History of Canada Notes ________________________ to the banks of the ____________________________ _____. Many of these Europeans were ______________________ and ________________________. Earliest colonists came around ___________________, mainly ___________________ and _________________________. Colonists referred to this distant land as “____________________________ _”. Beringia __________________________ terrain stretching from eastern _______________________ to the __________________________. At its heart lay the Bering Land Bridge. the last ice age the shallow sea bed west of Alaska was exposed connecting North America and Asia. Beringia is known as the __________________________ to North America. Aboriginal Perspective Aboriginals were present long before the colonists came, and welcomed the newcomers. Because of disease, war, and other events the aboriginal population declined drastically until about the 1920s. Today the aboriginal population is growing at a rapid rate. Origin of “Canada” the aboriginal word “_________________________”,a Huron-Iroquois word meaning __________________________. St. Lawrence, specifically Stadacona (presently Quebec) the colonists began to use this word to describe the entire land. Until ____________________, France and England laid claims to the land that is Canada. valley of the St. Lawrence and at times extended to the Bay of Fundy in Acadia, across the Great Lakes, into the Mississippi and all the way north to the Hudson Bay. settlers occupied ________________________ and ____________________________ ___. control of these colonies until the Seven Years War (____________________________ ___). The ________________________ prevailed and took control of New France. mostly French-speaking the English needed to guarantee that the culture of the French would be preserved. By 1800 BNA (British North America) was divided into several colonies. ______________________, ____________________________, _________________________, and __________________________. Upper Canada (____________________) Lower Canada (____________________________ _____) The vast territory westward was known as Rupert’s Land. It was occupied by different first nations groups and few fur traders. The different colonies were different there were similarities in Government and economics. One of the most shared ideas was to remain ____________________________ __ from the USA. (_________________________) during the American War of Independence and again during the War of ___________________________. In the end, the British were victorious of the American invasions. Confederation: 1867 BNA wanted to unify because of Free Trade, their economies no longer enjoyed the protection of the Mother Country. Political Change The colonies thought it would be a better idea to remain separate. At the same time relations between the French and the English were breaking down. ________________________ and the _______________________ in the 1850s, contributed to the feeling that unification was needed. It didn’t help that the USA had become a growing ____________________________ ________. Because of the latter, the four colonies decided to join together in 1867 as the Dominion of Canada. In 1870, the Dominion purchased Rupert’s Land from the HBC, and used in part to create Manitoba. Columbia joined with the promise of the ____________________________ ______________________ railway. 1873 ____________________ joined. 1905 we have the emergence on ______________________ and _________________________. 1949 ___________________ became the 10th province. Economic Change: The great transformation Huge factories replaced small workshops. Steam powered machinery replaced muscle power. Consumer goods bought at the store replaced home-made items An industrial, commercial economy replaced one based primarily on farming and trade. amounts of immigrants in _____________________. They were given cheap land and became farmers. The Great War (___________________________) Over ____________________________ _________ Canadians served in the armed forces. ____________________________ _____ Canadians were dead and another ____________________________ _________ were wounded. WW1 was followed by a recession, returning soldiers were unemployed, rising food prices were not matched with wages. and fight for better ____________________________ _______ and ____________________________. In 1918 and 1919 were known as “____________________________ ”. The unrest culminated and led to the General Strike of 1919 in Winnipeg. In May-June 30, 000 workers went on strike and government troops were sent in to restore order. Roaring 20s and the great depression 1929 had lifted, but would be hit hard in ________________ with the collapse if the stock market, leading to the Great Depression. Canada the hardest with drought and falling grain prices and did not end until the onset of WW2 (____________________________ __). The Second World War marked a turnaround in the economic fortunes of the country. Incomes rose and opportunities expanded. expand social assistance such as Health and unemployment insurance, family allowance, and workers’ compensation. The west was reborn with grain prices, the discovery of oil, uranium, potash, and nickel. The Quiet Revolution 1960s rapid ____________________________ ___ and ____________________________ ___________. being Quebeckers and were taking control over the main institutions of Quebec society, long controlled by the British. of themselves as a distinct nation and a ____________________________ _____ movement arose. Prosperity began to peter out in the 1980s and Canada entered a period of downturns and cutbacks. Governments at all levels were saddled with large debts. Unemployment increased, many industries closed or moved. Grain prices began to fall and fisheries collapsed on the east coast. But today many Canadians live better than any previous generation. Canada is a nation built upon three “founding peoples”- the First Nations, the French, and the English.