AASHTO Definition of

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                                                                         INDEX
A                                                                                                                           Page

AASHTO, Definition of .............................................................................................. 1-1
Abbreviations .............................................................................................................. 1-1
Acceptance and Final Inspection............................................................................... 1-39
Acrylic Plastic Reflector.......................................................................................... 7-114
Act of God ................................................................................................................... 1-3
Addendum ..........................................................................................................1-3, 1-14
Adjustment and Disputes, Claims for........................................................................ 1-39
Admixtures, Concrete................................................................................5-3, 5-10, 7-85
Advertisement
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-3
     Invitation for Bids......................................................................................1-7, 1-13
Aggregate
     Shoulders ...................................................................................................4-2, 7-27
     Surface Course...........................................................................................4-1, 7-27
Aggregates, Definition of ............................................................................................ 1-3
Agreement, Supplemental, Definition of..........................................................1-11, 1-75
Agricultural Limestone.................................................................................6-131, 7-143
Air-Entraining Admixture ................................................................................5-11, 7-85
Air-Entraining Portland Cement.................................................................................. 7-8
AISC Plant Certification......................................................................5-49, 5-110, 5-124
AITC Plant Certification ......................................................................................... 5-100
All Purpose Excavator............................................................................................... 6-23
Allowable Deviations and Conformity with Plans .................................................... 1-32
Alteration of Plans..................................................................................................... 1-25
     Compensation for.............................................................................................. 1-75
Aluminum Alloy Chain-Link Fence.......................................................................... 7-90
Aluminum Alloy Underdrain and Pipe, Perforated, Corrugated ............................... 6-18
Aluminum Impregnated Caulking Compound .......................................................... 7-37
Anchors for Guardrail................................................................................................ 6-51
Aphalt
     Emulsified........................................................................................................... 4-6
Approximate Estimate, Interpretation of ................................................................... 1-15
Arches.......................................................................................................................... 6-1
     Corrugated Aluminum Alloy Pipe .................................................................... 7-59
     Corrugated Steel Pipe ....................................................................................... 7-57
     Polymeric Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe.......................................................... 7-60
     Structural Plate.................................................................................................. 7-61
Area
     Construction, Definition of ................................................................................. 1-4
     Disposal ............................................................................................................ 1-42
Arterial Highway, Definition of .................................................................................. 1-3
Asphalt
     Cement..............................................................................................4-6, 4-10, 7-10
     Cutback .............................................................................................4-6, 4-10, 7-13
A                                                                                                                             Page

     Emulsified................................................................................................4-10, 7-13
Asphalt Distributor ...................................................................................................... 4-5
Assignment of Contract............................................................................................. 1-60
Authority and Duties
     of the Inspector ................................................................................................. 1-36
     of the Resident Engineer................................................................................... 1-36



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Authority of the Engineer.......................................................................................... 1-29
Authority to Contract................................................................................................. 1-21
Award and Execution of Contract
    Authority to Contract ........................................................................................ 1-22
    Award of Contract ............................................................................................ 1-20
    Consideration of Proposals ............................................................................... 1-20
    Construction Equipment Tax ............................................................................ 1-22
    Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-3
    Execution of Contract ....................................................................................... 1-21
    Failure to Execute Contract .............................................................................. 1-21
    Requirement of Contract Bonds........................................................................ 1-21
    Return of Proposal Guarantees ......................................................................... 1-21
    Withholding of Taxes ....................................................................................... 1-22


B

Backfill
     At Bridge Approaches......................................................................................... 2-8
     Granular, for Structures .................................................................................... 2-21
     Granular, under Culverts..................................................................................... 6-4
     Granular, with Underdrain ................................................................................ 6-21
     Gravel, for Slope Stabilization...................................................................2-7, 7-23
     Muck Excavation .............................................................................................. 7-23
     Poor Foundation Material ................................................................................. 2-23
     Structures .................................................................................................2-25, 5-33
     Trenches............................................................................................................ 2-25
     Underdrain ........................................................................................................ 6-18
Barricades and Detour Signs (See Traffic Contorl Defices)
Base Course
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-3
     Plant Mixed
          Compaction ................................................................................................ 3-8
          Hauling Equipment .................................................................................... 3-6
          Joints .......................................................................................................... 3-8
          Materials..................................................................................................... 3-5
          Mixing Plants ............................................................................................. 3-4
          Payment...................................................................................................... 3-9
          Placement Equipment................................................................................. 3-6
          Preparation of Aggregates .......................................................................... 3-6
          Preparation of Bituminous Materials.......................................................... 3-5
B                                                                                                                        Page

           Rollers ........................................................................................................ 3-7
           Spreading and Finishing............................................................................. 3-7
           Testing................................................................................................. 3-5, 3-9
           Tolerance, Surface...................................................................................... 3-9
           Traffic Control............................................................................................ 3-9
           Weather Limitations ................................................................................... 3-5
Basin, Catch
     Changing Elevation of ...................................................................................... 6-13
     Concrete............................................................................................................ 6-12
     Concrete Block ................................................................................................. 6-12
     Precast Reinforced Concrete............................................................................. 6-12
Basin, Flushing, Cast Iron Cover for ......................................................................... 6-20
Basin, Flushing, Corrugated Aluminum or Corrugated Galvanized Metal Pipe ....... 6-19



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Beam Guardrail, Steel ............................................................................................... 6-49
     Hardware........................................................................................................... 7-96
     Post and Post Accessories................................................................................. 7-93
     Rail Elements.................................................................................................... 7-94
Bearing Devices ...................................................................................................... 5-124
     Fabrication ...................................................................................................... 5-125
           Fabric Bearings ........................................................................... 5-127, 7-101
           Plant Requirements ................................................................................ 5-125
           Pot Bearings ........................................................................................... 5-127
                 Design and Fabrication Requirements ........................................... 5-127
           Sliding Surfaces...................................................................................... 5-126
                 TFE Requirements ......................................................................... 5-126
           Steel Bearings......................................................................................... 5-127
           Surface Protection .................................................................................. 5-125
           Tolerances .............................................................................................. 5-125
     Fabrication Drawings...................................................................................... 5-124
Bidder
     Competency of.................................................................................................. 1-14
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-4
     Disqualification of ............................................................................................ 1-19
     Prequalification................................................................................................. 1-14
Bids, Invitation for .................................................................................................... 1-13
Bin-Type Retaining Wall ........................................................................................ 5-112
     Concrete Bin-Type............................................................................................ 7-62
     Construction Requirements............................................................................. 5-112
     Fabrication Drawings...................................................................................... 5-112
     Metal Bin-Type................................................................................................. 7-62
     Timber Cribbing ............................................................................................... 7-62
Bituminous Concrete Curb .............................................................................6-32, 7-100
Bituminous Concrete Pavement ................................................................................ 4-10
     Bituminous Mixing Plant and Testing .............................................................. 4-13
     Equipment, Hauling and Placing ...................................................................... 4-26
     Job Mix ............................................................................................................. 4-36
B                                                                                                                         Page

     Joints ................................................................................................................. 4-32
     Materials ........................................................................................................... 4-10
           Aggregate ................................................................................................. 7-23
           Asphalt Cement ........................................................................................ 7-10
                   Application Temperature ................................................................. 7-14
                   Sampling............................................................................................ 7-9
     Payment ............................................................................................................ 4-33
     Placing and Finishing........................................................................................ 4-28
     Preparation of Bituminous Material.................................................................. 4-26
     Surface Tolerances............................................................................................ 4-32
     Traffic Control .................................................................................................. 4-33
     Weather Limitations.......................................................................................... 4-13
Bituminous Concrete Sidewalk ................................................................................. 6-39
Bituminous Concrete Surface for Quitters and Traffic Islands.................................. 6-34
Bituminous Crack Filling .......................................................................................... 4-38
     Joint Sealer, Hot Poured ................................................................................... 7-33
Bituminous Surface Treatment.................................................................................... 4-3
     Aggregate.......................................................................................................... 7-26
     Application of Bituminous Material ................................................................... 4-6
           Asphalt Cement ................................................................................. 4-6, 7-10
           Cutback Asphalt ................................................................................ 4-6, 7-13



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           Emulsified Asphalt............................................................................ 4-6, 7-13
           Tar Emulsion ..................................................................................... 4-6, 7-13
     Bituminous Materials
           Type 1 - Prime Coat, Tack Coat, Seal Coat of Bituminous
               Material with Peastone and Sand ........................................................... 4-6
           Type 2 - Prime Coat and Seal Coat of Bituminous Material
               with Peastone Grits ................................................................................ 4-7
           Type 3 - Prime Coat of Bituminous Material with Sand Cover ................. 4-8
           Type 4 - Seal Coat of Cut Back Asphalt with Stone Grits ......................... 4-8
     Traffic Control .................................................................................................... 4-9
     Weather Limitations............................................................................................ 4-4
Biweekly Estimate..................................................................................................... 1-77
Board, Definition of..................................................................................................... 1-4
Board, Insulation ............................................................................................6-56, 7-106
Bolting and Connections ........................................................................................... 5-65
Bonds
     Bid .................................................................................................................... 1-18
     Compliance ....................................................................................................... 1-21
     Contract, Definition of ........................................................................................ 1-5
     Contract, Requirements..................................................................................... 1-21
Borrow....................................................................................................................... 2-11
     Computation...................................................................................................... 2-18
     Earth.................................................................................................................. 7-17
     Excess, Surplus ..........................................................................................2-8, 2-18
     Granular .................................................................................. 2-7, 2-10, 2-12, 7-17
B                                                                                                                            Page

     Load Count ....................................................................................................... 2-18
     Pit Opening, Regulations .........................................................................1-44, 2-11
     Rock...........................................................................................................2-7, 7-17
     Sand ..................................................................................................2-7, 2-18, 7-17
Boundary Markers..................................................................................................... 6-42
Box Beam Guardrail.........................................................................................6-48, 7-96
Brick .......................................................................................................................... 7-28
Bridge
     Curb, Granite Bridge................................................................................6-29, 7-98
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-4
     Expansion Devices............................................................................................ 5-94
     Substructure, Definition of................................................................................ 1-11
     Superstructure, Definition of ............................................................................ 1-11
     Temporary....................................................................................................... 5-115
Broom, Power Rental ................................................................................................ 6-23
Bulldozer Rental........................................................................................................ 6-22


C

Cable for Guardrail...........................................................................................6-48, 7-95
Calcium Chloride ...........................................................................................6-25, 7-111
Calendar Day, Definition of ........................................................................................ 1-4
Casings, Well and...................................................................................................... 6-59
Cast Iron
     Cover for Flushing Basin .................................................................................. 6-19
     Cover with Frame ............................................................................................. 6-13
     Grate (All Types) .............................................................................................. 6-14
Cast-In-Place Cement Concrete Curb........................................................................ 6-31



