Passage 1 - DOC

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Passage 1
        When dining in restaurants, Americans usually order drinks first, then soup, salad, main
course or entree, and dessert at last. This is somewhat a different order way from that in Europe.
        Until about the middle of the nineteenth century, Americans didn't have to worry about
whether the salad came before, or after the main course since they didn' t eat salad at all.
Chomping on greens was once considered sissy, and Americans preferred to get their greens
indirectly, after they had been processed by rabbits or deer. The shift of public taste toward the
salad may be attributed to New York's Delmonico brothers, who originally introduced
smorgasbord from Europe, and served it in their resmnmnt. Such novelties became so popular that
by the end of the nineteenth century, the Waldorf salad has swept the country.
        Europeans still chomp on greens after the main course, as a way of clearing the palate, and
being ready for the cheese. Why Americans eat their salad first is uncertain. The following joking
suggestions might make sense: the custom may be related to the slimming craze, for "salad first"
may fill you up without any worry about fattening; to avoid customers' impatience with waiting,
the restaurant serves salad first to keep them busy while the main courses are being prepared;
eating raw food while one is waiting for the cooked food may be a way of announcing that one is
not wasting time, which is seen as a virtue; or probably unfair to the restaurant, this custom has
been encouraged by the merchant as a trick--the meagerness of a meal is less noticeable if it
comes after "free" salad-after all, rabbit food is much cheaper than the rabbit.
1. In American restaurants, people are usually served in the order of __________.
   A) soup, salad, main course, drinks and dessert
   B) drinks, salad, main course, soup and dessert
   C) drinks, soup, salad, main course and dessert
   D) drinks, soup, main course, salad and dessert
2. Before the middle of the nineteenth century, ____________.
   A) Americans ate the salad before the main course
   B) Americans ate the salad after the main course
   C) Americans ate the salad either before or after the main course
   D) Americans didn't eat the salad at all
3. The sentence "Americans preferred to get their greens indirectly, after they had been
processed by rabbits or deer" (Line 3, Para. 2) means ____________.
   A) Americans preferred to eat vegetables cooked with rabbits or deer
   B) Americans preferred vegetables digested by rabbits or deer
   C) Americans preferred meat to vegetables
   D) Americans preferred vegetables to meat
4. In the last sentence of the passage, "rabbit food" refers to __________.
    A) the salad                     B)food made of rabbit meat
    C) junk food                    D)food prepared for the rabbit
5.Which of the following statements is true?
    A) Salad first appeared in America, and then was introduced to Europe.
    B) The American tradition of eating salad before the main course was formed mainly for the
         sake of health.
C) In less than fifty years, salad became popular throughout the United States.
D) Serving salad before the entrée by the restaurants is a way of cheating the diners.

Passage 2
           A good marriage means growing as a couple but also growing as individuals. This
isn't easy; marriage has always been difficult. Why then are we seeing so many divorces at this
time? Yes, our modern social fabric is thin, and yes, the permissiveness of society has created
unrealistic expectations and thrown the family into disorder. But divorce is so common
because people today are unwilling to exercise the self-discipline that marriage requires. They
expect easy joy, like the entertainment on TV, the thrill of a good party.
        Marriage takes some kind of sacrifice, not dreadful self-sacrifice of the soul, but some
level of compromise. Some of one's fantasies, some of one' s legitimate desires, have to be
given up for the value of the marriage itself. "While all marital partners feel shackled at times,
it is they who really choose to make the marital ties into confining chains or supporting
bonds," says Dr. Whitaker, "Marriage requires sexual, financial and emotional discipline. A
man and a woman cannot follow every impulse, cannot allow them to stop growing or
changing".
        A divorce is not an evil act. Sometimes it provides salvation for people who have grown
hopelessly apart or are frozen in patterns of pain or mutual unhappiness. Divorce can be like
the first cut of the surgeon's knife, a step toward new health and a good life. On the other hand,
if the partners can stay past the breaking up of the romantic myths into the development of real
love and intimacy, they have achieved a work as amazing as the greatest cathedrals of the
world. Marriages that do not fail but in, rove, that persist despite imperfections, are not only
rare these days but offer a wondrous shelter in which the face of our mutual humanity can
safely show itself.
1. According to the author, an ideal marriage life _________.
    A) requires considerable sacrifice on both partners
   B) requires that the couple be emotionally involved
    C) allows for the growth of the husband and wife as a couple and as two individuals
    D)is only an illusion in today's society
2. The word "legitimate" most probably means ___________.
    A) lawful             B) biological     C)personal          D)reasonable
3. The second paragraph is mainly about __________.
    A)the importance of serf-restraint on the parts of the husband and the wife
    B) the sacrifice man should make to contribute to housework
    C) the tolerance on the part of the wife of her husband's misbehavior
    D) the difference in value put on marriage between the husband and the wife
4. In the author's opinion, a divorce is not an evil act __________.
    A) if the marital life is imperfect
    B) if it leads to a more worthwhile life for the two persons
    C) if the couple later gets married again and finds real love
    D) if the couple lives far away from each other
5. The author believes the real cause for the increase of divorces today lies in that _________.
    A) people have too many sources of entertainment
  B) people have leas internal restraints
  C) people no longer enjoy family life as they did before
  D) people do not want to be confined by marital ties

Passage 3
      The American common school differed from the European school in that it was from the
outset an expression of the desire on the part of the American colonies to develop a type of
intellectual freedom not prevalent in Europe. There was a further characteristic of the
American common school, which distinguished itself from its European predecessors. The
school was, from the beginning, controlled by local authority. Communities were indeed
compelled by early legislation in the colonies to maintain educational institution of some kind
for the young people, but the details of organization were left to the communities.
       We find that there was the greatest variety in the method of controlling these schools. In
New England the town meeting determined the policy of the school. It set the salary of the
teacher, and very frequently went so far as to select teachers, although it commonly delegated
supervision of the school to a trustee or to a committee. This committee often included the
pastor of the church and one or more of the leading citizens.
1. One of the major differences between American and European schools was __________.
   A) that American schools were colonial and therefore were under European control
   B) that American schools desired to be expressive
   C) that American schools emphasized the need of intellectual freedom
   D) that American schools were for common citizens while European schools were for no-
       bles.
2. The word "prevalent" (Sentence 1, Para. 1 )in this passage means ___________.
   A) current "           B) famous            C) notorious             D) acceptable
3. Another distinctive quality of American schools was that ___________.
   A) the local government was free to organize its own educational system
   B) the local government was compelled to follow the central authority
   C) each community was free to decide whether to provide education or not
   D) the school was controlled by the federal government
4. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
   A) Each community differed in the method of controlling the schools.
   B) The salary of the teacher was determined by the local authority.
   C)The supervising committee of the school was often composed of church people and
      some important figures of the town.
   D) All communities carried the same principle in organizing these schools.
5. What is the passage mainly about?
   A)The intellectual development of American schools.
   B) The independence of American schools from Europe.
   C) The central control of American schools.
   D) The role of local authority in American schools.

