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Data Networks Foreword and Tabe of Content

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Data Networks Foreword and Tabe of Content Powered By Docstoc
					Data Networks - VLSI & Optical Fibre
Dr. Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski, Dr. Carl McCrosky, and Daniel Minoli


Foreword

Modern communications networks consist of collections of network elements connected by
communications paths. Network elements and communications paths depend on, or are
developed as, three fundamental layers: 1) optical transmission facilities which carry
information between network elements, 2) protocol engines which enforce the constructive
discipline of communications protocols and provide many protocol supported capabilities, and 3)
switching and queuing components which direct information to its intended destination.
Protocol engines, switching/queuing components, and optical interfaces are used to construct
network elements; network elements are then connected by optical transmission facilities to form
communications networks. This book provides an introduction for the advanced undergraduate
student in Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, or Computer Science to these building
blocks and to the networks formed by their aggregation.

This text takes a unique approach to this material by covering the ideas underlying these
networks, the architecture of the network elements, and the implementation of these network
elements in optical and VLSI technologies. It is the authors’ point of view that the nature of
these networks is in large part determined by these twin underlying implementation technologies,
and that it is useful for the student to study networks in this broader, implementation-oriented
context. Consequently, this text shows how communications systems are implemented with these
two fundamental technologies, and how the choice of these two technologies affects the design
of communications systems.

Communications systems have been undergoing dramatic change for several decades. It is
reasonable to expect this period of dramatic change to continue. In times of dramatic change, it
is difficult to predict the future. Consequently, selecting material to be included in this text has
been challenging. Our choices have been based on several principles: 1) networks will continue
to incorporate multiple protocols, in order to support a variety of applications, and in order to
maintain smooth transitions from legacy systems, 2) while there will be a highly visible move
toward packet-based services, there are strong technical reasons why underlying networks will
continue to have circuit and TDM layers and components, and 3) storage networks will continue
to grow beyond the data center and occupy increasing capacity within wide area networks.




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It is abundantly clear that wireless protocols, networks, and applications will be a highly visible
growth area. This is a vital area of study for future telecommunications workers; so vital that the
area requires a full, separate treatment instead of a few chapters in a larger text. At the same
time, wireless networks will connect to the underlying WAN network elements and regardless of
wireless developments optical WANs will continue to be of crucial importance. Consequently
we see the wireless network connection to the WAN as a natural boundary for this text.

Why write another book about networking? Various reasons. First, almost all networking texts
focus on TCP/IP routing. While the IP routing is a very important subject, the treatment of the
physical transport and switching is equally important and deserves better coverage. In that
respect the book fulfils the hole in the marketplace and offers a complementary view of the
optical networking from bits and bytes perspective.

Second, many existing treatments of optical networking lack coverage of any hardware issues.
Hardware is as important as software, and we believe that electrical engineers need to develop
some understanding how the networking hardware is build. The book offers quite unique
perspective on VLSI and its linkages to advances in networks.

Finally, optical networking is a rapidly evolving theme. Many new technologies are being
deployed in the marketplace like Metro Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM), Resilient Packet
Rings, Optical Ethernet or Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), to name a few. The complex
picture of broadband networking is constantly evolving and as a result needs clear delineation on
what is important and what are basic principles behind its evolution. The book provides an
understanding that helps in answering these questions.



Table of Content




PART I – OPTICAL TRANSMISSION

Chapter 1 - Basic Networking Concepts, Kris Iniewski
1.1 Chapter Goals
1.2 Transmission Media
         1.2.1 Copper Wire
         1.2.2 Coaxial Cable
         1.2.3 Optical Fiber
         1.2.4 Wireless communication


                                                2
1.3 Basic Networking Concepts
         1.3.1 LAN, SAN, MAN or WAN?
         1.3.2 Network Topologies
         1.3.3 Circuit vs. Packet Switching
         1.3.4 Wavelength vs. Time vs. Statistical Multiplexing
1.4 Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model
         1.4.1 What does Chinese cooking have to do with an OSI Model?
         1.4.2 OSI Model and Data Encapsulation
         1.4.3 Network Overlay Hierarchy
1.5 Networking Equipment
         1.5.1 Regenerators, Modems, Hubs and Add/Drop Multiplexers
         1.5.2 Switches
         1.5.3 Routers
         1.5.4 Networking Service Models
1.6 Chapter Summary
1.7 References