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Catch Basin
     Changing Elevations of..................................................................................... 6-13
     Concrete............................................................................................................ 6-12
     Concrete Block ................................................................................................. 6-12
     Precast Reinforced Concrete............................................................................. 6-12
Cedar Log Rail .......................................................................................................... 6-48
Cement
     Air-Entraining Portland ...................................................................................... 7-8
     Asphalt.......................................................................................................4-6, 4-10
     High Early Strength Portland.............................................................................. 7-8
     Hydraulic ............................................................................................................ 7-8
     Portland............................................................................................................... 7-8
Cement-Lined Ductile Iron Pipe.............................................................................. 7-108
Certifications, Material................................................................................................ 7-1
Chain-Link Fence .............................................................................................6-43, 7-90
Change In Design, Definition of.................................................................................. 1-4
Channel Excavation of Earth
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 2-6
C                                                                                                                         Page

     Requirements .................................................................................................... 2-10
Channel Excavation of Rock
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 2-6
     Requirements .................................................................................................... 2-10
Channel Excavation, Unclassified
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 2-7
Channel, Definition of ................................................................................................. 1-4
Chloride, Calcium ..........................................................................................6-25, 7-111
Claims for Adjustments and Disputes ....................................................................... 1-39
Classification, Soils ................................................................................................... 7-15
Clay, Embankment .................................................................................................... 2-13
Cleaning Up, Final .................................................................................................... 1-28
Clearing ....................................................................................................................... 2-1
     Disposal .............................................................................................................. 2-2
     Elm Tree ............................................................................................................. 2-3
     Fire Permit .......................................................................................................... 2-3
     National Forest Land........................................................................................... 2-3
     Thinning and Trimming...................................................................................... 2-2
Closing Material Supply and Disposal Areas............................................................ 1-44
Cofferdam.................................................................................................................. 2-23
     Approved Plan .................................................................................................. 2-23
     Foundation Seals............................................................................................... 2-24
Cold Planning ............................................................................................................ 2-31
Cold Weather Concrete ............................................................................................. 5-16
Combination Proposals and Conditional Proposals................................................... 1-19
Compaction
     Airport Construction ......................................................................................... 2-16
     Behind Abutments and Walls ........................................................................... 2-13
     Earth Embankments .......................................................................................... 2-12
Compensation for Altered Quantities ........................................................................ 1-75
Compensation Insurance, Workers............................................................................ 1-23
Competency of Bidders, Prequalification.................................................................. 1-14
Completion Date, Definition of ................................................................................... 1-4
Completion Date, Substantial, Definition of ............................................................. 1-11
Compliance Bond, Requirements of.......................................................................... 1-21
Concrete Catch Basin or Manhole............................................................................. 6-12



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Concrete Catch Basin or Manhole, Precast, Reinforced............................................ 6-13
Concrete Curb Drop Inlet, Precast, Reinforced ......................................................... 6-13
Concrete Drop Inlet, Precast Reinforced ................................................................... 7-29
Concrete Gutter, Portland Cement............................................................................. 6-33
Concrete Masonry Blocks ......................................................................................... 7-29
Concrete Pipe, Reinforced..................................................................................6-1, 7-55
Concrete Sidewalk, Portland Cement ........................................................................ 6-38
Concrete Surfaces, Blast Cleaning of ...................................................................... 5-104
Concrete Units for Slope Paving ............................................................................... 7-29
Concrete, Bin-Type Retaining Wall ...............................................................5-112, 7-62
C                                                                                                                Page

Concrete, Structural
    Admixtures ................................................................................................5-3, 7-84
    Backfilling ........................................................................................................ 5-33
    Batching.............................................................................................................. 5-5
          Bins and Scales........................................................................................... 5-7
          Proportioning - Materials ........................................................................... 5-9
          Semi-Automatic Plants............................................................................... 5-5
          Storage - Materials ..................................................................................... 5-9
          Testing Laboratory ..................................................................................... 5-6
          Tolerances and Accuracy ........................................................................... 5-8
    Classification and Proportioning......................................................................... 5-1
          Slump .............................................................................................. 5-12, 5-14
    Curing ......................................................................................................5-15, 5-31
          Covered-Burlap, Polyethylene, and Sand................................................. 5-32
          Curing Compounds .................................................................................. 5-31
          Curing Periods.......................................................................................... 5-31
          Water Curing ............................................................................................ 5-32
    Delivery ............................................................................................................ 5-11
          Consistency (Slump) ................................................................................ 5-12
          Retempering ............................................................................................. 5-14
    Field Tests......................................................................................................... 5-14
          Air Tests ................................................................................................... 5-14
          Equipment ................................................................................................ 5-14
          Slump Test ............................................................................................... 5-14
          Strength Tests........................................................................................... 5-14
                Beams .............................................................................................. 5-15
                Cylinders.......................................................................................... 5-15
                Quantity Acceptance Testing........................................................... 5-15
    Finishing ........................................................................................................... 5-27
          Bridge Decks ............................................................................................ 5-29
          General ..................................................................................................... 5-27
                Dressing ........................................................................................... 5-27
                Float Finish ...................................................................................... 5-28
                Rubbed Finish.................................................................................. 5-28
    Forms ................................................................................................................ 5-19
          Insulation.................................................................................................. 5-18
          Materials.......................................................................................... 5-20, 5-21
          Removal ................................................................................................... 5-21
    Joint
          Construction ............................................................................................. 5-26
          Expansion................................................................................................. 5-27
    Loading of Concrete ......................................................................................... 5-33
    Mixing............................................................................................................... 5-11
          Stationary Mixers ..................................................................................... 5-12



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               Transit Mixers .......................................................................................... 5-12
                    Inspection......................................................................................... 5-13
C                                                                                                                       Page

     Placing Concrete ............................................................................................... 5-22
           Chutes....................................................................................................... 5-23
           Limitations ............................................................................................... 5-23
           Overlays ................................................................................................... 5-23
           Vibrators................................................................................................... 5-24
     Placing Concrete Underwater ........................................................................... 5-25
           Dewatering ............................................................................................... 5-26
           Seals ......................................................................................................... 5-25
     Pumping............................................................................................................ 5-26
     Silica Fume ..............................................................................................5-14, 7-87
     Weather and Temperature Limitations.............................................................. 5-16
           Cold Weather............................................................................................ 5-16
                 Forms ............................................................................................... 5-17
                 Heating Materials............................................................................. 5-16
                 Housing............................................................................................ 5-17
                 Records ............................................................................................ 5-18
                 Temperature Restrictions................................................................. 5-16
Conditional Proposals, Combination and .................................................................. 1-19
Conditions General Insurance ................................................................................... 1-24
Conditions of Employment, Wages........................................................................... 1-64
Conduit (See also Sleeves for Utilities)
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-4
     Traffic Signals................................................................................................. 7-135
Conformity with Plans and Allowable Deviations .................................................... 1-32
Connectors, Shear...................................................................................................... 5-77
Consideration of Proposals........................................................................................ 1-20
Construction
     Area, Definition of.............................................................................................. 1-4
     Maintenance During ......................................................................................... 1-38
     Stakes................................................................................................................ 1-35
Construction Easement................................................................................................ 1-5
Contents of Proposal Forms ...................................................................................... 1-14
Contingent Item, Definition of .................................................................................... 1-5
Contract
     Authority To ..................................................................................................... 1-21
     Award ............................................................................................................... 1-20
     Bonds, Definition of............................................................................................ 1-5
     Bonds, Requirements ........................................................................................ 1-21
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-5
     Document Precedence....................................................................................... 1-33
     Emergency, Termination................................................................................... 1-70
     Execution of...................................................................................................... 1-21
     Failure to Complete on Time ............................................................................ 1-68
     Intent of............................................................................................................. 1-25
     Subletting of...................................................................................................... 1-60
     Termination of .................................................................................................. 1-69
C                                                                                                                          Page

     Time, Definition of ............................................................................................. 1-5
     Time, Extension ................................................................................................ 1-67
Contract Item, Definition of ........................................................................................ 1-5
Contractor



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     Cooperation....................................................................................................... 1-34
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-5
Contractors
     Cooperation Between........................................................................................ 1-35
     Cooperation with Utilities................................................................................. 1-34
     No Advantage of Error or Omission Clause ..................................................... 1-33
     Responsibility for Work.................................................................................... 1-58
     Termination of Responsibility .......................................................................... 1-71
Control of Material Supply and Disposal Areas........................................................ 1-42
Control of Materials
     Explosive and Flammable Materials................................................................. 1-49
     Handling ........................................................................................................... 1-48
     Local Material Sources ..................................................................................... 1-47
     Plant Inspection................................................................................................. 1-48
     Samples and Tests............................................................................................. 1-47
     Source of Supply and Quality Requirements .................................................... 1-47
     Stockpiling of.................................................................................................... 1-49
     Storage of.......................................................................................................... 1-48
     Unacceptable Materials..................................................................................... 1-49
Control of Work
     Authority and Duties of the Inspector............................................................... 1-36
     Authority and Duties of the Resident Engineer ................................................ 1-36
     Authority of the Engineer ................................................................................. 1-29
     Claims for Adjustments and Disputes............................................................... 1-39
     Closing Material Supply and Disposal Areas ................................................... 1-44
     Conformity with Plans and Allowable Deviations............................................ 1-32
     Construction Stakes .......................................................................................... 1-35
     Convict Labor ................................................................................................... 1-37
     Cooperation Between Contractors .................................................................... 1-35
     Cooperation by Contractor................................................................................ 1-34
     Cooperation with Utilities................................................................................. 1-34
     Coordination of Plans, Standard Specifications, Supplemental
        Specifications, Special Provisions, and General Specifications
        Provisions ..................................................................................................... 1-33
     Director of Project Development to be Referee ................................................ 1-29
     Environmental Protection ................................................................................. 1-40
     Erosion and Siltation Control............................................................................ 1-40
     Failure to Maintain Project ............................................................................... 1-39
     Final Inspection and Acceptance ...................................................................... 1-39
     Inspection of Work ........................................................................................... 1-36
     Load Restrictions .............................................................................................. 1-38
     Maintaining Material Supply and Disposal Area.............................................. 1-44
C                                                                                                                        Page

     Maintenance of Project During Construction ................................................... 1-38
     Material Supply and Disposal Areas................................................................. 1-42
     Opening Material Supply and Disposal Areas .................................................. 1-43
     Payment for Erosion and Siltation Control Measures....................................... 1-44
     Payrolls ............................................................................................................. 1-40
     Plans and Working Drawings ........................................................................... 1-30
     Pollution............................................................................................................ 1-41
     Preservation of Beds of Streams and Bodies of Water ..................................... 1-45
     Removal of Unacceptable and Unauthorized Work.......................................... 1-37
     Sunday and Holiday Work................................................................................ 1-37
     Value Engineering ............................................................................................ 1-45
Control Signals, Traffic ........................................................................................... 7-121