Passage 4
    Now custom has not been commonly regarded as a subject of arty great importance.
The inner workings of our own brains we feel to be uniquely worthy of investigation, but
custom, we have a way of thinking, is behavior at its most commonplace. As a matter of fact,
it is the other way around. Traditional custom, taken the world over, is a mass of detailed
behavior more astonishing than what any one person can ever evolve in individual actions. Yet
that is a rather trivial aspect of the matter. The fact of first-rate importance is the predominant
role that custom plays in experience and in belief and the very great varieties it may manifest.
      No man ever looks at the world with pristine eyes. He sees it edited by a definite set of
customs and institutions and ways of thinly. Even in his philosophical probing he cannot go
behind these stereotypes; his very concepts of the true and the false will still have reference to
his particular traditional customs. John Dewey has said in all seriousness that the part played
by custom in shaping the behavior of the individual as over against any way in which he can
affect traditional custom, is as the proportion of the total vocabulary of his mother tongue over
against those words of his own baby talk that are taken up into the language of his family.
When one seriously studies social orders that have had the opportunity to develop
independently, the figure becomes no more than an exact and matter-of-fact observation. The
life history of the individual is first and foremost an adjustment to the patterns and standards
traditionally handed down in his community. From the moment of his birth the customs into
which he is born shape his experience and behavior. By the time he can talk, he is the little
creature of his culture, and by the time he is grown and able to take part in its activities, its
habits are his habits, its beliefs are his beliefs, and its impossibilities are his impossibilities.
1. The author thinks the mason why custom has been ignored in the academic world is that
_________.
   A) custom reveals only the superficial nature of human behavior
   B) the study of social orders can replace the study of custom
   C) people are still not aware of the important role that custom plays in forming our world
       outlook
   D) custom has little to do with our ways of thinking
2. Which of the following is TRUE according to John Dewey?
   A)An individual can exercise very little influence on the culture tradition into which he
       is born.
   B) custom is the direct result of the philosophical probing of a group of people.
   C)An individual is strongly influenced by the culture tradition even before he is born.
   D) custom represents the collective wisdom, which benefits the individual.
3. The word "custom" in this passage most probably means __________.
   A) the concept of the true and the false of a society
   B) the independently developed social orders
   C) the adjustment of the individual to the new social environment
   D) the patterns and standards of behavior of a community
4. According to the passage a person' s life, from his birth to his death, ___________.
   A) is constantly shaping his cultural tradition of his people ..
   B) is predominated by traditional custom
   C) is continually influenced by the habits of other communities
   D) is chiefly influenced by the people around him
5. The author' s purpose in writing this passage is
      A) to urge individuals to follow traditional customs
      B) to stress the strong influence of customs on an individual
      C) to examine the interaction of man and social customs
      D) to show man's adjustment to traditional customs

    Passage5
The advantages and disadvantages of a large population have long been a subject of discussion
among economists. It has been argued that the supply of good land is limited. To feed a large
population, inferior land must be cultivated and the good land worked intensively. Thus, each
person produces less and this means a lower average income than could be obtained with a smaller
population. Other economists have argued that a large population gives more scope for
specialization and the development of facilities such as ports, roads and railways, which are not
likely to be built unless there is a big demand to justify them.
     One of the difficulties in carrying out a worldwide birth control program lies in the fact that
official attitudes to population growth vary from country to country depending on the level of
industrial development and the availability of food and raw materials. In a developing country
where a vastly expanded population is pressing hard upon the limits of food, space and natural
resources, it will be the first concern of government to place a limit on the birthrate, whatever the
consequences may be. In a highly industrialized society the problem may be more complex. A
decreasing birthrate may lead to unemployment because it results in a declining market for
manufactured goods. When the pressure of population on housing declines, prices also decline and
the building industry is weakened. Faced with considerations such as these, the government of a
developed country may well prefer to see a slowly increasing population, rather than one which is
stable or in decline.

1. A large population may mean _________.
     A) higher productivity, but a lower average income
     B) lower productivity, but a higher average income
     C) higher productivity and a higher average income
     D) lower productivity and a lower average income
2. A large population may offer more scope for the development of _________.
     A) economy
     B) extensive cultivation
     C) transportation
     D) Agriculture

3. In highly industrialized countries, unemployment may result from _________.
      A) a decreasing birthrate
      B) an increasing birthrate
      C) a stable birthrate
      D) a birth control program
4. What may the government of a developed country prefer?
      A) A rapidly increasing population.
      B) A slowly increasing population.
    C) A rapidly decreasing population.
    E) A slowly decreasing population.
5. Why is it difficult to carry out a worldwide birth control program?
    A) Because it will do harm to the national economy in most countries.
    B) Because it will lead to complex social problems in developing countries.
    C) Because people are unwilling to practice birth control.
    D) Because different governments have different opinions.

     Passage 6
   After the violent earthquake that shook Los Angeles in 1994, earthquake scientists had good
news to report: The damage and death toll could have been much worse.
   More than 60 people died in this earthquake. By comparison, an earthquake of similar intensity
that shook America in 1988 claimed 25,000 victims.
   Injuries and deaths were relatively less in Los Angeles because the earthquake occurred at 4:31
a.m. on a holiday, when traffic was light on the city’s highways. In addition, changes made to the
construction codes in Los Angeles during the last 20 years have strengthened the city’s buildings
and highways, making them more resistant to quakes.
   Despite the good news, civil engineers aren’t resting on their success. Pinned to their drawing
boards are blueprints for improved quake-resistant buildings. The new designs should offer even
greater security to cities where earthquakes often take place.
   In the past, making structures quake-resistant meant firm yet flexible materials, such as steel,
and wood, that bend without breaking. Later people tried to lift a building off its foundation, and
insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation to reduce the impact of ground
vibrations. The most recent designs give buildings brain as well as concrete(混凝土) and steel
supports. Called smart buildings, the structures respond like living organisms(生物体) to an
earthquake’s vibrations. When the ground shakes and the building tips forward, the computer
would force the building to shift in the opposite direction.
   The new smart structures could be very expensive to build. However, they would save many
lives and would be less likely to be damaged during earthquakes.
1. One reason why the loss in the Los Angeles earthquake was relatively low is that
       _____________.
   A) the earthquake was forecasted early
   B) it took place in the early morning
   C) most people in Los Angeles had left the city
   D) the earthquake was much less intense
2. What does the phrase “resting on their success” in paragraph 4 mean?
   A) Having a vacation after achieving the success.
   B) Being satisfied with their success and doing nothing more.
   C) Being unaware of the success achieved.
   D) Being responsible for the success.
3. The smart building mentioned in the passage would _______________.
   A) be treated like living organisms
   B) balance itself in an earthquake
   C) no longer need steel, wood or rubber
   D)reduce the ground vibrations caused by the earthquake
4. It can be inferred from the passage that to make the loss minimal we should ____________.
      A) build smart buildings
      B) lift the building off its foundation
      C) use more firm yet flexible materials
      D)reduce the impact of ground vibrations
5. The purpose of this passage is to ______________.
       A) compare different quake-resistant building materials
       B) advocate the extensive use of computers in construction
       C) inform people of the damages caused by earthquakes
       D) report the new progress in designing quake-resistant buildings