Chapter 2 - Optical Transmission, Jeff Bull, Hiroshi Kato, Benjamin Tsou and Kris
Iniewski

2.1 Introduction and Chapter Goals
2.2 Fiber Optic Communication
      2.2.1 Why Optical Fiber?
      2.2.2 Propagation – Single Mode & Multi-Mode Fibers Error! Bookmark not defined.
   2.3 Light Emission and Detection
      2.3.1 Light Sources
      2.3.2 Photodetectors
   2.4 Optical Modulation
      2.4.1 Direct Modulation
      2.4.2 External Modulation
   2.5 Optical Amplification
      2.5.1 Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
      2.5.2 Raman Amplifiers
      2.5.3 EDFA vs. Raman Amplifier
   2.6 Fiber Transmission Impairments
      2.6.1 Chromatic Dispersion
      2.6.2 Dispersion Management Techniques
      2.6.3 Polarization Mode Dispersion
      2.6.4 Non linear Effects
   2.7 Chapter Key Points
   2.8 References


Chapter 3 - Wave Division Multiplexing, Kris Iniewski

3.1 Chapter Goals
3.2 WDM Technology
   3.2.1 WDM Basics
   3.2.2 WDM Bandwidth Capacity
   3.2.3 Course vs. Dense WDM Systems
   3.2.4 Future Extensions of DWDM capacity
3.3 Networking Equipment for WDM
   3.3.1 WDM Regenerators
   3.3.2 Optical Cross-Connects and Switches
   3.3.3 Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers (OADMs and ROADMs)



                                                      3
3.4 WDM Networks
   3.4.1 WDM Network Provisioning
   3.4.2 Wavelength Blocking
   3.4.3 O-E-O Conversion in WDM Networks
   3.4.4 WDM Network Protection
3.5 Case Study – WDM Link Design
3.6 Chapter Summary
3.7 References




PART II – NETWORKING PROTOCOLS

Chapter 4 - SONET/SDH, Kris Iniewski

4.1 Chapter Goals
4.2 SONET Networks
   4.2.1 SONET Transmission Rates
   4.2.2 SONET Network Architectures
4.3 SONET Framing
   4.3.1 STS–1 Building Block
   4.3.2 Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE)
   4.3.3 SONET Virtual Tributaries
   4.3.4 SDH vs. SONET
4.4 SONET Equipment
   4.4.1 SONET O-E-O Regenerator
   4.4.2 SONET ADM Multiplexer
   4.4.3 SONET Terminal Multiplexer
4.5 SONET Implementation Features
   4.5.1 SONET Scrambling
   4.5.2 SONET Clock Distribution
   4.5.3 SONET Byte Stuffing
4.6 Chapter Key Points
4.7 References

Chapter 5 - TCP/IP Protocol Suite, Carl McCrosky

5.1 Chapter Goals
5.2 The Protocol Suite
5.3 IP: Internet Protocol
          5.3.1IP Address
          5.3.2 IP Header Format and Function
5.4 UDP: User Datagram Protocol
5.5 TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
          5.5.1 TCP Header Format and Function
          5.5.2 Connection-Oriented Service
          5.5.3 Receiver Window
5.6 TCP Flow Control
          5.6.1 Receiver-Based Flow Control
          5.6.2 Transmitter-Based Flow Control
          5.6.3 Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery



                                                    4
         5.6.4 Delayed Acknowledgment
         5.6.5 Naigle’s Algorithm
5.7 IP Routing Mechanisms
5.8 IP Route Calculations
5.9 Difficulties with TCP and IP
         5.9.1 One Shortest Route, Regardless of Load Conditions
         5.9.2 Deliberate Congestion and Backoff
         5.9.3 Lack of QoS Support
         5.9.4 Receiver Windows and Round Trip Times
         5.9.5 Fat, Long TCP Pipes
         5.9.6 Big Packets on Thin Pipes
5.10 IPv6, The Future?
5.11 Summary
5.12 References



