,132 tons, 4. 2% increase over the previous year. The discharge of 'de, volatile
phenol and mineral oil was 2,457 tons, D',710 tons and 60,947tons ,1.8% ,10.0%and5% dicrease
respectively from that of the jprevious year . The discharge of TSP and sulfurer was 7.8million
tons and 32 thousand tons respectively.

  The generation of industrial solid waste in 1996 was 660 million tons, 20million tons more
generated than the previous year, among which there were 10 miIlion tons of hazardous waste.
The discharge of industrial solid waste was 16. 9 million tons, among which 0. 22 million tons of
hazardous wastes was discharged. The amount of industrial solid waste accumulated year by
year was 6. 49 billion tons, 150 million tons less than the previous year g which occupies the land
area of 51,680 hectares.

6.2 Village and Township Industries

    Since 1990's, the village and township industries in China had witnessed a rapid growth. Its
share of gross national industrial output value rose from 23.8% in 1989 to 42. 5% in 1995. .
Consequently, the discharge of pollutants from the village and township industries tended on
rapid rise. According to the preliminary results of the survey of the sources of pollution from the
village and township industries of the whole country jointly undertaken by the National
Environmental Protection Agency, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and the
State Statistics Bureau during 1996-1997, the emission of sulfur dioxide from the village and
township enterprises in 1995 was 5. 49 million tons, accounting for 28. 2% of the total SO2 ,
emission from the industries of the country of the year. The emission of industrial soot was 9. 93
million tons, accounting for 54. 2% of the total emission of industrial soot of the country. The
discharge of industrial ash and dust from the village and township industries was 1.3-58 million
tons - accounting for 68. 3% of the national sum. The content of COD in the waste water
discharged from the village and township industries was 6. 7 million tons, accounting for 46. 5%
of the total amount of COD discharged from the country. The generation of solid waste from
village and township enterprises was 410 million tons - accounting for 38. 6% of the country total
produced that year. The preliminary result of the survey indicated that the discharge of pollutants
from the village and township industries had become an important factor to the environmental
pollution of the country and tended still growing rapidly. (The final results as authoritative to be
presented in the Report of the Survey of the Sources of Pollution from the Village and Township
Industries of the Country)

7. Environmental Pollution Accidents and Associated Economic Losses

   In 1996, there were I, 446 industrial pollution accidents happened all over the country, 517
fewer than the previous year; Among others, there were 667 accidents caused by waste water
pollution, 355 fewer than the previous year; 585 air pollution accidents caused by waste gases,
147 fewer than the previous year. 38 accidents caused by solid wastes pollution, 32 fewer than
the previous year and 39 accidents by noise pollution, one fewer than the previous year. Among
all these accidents, there were 42 super major accidents and 31 major accidents , 14 and 53
fewer respectively than the previous year.

7.2 Fishery Pollution Accidents and Associated Economic Losses

   According to incomplete statistics, there were 753 accidents on fishery areas pollution
happened in 1996, which led to the pollution of 149 thousand hectares of fish cultivation areas a
loss of 28 thousand tons of fishery products and an economic loss of 170 million yuan, among
which there was a loss of 90 million yuan from fresh water fishery products and of 80 million yuan
from sea water.

8. Environmental Pollution and Human Health

Environment is one of the four major factors affecting human health and mortality. In 1996, the
total mortality rate of the country was 656 out of 100,000 population, a slight decrease from the
previous year. The mortality rate of the urban population was 604 out of 100,000 persons, 655 for
male and 552 for female. The mortality rate of the rural population was 639 out of 100, 000
persons, 691 for male and 585 for female. The rate of death from cancers in urban areas was 131
out of 100,000 persons, 160 for male and 101 for female. The death rate of cancers in rural areas
was 105 out of 100, 000 persons, 130 for male and 78 for female. The rate of death from
respiratory diseases in urban areas ranked the fourth among all the causes of death, with the rate
of 92 out of 100,000 persons, while in rural areas, the respiratory disease ranked the first, with
the death rate coming up to 161 out of 100,000 persons. According to the ,statistics found in 29
provinces, autonomous regions and big municipalities, there were 65 environmental pollution
accidents happened in 1996, among which 28 caused by chemical pollutants and 26 by biological
pollutants. The number of the people affected by these accidents came up to 511, 124, out of
which 4305 were afflicted with disease. Among these illed people, 916 persons suffered from
typhoid, 847 from dysentery, 977 from hepatitis and 1124 from gastrointestinal infections
diseases. And ten persons died as a result of pollution accidents. As to the causes of these
pollution accidents, 41. 5% was attributed to the pollution from municipal waste water and 33. 8%
to the industrial pollution.

1. The statistics used by this report do not include those in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao
except forthose specifically noted.

2. The statistics in this report was provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Forestry,
the Ministry of Water Resources, the Ministry of Construction, the Ministry of Geology and
Minerals, the Ministry of Health, the China Meteorological Administration, the State Oceanic
Administration and the Na tional Environmental Protection Agency.

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