     Passage 7
   The reasons for a person's becoming an alcoholic have often been debated by psychologists
and other social scientists. But recent studies suggest that the problem of alcoholism should also
be the focus of investigation by biologists.
   While such things as hard jobs, boredom, and unhappiness can lead to alcoholism, researchers
at a prominent university have found that there may also be a genetic factor involved in
alcoholism. In the study, children of alcoholic parents were more likely to become alcoholics
themselves than were children of non-drinking parents.
   This evidence in itself is not conclusive about anything. After all, it may be the constant
exposure and easy access to alcohol that cause the children of alcoholics to become alcoholics
themselves. But there is more evidence. The study found that children born to alcoholic parents
but raised by non-drinking foster parents also were susceptible to alcoholism. This group of
offspring was more likely to take up drinking than youngsters who were born of and raised by
non-drinking parents.
   Other evidence found in the study suggests that environment does not play as important a role
in the development of alcoholism as had been previously thought. The study found that the
likelihood of alcoholism was better predicted from the characteristics of the parents than from
such environmental characteristics as type of job or level of income.

1. The main point of the passage is to describe a study in which _________.
   A) the environmental factors of alcoholism were examined
   B) the link between income level and alcoholism was examined
   C) the link between genetic makeup and alcoholism was examined
   D) the problem of teenage drinking in general was examined
2. According to the study, who would be most likely to become an alcoholic?
   A) A person who has a hard job.
   B) A person who was raised by non-drinking parents.
   C) A person who was born to non-drinking parents.
   D) A person who was born to alcoholic parents.

3. The passage implies that the problem of alcoholism should be treated as a(n) ________
   problem.
    A) environmental          B) biological          C) social        D) economic
4. The word "susceptible" (line 4, paragraph 3) most probably means _________.
    A) prone           B) immune             C) resistant           D) opposed
5. According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE?
   A) The likelihood of alcoholism can be best predicted from environmental characteristics.
   B) Environment no longer plays an important role in the development of alcoholism.
   C) Children whose foster parents do not drink will be unlikely to take up drinking.
   D) Children of alcoholics are very likely to become alcoholics themselves.


    Passage 8
      Sports fans all over the world recognize the name Michael Jordan. From Taiwan to Tennessee,
kids wear clothes with his picture on them. Jerseys(球服) with his number 23 on the front, jackets
with the Bulls logo on the back, and Air Jordan athletic shoes all reflect the fame of this superstar.
Michael Jordan has become the most famous attraction of the world’s favorite spectator sport.
      Michael Jordan was born in 1963 in Brooklyn, New York. Growing up, Michael did not look
like a future superstar. He was very shy and didn’t like to talk to other people about himself. He
was also very short. He showed little promise of having a future career in basketball. When he
tried out for the freshman team in high school, Michael didn’t make it. The next year, however,
after a large growth spurt, he made the team. The rest is history.
      Michael’s road to fame began at the University of North Carolina. He brought an
acrobatic(杂技的) style to the game that few had seen before. Michael used his quickness and
strength to reach the basket again and again. He became famous for his powerful slam dunk.
Basketball fans from all over the world began to take notice. One reporter wrote that when
Michael went up to dunk the basketball, it looked like he could fly. He was given the nickname
“Air Jordan”.
1. Kids all over the world wear things related to Jordan, ______ is not mentioned in the passage.
    A) shoes               B) jerseys            C) jackets               D) sockets
2. Jordan once didn’t seem to promise to be a superstar because ______.
    A) he was too shy B) he kept from others C) he was short D) he was poor
3. Jordan grew much taller ______.
    A) after he joined NBA                   B) in the first year in high school
    C) in the second year in high school D) in the first year in college

4. Which is not mentioned as one of Jordan’s advantages?
    A) Quickness.          B) Strength.        C) Skills.      D) Height.
5. When did the name “Air Jordan” become well-known?
    A) After a reporter compared his dunk to flying.
    B) After he won the “Most Valuable Player” in NBA.
    C) In his freshman year in the university.
     D) In his first year in NBA.

    Passage 9
Do you find getting up in the morning so difficult that it's painful? This might be called
laziness, but Dr. Kleitman has a new explanation. He has proved that everyone has a daily
energy cycle.
          During the hours when you labor through your work you may say that you are "hot".
That's tree. The time of day when you feel most energetic (精力充沛的) is when your cycle of
body temperature is at this peak (高峰). For some people the peak comes during the morning. For
others it comes in the afternoon or evening. No one has discovered why this is so, but it leads to
such familiar words as: "Get up, John! You'll be late for work again!" The possible explanation
to the trouble is he is at his temperature-and-energy peak in the evening. Much family quarrelling
ends when husbands and wives realize what these energy cycles mean, and which cycle each
member of the family has.
        You can't change your energy cycle, but you can learn to make your life fit it better. Habit
can help, Dr. Kleitman believes. Maybe you're sleepy in the evening but feel you must stay up late
anyway. Counteract (对抗) your cycle to some extent by habitually (习惯性的) staying up later
than you want to. If your energy is low in the morning but you have an important job to do early in
the day, rise before your usual hour. This won't change your cycle, but you'll get up steam and
work better at your low point. Get off to a slow start, which saves your energy. Get up with a
leisurely yawn (呵欠) and stretch. Sit on the edge of the bed a minute before putting your feet on
the floor. Avoid the troublesome search for clean clothes by laying them out the night before.
Whenever possible, do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy for
your sharper hours.