Chapter 6 - Protocol Stacks, Carl McCrosky and Kris Iniewski

6.1 Chapter Goals
6.2 Difficulties with the TCP/IP Protocol Suite
6.3 A Tour of Supporting Protocols
      6.3.1 ATM
      6.3.2 Generic Framing Procedure
      6.3.3 Multi-Protocol Label Switching
      6.3.4 Ethernet over the Internet
      6.3.5 Resilient Packet Rings (RPR)
      6.3.6 G.709: Digital Wrapper Technology
6.4 Legacy Solutions
      6.4.1 IP over SONET
      6.4.2 IP over ATM over SONET
6.5 New Protocol Stack Solutions
      6.5.1 Using MPLS
      6.5.2 Future All or Mostly Optical Networks
      6.5.3 Gigabit Ethernet over the Internet
      6.5.4 Storage Area Network Protocols over the Internet
6.6 Chapter Key Points
6.7 References




PART III– VLSI CHIPS

Chapter 7 – VLSI Integrated Circuits, Kris Iniewski and Jerzy Swic

8.1 Chapter Introduction
        8.1.1 Integrated Circuits, VLSI and CMOS



                                                       5
         8.1.2 Classification of Integrated Circuits
         8.1.3 Looking ahead
8.2 Integrated Circuits for Data Networking
         8.2.1 PMDs and PHYs Devices (Layer 1)
         8.2.2 Framers and Mappers (Layer 2)
         8.2.3 Packet Processing Devices (Layer 3)
8.3 Chip I/O Interfaces
         8.3.1 Serial versus Parallel I/O
         8.3.2 Networking I/O Standards
         8.3.3 Design of Data Networking I/O Interface
         8.3.4 Memory I/O Interfaces
         8.3.5 Microprocessor I/O Interfaces
8.4 Examples of Chip Architectures
         8.4.1 Time Slice Architecture
         8.4.2 SONET Framer Architecture
         8.4.3 Network Processor Architecture
8.5 VLSI Design Methodology
         8.5.1 Design Specification
         8.5.2 Functional Design and RTL Coding
         8.5.3 Functional Verification
         8.5.4 Design Synthesis
         8.5.5 Physical Design and Verification
8.6 Chapter Main Points
8.7 References


Chapter 8 – Circuits for Optical to Electrical Conversion, Kris Iniewski

8.1 Chapter Introduction
8.2 Optical to Electrical to Optical (OEO) Conversion
         8.2.1 Principle of Operation
         8.2.2 Optical Transceiver Architectures
         8.2.3 integrated Circuits Technology for Optical Transceivers
8.3 Signal Amplification
         8.3.1 Trans-impedance Amplifier (TIA)
         8.3.2 Limited Amplifier and Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
         8.3.3 Laser Driver (LD)
8.4 Phase Locked Loop (PLL)
         8.4.1 Phase Locked Loop Architectures
         8.4.2 Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
         8.4.3 Phase and Frequency Detectors
8.5 Clock Synthesis and Recovery
         8.5.1 Clock Synthesis
         8.5.2 Clock and Data Recovery
         8.5.3 Jitter Requirements
8.6 Pre-emphasis and equalization
         8.6.1 High-Speed Signal Impairments
         8.6.2 Pre-emphasis
         8.6.3 Equalization
8.7 Chapter Key Points
8.8 References