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Control, Dust and Ice................................................................................................. 6-24
Control, Pollution ...................................................................................................... 1-41
Convenience and Safety, Public ................................................................................ 1-51
Convict Labor............................................................................................................ 1-37
Cooperation
     Between Contractors......................................................................................... 1-35
     By Contractor.................................................................................................... 1-34
     With Utilities..................................................................................................... 1-34
Coordination of Plans, Standard Specifications, Supplemental Specifications,
  Special Provisions, and General Special Provisions ............................................. 1-33
Corporation Stop ..................................................................................................... 7-109
Corrugated Aluminum Alloy Elbows, End Sections, Pipe, Pipe Arch,
  Plate Arch, Plate Pipe, Plate Pipe Arch................................................................. 7-57
Corrugated Galvanized Metal Plate Pipe Arch, Plate Pipe........................................ 5-88
Corrugated Steel Elbow, End Section, Pipe, Pipe Arch .....................................6-1, 7-57
Cover, Cast Iron
     With Frame ....................................................................................................... 6-13
Crack Filling, Bituminous ......................................................................................... 4-38
     Joint Sealer, Hot Poured, for............................................................................. 7-33
Crushed Gravel, Subbase of ...............................................................................3-3, 7-21
Crushed Stone, Dense Graded, Subbase of ........................................................3-3, 7-22
Culverts and Storm Drains .......................................................................................... 6-1
     Backfilling .......................................................................................................... 6-4
     Bedding............................................................................................................... 6-2
     Excavation .......................................................................................................... 6-2
     Joining Pipe
           Concrete Pipe ............................................................................................. 6-3
           Metal Pipe .................................................................................................. 6-4
     Placement............................................................................................................ 6-2
Curbs
     Bituminous Concrete Curb ....................................................................6-32, 7-100
     Cast-In-Place Cement Concrete Curb ............................................................... 6-31
     Concrete Bridge Barrier Curb ........................................................................... 6-30
     Granite Bridge..........................................................................................6-29, 7-98
C                                                                                                                        Page

     Granite Slope Edging...............................................................................6-29, 7-99
     Granite, Vertical................................................................................................ 7-97
     Precast Concrete Curb..............................................................................6-31, 7-99
     Removal of Existing Curb ................................................................................ 6-33
     Remove and Reset Curb.................................................................................... 6-33
     Treated Timber Curb....................................................................................... 7-100
Cutback Asphalt .......................................................................................................... 4-6
Cutting and Removing Single Trees and Stumps ........................................................ 2-2


D

Damage, Claims, Responsibility for.................................................................1-57, 1-73
Damages, Liquidated
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-8
     Work Hours Standard Act................................................................................. 1-65
Date, Completion, Definition of .................................................................................. 1-4
Date, Substantial Completion, Definition of ............................................................. 1-11
Day, Calendar, Definition of ....................................................................................... 1-4
Day, Working, Definition of...................................................................................... 1-12



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Debarment ........................................................................................................1-14, 1-19
Decrease in Length of Project ................................................................................... 1-75
Deep Well Pump and Tank, Installation.................................................................... 6-62
Defective Work, Removal ......................................................................................... 1-37
Definition of Terms ..............................................................................................1-3, 7-3
Delineators......................................................................................................6-150, 7-96
Delivery of Proposals ................................................................................................ 1-18
Demolition and Disposal of Building .......................................................................... 2-4
Dense Graded Crushed Stone, Subbase of ................................................................ 7-22
Detectors.......................................................................................................6-154, 7-136
Determination of Extension of Contract Time for Completion ................................. 1-67
Detour
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-5
     Maintenance of ................................................................................................. 1-26
     Traffic Control Devices .................................................................................... 1-52
Development of Well in Gravel Formation ............................................................... 6-61
Deviations, Allowable and Conformity with Plans ................................................... 1-32
Differing Site Conditions .......................................................................................... 1-16
Directed By the Engineer, Definition of.................................................................... 1-13
Disinfectants............................................................................................................ 7-110
Disposal Area and Material Supply
     Closing of.......................................................................................................... 1-44
     Control of.......................................................................................................... 1-42
     Maintaining....................................................................................................... 1-44
     Opening of ........................................................................................................ 1-43
Disposal of Structures and Obstructions.................................................................... 1-28
Disposal of Surplus Materials...................................................................................... 2-8
D                                                                                                                          Page

Disputes and Adjustments, Claims for ...................................................................... 1-39
Disqualification of Bidders........................................................................................ 1-19
Distributor, Asphalt ..................................................................................................... 4-5
District Transportation Administrator, Definition of................................................... 1-6
Document Precedence, Contract................................................................................ 1-33
Dowels, Drilling and Grouting .................................................................................. 5-76
Drainage, Definition of................................................................................................ 1-6
Drawings, Fabrication and Construction ................................................................... 1-31
Drilled Well............................................................................................................... 6-59
Drop Inlet .................................................................................................................. 6-10
      Changing Elevations ......................................................................................... 6-13
      Precast Reinforced Concrete Curb.................................................................... 6-13
      Precast Reinforced Concrete Pipe..................................................................... 6-12
Dust and Ice Control.................................................................................................. 6-24
      Calcium Chloride............................................................................................ 7-111
      Sodium Chloride ............................................................................................. 7-111
Dust Control with Water ........................................................................................... 6-24
Duties and Authority
      of the Inspector ................................................................................................. 1-36
      of the Resident Engineer................................................................................... 1-36


E

Earth Borrow ......................................................................................................2-7, 7-17
Easement, Definition of............................................................................................... 1-6
Edging, Granite Slope ......................................................................................6-29, 7-99



10
                                                                                                                                      755


Elbows......................................................................................................................... 6-1
     Corrugated Aluminum Alloy Pipe .................................................................... 7-59
     Corrugated Steel Pipe ....................................................................................... 7-57
     Polymeric Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe.......................................................... 7-60
Electrical Conduit.........................................................................................6-165, 7-135
Eliminated Items........................................................................................................ 1-77
Embankments .............................................................................................................. 2-5
     Density, Airport ................................................................................................ 2-16
     Frozen Material................................................................................................. 2-12
     Incidental Work ................................................................................................ 2-19
     Placement.......................................................................................................... 2-12
     Rock.........................................................................................................2-12, 2-13
     Soft Spot ..................................................................................................2-13, 2-15
     Stability............................................................................................................... 2-8
     Stepped ....................................................................................................2-11, 2-22
     Surplus Material.........................................................................................2-8, 2-11
Emergency Termination of Contract ......................................................................... 1-70
Employee Traineeship ............................................................................................. 6-107
Employment, Conditions of....................................................................................... 1-64
Emulsified Asphalt .............................................................................................4-6, 7-13
E                                                                                                                            Page

Emulsion, Tar .....................................................................................................4-6, 7-13
Encroachment, Definition of ....................................................................................... 1-6
End Section...........................................................................................................6-1, 6-5
     Corrugated Aluminum Alloy Pipe .................................................................... 7-59
     Polymeric Corrugated Steel Pipe ...................................................................... 7-60
     Reinforced Concrete Pipe ................................................................................. 7-55
Engineer
     Authority of ...................................................................................................... 1-29
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-6
     Director of Project Development to be Referee ................................................ 1-29
     Resident, Authority and Duties......................................................................... 1-36
     Resident, Definition of........................................................................................ 1-9
Engineer's Estimate ................................................................................................... 1-14
Environmental Protection.......................................................................................... 1-40
Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel ............................................................................... 7-65
Epoxy Compounds .........................................................................................5-120, 7-76
     Application ..................................................................................................... 5-122
     Curing ............................................................................................................. 5-121
     Preparing of Surface ....................................................................................... 5-121
     Strorage........................................................................................................... 5-121
     Weather Limitations........................................................................................ 5-120
Equipment
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-6
     Publicly Owned, Rental of................................................................................ 1-78
     Rental................................................................................................................ 6-22
     Tax, Highway.................................................................................................... 1-22
     Type of.............................................................................................................. 1-63
Equipment, Removal from Project ............................................................................ 1-64
Erecting Salvaged Signs .......................................................................................... 6-148
Erosion and Siltation Control ...........................................................................1-40, 1-44
Erosion Control with Matting.......................................................................6-135, 7-144
Error or Omission, No Advantage to Contractor....................................................... 1-33
Estimates
     Approximate Quantities .................................................................................... 1-15



                                                                                                                                       11
                                                                                                                                     755


    Biweekly ........................................................................................................... 1-77
    Partial and Final ................................................................................................ 1-77
    Retainage .......................................................................................................... 1-78
    Withholding for Claims .................................................................................... 1-74
Examination of Plans, Specifications, Proposals, and Site of Work.......................... 1-15
Excavation ................................................................................................................... 2-5
    Channel Excavation - Earth, Rock, Unclassified
          Requirements..................................................................................... 2-7, 2-10
    Common ............................................................................................................. 2-6
          Below Subgrade ......................................................................................... 2-6
          Clay and Fill ............................................................................................. 2-13
    Muck ............................................................................................................2-6, 2-9
E                                                                                                                           Page

           Backfill.............................................................................................. 2-9, 7-23
           Computation ............................................................................................. 2-16
     Road Surface and/or Pavements ......................................................................... 2-7
           Computation ............................................................................................. 2-17
     Solid Rock ...................................................................................................2-6, 2-8
           Blasting Method ......................................................................................... 2-8
           Computation (Overbreakage) ................................................................... 2-16
           Stripping..................................................................................................... 2-8
     Structure............................................................................................................ 2-21
           Computations ........................................................................................... 2-26
     Trench Earth ..................................................................................................... 2-21
           Test Trenches, Rock Subgrade ................................................................. 2-30
           Computations ........................................................................................... 2-25
     Trench Rock...................................................................................................... 2-21
           Computation ............................................................................................. 2-25
           Masonry.................................................................................................... 2-26
     Unclassified ...............................................................................................2-6, 2-17
     Underdrain ...............................................................................................6-19, 7-57
Execution of Contract................................................................................................ 1-21
Expansion Devices .................................................................................................... 5-94
     Fabrication ........................................................................................................ 5-95
     Fabrication Drawings........................................................................................ 5-95
     Installation ........................................................................................................ 5-95
     Surface Protection............................................................................................. 5-95
Explosive and Flammable Materials ................................................................1-49, 1-53
Explosives ................................................................................................................. 1-53
Extension of Contract Time for Completion ............................................................. 1-67
Extension Service Box and Curb Stop..................................................................... 7-109
Extra Work
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-6
     General.............................................................................................................. 1-26
     Payment for....................................................................................................... 1-75
Extra Work Order, Definition of ................................................................................. 1-6
Extruded Aluminum Molding ................................................................................. 7-118
Extruded Aluminum Panels..........................................................................6-144, 7-112