1. Dr. Kleitman thinks that__________________.
     A. getting up late in the morning means laziness
     B. if your energy peak is in the evening, you might like getting up early
     C. people can do nothing about energy cycle
     D. spending some time yawning and stretching helps to keep you energetic
2. According to the passage, family quarrels may result from__________________.
     A. the same energy cycle of family members
     B. unawareness of different energy cycles
     C. failing to get up early in the morning
     D. knowledge of energy cycles
3. If you are used to getting up late in the morning, you are likely to be most energetic________.
     A. in the morning
     B. at noon
     C. in the afternoon
     D. in the evening
4. What's the likely relationship between energy cycle and body temperature?
   A. Energy cycle and body temperature are the same things.
   B. The higher your temperature is, the less energetic you are.
   C. The higher your temperature is, the more energetic you are.
   D. There is no direct relation between them.
5. Which of the following statements is not true?
   A. One can change his energy cycle once he makes up his mind.
   B. We still don't know why people have different energy cycles.
   C. Habit will help to make our life fit energy cycles better.
  D. If you rise earlier than usual, you will be more efficient at your low point in the morning.

    Passage 10
       The forest from which man takes his timber is the tallest and most impressive plant
community on Earth. In terms of man' s brief life it appears permanent and unchanging, but to the
forester it represents the climax of a long succession of events.
       No wooded landscape we see today has been forest for all time. Plants have minimum
requirements of temperature and moisture and, in ages past, virtually every part of Earth's surface
has at some time been either too dry or too cold for plants to survive. However, as soon as climatic
conditions in favor of plant life, a fascinating sequence of changes occurs, called a primary
succession.
            First to colonize the barren land are the lowly lichens, surviving on bare rock. Slowly,
the acids produced by these organisms crack the rock surface,, plant debris accumulates, and
mosses establish a shallow root-hold. Ferns may follow and, with short grasses and shrubs,
gradually form a covering of plant life. Roots probe even deeper into the developing soil and
eventually large shrubs give way to the first trees. These grow rapidly, cutting off sunlight from
the smaller plants, and soon establish complete domination---closing their ranks and forming a
climax community which may endure for thousands of years.
         Yet even this community is not everlasting. Fire may destroy its outright and settlers may
cut it d own to gain land for pasture or cultivation. Of course the land is then abandoned, a
secondary succession will take over, developing much faster on the more hospitable soil. Shrubs
and trees are among the early invaders, their seeds carried by the wind, by birds and lodged in the
coats of mammals.
          For as long as it stands and thrives, the forest is a vast machine storing energy and many
elements essential for life.
 1. Why does the forest strike mankind as permanent?
      A)The trees are so tall.                       B).It is renewed each season.
      C) Our lives are short in comparison.          D) It is an essential part of our lives.
2. What has sometimes caused plants to die out in the past?
      A) Interference from foresters.                B) Variations in climate.
      C) The absence of wooded land.                 D) The introduction of new types of plants.
3. In a "primary succession" (Line 5, Para. 2), what makes it possible for mosses to take root?
      A) The type of rock.                           B) The amount of sunlight.
      C) The amount of enclosure.                    D) The effect of lichens.
4. What condition is needed for shrubs to become established in the "secondary succession''?
    A)Ferns must take root.
    B) Their seeds were carried to the abandoned land.
    C) More soil must accumulate.
    D) The ground must be covered with grass.
 5. Why is a "secondary succession" ( Para. 4) quicker?
       A) The ground is more suitable.             B) There is more space for new plants.
       C) Birds and animals bring new seeds. D) It is supported by the forest.
    Passage 11
   Human migrations (移居国外) within recorded history have transformed the entire character of
lands and continents and the composition of their racial, ethnic and language groups. The map of
Europe, for example, is the product of several major early migrations involving the Germanic
peoples, the Slavs, and the Turks. The overseas migration of Europeans during this period totaled
about 60 million people.
   The largest migration in history has been called the Great Atlantic Migration from Europe to
North America, the first major wave of which began in the 1840s with mass movements from
Ireland and Germany. In the 1880s a second and larger wave developed from eastern and southern
Europe; between 1880 and 1910 some 17 million Europeans entered the United States. The total
number of Europeans reaching the United States amounted to 37 million between 1820 and 1980.
From 1801 to 1914 about 7.5 million people moved from European to Asiatic Russia (i.e., Siberia),
and between World Wars I and II about 6 million more chose to move there, not counting the vast
number of deportees who were forced to go to Siberia's labor camps. Since World War II the
largest migrations have involved groups from developing countries moving to the industrialized
nations. Some 13 million people moved across borders to become permanent residents of Western
Europe from the 1960s through the 1980s, and more than 10 million permanent immigrants were
admitted legally to the United States in that same period, with illegal immigration adding several
millions more.
   Slave migrations and mass expulsions also have been part of human history for thousands of
years. The largest slave migrations were probably those compelled by European slave traders
operating in Africa from the 16th to the 19th century; perhaps 20 million slaves were taken to the
Americas, though a large number died in terrible conditions of the trip across the Atlantic Ocean.
The largest mass expulsions (驱逐) have probably been those imposed by Nazi Germany, which
deported 7 to 8 million persons during World War II (1939-45). The major trend in internal
migration during the 20th century has been the movement from rural to urban areas. As a
consequence, urban growth since World War II has been very rapid in much of the world,
particularly in developing countries.

1.What is the main idea of the passage?
   A. The map of Europe is the product of several major early migrations.
   B. Human migrations within recorded history have changed the world.
   C. The overseas migration of Europeans totaled about 60 million people
   D. The first major wave of migration began in the 1840s.
2. The following statements are true EXCEPT _____________.
   A. the largest mass expulsions have been those imposed by Nazi Germany.
   B. the largest slave migrations were compelled by European slave traders.
   C. the largest migration in history has been called the Great Atlantic Migration.
   D. between World War I and II, about 6 million people migrated to Europe.
3. How many people moved across borders to become permanent residents of Western Europe
from the 1960s through the 1980s?
   A. More than 10 million.
   B. Some 13 million.
   C. 17 million.
   D. 20 million.
4. Where did the people of the first major wave of the Great Atlantic Migration which began in the
1840s come from?
   A. From England and Germany.
   B. From Iceland and Germany.
   C. From Ireland and Germany.
   D. From Ireland and France.
5. What has been the trend of migration during the 20th century?
   A. The movement from rural to urban areas.
   B. The movement from urban to rural areas.
   C. The movement from Europe to America.
   D. The movement from Africa to America.