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PART IV– DATA SWITCHING

Chapter 9 – Physical Circuit Switches, Carl McCrosky

9.1 Chapter Goals
9.2 What is switching? Why is it important?
9.3 Three Types of Switching
         9.3.1 Switching of Physical Circuits
         9.3.2 Switching of Time Division Multiplexed Signals
         9.3.3 Switching of Cell and/or Packets
9.4 Quality of Service
9.5 Special Services
9.6 Switching in one or more Stages
9.7 A Cost Model for Switch Implementations
9.8 The Crossbar Switch Concept
9.9 Optical Crossbar Switches
9.10 Digital Electronic Crossbar Switches
9.11 Control of Digital Crossbar Switches
9.12 A Cost Model for Digital Electric Crossbars Switches
9.13 Growth Limits of Digital Electric Crossbar Switches
9.14 Commercial Examples of Electric Crossbar Switches
9.15 Multistage Crossbar-Based Switches
9.16 Routing and Blocking in Clos Networks
9.17 Multicast in Clos Networks
9.18 Implementation Costs of Clos Networks
9.19 Desirability of Single Stage Fabrics and Limits to Multistage Fabrics
9.20 Chapter Key Points
9.21 References



Chapter 10 – Logical Circuit Switching, Carl McCrosky

10.1 Chapter Goals
10.2 TDM Review
10.3 The TDM Switching Problem
10.4 Central Memory TDM Switches
10.5 Ingress Buffered TDM Switches
10.6 Egress Buffered Self-Select TDM Switches
10.7 Sliced Single-Stage SNB TDM Fabrics
10.8 Time-Space Multi-Stage TDM Fabrics
10.9 Multi-stage Memory Switches
10.10 Chapter Key Points
10.11 References



Chapter 11 – Frame Queuing and Switching, Carl McCrosky

11.1 Chapter Goals
11.2 The Packet/Cell Switching Problem
11.3 Traffic Patterns
11.4 Logical Queue Structure and their Behaviours



                                                         7
          11.4.1 Queues
          11.4.2 Flows and Logical Queues
          11.4.3 Queuing Systems
          11.4.4 Speedup and Blocking Issues
          11.4.5 Possible Queuing Systems
11.5 Queue Locations and Buffer Sharing
11.6 Filling and Draining Queues
          11.6.1 Filling
          11.6.2 Draining
11.7 Central Memory Packet/Cell Switch
11.8 Ingress Buffered Packet/Cell Switch
          11.8.1 Blocking Ingress Buffered Frame Switch
          11.8.2 Non-Blocking Ingress Buffered Frame Switch
11.9 Request-Grant Cell Switch
          11.9.1 The Use of Cells
          11.9.2 Request-Grant Protocol
          11.9.3 Permutation Arbitration by Wavefront Computation
11.10 Sliced Request-Grant Switches
11.11 Multistage Frame Networks
11.12 Multicast
          11.12.1 Multicast in the Blocking Ingress Buffered Architecture
          11.12.2 Multicast in the Non-Blocking Ingress Buffered Architecture
          11.12.3 Multicast in the Request-Grant Architecture
11.13 Chapter Key Points




PART V – NETWORKING

Chapter 12 – Network Elements, Daniel Minoli

12.1 Chapter Goals
12.2 Networking Functions
        12.2.1 Information Transfer and Regeneration Function
        12.2.2 Multiplexing Function
        12.2.3 Grooming Function
        12.2.4 Switching Function
        12.2.5 Routing Function
12.3 Networking Equipment
        12.2.1 Regeneration Equipment
        12.2.2 Grooming Equipment
        12.2.3 Multiplexing Equipment
        12.2.4 Switching Equipment
        12.2.5 Routing Equipment
12.4 Conclusions
12.5 Chapter Key Points



Chapter 13 – Network Design: Efficient, Survivable Networks, Daniel Minoli


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13.1 Chapter Goals
13.2 SONET
         13.2.1 SONET Overview
         13.2.2 Protection Switching
13.3 Optical Transport Network
         13.3.1 Motivations, Goals, and Approaches
         13.3.2 OTN Standards Support
         13.3.3 Basic OTN Technical Concepts
         13.3.4 OTN Deployments
13.4 Automatically-Switched Optical Networks
         13.4.1 Overview
         13.4.2 Standardization Efforts
         13.4.3 Architectural Principles for ASON
13.5 Status and Deployments
13.6 Chapters Key Points
13.7 References




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Description: Data Switching is the number of data terminal equipment (DTE), between any two terminal devices to establish data communication channel is called the temporary interconnection of data exchange.