F

Fabric, Geotextile .................................................................................................... 6-125
Failure
     To Complete Work on Time ............................................................................. 1-68



12
                                                                                                                                        755


     To Execute Contract ......................................................................................... 1-21
     To Maintain Project .......................................................................................... 1-39
Fair Labor Standards Act........................................................................................... 1-64
Familiarity with Laws................................................................................................ 1-19
Federal Highway Administration, Definition of.......................................................... 1-6
F                                                                                                                    Page

Federal-Aid Provisions.............................................................................................. 1-50
Fence ......................................................................................................................... 6-43
      Brace for Woven Wire ...................................................................................... 6-44
      Erection of Chain-Link ..................................................................................... 6-44
      Erection of Woven Wire ................................................................................... 6-43
      Removal of Existing Fence............................................................................... 6-45
Fertilizer .................................................................................................................. 6-131
Field Office
      Engineers .......................................................................................................... 6-95
Fill, Stone .........................................................................................................6-25, 7-31
Filter Curtain ........................................................................................................... 6-127
Final Clean Up........................................................................................................... 1-28
Final Estimate, Definition of ....................................................................................... 1-7
Final Inspection and Acceptance............................................................................... 1-39
Final Payment............................................................................................................ 1-77
Fine Grading - Subgrade ...........................................................................2-7, 2-15, 2-19
Finishing
      Cement, Concrete.............................................................................................. 5-27
Fires........................................................................................................................... 1-57
Flagger....................................................................................................................... 6-91
Flammable and Explosive Material ..................................................................1-49, 1-53
Flashing Beacons..................................................................................................... 7-134
Flat Sheet Aluminum....................................................................................6-145, 7-113
Flushing Basin, Underdrain....................................................................................... 6-19
Footings..................................................................................................................... 2-22
Force Account, Definition of....................................................................................... 1-7
Forest Protection........................................................................................................ 1-57
Form, FHWA-47, Statement of Materials and Labor................................................ 1-78
Form, Proposal, Content of ....................................................................................... 1-14
Formed Galvanized Steel Panels ..................................................................6-146, 7-113
Foundations
      Inspection of ..................................................................................................... 2-24
      Pumping............................................................................................................ 2-24
      Seals.................................................................................................................. 2-24
Frontage Street (Or Road), Definition of..................................................................... 1-7
Furnishing Right-Of-Way ......................................................................................... 1-59


G

Galvanized Flat Sheet Steel..........................................................................6-146, 7-113
Gate
     For Chain-Link Fence ....................................................................................... 6-46
     For Woven Wire Fence..................................................................................... 6-47
General Insurance Conditions ................................................................................... 1-24
General Special Provisions, Definition of ................................................................... 1-7
Geotextile Fabric ............................................................................................6-125, 7-79
G                                                                                                                   Page




                                                                                                                                         13
                                                                                                                                        755


Grade Separation, Definition of................................................................................... 1-7
Grader Rental, Power ................................................................................................ 6-22
Granite
     Bridge Curb .............................................................................................6-29, 7-98
     Curb, Vertical.................................................................................................... 7-97
     Slope Edging............................................................................................6-29, 7-99
Granular Backfill for Structures ................................................................................ 7-23
Granular Borrow......................................................................................2-12, 2-17, 7-17
Grate .......................................................................................................................... 6-14
Gravel
     Backfill for Slope Stabilization..................................................................2-7, 7-23
     Crushed, Subbase of...................................................................................3-3, 7-21
     Shoulders (See Aggregate Shoulders)
     Subbase of........................................................................................................... 3-3
     Surface Course (See Aggregate Surface Course)
Guarantees, Proposal, Return of ................................................................................ 1-21
Guaranty
     Material............................................................................................................. 1-19
     Proposal .....................................................................................................1-9, 1-18
     Return ............................................................................................................... 1-21
Guardrail
     Anchors for ..............................................................................................6-51, 7-96
     Beam ................................................................................................................. 7-94
     Cable ........................................................................................................6-48, 7-95
     Cedar Log ................................................................................................6-48, 7-95
     Plank ................................................................................................................. 7-95
     Removal and Disposal of Guardrail or Guide Posts ......................................... 6-52
     Terminals .......................................................................................................... 6-51
Guide Posts.......................................................................................................6-52, 7-93
Gutter
     Bituminous Concrete Surface for...................................................................... 6-34
     Portland Cement Concrete ................................................................................ 6-33


H

Hand Railing, Metal .....................................................................................5-110, 7-103
Handling Materials .................................................................................................... 1-48
Haul Roads ................................................................................................................ 2-11
Headwalls
     Cement Rubble Masonry .................................................................................... 6-7
     Concrete.............................................................................................................. 6-7
Heating Concrete ....................................................................................................... 5-16
Highway
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-7
     Equipment Tax.................................................................................................. 1-22
     Opening Sections of Project to Traffic ............................................................. 1-58
H                                                                                                                          Page

Holiday
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-7
     List of.................................................................................................................. 1-7
     Work on ............................................................................................................ 1-37
Hydrant...........................................................................................................6-83, 7-109




14
                                                                                                                                    755


I

Ice Control with Calcium Chloride ........................................................................... 6-25
Increase in Length of Project..................................................................................... 1-75
Increased Quantities .................................................................................................. 1-75
Inspection of Work .................................................................................................... 1-36
Inspection, Final and Acceptance.............................................................................. 1-39
Inspection, Plant ........................................................................................................ 1-48
Inspector
      Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-7
      Duties and Authority of .................................................................................... 1-36
Insulation Board .............................................................................................6-56, 7-106
Insurance
      Automobile Liability......................................................................................... 1-24
      Contractor's Public Liability and Property Damage.......................................... 1-23
      General Conditions ........................................................................................... 1-24
      Railroad Protective Liability............................................................................. 1-24
      Workers Compensation..................................................................................... 1-23
Insurance Requirements ............................................................................................ 1-23
Intent of Contract....................................................................................................... 1-25
Intention of Terms ..................................................................................................... 1-13
Interconnecting Cable.............................................................................................. 6-165
Interpretation, Approximate Estimate ....................................................................... 1-15
Invitation for Bids ..............................................................................................1-7, 1-13
Islands, Bituminous Concrete Surface for ................................................................. 6-34
Item, Eliminated ........................................................................................................ 1-77


J

Joint Sealer .............................................................................................................. 5-105
      Cold Poured ...........................................................................................5-107, 7-33
      Hot Poured .............................................................................................5-107, 7-33
      Placement........................................................................................................ 5-107
      Polyurethane ..........................................................................................5-108, 7-34
      Preformed Neoprene ..............................................................................5-108, 7-35
      Preparation of Joints ....................................................................................... 5-106
      Sawed Joints ................................................................................................... 5-106
      Temperature Limitations................................................................................. 5-106
Junction Box.................................................................................................6-156, 7-136
K                                                                                                                            Page

Keys in Concrete ....................................................................................................... 5-26


L

Labor and Materials, Statement of FHWA-47........................................................... 1-78
Labor Preference ....................................................................................................... 1-66
Labor, Convict........................................................................................................... 1-37
Laboratory, Definition of............................................................................................. 1-8
Laws, Familiarity with............................................................................................... 1-19
Legal Regulations and Responsibility to the Public
     Buy America Provisions ................................................................................... 1-59
     Contractor's Responsibility for Work ............................................................... 1-58
     Defense of Law Suits ........................................................................................ 1-60
     Fair Labor Standards Act .................................................................................. 1-64


                                                                                                                                     15
                                                                                                                                     755


     Federal-Aid Provisions ..................................................................................... 1-50
     Forest Protection ............................................................................................... 1-57
     Furnishing Right-Of-Way................................................................................. 1-59
     Insurance........................................................................................................... 1-22
     Laws to be Observed......................................................................................... 1-50
     No Waiver of Legal Rights ............................................................................... 1-59
     Opening Sections of Project to Traffic ............................................................. 1-58
     Patented Devices, Materials, and Processes...................................................... 1-50
     Permits, Licenses, and Taxes ............................................................................ 1-50
     Personal Liability of Public Officials................................................................ 1-59
     Plant Pest Control Requirements ...................................................................... 1-51
     Protection and Restoration of Property ............................................................. 1-54
     Protection and Restoration of Utilities and Services......................................... 1-55
     Protection of Historical and Archaeological Sites ............................................ 1-57
     Public Convenience and Safety......................................................................... 1-51
     Railway-Highway Provisions ........................................................................... 1-53
     Responsibility for Damage Claims ................................................................... 1-57
     Responsibility for Use of Flaggers.................................................................... 1-53
     Sanitary Provisions ........................................................................................... 1-51
     Traffic Control Devices .................................................................................... 1-52
     Use of Explosives ............................................................................................. 1-53
     Work Hours Standards Act ............................................................................... 1-65
Legal Rights, No Waiver of....................................................................................... 1-59
Length of Project, Increase or Decrease .................................................................... 1-75
Liability Insurance, Contractor's Protective .............................................................. 1-23
Liability, Personal, Public Officials .......................................................................... 1-59
Licenses..................................................................................................................... 1-50
Lighting, Street........................................................................................................ 6-169
Limestone, Agricultural................................................................................6-131, 7-143
Linseed Oil .......................................................................................................5-93, 7-88
Liquidated Damages
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-8
L                                                                                                                            Page

Load Count ................................................................................................................ 2-18
Load Restrictions....................................................................................................... 1-38
Loading Tests, Pile .................................................................................................... 5-41
Local Materials Sources ............................................................................................ 1-47
Loss of Anticipated Profits, No Claims for ............................................................... 1-75
Lumber and Timber..........................................................................................5-99, 7-52
     Connections .................................................................................................... 5-101
     Decking........................................................................................................... 5-102
     Fabrication ...................................................................................................... 5-100
          Glued Laminated .................................................................................... 5-100
     Fabrication Drawings...................................................................................... 5-100
     Framing........................................................................................................... 5-100
     Glued Laminated............................................................................................. 5-100
     Preservative Treatment
          Field Treatment ...................................................................................... 5-104
          Pressure Treatment................................................................................. 5-103
     Preservatives ..................................................................................................... 7-87
     Trusses ............................................................................................................ 5-101
Luminaires....................................................................................................6-169, 7-140


M



16
                                                                                                                                     755