    Passage 12
       Evaluating employee performance is a key of management skills. The challenge is to
give the employees an accurate picture of chief accomplishments, and of the areas in which they
need to improve. Both are important accomplishments because they give the employee a sense of
pride in the work and basis on which to build future achievements, and areas for improvement,
because they give the employee some goals to roach for.
       Often, employees fear that the evaluation will be a negative experience. This fear alone can
engender defensiveness and tension, which result in a serf-fulfilling prediction. The supervisor
must take pains to relieve the employee's fear and make the evaluation a participatory event. An
employee who contributes ideas to his or her evaluation will be much more likely to agree with
the outcome and be willing to follow the recommendations.
       The employees must always bear in mind that the sole legitimate domain of an employee
appraisal system is to improve employees' performance. While areas needing improvement must
be reviewed, this should always be done in the spirit of discovering goals that the employee can
work toward. This holds true for reviewing successes as well. While praise for past achievements
may be used as reward, to engender loyalty, or for other reasons, at the time of evaluation, the
primary reason to look at the person's successes is to determine areas in which he or she can
continue to excel; perhaps, the most effective way to make the evaluation a participatory event is
to ask the employee to come prepared to the meeting. The employer and the employee each should
carefully review the job description prior to the evaluation meeting and should make notes on
areas in which the employee had difficulty or has made a contribution. At the evaluation meeting,
the employer must establish a positive and comfortable mood. The employee should be invited to
review and comfortable mood. The employee should be invited to review his or her lists first.
Almost always the employee's notes will be very similar to what the employer has written. If the
employer simply verifies what the employee has said, the employee will be much less anxious
about the procedure, and much more likely to work toward the goals.
1. Evaluation is often a negative experience because __________.
     A) the employee has defend himself
     B) the employee is tense and the employer does not relieve this
     C) the employee has done a bad job
     D) the employer is going to give up employee some goals that he cannot reach
2. Evaluation should focus on ___________.
     A) accomplishments                        B) areas that need improvement
     C) a sense of pride in the work           D) both A) and B)
3. One way to relieve employee's anxiety is ___________.
     A) to set easy goals
     B) to ask the employee to contribute ideas
     C) to praise the employee's success but say nothing of what he has not done
     D) not to invite the employee to the meeting
4. The sole legitimate domain of evaluation is to ___________.
     A) improve employees' performance
     B) tell employees how well they have done
     C) gain participation in the process
     D) tell employees what they should have done
5. The key to participatory evaluation is that both parties ___________.
     A) are comfortable in the setting
     B) get to talk
     C) contribute ideas and agree on the outcome
     D) know in which areas the employee has made a contribution