Maintaining Material Supply and Disposal Areas..................................................... 1-44
Maintenance
    During Construction ......................................................................................... 1-38
    Of Detours ........................................................................................................ 1-26
    Of Traffic .......................................................................................................... 1-26
    Roadway Patrol................................................................................................. 6-22
    Winter ............................................................................................................... 1-27
Maintenance of Traffic for Bridge Projects............................................................. 5-113
Manhole
    Changing Elevations ......................................................................................... 6-13
    Concrete Block Manhole .................................................................................. 6-12
    Concrete Manhole............................................................................................. 6-12
    Materials ........................................................................................................... 6-10
    Precast Reinforced Concrete....................................................................6-12, 7-29
Marker Posts.............................................................................................................. 6-41
    Steel .................................................................................................................. 7-94
    Wood................................................................................................................. 7-94
Markers
    Boundary........................................................................................................... 6-42
    Property, Removal and Resetting...................................................................... 6-42
Marshall Test............................................................................................................. 4-12
Masonry....................................................................................................................... 6-7
Material Guaranty...................................................................................................... 1-19
Material Supply and Disposal Area
M                                                                                                                           Page

     Closing of.......................................................................................................... 1-44
     Control of.......................................................................................................... 1-42
     Maintaining of................................................................................................... 1-44
     Opening of ........................................................................................................ 1-43
Materials
     AASHTO or ASTM Specifications .................................................................... 7-1
     Certifications....................................................................................................... 7-1
           General ....................................................................................................... 7-1
           List of Materials with Advanced Certification ........................................... 7-3
           Types .......................................................................................................... 7-2
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-8
     Definition of Terms ............................................................................................ 7-3
     Explosive and Flammable................................................................................. 1-49
     Handling ........................................................................................................... 1-48
     Plant Inspection................................................................................................. 1-48
     Purchase of, Based on Agency Measurements ................................................. 1-73
     Samples, Tests Source and Quality................................................................... 1-47
     Sources.............................................................................................................. 1-47
     Stockpiling of.................................................................................................... 1-49
     Storage of.......................................................................................................... 1-48
     Unacceptable..................................................................................................... 1-49
     Use of, Found in Roadway................................................................................ 1-28
Matting - Erosion Control ............................................................................6-135, 7-144
Measurement and Payment
     Compensation for Altered Plans or Quantities.................................................. 1-75
     Eliminated Items ............................................................................................... 1-77
     Extra or Force Account Work........................................................................... 1-75
     Measurement of Quantities ............................................................................... 1-71
     Partial and Final Payments................................................................................ 1-77
     Purchases of Materials Based Upon Agency Measurements ............................ 1-73



                                                                                                                                      17
                                                                                                                                     755


    Rental of Publicly Owned Equipment............................................................... 1-78
    Statement of Materials and Labor, Form FHWA-47 ........................................ 1-78
Measures, Erosions Control Payment for .................................................................. 1-44
Mechanical or Welded Splices for Bar Reinforcement ....................................5-75, 7-64
Median, Definition of .................................................................................................. 1-8
Membrane (See Sheet Membrane Waterproofing)
Metal, Bin-Type Retaining Wall (See Bin-Type Retaining Wall)
Metal End Sections
    Corrugated Aluminum Alloy Pipe .................................................................... 7-59
    Corrugated Steel Pipe ....................................................................................... 7-60
    Polymeric Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe.......................................................... 7-61
Metal Hand Railing ......................................................................................5-109, 7-103
Metalizing.................................................................................................................. 5-61
Meter Pit.................................................................................................................... 6-89
Methods and Equipment, Character of Worker ......................................................... 1-62
Mix Design
M                                                                                                                            Page

    Bituminous Concrete ........................................................................................ 4-12
    Plant Mix ............................................................................................................ 3-4
Mobilization ............................................................................................................ 6-107
Mortar Epoxy ............................................................................................................ 7-76
    For Cement Rubble Masonry.............................................................................. 6-7
    For Pointing and Repointing Masonry................................................................ 6-9
    Type I, Type II, Type IV................................................................................... 7-31
Muck Excavation................................................................................................2-6, 7-23
Mulch, Hay...................................................................................................6-133, 7-144


N

No Advantage of Error or Omission by Contractor................................................... 1-33
No Claim for Loss of Anticipated Profits.................................................................. 1-75
No Waiver of Legal Rights........................................................................................ 1-59
Non Participating, Definition of .................................................................................. 1-8
Nondestructive Testing Certification......................................................................... 5-54
Non-Resident, Authority to Contract......................................................................... 1-21
Non-Structural Lumber ....................................................................................5-99, 7-53
Notice to Proceed
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-8
     Stipulation......................................................................................................... 1-62


O

Obstructions and Structures, Removal and Disposal of............................................. 1-28
Office, Field............................................................................................................... 6-95
Omission or Error, No Advantage to Contractor....................................................... 1-33
Opening Material Supply and Disposal Areas........................................................... 1-43
Opening of Proposals, Public .................................................................................... 1-19
Opening of Sections of Highway to Traffic .............................................................. 1-58
Operations, Limitations of......................................................................................... 1-62
Order, Written, Definition of..................................................................................... 1-12
Ordered By the Engineer ........................................................................................... 1-13
Ordinances, Familiarity with ..................................................................................... 1-19
Overhead Traffic Sign Supports .............................................................................. 6-151



18
                                                                                                                                        755


P

Paint, Traffic.............................................................................................................. 7-41
Partial and Final Payments ........................................................................................ 1-77
Partial Removal of Structure ................................................................................... 5-120
Patented Devices, Material, and Processes................................................................ 1-50
Patrol Maintenance, Roadway................................................................................... 6-22
P                                                                                                                           Page

Pavement Structure, Definition of ............................................................................... 1-8
Pavement, Bituminous Concrete ............................................................................... 4-10
Paver, Bituminous Concrete ...................................................................................... 4-27
Paving, Slope............................................................................................................. 6-26
Payment
      For Erosion Control Measures .......................................................................... 1-44
      For Increased or Decreased Quantities ............................................................. 1-75
      Scope of ............................................................................................................ 1-73
Payments, Partial and Final ....................................................................................... 1-77
Payrolls...................................................................................................................... 1-40
Percentage Retained .................................................................................................. 1-78
Perforated Corrugated Aluminum Alloy Underdrain .......................................6-18, 7-59
Perforated Corrugated Polyethylene Underdrain....................................................... 6-19
Perforated Corrugated Steel Underdrain ..........................................................6-18, 7-58
Perforated PVC Plastic Underdrain........................................................................... 6-19
Permanent Steel Sheet Piling..........................................................................5-39, 7-101
Permissible Abbreviations........................................................................................... 1-1
Permits and Licenses
      Fire...................................................................................................................... 2-3
      Forest Service Special Use.................................................................................. 2-3
      Procurement of.................................................................................................. 1-50
Personal Liability of Public Officials ........................................................................ 1-59
Personnel Requirements, Meeting............................................................................. 1-66
Pile Load Tests .......................................................................................................... 5-41
Pile Loading Tests ..................................................................................................... 5-41
Piling ......................................................................................................................... 5-39
      Cut-Offs ............................................................................................................ 5-46
      Driving Piles ..................................................................................................... 5-40
              Bearing Capacity ...................................................................................... 5-41
                      By Load Test ................................................................................... 5-41
                      By Wave Equation Analysis ............................................................ 5-45
              Equipment
                      Furnishing........................................................................................ 5-37
                      Hammers.......................................................................................... 5-37
                               Vibratory or Sonic................................................................... 5-40
                      Leads and Bracing ........................................................................... 5-37
              Point Reinforcement................................................................................. 5-45
              Predrilling................................................................................................. 5-40
              Water Jets ................................................................................................. 5-40
      Steel Piling.............................................................................................5-45, 7-101
      Steel Sheet Piling ...................................................................................5-45, 7-101
      Welding............................................................................................................. 5-46
Pipe Culverts ............................................................................................................... 6-1
      Bituminous Paving for Pipe Inverts .................................................................. 7-61
      Corrugated Aluminum Alloy Pipe .................................................................... 7-59
      Corrugated Steel Pipe ....................................................................................... 7-57
P                                                                                                                               Page



                                                                                                                                         19
                                                                                                                                     755


      Polymeric Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe.......................................................... 7-60
      Reinforced Concrete Pipe ................................................................................. 7-55
      Restraining Devices ............................................................................................ 6-3
Pipe, Relay................................................................................................................... 6-2
Pipe, Rigid Plastic ..........................................................................................6-67, 7-107
Pipe, Water ................................................................................................................ 6-79
      Copper Water Tube, Seamless ........................................................................ 7-107
      Ductile Iron Pipe, Cement-Lined .................................................................... 7-108
      Plastic.............................................................................................................. 7-107
      Steel Water Pipe, Galvanized.......................................................................... 7-107
Pipe, Well Casing ...........................................................................................6-59, 7-109
Plans
      Alteration of...................................................................................................... 1-25
      And Working Drawings.................................................................................... 1-30
      Conformity with................................................................................................ 1-32
      Coordination of ................................................................................................. 1-33
      Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-8
      Examination of.................................................................................................. 1-15
Plant Concrete ............................................................................................................. 5-5
Plant Inspection ......................................................................................................... 1-48
Plant Mixed Base Course ...................................................................................3-4, 7-20
Plant Pest Control Requirements............................................................................... 1-51
Plant, Bituminous Concrete....................................................................................... 4-14
Planting Trees, Shrubs, and Vines................................................................6-136, 7-146
Plaques for Delineators............................................................................................ 7-120
Plastic Water Pipe (See Pipe, Water)
Pollution Control ....................................................................................................... 1-41
Polymeric Coated Corrugated Steel ...................................................................6-1, 7-60
Portland Cement Concrete Gutter.............................................................................. 6-33
Portland Cement Concrete Sidewalk ......................................................................... 6-38
Portland Cement for Concrete ..................................................................................... 7-8
Posts
      Setting Salvaged Sign Posts............................................................................ 6-148
      Steel Guide........................................................................................................ 7-94
      Steel Marker...................................................................................................... 6-41
      Wood Guide...................................................................................................... 7-94
Post Tensioned Concrete (See Precast Concrete)
Power Broom Rental ................................................................................................. 6-23
Power Grader Rental ................................................................................................. 6-22
Precast Concrete ........................................................................................................ 5-79
      Concrete
            Batch Plant Equipment............................................................................. 5-81
            Design Mix............................................................................................... 5-80
                   Admixtures ............................................................................. 5-79, 7-84
                   Test Specimens ................................................................................ 5-85
      Concrete Testing
P                                                                                                                            Page

            Compressive Strength .............................................................................. 5-85
            Inspection ................................................................................................. 5-82
       Curing
            Steam........................................................................................................ 5-86
            Temperature Records ............................................................................... 5-85
       Fabrication
            Bar Reinforcement ................................................................................... 5-84
            Forms........................................................................................................ 5-83



20
                                                                                                                                   755


            Placing Concrete ...................................................................................... 5-84
            Placing Post-Tensioning Conduits and Tendons ...................................... 5-83
            Placing Pre-Tensioning Strands ............................................................... 5-83
            Welding .................................................................................................... 5-84
      Fabrication Drawings........................................................................................ 5-80
      Handling ........................................................................................................... 5-87
      Inspection.......................................................................................................... 5-82
      Installation ........................................................................................................ 5-87
      Plant and Production Requirements .................................................................. 5-80
      Post-Tensioning ................................................................................................ 5-86
            Pressure Grouting..................................................................................... 5-87
      Prestressing ....................................................................................................... 5-82
      Quality Control ................................................................................................. 5-80
Precast Concrete Curbing .................................................................................6-31, 7-99
Precast Reinforced Concrete Catch Basin or Manhole.....................................6-12, 7-29
Precast Reinforced Concrete Curb Drop Inlet ........................................................... 6-12
Precast Reinforced Concrete Pipe Drop Inlet ............................................................ 7-29
Precedence of Contract Documents........................................................................... 1-33
Preference, Labor and Rental .................................................................................... 1-66
Preparation of Proposal ............................................................................................. 1-17
Preparation of Surfaces for Bituminous Surface Treatment ........................................ 4-5
Prequalification (Competency of Bidders) ................................................................ 1-14
Preservation of Channel ............................................................................................ 2-22
Preservation of the Beds of Streams and Bodies of Water ........................................ 1-45
Price, Unit, Definition of ........................................................................................... 1-12
Profile Grade, Definition of......................................................................................... 1-9
Progress Schedule...................................................................................................... 1-62
Progress, Prosecution and.................................................................................1-60, 1-62
Project
      Alteration .......................................................................................................... 1-74
      Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-9
      Final Clean Up .................................................................................................. 1-28
      Length of, Increase or Decrease........................................................................ 1-75
      Opening Sections to Traffic .............................................................................. 1-58
Property Damage, Contractor's Liability Insurance................................................... 1-23
Property Line Fence .................................................................................................. 6-43
Property, Protection and Restoration of..................................................................... 1-54
Proposal
P                                                                                                                          Page

     Consideration .................................................................................................... 1-20
     Content.............................................................................................................. 1-14
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-9
     Delivery ............................................................................................................ 1-18
     Examination ...................................................................................................... 1-15
     Preparation ........................................................................................................ 1-17
     Public Opening ................................................................................................. 1-19
     Rejection ........................................................................................................... 1-18
     Withdrawal or Revision .................................................................................... 1-19
Proposal Form, Definition of....................................................................................... 1-9
Proposal Guaranty
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-9
     Explanation of................................................................................................... 1-18
     Return of ........................................................................................................... 1-21
Proposals, Combination of Conditional..................................................................... 1-19
Proposals, Consideration of....................................................................................... 1-20



                                                                                                                                    21
                                                                                                                                   755


Prosecution and Progress
     Character of Workers, Methods and Equipment............................................... 1-62
     Determination of Extension of Contract Time for Completion ........................ 1-67
     Emergency Termination of Contract................................................................. 1-70
     Failure to Complete Work on Time .................................................................. 1-68
     Labor and Rental Preference............................................................................. 1-66
     Limitations of Operations ................................................................................. 1-62
     Meeting Manpower Requirements.................................................................... 1-66
     Notice to Proceed.............................................................................................. 1-62
     Prosecution and Progress .................................................................................. 1-62
     Subletting or Assignment of Contract............................................................... 1-60
     Suspensions of Work Ordered by the Engineer ................................................ 1-67
     Temporary Suspension of Work ....................................................................... 1-66
     Termination of Contract.................................................................................... 1-69
     Termination of Contractor's Responsibility ...................................................... 1-71
     Wages and Conditions of Employment ............................................................ 1-64
           Fair Labor Standards Act ......................................................................... 1-64
           Work Hours Standards Act....................................................................... 1-65
Protection and Restoration of Utilities and Services ................................................. 1-55
Protection, Environmental ......................................................................................... 1-40
Protection, Forest....................................................................................................... 1-57
Protection, Historical and Archaeological................................................................. 1-57
Provisions
     Federal-Aid ....................................................................................................... 1-50
     General Special, Definition of ............................................................................ 1-7
     Railway-Highway ............................................................................................. 1-53
     Sanitary ............................................................................................................. 1-51
     Standard, Definition of...................................................................................... 1-10
Public Convenience and Safety ................................................................................. 1-51
Public Opening of Proposals ..................................................................................... 1-19
P                                                                                                                          Page

Publicly-Owned Equipment, Rental of...................................................................... 1-78
Pull Boxes for Lighting System............................................................................... 6-156
Pump and Tank Installation............................................................................6-62, 7-110
Pump Test for Yield .................................................................................................. 6-61
Purchases of Materials Based Upon Agency Measurements..................................... 1-73


Q

Quality Requirements and Source of Supply............................................................. 1-47
Quantities
     Increased or Decreased ..................................................................................... 1-75
     Measurement and Payment ............................................................................... 1-71
Questionnaire, Definition of ........................................................................................ 1-9


R

Radio, Two-Way Near Explosives ............................................................................ 1-54
Railings.........................................................................................................5-109, 7-104
Railroad Protective Liability Insurance ..................................................................... 1-24
Railroad, Cooperation Between Contractor and ........................................................ 1-24
Railway-Highway Provisions .................................................................................... 1-53
Rates, For Extra Work............................................................................................... 1-75
Referee, Director of Project Development to be........................................................ 1-29


22
                                                                                                                                       755


Reflectorized Pavement Markings........................................................................... 6-111
     Glass Beads....................................................................................................... 7-50
     Tape .................................................................................................................. 7-51
Regulations, Familiarity with .................................................................................... 1-19
Reinforced Concrete Pipe...................................................................................6-1, 7-55
Reinforced Concrete Sewer Pipe............................................................................... 7-55
Reinforcing Steel..............................................................................................5-74, 7-65
Rejection of Proposals............................................................................................... 1-18
Relay Pipe Culverts ..............................................................................................6-2, 6-5
Removal (Excavation) of Surfaces and Pavements ..................................................... 2-7
Removal and Disposal of Guardrail or Guide Posts .................................................. 6-52
Removal and Disposal of Structures and Obstructions ............................................. 1-28
Removal of Bridge Pavements ................................................................................ 5-118
Removal of Equipment from Project......................................................................... 1-64
Removal of Existing Railing ................................................................................... 5-111
Removal of Structures and Bridge Pavements ...............................................1-28, 5-118
Removal of Unacceptable and Unauthorized Work .................................................. 1-37
Removing and Resetting
     Curb .................................................................................................................. 6-33
     Fence................................................................................................................. 6-45
     Guardrail ........................................................................................................... 6-48
     Property Markers .............................................................................................. 6-42
R                                                                                                                           Page

Removing Signs ...................................................................................................... 6-148
Removing Single Trees and Stumps............................................................................ 2-2
Rental Equipment ...................................................................................................... 6-22
     Preference ......................................................................................................... 1-66
     Publicly-Owned Equipment.............................................................................. 1-78
Repellant, Water........................................................................................................ 5-93
     Boiled Linseed Oil ............................................................................................ 7-88
     Mineral Spirits .................................................................................................. 7-88
Repointing Masonry .................................................................................................... 6-9
Requirement of Contract Bonds ................................................................................ 1-21
Requirements, Quality and Source of Supply............................................................ 1-47
Resident Engineer
     Authority and Duties......................................................................................... 1-36
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-9
Responsibility for Damage Claims............................................................................ 1-57
Responsibility for Use of Flaggers ............................................................................ 1-53
Responsibility for Work, Contractors........................................................................ 1-58
Responsibility, Termination of Contractor's.............................................................. 1-71
Responsibility to Public (See Legal Regulations)
Restoration, and Protection of Utilities and Services ................................................ 1-55
Restrictions, Load...................................................................................................... 1-38
Retainage ................................................................................................................... 1-78
Retaining Wall, Bin-Type ..............................................................................5-112, 7-62
Retarding Admixture for Concrete ............................................................................ 7-86
Return of Proposals ................................................................................................... 1-21
Revision of Proposals ................................................................................................ 1-19
Right-Of-Way
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-9
     Furnishing of..................................................................................................... 1-59
Rigid Plastic Pipe
     PVC................................................................................................................. 7-107
Riprap ........................................................................................................................ 6-26



                                                                                                                                        23
                                                                                                                                       755


Riser, Underdrain ...................................................................................................... 6-19
Road, Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-9
Roadbed, Definition of ................................................................................................ 1-9
Roads, Haul ............................................................................................................... 2-11
Roadside, Definition of ............................................................................................... 1-9
Roadway
     Definition of........................................................................................................ 1-9
     Failure to Maintain............................................................................................ 1-39
     Roadway ........................................................................................................... 6-22
Rock Borrow ......................................................................................................2-7, 7-17
Rolling Compaction (See Item Concerned)
Rotary Drill................................................................................................................ 6-59
Rubble Masonry, Cement............................................................................................ 6-7


S                                                                                                                           Page

Safety, Public Convenience and ................................................................................ 1-51
Salvaged Posts, Setting............................................................................................ 6-148
Salvaged Signs, Erecting ......................................................................................... 6-148
Samples and Tests ..................................................................................................... 1-47
Sand Borrow.............................................................................................................. 7-17
Sanitary Provisions.................................................................................................... 1-51
Sanitary Sewer Systems ............................................................................................ 6-66
Scarifying Pavements ................................................................................................ 2-32
Schedule of Work, Definition of ................................................................................. 1-9
Scope of Work
      Alterations of Plans........................................................................................... 1-25
      Extra Work...............................................................................................1-26, 1-75
      Final Cleaning Up............................................................................................. 1-28
      Intent of Contract .............................................................................................. 1-25
      Maintenance of Detour ..................................................................................... 1-26
      Maintenance of Traffic ..................................................................................... 1-26
      Preservation of Beds of Streams and Bodies of Water ..................................... 1-45
      Removal and Disposal of Structures................................................................. 1-28
      Use of Material Found in Roadway .................................................................. 1-28
Sealer, Joint (See Joint Sealer)
Seamless Copper Water Tube.................................................................................. 7-107
Seasonal Limitation on Application of Bituminous Materials
  (See Item Concerned)
Secretary, Definition of ............................................................................................. 1-10
Seed ......................................................................................................................... 7-143
Seeding .................................................................................................................... 6-132
      Of Borrow Pits .................................................................................................. 1-44
      Of Spoil Areas .................................................................................................. 1-44
Selectmen, Definition of............................................................................................ 1-10
Setting Salvaged Posts............................................................................................. 6-148
Sewer System, Sanitary ............................................................................................. 6-66
Shear Connectors..............................................................................................5-77, 7-73
      Drawings........................................................................................................... 5-78
      Installation ........................................................................................................ 5-77
      Structural Steel Shapes ..................................................................................... 5-78
      Studs ................................................................................................................. 5-78
Sheet Membrane Waterproofing ............................................................................... 5-96
      Acceptable Materials ........................................................................................ 5-96
      Installation ........................................................................................................ 5-97



24
                                                                                                                                     755