   Vocabulary and Structure
   1. The __________ man merely swallows .the theory that the earth is round because there is
      something about it that appeals to the twentieth-century mentality.
      A ) regular              B) average           C ) normal             D) usual
   2. It is hard to believe that when she was ___________ the chance to study in Paris for a year,
      Janet should have given it up.
      A) presented            B) granted          C) provided           D ) introduced
   3. To give you a general idea of our products, we enclose the catalogues showing various
      products handled by us with detailed ___________ and means of packing.
      A) specifications        B ) inspections      C ) specimens          D) specializations
   4. Let us hope that ___________ a nuclear war, the human race might still survive.
      A) in the case of                  B) at the mercy of
      C) in the event of                 D) with reference to
   5. If I could find some way of slowing my father down, I would; he is _________ far too
      much work these days.
      A)taking in           S)taking along C)taking over            D)taking on
   6. The newcomers found it impossible to __________ themselves to the climate sufficiently to
      make permanent homes in the new country.
      A) coordinate           B) adopt          C) suit    D) adapt
   7. The developments in organ transplantation have led to a far higher proportion of successful
   operations and this, ___________, has led to greater demand for transplants.
      A)in turn            B)by turn        C)at the mm         D)take turns
   8. It is _________ that the total expenses in the trial manufacture of the new products will
      come to $ 30,000.
  A) deducted           B) estimated       C) expected           D) anticipated
9.As a president, Lincoln had _________ patience and tolerance for those who disagreed
  with him and showed great generosity to his opponents.
  A)infinite              B) definite         C) magnificent          D)domestic
10. His _________ the project upset his colleagues who were trying every possible means to
  have it carried out.
    A) indifference for               B) indifference to
    C) difference from                D) lack of interest to
11. Football, baseball and basketball are __________ sports, that is, only a few people actually
  take part in them while many more only watch them.
    A) spectacle          B) spectator       C) spectacular       D) specific
12. One hundred years later, the Negro still lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst
  of a vast ocean of material ____________.
    A) prosperous         B)prospect        C)prosperity          D)preparation
13. When reformer in the northern states put pressure on Congress not to permit slavery in
      western __________ that later became states, some of the southern states wanted to
      secede from the United States.
    A ) territories       B ) terrorism       C ) terrorists        D) terrific
14.The Italian people were so civilized, so sophisticated, so down-to-earth that deep in their
  hearts, they had never, like the Germans, _________ Fascism, but had merely suffered it.
    A ) embodied            B) include            C) embraced              D) exclude
15 .A good book may absorb our attention so completely that for the time being we forget our
  surroundings and even our ________.
    A) identification      B) identity          C) identical              D) identify
15. That politician was too closely __________ with the former administration to be given a
  post in this one.
    A) identical            B) identified        C)similar     D) concerned
17. It pains me to see the sale of our company ___________, We must act promptly to make
  our products more competitive on the world market.
    A) contract            B) recoil            C) shrink      D) reflect
18. The presence of the former general at the military parade is proof that he still __________
  high respect in the army and his influence on the country's military strategy is not to be
  dismissed yet for some time to come.
    A ) commands            B) comments          C) commences             D) commends
19. She is one of those extremely old-fashioned women who will never tolerate from rules and
  traditions in any way.
    A ) department         B) indifference      C) dependence             D) departure
20. It took her quite a time to _________ the only lady in the office.
    A) get accustomed to being                 B) get used to be
    C) adapt herself to                        D) be adopted by
21. As a commander, you should not _________ the soldiers to unnecessary danger.
    A) face                 B) explode           C) present               D) expose
22. The question then ______: what are we going to do when we graduate from the university?
    A) raises            B) arouses         C) arises            D) rises
23. Beijing has ________ confident about its bid to host the 2008 Olympic Games after
  receiving good marks in an International Olympic Committee (lOC) report assessing the
  technical merits of each bid city.
    A) reasons to be                    B) a reason to be
    C) reason to be                     D) masons for being
24. Metals expand when they are heated and                    when cooled.
    A) contact                B) condense            C) contrast              D) contract
25. It must have mined last night, for the ground is wet now, ___________ it?
    A)isn't              B)wasn't          C)hasn't           D)didn't
26. The article opens and doses with description of two new reports, each __________ one
  major point in contrast with the other.
    A)makes               B)made             C)is to make         D)making
27. All things _______, her paper is of greater value than mine.
    A) having considered                B) considering
    C) being considered                 D) considered
28. About how many elements ________ make up most of the substances we meet in everyday
  life?
      A)it is that         B)is it that      C)it is which         D)is it this
29. Our national flag is __________ now.
      A)being risen         B)being raised C)raising                D)arisen
30. The construction of the new teaching building ________ by the end of this year.
      A) must be completed                          B) will complete
      C) must have been completed                   D) will have been completed
31. She become a British citizen ________ her marriage to an Englishman.
      A)by virtue of        B)by the way        C)result in          D)as a result
32. The car _________ outside the station.
      A ) pulled up          B) broke up         C) broke in            D) broke off
33. You are heading ___________ an accident if you drive after drinking.
      A)to B)for                 C)against            D) toward
34. It took a long flute for the excitement to __________.
      A)die out              B)die down            C)die off D)die
35.All the money __________ spent.
      A)have been          B)is C)are                    D)h~ being
36. His honesty is ___________ question and we trust him.
      A) beyond                         B) out of the
      C) in question                    D) called into question
37. _________ might be expected, the Christmas party will turn out to be a great success.
      A)That              B)As C)It          D)Which
38. I have told you everything ___________ I know.
      A)which             B)about that       C)that      D)all that
39.After _________ by the manager, he is asked to fill a form.
      A) interviewing                    B) interviewed
      C) having interviewed              D) being interviewed
40. It is so difficult a question that I can't __________ my students.
      A) get it across to                B) get away through
      C)get it off                       D)get it over
41. I'd have come with you _________ I was so busy.
      A)except for          B)but that             C)provided that         D)so long as
42. Bubonic plague broke out __________ the organism being conveyed from one individual
  to another by lice.
      A)because           B)thanks to          C)as to               D)owing to
43. Don't let them talk you _________ giving them more than they are entitled
      A) about ... to        B)into... to       C) into… by           D)into... with
44. The 1ecturer spoke so fast that I found it hard ________ what he was saying.
      A)to take in         B)to take up           C)to take over          D)to take on
45. Some companies have introduced flexible working time with less emphasis on pressure
      A)than more on efficiency                        B)and more on efficiency
      C) than efficiency                               D) and more efficiency
46. An object weighs __________ from the surface of the Earth.
      A) less the farther it gets                  B)the farther it gets, the less
      C)less than it gets farther                  D)less than it, the farther it gets
 47. This water has been boiling __________ for over an hour.
      A) continual            B) continuously         C) continually              D) continuous
 48. Robert is said __________ abroad, but I don't know which country he studied in.
      A)to have studied             B)to study
      C)to be studying              D)to have been studying
49. Until then, his family _________ from him for six months.
      A)didn' t hear               B)hasn't been hearing
      C)hasn't heard               D)hadn't heard
50. The conference ___________ a full week by the time it ends.
      A) must have lasted B) will have lasted C) would last                   D) has lasted
51. There's a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means
  _________ trouble.
      A)making            B)to make             C)to have made           D)having made
52. After the Arab states won independence, great emphasis was laid on expanding education,
  with girls as well as boys __________ to go to school.
      A) to be encouraged B) been encouraged C) being encouraged D) be encouraged
53. The new appointment of our president __________ from the very beginning of the next
  semester.
      A)takes effect       B)takes part          C)takes place            D)takes turns
54. It is useful to be able to predict the extent ________ which a price change will affect
  supply and demand.
      A) from             B)with C)to             D)for
55. Finding a job in such a big company has always been _________ his wildest dream.
      A) under                B) over                  C ) above                   D ) beyond
 56. Their performance                 to be a great success.
      A) turned away B) turned off                C) turned out            D) turned down
 57. It is wise of you to __________ well-trained workers _________ untrained ones on the
        assembly lines.
           A) substitute… for               B) substitute… with
           C) replace… by                   D) replace… with
       58. __________ by the car, the child was unconscious for two days.
             A) Hit           B) being hit        C) After being hit D) He being hit
       59. __________ the student decided to go for an outing.
             A)A fine day                      B) Being a fine day
             C)A fine day as it was             D)It being a fine day
       60. Peter said that he felt ____________.
             A) like seeing a film        B) like to see a film
             C) to see a film              D) about seeing a film
 61. In the Chinese household, grandparents and other relatives play __________ roles in raising
      their children.
      A. incapable B. indispensable C. insensible               D. infinite
 62. In no country _________ Britain, it has been said, can one experience four seasons in the
      course of a single day.
      A. rather than B. more than C. better than D. other than
 63. In spite of failing to save every endangered species, we may _______ the majority from
      extinction.
      A. reserve B. preserve C. deserve D. serve
 64. Those gifts of rare books that were given to us were deeply _________
      A. appealed B. approved C. appreciated D. applied
 65. Martin Luther King, the great Black leader in the movement against racial discrimination, was
      _______ the Nobel Peace Prize for his outstanding contribution to world peace.
      A. rewarded B. awarded C. conferred D. granted
 66. The director was critical ______ the way we were doing the work.
      A. at B. in C. of D. with
67. Generous public funding of basic science would _________ considerable benefits for the
      country’s health, wealth and security.
      A. lead to B. result from C. lie in D. settle down
 68. _________ with size of the whole earth, the highest mountain does not seem high at all.
     A. when compared          B. Compare C. While comparing D. Comparing
 69. In a few years , China will be able to produce the camera recorders on a large _______.
     A. extent       B. degree C. range D. scale
 70. Children who are over-protected by their parents may become _________.
     A. hurt       B. damaged C. spoiled D. harmed
 71. We agreed to accept _______ they thought was the best guide.
     A. whatever B. whomever            C. whichever D. whoever
 72. Evidence came up ________ specific sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months
     old.
     A. that B. what C. which D. why
 73. The local people were joyfully surprised to find the price of vegetables no longer _______
     according to the weather.
     A. altered B. converted C. fluctuated D. modified
74. The new apartment built a few months ago is large enough to _______ over two hundred
      people.
    A. contain B. provide C. reside D. accommodate
75. The newcomers found it impossible to _______ themselves to the climate sufficiently to make
      permanent homes in the new country.
    A. suit B. adapt C. regulate D. coordinate
76. I was advised to arrange for insurance _________ I needed medical treatment.
    A. nevertheless B. although C. in case D. so that
77. Living in the central Australia desert has its problems, _______obtaining water is not the least.
    A. for which B. of which C. to which D. in which
78. He _______ the saying , “ Everything has his day,” meaning that he would get a chance in life
    sometime.
    A. included B. referred C. quoted D. drew
79. In recent years, new building has _______ up like mushrooms in the city.
    A. jumped B. sprung C. leapt D. put
80. They tried to _______ hard plastic for metals in manufacturing machine parts.
    A. replace B. substitute C. take the place of D. give way to
81. In ancient China, people invented the compass to help avoid ______ when sailing on the sea.
    A. getting lost B. to get lost C. to getting lost D. get lost
82. The man worked the poor boy sixteen hours a day and beat him ________
    A. in short B. in addition C. in general            D. in time
83. The manager spoke highly of such_________ as loyalty, courage and truthfulness shown by
    his employees
    A. virtue B. features C. properties D. characteristics
84. Only under special circumstances _________ to take make-up tests.
    A. are freshmen permitted B. permitted are freshmen
    C. permitted are freshmen D. are permitted freshmen
85. The pressure ________ causes Americans to be energetic, but it also puts them under a
      constant emotional strain.
    A. to compete B. competing C. to be competed D. having competed
86. Elliot followed his friend to her own club where everyone treats him as if he ________ the
    president.
    A. should be B. be C. were D. had been
87. Operations which left patients _________ and in need of long period of recovery time now
    leave them feeling relaxed and comfortable.
    A. injured B. exhausted C. deserted D. abandoned
88. The government has __________ itself to send aid to famine victims.
    A. pledged B. pled C. pleased D. pleat
89. Professor Tailor’s talk has indicated that science has a very strong ________ on the everyday
    life of non-scientists as well as scientists.
    A. motivation      B. impact C. perspective D. impression
90. They hope to be able to move into the new building at the end of the month, but things did not
    ________ as they had expected.
  A. work up B. work on C. work off D. work out
91. The survival of civilization as we know is ________ threat.
  A) within                B) under              C) towards        D) upon
92. The change in government is a(n) _________ event of our time.
  A) historic               B) historical        C) permanent D)eternal
93. The______________ search for the lost boys proved______________ and the search party
     returned home at nightfall quite_______.
  A) exhaustive; exhausted; exhausting            B) exhausting; exhausted; exhaustive
  C) exhausted; exhaustive; exhausting            D) exhaustive; exhausting; exhausted
94. Our son doesn't know what to_______ at the university; he can’t make up his mind about his
  future.
  A) take in                B) take over         C) take up             D) take after
95. The doctor told Penny that too much ___________ to the sun is bad for the skin.
  A) exposure               B) extension         C) exhibition           D)expansion
96. With the population explosion, scientists will have to_________ new methods of increasing
  the world's food supply.
  A) lead to                B) live on           C) live up               D) come up with
97. _____________ his cold, he came first in the athletics meet.
  A) Besides                B) Despite            C) Regardless           D) In spite
98. England and America are ______________ in many ways.
  A) like                  B) alike               C) likely               D) likewise
99. They were careful to seat important guests_________ the host so he could talk to them easily.
  A) near to              B) near                 C) next                 D) nearly
100. Jane is said_______ an opera singer in her youth.
     A)being             B) to be         C) to have been       D) having been
101. The story was told by a girl _________ in a small town on the west coast.
    A) grows up          B) growing up C) grew up                 D) grown up
102. Here is a message of importance to every man and woman who______________.
    A) votes                B) vote              C) voting     D) are voting
103. Franklin's ability to learn from observations and experience greatly__________ to his
     success in public life.
    A ) owed                 B) contributed      C) attached            D) related
104. She never laughed,_________ lose her temper.
    A) nor she ever did               B) or she ever did
    C) or did she ever            D)nor did she ever
105. Finding a job in such a big company has always been____________ his wildest dream.
    A) under                B ) over              C) above                D ) beyond
106. The court is not ___________ hear your case.
    A) competent for       B) competent to        C) capable of          D) able to
107. It is not I but you who________________ the first run to the goal in that competition.
    A) is                   B) was                C) are                 D) is going to
108. They have ______________ on a journey round the world.
    A) set off             B) set back            C) set up             D) set aside
109. We ____________ paying you a visit but the bad weather prevented us from doing so.
    A) had thought of B) have thought of C) were thinking of D) thought of
110. It is so difficult a question that I can't ____________ my students.
   A) get it across to                             B) get away through
   C) get it off                                    D) get it over
111. Although they feel dissatisfied with the election results, they have to become reconciled
   ______________ the decision made by our fellow countrymen.
     A) for                 B) on                   C) to                  D) with
112. The question then _________ what are we going to do when we graduate from the
         university?
     A) raises              B) arouses             C) arises                D) rises
113. He loves doing some reading at home_________ to the cinema.
     A) than to go           B) than going        C) more than going       D) rather than to go
114. Henry is so indifferent to his appearance that he never has his clothes___________.
     A) pressed nor shine his shoes               B) pressed or his shoes shined
     C) to press or his shoes to shine            D) pressing or his shoes shine
115. She never regretted paying $ 200 for the bookcase. As a matter of fact she would gladly
     have paid________________ for it.
     A) as much twice                             B) as twice much
     C) much as twice                             D) twice as much
116. Close your book and____________ a piece of paper.
     A) to take out          B) you take out C) take out                   D) taking
117. This water has been boiling ___________ for over an hour.
     A) continual            B) continuously C) continually                D) continuous
118. ______right now, she would get there on Sunday.
     A) Would she leave B) If she leaves C) Were she to leave               D) If she had left
119. There was no point ________ out until the storm had really stopped.
     A) in going             B) by going          C) of going              D) to go
120. She doesn’t normally behave like that; she is __________.
     A) putting it up        B) putting it down C) putting it out          D) putting it on