     Primer ............................................................................................................... 5-97
     Protection of Exposed Surfaces ........................................................................ 5-99
     Protection of Membrane ................................................................................... 5-98
     Surface Protection............................................................................................. 5-96
     Weather Limitations.......................................................................................... 5-96
Sheet Piling, Steel (See Piling)
Shoring Superstructures............................................................................................. 5-35
S                                                                                                                          Page

Shortage of Materials .......................................................................................1-49, 1-68
Shoulder, Definition of.............................................................................................. 1-10
Shoulders..................................................................................................................... 4-2
Sidewalk
      Bituminous Concrete ........................................................................................ 6-39
      Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-10
      Portland Cement Concrete ................................................................................ 6-38
Sign Support, Overhead Traffic............................................................................... 6-151
Signals, Traffic Control ........................................................................................... 7-121
Signs, Detour and Warnings.............................................................................1-26, 1-52
Silica Fume Concrete .......................................................................................5-14, 7-87
Single Tack Coat (See Bituminous Surface Treatment)
Site of Work, Examination of.................................................................................... 1-15
Sleeves for Utilities (See also Conduits) ................................................................... 6-57
Slope Edging - Granite .....................................................................................6-29, 7-99
Slope Paving............................................................................................6-26, 7-29, 7-31
Slopes, Definition of.................................................................................................. 1-10
Social Security - Extra Work Items ........................................................................... 1-75
Sodding.........................................................................................................6-133, 7-143
Soil Classification...................................................................................................... 7-15
Solid Rock Subgrade, Drilling and Blasting of ......................................................... 2-30
Solid Rock, Drilling and Blasting of ......................................................................... 2-29
Solid Rock Excavation (See Excavation, Solid Rock)
Source of Supply and Quantity Requirements........................................................... 1-47
Sources, Local Materials ........................................................................................... 1-47
Special Provisions
      Coordination of ................................................................................................. 1-33
      Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-10
Specialty Item, Definition of ..................................................................................... 1-10
Specifications
      AASHTO, Definition of...................................................................................... 1-1
      ASTM, Definition of........................................................................................... 1-1
      Coordination of ................................................................................................. 1-33
      Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-10
      Examination of.................................................................................................. 1-15
      Intent of............................................................................................................. 1-25
Spiral Reinforcement................................................................................................. 5-74
Splices for Piling ..............................................................................................5-39, 5-46
Splicing Reinforced Steel .......................................................................................... 5-75
Spoil Areas (See Disposal Area and Material Supply).............................................. 1-43
Stakes, Construction .................................................................................................. 1-35
Standard Plans, Definition of..................................................................................... 1-10
Standard Specifications, Definition of....................................................................... 1-10
Standard Steel Beam Guardrail ................................................................................. 7-94
State, Definition of .................................................................................................... 1-10
Statement of Materials and Labor, Form FHWA-47................................................. 1-78
S                                                                                                                           Page



                                                                                                                                      25
                                                                                                                                    755


Steel Beam Guardrail
      Terminals .......................................................................................................... 6-51
Steel Grates................................................................................................................ 6-14
Steel Guide Posts....................................................................................................... 7-93
Steel Piling (See Piling)
Steel Sheet Piling..............................................................................................5-39, 5-45
Steel, Reinforcing...................................................................................................... 5-74
Stockpiling and Storage
      Aggregates .......................................................................................................... 5-9
      General Requirements....................................................................................... 1-49
      Materials ........................................................................................................... 1-49
Stone Fill ..........................................................................................................6-25, 7-31
Stone Masonry Facing........................................................................................6-7, 7-30
Stone, Dense Graded Crushed ................................................................................... 7-22
Storage of Materials .................................................................................................. 1-48
Street Lighting......................................................................................................... 6-168
      Acceptance...................................................................................................... 6-174
      Electrical Power Service ................................................................................. 6-173
      Excavation and Backfill.................................................................................. 6-170
      Placing of Conduit, Pull Boxes, and Junction Boxes...................................... 6-171
Street, Definition of ................................................................................................... 1-10
Structural Concrete (See Concrete, Structural)
Structural Lumber and Timber (See Lumber and Timber)
Structural Plate Pipes, Pipe Arches, and Arches ....................................................... 5-88
      Assembly .......................................................................................................... 5-89
            Bolt Torque .............................................................................................. 5-89
      Backfilling ........................................................................................................ 5-90
      Bedding............................................................................................................. 5-89
      Camber.............................................................................................................. 5-89
      Damage ............................................................................................................. 5-92
      Foundation ........................................................................................................ 5-89
      Long Span (Composite) Structures
            Backfilling................................................................................................ 5-91
            Drawings .................................................................................................. 5-89
            Installation................................................................................................ 5-89
            Longitudinal Structural Stiffeners ............................................................ 5-92
            Movement Control and Tolerances .......................................................... 5-91
      Welding............................................................................................................. 5-88
Structural Steel .................................................................................................5-48, 7-66
      Erection............................................................................................................. 5-62
            Assembly.................................................................................................. 5-64
            Bearings.................................................................................................... 5-63
            Bolting...................................................................................................... 5-65
                    Calibrated Wrench Method.............................................................. 5-66
                    Inspection......................................................................................... 5-69
                    Torque Method ................................................................................ 5-67
S                                                                                                                           Page

                  Turn of the Nut Method ................................................................... 5-67
       Fabrication ........................................................................................................ 5-49
            Assembly.................................................................................................. 5-59
            Base Metal Requirements......................................................................... 5-55
                  Charpy V-Notch............................................................................... 5-56
                  Direction of Rolling......................................................................... 5-55
            Drawings .................................................................................................. 5-52
                  Welding Procedures......................................................................... 5-52



26
                                                                                                                                   755


            Fracture Critical Members........................................................................ 5-59
            Marking .................................................................................................... 5-62
            Material Identification.............................................................................. 5-55
                  Certification ..................................................................................... 5-55
                  Traceability...................................................................................... 5-55
            Plant Requirements .................................................................................. 5-49
            Preparation of Base Metal ........................................................................ 5-56
                  Cold Bending................................................................................... 5-56
                  Flame Cut ........................................................................................ 5-56
            Protective Coatings ......................................................................... 5-61, 5-93
                  Galvanizing...................................................................................... 5-61
                  Metalizing........................................................................................ 5-61
                  Painting............................................................................................ 5-93
            Qualifications of Inspectors...................................................................... 5-54
            Quality Assurance .................................................................................... 5-53
            Quality Control......................................................................................... 5-54
                  Magnetic Particle Testing ................................................................ 5-54
                  Non-Destructive Tests ..................................................................... 5-54
                  Radiographic Testing....................................................................... 5-54
                  Ultrasonic Testing............................................................................ 5-54
            Surface Preparation
                  Painted ............................................................................................. 5-61
                  Unpainted......................................................................................... 5-60
            Tolerances ................................................................................................ 5-60
            Welding .................................................................................................... 5-56
                  Field Welding .................................................................................. 5-58
                          Procedure Qualification .......................................................... 5-58
                          Welder Requirements.............................................................. 5-58
                  Processes.......................................................................................... 5-57
                          Flux-Cored - FCAW ............................................................... 5-57
                          Gas Metal Arc - GMAW......................................................... 5-57
                          Qualification Requirements..................................................... 5-57
                          Shielded Metal Arc - SMAW.................................................. 5-57
                          Submerged Arc - SAW ........................................................... 5-57
                  Shop Welding .................................................................................. 5-57
       Field Painting.................................................................................................... 5-70
       Handling ........................................................................................................... 5-62
       Shipping............................................................................................................ 5-62
S                                                                                                                          Page

     Storing............................................................................................................... 5-62
     Straightening Bent Material
           Field ......................................................................................................... 5-70
     Unpainted Steel................................................................................................. 5-60
Structural Glued Laminated Timber (See Lumber and Timber)
Structures
     Backfill ....................................................................................................2-25, 5-33
     Bedding............................................................................................................. 2-25
     Compaction....................................................................................................... 2-25
     Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-11
     Excavation ........................................................................................................ 2-21
     Failure to Maintain............................................................................................ 1-39
     Measurement..................................................................................................... 2-26
     Payment ............................................................................................................ 2-19
     Pumping............................................................................................................ 2-24
     Removal and Disposal of .......................................................................1-28, 5-118



                                                                                                                                    27
                                                                                                                                    755


Stud Connectors (See Shear Connectors)
Stumps, and Single Trees, Removing.......................................................................... 2-2
Subbase
     Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-11
     Description.......................................................................................................... 3-1
Subbase of Crushed Gravel ................................................................................3-3, 7-21
Subbase of Dense Graded Crushed Stone ..........................................................3-3, 7-22
Subbase of Gravel ..............................................................................................3-3, 7-21
Subcontractor
     Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-11
Subgrade.................................................................................................................... 2-15
     Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-11
     Density, Airports............................................................................................... 2-16
     Drilling and Blasting of Solid Rock.................................................................. 2-30
     Excavation ........................................................................................................ 2-16
     Fine Grading ....................................................................................................... 2-7
     Soft Spots.......................................................................................................... 2-15
     Tolerance .......................................................................................................... 2-16
Subletting of Contract................................................................................................ 1-60
Substantial Completion Date, Definition of .............................................................. 1-11
Sunday and Holiday Work ........................................................................................ 1-37
Superintendent, Definition of .................................................................................... 1-11
Superstructure
     Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-11
     Removal and Payment .................................................................................... 5-118
Superstructure Bearings, Shoring of.......................................................................... 5-36
Supplemental Agreement, Definition of.................................................................... 1-11
Supplemental Specifications, Definition of............................................................... 1-11
Supply, Source of, and Quality Requirements........................................................... 1-47
Surety, Definition of.................................................................................................. 1-11
S                                                                                                                           Page

Surface Course
     Aggregate...................................................................................................4-1, 7-27
     Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-12
Surface Treatment, Bituminous................................................................................... 4-3
Surplus Material, Disposal ........................................................................................ 2-11
Suspension, Temporary, of Work.............................................................................. 1-66


T

Tar Emulsion ............................................................................................................. 7-13
Taxes
     Withholding ...................................................................................................... 1-22
Taxes, Permits and Licenses...................................................................................... 1-50
Temperature Limitations (See Item Concerned)
Temporary Bridge ................................................................................................... 5-115
     Design Requirement........................................................................................ 5-116
          Clearances .............................................................................................. 5-116
          Railing .................................................................................................... 5-116
     Drawings - Requirements ......................................................................1-30, 5-115
     Maintenance and Liability .............................................................................. 5-117
     Pipe - Exclusion .............................................................................................. 5-115
Temporary Steel Sheet Piling ...........................................................................5-45, 5-46
Temporary Suspension of Work................................................................................ 1-66



28
                                                                                                                                    755


Termination of Contract ............................................................................................ 1-69
Termination of Contract (Emergency)....................................................................... 1-70
Termination of Contractor's Responsibility............................................................... 1-71
Test Piling ........................................................................................................5-43, 5-47
Testing and Tests (See Item Concerned)
Tests and Samples ..................................................................................................... 1-47
Thinning and Trimming .............................................................................................. 2-2
Timber Cribbing ........................................................................................................ 7-62
Timber Curb, Treated .............................................................................................. 7-100
Timber (See Lumber and Timber)
Time, Contract, Definition of ...................................................................................... 1-5
Time, Extension of .................................................................................................... 1-67
Time, Failure to Complete Work on.......................................................................... 1-68
Tolerances
     Bituminous Concrete Pavement........................................................................ 4-32
     Subbase of
            Crushed Gravel........................................................................................... 3-3
            Dense Graded Crushed Stone..................................................................... 3-3
            Gravel......................................................................................................... 3-3
     Subgrade ........................................................................................................... 2-16
Topsoil..............................................................................................................2-8, 7-142
Town, Definition of ................................................................................................... 1-12
Traffic Barriers .......................................................................................................... 6-47
T                                                                                                                          Page

     Concrete Medians ............................................................................................. 6-49
     Guardrail
            Anchors for............................................................................................... 6-51
            Beam ............................................................................................... 6-48, 7-95
            Cable ............................................................................................... 6-48, 7-95
            Cedar Log........................................................................................ 6-48, 7-95
            Plank................................................................................................ 6-52, 7-95
            Removal and Disposal of Guardrail or Guide Posts................................. 6-52
     Materials ........................................................................................................... 6-47
Traffic Control......................................................................................................... 6-109
Traffic Control Devices............................................................................................. 1-52
Traffic Control Signals ............................................................................................ 7-129
     Detectors and Controllers ....................................................................6-157, 7-136
     Electric Power Service.................................................................................... 6-157
     Erection of Posts and Poles............................................................................. 6-155
     Excavation and Backfill.................................................................................. 6-155
     Grounding and Testing ................................................................................... 6-159
     Installation and Completion ............................................................................ 6-160
     Materials ......................................................................................................... 6-153
     Placing of Conduit, Pull Boxes, and Junction Boxes...................................... 6-155
     Shop Drawings................................................................................................ 6-154
     Wiring ............................................................................................................. 6-158
Traffic Islands, Bituminous Concrete Surface for ..................................................... 6-34
Traffic Officers, Uniformed ...................................................................................... 6-92
Traffic Paint............................................................................................................... 7-42
Traffic Sign Support, Overhead............................................................................... 6-151
Traffic Signs ............................................................................................................ 6-143
     Application of Reflective Sheeting ......................................................6-146, 7-119
     Erection of Salvaged Signs ............................................................................. 6-148
     Erection of Sign Posts and Foundations.......................................................... 6-146
     Fabrication of Sign Base Materials



                                                                                                                                     29
                                                                                                                                         755


              Extruded Aluminum Panels.................................................................... 6-144
              Flat Sheet Aluminum ............................................................................. 6-144
              Formed Galvanized Steel Panels ............................................................ 6-146
              Galvanized Flat Sheet Steel.................................................................... 6-146
              High Density Overlaid Plywood ............................................................ 6-144
              Sheet Aluminum for Overlay ................................................................. 6-145
        Materials
              Extruded Aluminum Panels.................................................................... 7-112
              Flat Sheet Aluminum ............................................................................. 7-113
              Formed Galvanized Steel Panels ............................................................ 7-113
              Galvanized Flat Sheet Steel.................................................................... 7-113
              High Density Overlaid Plywood ............................................................ 7-113
        Mounting of Signs .......................................................................................... 6-147
        Removing Signs.............................................................................................. 6-147
        Setting Salvaged Posts .................................................................................... 6-148
T                                                                                                                     Page

     Transportation and Handling .......................................................................... 6-146
Traffic, Maintenance of ............................................................................................. 1-26
Traffic, Opening Sections To .................................................................................... 1-57
Traineeship, Employee ............................................................................................ 6-107
Transit Mixers ........................................................................................................... 5-12
Transplanting Trees ................................................................................................. 6-142
Traveled Way, Definition of...................................................................................... 1-12
Treated Timber Bin-Type Retaining Wall............................................................... 5-113
Treated Timber Curb ......................................................................................6-32, 7-100
Trees ............................................................................................................................ 2-1
     Elms, Disposal of................................................................................................ 2-3
     On National Forest Land..................................................................................... 2-3
     Single Tree Payment ........................................................................................... 2-3
Trees, Shrubs, and Vines, Planting.......................................................................... 6-136
     Materials ......................................................................................................... 6-137
Trees, Transplanting ................................................................................................ 6-142
Tremie ....................................................................................................................... 5-25
Trench, Backfill......................................................................................................... 2-25
Trench, Excavation of
     Earth.................................................................................................................. 2-21
     Rock.................................................................................................................. 2-21
Tube, Seamless Copper Water................................................................................. 7-107
Turf Establishment .................................................................................................. 6-130
     Materials ......................................................................................................... 6-131
     Seeding ................................................................................................6-132, 7-143
     Sodding ................................................................................................6-132, 7-143
     Topsoil ............................................................................................................ 7-142
Two-Way Temporary Bridge .................................................................................. 5-116


U

Unacceptable Material............................................................................................... 1-49
Unacceptable Work, Removal of............................................................................... 1-37
Unauthorized Work, Removal of............................................................................... 1-37
Unclassified Channel Excavation................................................................................ 2-7
Unclassified Excavation .............................................................................................. 2-6
Underdrain................................................................................................................. 6-19
    Backfill ............................................................................................................. 6-21



30
                                                                                                                                     755


        Carrier Pipe ....................................................................................................... 6-20
        Flushing Basins................................................................................................. 6-20
        Installation ........................................................................................................ 6-19
        Materials ........................................................................................................... 6-18
              Perforated Corrugated Aluminum Alloy .................................................. 7-59
              Perforated Corrugated Polyethylene......................................................... 7-55
              Perforated Corrugated Steel ..................................................................... 7-57
        Measurements ................................................................................................... 6-20
U                                                                                                                            Page

      Payment ............................................................................................................ 6-21
      Protection of Materials...................................................................................... 6-19
      Risers ................................................................................................................ 6-19
Uniform Traffic Officer............................................................................................. 6-92
Uniformed Traffic Officer ......................................................................................... 6-91
Unit Price, Definition of ............................................................................................ 1-12
Use of Materials Found in Roadway ......................................................................... 1-28
Utilities, Cooperation with ........................................................................................ 1-34
Utility, Definition of.................................................................................................. 1-12


V

Value Engineering ..................................................................................................... 1-45
Vertical Granite Curb .......................................................................................6-35, 7-97
Vibrators, Use of, In Concrete................................................................................... 5-24
Village, Definition of................................................................................................. 1-12
Vitrified Clay Pipe............................................................................................6-66, 7-56


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Wages and Conditions of Employment ..................................................................... 1-64
Wages and Hour Law (Fair Labor Standards Act) .................................................... 1-64
Waiver of Legal Rights, No....................................................................................... 1-59
Wall, Bin-Type Retaining ....................................................................................... 5-112
     Concrete Bin-Type............................................................................................ 7-62
     Metal Bin-Type................................................................................................. 7-62
     Timber Cribbing ............................................................................................... 7-62
Warning Signs (Traffic Control Devices).................................................................. 1-52
Water for Compaction ............................................................................................... 2-19
Water for Concrete ................................................................................5-9, 7-111, 7-128
Water Pipes (All Types)
     Copper Tube, Seamless................................................................................... 7-107
     Ductile Iron Pipe, Cement Lined .................................................................... 7-108
     Plastic Pipe, Flexible....................................................................................... 7-107
     Plastic Pipe, Rigid (PVC) ............................................................................... 7-107
     Plastic Tubing, Flexible .................................................................................. 7-108
     Steel Pipe, Galvanized .................................................................................... 7-107
Waterproofing (See Sheet Membrane Waterproofing)
Water Repellant (Boiled Linseed Oil) ..............................................................5-93, 7-88
     Application ....................................................................................................... 5-93
           Coverage .................................................................................................. 5-93
     Preparation of Surface....................................................................................... 5-93
     Weather Limitations.......................................................................................... 5-94
Water Systems
     Curb Stop ...............................................................................................6-89, 7-109


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     Disinfecting
           Chloride Solution ................................................................................... 7-110
           Space Deodorizer ................................................................................... 7-111
     Gate Valve ...................................................................................................... 7-109
     Hydrant ..................................................................................................6-83, 7-109
     Materials ........................................................................................................... 6-80
     Pipe Insulation .......................................................................................6-89, 7-108
     Service Box, Extension..........................................................................6-89, 7-109
Water Tube, Copper Seamless................................................................................. 7-107
Water, Dust Control with .......................................................................................... 6-25
Water, Preservation of Bodies of............................................................................... 1-45
Welding Requirements .............................................................................................. 5-56
Wells and Casings ..................................................................................................... 6-59
     Development in Gravel Formation ................................................................... 6-60
     Disinfecting....................................................................................................... 6-60
     Drilling Well ..................................................................................................... 6-59
     Materials ........................................................................................................... 6-58
     Pump Test for Yield.......................................................................................... 6-61
Winter Maintenance .................................................................................................. 1-27
Winter Season, Temporary Suspension During......................................................... 1-27
Withdrawal or Revision of Proposals ........................................................................ 1-19
Withholding of Taxes ................................................................................................ 1-22
Wood Brace for Woven Wire Fence ......................................................................... 6-44
Wood Marker Posts ..........................................................................................6-42, 7-94
Work
     Alteration .......................................................................................................... 1-25
     Contractor's Responsibility ............................................................................... 1-58
     Control of.......................................................................................................... 1-29
     Definition of...................................................................................................... 1-12
     Extra...........................................................................................................1-6, 1-75
     Failure to Complete on Time ............................................................................ 1-68
     Force Account............................................................................................1-7, 1-75
     Hours Standard Act........................................................................................... 1-65
     Inspection of ..................................................................................................... 1-36
     Prosecution and Progress of.............................................................................. 1-62
     Removal of Defective and Unauthorized.......................................................... 1-37
     Schedule.....................................................................................................1-9, 1-62
     Scope of ............................................................................................................ 1-25
     Sunday and Holiday.......................................................................................... 1-37
     Temporary Suspension of ................................................................................. 1-66
Workers Compensation Insurance............................................................................. 1-23
Workers, Character of ............................................................................................... 1-62
Working Day, Definition of ...................................................................................... 1-12
Working Drawings, Definition of.............................................................................. 1-12
Woven Wire Fence .................................................................................................... 6-43
     Steel Posts......................................................................................................... 7-89
     Wood Posts ....................................................................................................... 7-89
Written Order, Definition of...................................................................................... 1-12




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