Cloze
        Every year, when the Nobel Prizes are__1__there as a great deal of publicity about the
__2__. They are interviewed and articles are written about them. This is because winning the
Nobel Prize is considered by most people the highest__3__that can be achieved in certain
particular__4__of work such as chemistry, physics, medicine, and literature. There is also a Nobel
Prize, __5__for efforts on behalf of peace.
        The__6__thing about these prizes is that they were started by a man who did a great deal to
help the science of destruction. Alfred Nobel invented and__7__dynamite blasting gelatin and a
new kind of detonator for explosives.
        It may well be that having created such__8__explosives, Nobel felt a__9__to do something
"noble" for the world. He was__10__in establishing peace, and a plan he thought
would__11__war. By the way, besides being a__12__scientist, Nobel was also a poet. He thought
that literature and science were the most important__13__in human progress.
        When he died, Nobel left a__14__of $ 9,000,000. The money was to be used in giving
prizes to those who made outstanding contributions in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and
the advancement of world ~e. The prizes__15__about $ 40,000 each, and were first awarded on
December 10, 1901, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Up to now, many great people have won
Nobel Prizes.
1. A) published      B) revealed           C) announced           D) approved
2. A ) honor          B) winners           C) fames              D) prizes
3. A) honor          B) reputation        C) fame                D) prize
4.A) kinds            B) fields           C) types               D) ranges
5. A) offered        B) awarded           C) provided            D) rewarded
6. A) curious         B) critical         C) cautious            D) casual
7. A ) patented      B) debited          C ) credited            D) enjoyed
8. A) dying          B) dead              C) death               D) deadly
9. A) need           B) dependence       C) demand               D) request
10. A) dedicated     B) assured          C) interested           D) contributed
11. A) cause         B) reduce            C) cancel              D) prevent
12. A ) brilliant    B) excellent        C) outstanding           D) prominent
13. A) members        B) sectors         C) portions             D ) factors
14. A ) foundation    B) reward           C ) price             D) fund
15. A) divided        B)varied            C) averaged           D) amounted

Because there are so many different nationalities(国籍)in America, visitors can        1 almost any
kind of restaurant in most of the larger cities,    2 telephone book lists restaurants for each city
3 to name, area of the city, or kind of 4 . Restaurants in large cities vary greatly 5 price.
Many restaurants post their menus (菜单)in the window 6 you can have some idea of the 7
and kind of food before you 8 . If the menu is not posted, and       9 are uncertain about how
expensive the place is, ask to     10 a menu before you are seated at a        11 ,or else just ask
about the price range.       12     form the outside can be misleading—          13 looks like a
small, informal restaurant may really be very 14 ,and what looks like a large, expensive
restaurant 15 be very reasonable.
    You can get a meal 16 about $ 2 or slightly more if you eat in snack bars or coffee shops,
17 in most city restaurants you should expect to          18 $ 6 to $ 8 a person for dinner,     19
alcoholic drinks and wine extra. Prices in New York City are even 20 .
   1. A) go              B) find               C) look               D) get
   2. A) The             B) A                  C) This               D) That
   3. A) thanks          B) owing              C) according          D) contrary
   4. A) business        B) serving            C) price              D) food
   5. A) at                    B) of                C) in                   D) by
   6. A) so              B) that               C) but                D) since
   7. A) food            B) price              C) service            D) place
   8. A) eat                   B) buy               C) enter                D) leave
   9. A) we                    B) they              C) these                D) you
   10. A) watch                B) see               C) look                 D) stare
   11. A) seat                 B) chair            C) desk                  D) table
   12. A) Appearances          B) Differences       C) Impressions          D) Resemblances
   13. A) it                   B) that             C) what                  D) which
  14. A) expensive           B) cheap            C) high                  D) low
  15. A) must                B) may              C) should                D) would
  16. A) on                  B) in               C) with                  D) for
  17. A) since               B) for              C) but                   D) or
  18. A) pay                 B) cost             C) take                  D) get
  19. A) for                B) with              C) about                 D) at
  20. A) less               B) more              C) lower                 D) higher

       In the United States, parents do not 1_ marriages for their children. Teenagers begin
dating in high school and usually find mates through their own academic and social 2 .
3 young people feel free to choose their friends from different groups, most choose a mate of
similar 4 .
       This is due in part to parental guidance. Parents cannot 5 spouses for their children, but
they can usually 6 choices by voicing disapproval of someone they consider unsuitable.
           7 , marriages between members of different groups (interclass, interfaith, and
interracial marriages) are 8 , probably because of the greater mobility of today's youth and the
fact that they are 9 by fewer prejudices than their parents. Many young people leave their
home towns to attend college, serve in the armed forces,      10 pursue a career in a bigger city.
1. A ) arrange            B) engage                C) manage              D) propose
2. A) position            B) association           C) contract             D) contacts
3. A) Since               B) Though                C) If                   D) Hence
4. A) background          B) situation             C) circumstance         D) condition
5. A) oppose              B) reject                C) select               D) approve
6. A) influence           B) make                  C) afford               D) provide
7. A) Therefore                B) However                C) Moreover            D) likewise
8. A) declining           B) prohibiting           C) increasing           D) reducing
9. A ) restrained         B) retained              C) reserved             D) restricted
10. A) but                     B) or                     C) so                  D) otherwise


Translation
1.关于薪水我没有什么可抱怨的,不过这里的工作环境远不尽如人意。(as to ,far from)
2.这项协议为该地区的持久和平铺平了道路。(pave the way to )
3.两国之间在平等互利的基础上建立了外交关系。(establish, mutual, diplomatic)
4.让我借此机会代表全家人向你表示衷心的感谢。                         (on behalf of)
5.你怎么能对身边的人所受的苦难如此的漠然呢?(be indifferent to)
6.乍一看,那个问题似乎很难,但经过仔细思考,我们终于设计出了一个解决方案。 first                                 (at
glance, work out)
7.很多教育家们认为当学生们对自身及自己的能力获得了自信的时候,他们就不大可能在考
试中作弊了。       (confidence, be likely to)
8.对他的话你别太认真,因为他无论说什么总是在开玩笑。                             (take…too seriously)
9.她把她的成功归功于运气好,可是谁能否认她比这里任何一个人都要辛苦得多这个事实
呢?(attribute…to, deny)
10.美国人对诚实和豁达极为重视。                  (place emphasis on)
11. 我在一大早儿总是状态极为糟糕。 one’s worst)      (at
12.   北京将主办 2008 年奥运会。               (host)
13.   很多工厂都已经用机器代替了人的体力劳动。                  (substitute---for)
14.   从长远角度来看,购买高质量的商品是划算的。                  (in the long run)
15.   在任何情况下我们都不能试图以牺牲个别人的利益为代价来满足自己的欲望。                       (on no
      account, seek to , at the expense of)

				
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